African History Sitemap - Page 1 2016-09-26

African History on About.com
Discover the history and culture of Africa — from colonialism and slavery to its prominent historical figures, Apartheid, and turbulent military past.

African History - Biographies of Historical Figures
Biographies of significant figures from throughout Africa's history. Study the lives of explorers, rulers, artists, warriors, and thinkers who had a prominent role in the development of the continent.

Jomo Kenyatta - Early Days to His Political Awakening
First president of Kenya and prominent independence leader. Part 1 of his biography, from his early days to his political awakening.

The Role of Islam in African Slavery
When Africans talk of slavery they inevitably mean the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Is this a true representation of the practice in Africa?

The 21 March 1960 Sharpeville Massacre
The Sharpeville Massacre signaled the start of armed resistance in South Africa, & prompted worldwide condemnation of South Africa's Apartheid policies.

Apartheid FAQ: When Did Apartheid End?


Outline Maps: Comparison with World
A Gallery of Outline Maps for the Countries of Africa: Comparison with World. Page 4.

Blank Map of People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah)
Blank Map of People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah). Page 2.

Blank Map of Republic of Angola (Republica de Angola)
Blank Map of Republic of Angola (Republica de Angola)

Blank Map of State of Eritrea (Hagere Ertra)
Blank Map of State of Eritrea (Hagere Ertra). Page 3.

Miscellaneous African History Resources
Miscellaneous resources on African history – biographies, book and product reviews, and an African history glossary.

African Arts
For thousands of years African artists have created beautiful and meaningful works of art – from the rock art of humankind’s earliest representatives to the exquisite carvings and paintings of today.

Archaeology
An investigation of African history derived from the study of tombs, tools, artifacts, lost cities, and shipwrecks.

Blogs on Africa and African History
There are an incredible number of blogs out there... the intention of this collection is to share the ones I enjoy, dealing with daily life in Africa, politics, and African history.

Political History
From Apartheid and Afrocentrism to Pan-Africanism, the history of African political philosophy is essential to understanding consequent development of the continent.

Share your thoughts on African History -- Do you have an opinion about an aspect of African history? Share it here.
Do you have a strong opinion about some aspect of African history -- is Nelson Mandela truly one of Africa's greatest leaders? Does aid for Africa help or hinder development. Has the world responded sufficiently to the AIDS crisis in Africa? Share your thoughts...

Linguistic Evidence and African History
Historians have used the study of linguistic development to expand their knowledge of Africa's past. Find out more about Glottochronology and the study of history of language.

Museums
Africa's storehouses of archaeological and historical treasures, as well as significant African collections in museums on other continents.

African History -- Rock Art
Rock art can be appreciated for its sheer beauty as well as for its historical importance, what it tells us about the people who made it, how they perceived themselves, and how they responded to a changing world.

Influential Pan-Africanists
Biographies of Pan-Africanists from Africa and the African Disapora -- these individuals campaigned against the enslavement of African people, for equality, and unification within a pan-African society.

Country History - São Tomé and Príncipe
The islands were claimed to be uninhabited when Portuguese colonists arrived. The very fertile soil was used for cocoa plantations. In 1972 a liberation movement was recognized by the UN, and independence was reached in 1975.

Country History - São Tomé and Príncipe
The islands were claimed to be uninhabited when Portuguese colonists arrived. The very fertile soil was used for cocoa plantations. In 1972 a liberation movement was recognized by the UN, and independence was reached in 1975.

The Benin Empire
The Benin Empire was one of the powerful, pre-colonial African states known for its splendor its rejection of the transatlantic slave trade, and European dominance.

A Brief History of Liberia
A brief, pictorial history of Liberia, the only African country to have been founded by African-American colonists.

Biography: Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, Liberia's 'Iron Lady'
Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, described by some of her rivals as an Americo-Liberian, the descendant of Liberia's ex-American-slave colonists, has reached the pinnacle of her political career as Africa's first elected female president. Find out more

Dusé Mohamed Ali
Dus Mohamed Ali was an influential Pan-Africanist, a supporter of Islam, and traveled widely throughout the African Diaspora. He founded the 'African Times and Orient Review' in 1911, which spread the call for African nationalism, and later founded 'The Comet' in Lagos, Nigeria.

A Brief History of São Tomé and Príncipe
A brief introduction to the history of So Tom and Prncipe from the time of early settlement to the present day.

African Slave Traders
African slave traders were important participants in the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Why were these traders willing to sell slaves into the horrors of Atlantic slavery?

African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Indigenous African slavers Traveling From the Interior
Image of African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Indigenous African slavers Traveling From the Interior. Page 4.

African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Indigenous African Slavery
Image of African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Indigenous African Slavery

African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Exercising Slaves on a Trans-Atlantic Slave Ship
Image of African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Exercising Slaves on a Trans-Atlantic Slave Ship. Page 14.

African Slavery and the Slave Trade: A Slave Barracoon
Image of African Slavery and the Slave Trade: A Slave Barracoon. Page 6.

African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Female East African Slave
Image of African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Female East African Slave. Page 7.

African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Slave Decks on the Slave Bark Wildfire
Image of African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Slave Decks on the Slave Bark Wildfire. Page 13.

African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Young African Boys Captured for Slave Trade
Image of African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Young African Boys Captured for Slave Trade. Page 8.

African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Inspection of an African Slave
Image of African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Inspection of an African Slave. Page 9.

African Slavery and the Slave Trade: African Captives Being Sent Into Slavery
Image of African Slavery and the Slave Trade: African Captives Being Sent Into Slavery. Page 3.

Slavery Statistics and Maps -- Slavery Regions for the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
Slavery Regions for the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Page 5.

Slavery Statistics and Maps -- Trans-Atlantic Slave Exports by Region
Statistics for Trans-Atlantic Slave Exports by Region. Page 3.

Slavery Statistics and Maps -- Trans-Atlantic Slave Imports by Region
Statistics for Trans-Atlantic Slave Imports by Region. Page 2.

Slavery Statistics and Maps -- Trans-Atlantic Slave Exports by Region and Era
Statistics for Trans-Atlantic Slave Exports by Region and Era.

Slavery Statistics and Maps -- Map of the Triangular Trade
Map of the Triangular Trade. African History. Page 4.

Slavery Statistics and Maps -- A Collection of African Slavery Statistics and Maps
Statistics and maps for Slavery in Africa including the Trans-Atlantic Trade.

African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Cape Coast Castle, Gold Coast
Image of African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Cape Coast Castle, Gold Coast. Page 5.

African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Plans of Slave Decks, Slave Ship Brookes
Image of African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Plans of Slave Decks, Slave Ship Brookes. Page 12.

African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Diagram of the Slave Ship Brookes
Image of African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Diagram of the Slave Ship Brookes. Page 11.

African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Testing an African Slave For Sickness
Image of African Slavery and the Slave Trade: Testing an African Slave For Sickness. Page 10.

African Slavery and the Slave Trade: A Slaver's Canoe
Image of African Slavery and the Slave Trade: A Slaver's Canoe. Page 2.

Images of African Slavery and the Slave Trade
A Gallery of Images of African Slavery and the Slave Trade

Images of African Slavery and the Slave Trade
A Gallery of Images of African Slavery and the Slave Trade

Aerial view of Soweto Uprising - June 1976
Over 100 people were killed and many more injured on 16 June 1976 in Soweto, South Africa, following anti-apartheid protests. Students set fire to symbols of apartheid, such as government buildings, schools, municipal beerhalls, and liquor stores.

Egyptian Mummies -- Mummies held by the Cairo Museum in Egypt
Mummy of the Dame Rai held by the Cairo Museum, Egypt. Page 5.

Egyptian Mummies -- Mummies held by the Cairo Museum in Egypt
Mummy with linen opened by pillagers, held by the Cairo Museum, Egypt. Page 6.

Egyptian Mummies -- Mummies held by the Cairo Museum in Egypt
Mummy of Prince Ouabkhousenou, held by the Cairo Museum, Egypt. Page 7.

Egyptian Mummies -- Mummies held by the Cairo Museum in Egypt
Mummy of Queen Anhapou, held by the Cairo Museum, Egypt.

Egyptian Mummies -- Mummies held by the Cairo Museum in Egypt
Mummy of Ramses VI, held by the Cairo Museum, Egypt. Page 2.

Egyptian Mummies -- Mummies held by the Cairo Museum in Egypt
Mummy of Seqenenre Tao II, held by the Cairo Museum, Egypt. Page 3.

Egyptian Mummies -- Mummies held by the Cairo Museum in Egypt
Mummy of Yuya, held by the Cairo Museum, Egypt. Page 8.

Egyptian Mummies -- Mummies held by the Cairo Museum in Egypt
Unknown Mummy, held by the Cairo Museum, Egypt. Page 4.

Bushmans Kloof Lodge in the Cederberg -- Red Hartebeest
Bushmans Kloof is a wilderness retreat in the Cedeberg region of South Africa, with significant rock art sites to view. Page 12.

Bushmans Kloof Lodge in the Cederberg -- Bontebok
Bushmans Kloof is a wilderness retreat in the Cedeberg region of South Africa, with significant rock art sites to view. Page 11.

Bushmans Kloof Lodge in the Cederberg -- Ostrich
Bushmans Kloof is a wilderness retreat in the Cedeberg region of South Africa, with significant rock art sites to view. Page 14.

Bushmans Kloof Lodge in the Cederberg -- Springbuck
Bushmans Kloof is a wilderness retreat in the Cedeberg region of South Africa, with significant rock art sites to view. Page 13.

Bushmans Kloof Lodge in the Cederberg -- Heritage Centre at Bushmans Kloof Lodge
Bushmans Kloof is a wilderness retreat in the Cedeberg region of South Africa, with significant rock art sites to view. Page 8.

Bushmans Kloof Lodge in the Cederberg -- Homestead at Bushmans Kloof Lodge
Bushmans Kloof is a wilderness retreat in the Cedeberg region of South Africa, with significant rock art sites to view. Page 7.

Bushmans Kloof Lodge in the Cederberg -- Rooibos
Bushmans Kloof is a wilderness retreat in the Cedeberg region of South Africa, with significant rock art sites to view. Page 15.

Armed Police at riot near Cape Town - Sept 1976
An armed police officer trains his rifle on demonstrators during unrest near Cape Town, South Africa, September 1976. The riot follows on from the earlier disturbances in Soweto on 16 June that year. Page 7.

Army and Police at Roadblock during Soweto Uprising - June 1976
Police were sent in to form a line in front of the marchers -- they ordered the crowd to disperse. When they refused, police dogs were released, then teargas was fired. Students responded by throwing stones and bottles at the police. Anti-riot vehicles and members of the Anti-Urban Terrorism Unit arrived. Army helicopters dropped teargas on gatherings of students. Roadblocks were set up at all entrances to Soweto. Page 2.

Soldier at riot near Cape Town - Sept 1976
A South African soldier holding a tear gas grenade launcher during rioting near Cape Town, South Africa, September 1976. The riot follows on from the earlier disturbances in Soweto on 16 June that year. The rioting soon spread from Soweto to other towns on the Witwatersrand, Pretoria, to Durban and Cape Town, and developed into the largest outbreak of violence South Africa had experienced. Page 6.

Soweto Uprising Casualties - June 1976
Injured people waiting for treatment after the riots in Soweto, , South Africa. The rioting started after police opened fire on a march by black students, protesting against the use of Afrikaans in lessons. The official death toll was 23; others put it as high as 200. Many hundreds of people were injured. Page 5.

Demonstrators at Soweto Uprising - June 1976
Demonstrators in the streets during the Soweto uprising, South Africa, June 1976. By the end of the third day of rioting, the Minister of Bantu Education closed all schools in Soweto. Page 3.

Soweto Uprising Roadblock - June 1976
Rioters in Soweto use cars as roadblocks during unrest. Page 4.

Soweto Uprising 1976 Image Gallery
A gallery of images of the 16 June 1975 Soweto Uprising.

Bushmans Kloof Lodge in the Cederberg -- Aardwolf
Bushmans Kloof is a wilderness retreat in the Cedeberg region of South Africa, with significant rock art sites to view. Page 10.

Bushmanskloof Lodge in the Cederberg -- Entrance Gate to Bushmanskloof
The entrance gate to Bushmans Kloof from the main dirt road is very visible and hard to miss.

Bushmans Kloof Lodge in the Cederberg -- Location of Bushmans Kloof
Bushmans Kloof, a luxury lodge in the Cedeberg region of South Africa, with a significant number of rock art sites on its property, sits protected in a small side valley. Page 2.

Bushmans Kloof Lodge in the Cederberg -- Manor House at Bushmans Kloof Lodge
Bushmans Kloof is a wilderness retreat in the Cedeberg region of South Africa, with significant rock art sites to view. Page 5.

Bushmans Kloof Lodge in the Cederberg -- Rooms at Bushmans Kloof Lodge
Bushmans Kloof is a wilderness retreat in the Cedeberg region of South Africa, with significant rock art sites to view. Page 6.

Bushmans Kloof Lodge in the Cederberg -- Nature Drive at Bushmans Kloof Lodge
Bushmans Kloof is a wilderness retreat in the Cedeberg region of South Africa, with significant rock art sites to view. Page 9.

Bushmans Kloof Lodge in the Cederberg -- Pools at Bushmans Kloof Lodge
Bushmans Kloof is a wilderness retreat in the Cedeberg region of South Africa, with significant rock art sites to view. Page 4.

Bushmans Kloof Lodge in the Cederberg -- Overview of Bushmans Kloof Lodge
Bushmans Kloof, a luxury lodge in the Cedeberg region of South Africa, with a significant number of rock art sites on its property, sits protected in a small side valley. Page 3.

Southern African Rock Art: Antelope #1
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals.

Southern African Rock Art: Baboon #1
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 3.

Southern African Rock Art: Baby Rhino
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 21.

Southern African Rock Art: Blesbok And Fawn
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 4.

Southern African Rock Art: Buffalo #1
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 5.

Southern African Rock Art: Ostrich #1
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 18.

Southern African Rock Art: Ostrich #2
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 19.

Southern African Rock Art: Ostrich #3
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 20.

Southern African Rock Art: Warthog #1
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 22.

Southern African Rock Art: Young Antelope #1
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 2.

Armlet: Yoruba peoples, Owo, Nigeria
Armlet: Yoruba peoples, Owo, Nigeria. Image from the Walt Disney-Tishman Collection, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution

Pair of armlets: Yoruba peoples, Owo, Nigeria
Pair of armlets: Yoruba peoples, Owo, Nigeria. Image from the Walt Disney-Tishman Collection, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution. Page 13.

Crest mask: Boki peoples
Crest mask: Boki peoples. Image from the Walt Disney-Tishman Collection, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution. Page 2.

Crest mask: Idoma peoples
Crest mask: Idoma peoples. Image from the Walt Disney-Tishman Collection, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution. Page 3.

Face mask: Gabon
Face mask: Gabon. Image from the Walt Disney-Tishman Collection, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution. Page 4.

Face mask: Senufo peoples
Face mask: Senufo peoples. Image from the Walt Disney-Tishman Collection, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution. Page 5.

Face mask: Tsogo peoples
Face mask: Tsogo peoples. Image from the Walt Disney-Tishman Collection, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution. Page 6.

Female figure: Edo peoples
Female figure: Edo peoples. Image from the Walt Disney-Tishman Collection, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution. Page 7.

Female figure with child: Kongo peoples
Female figure with child: Kongo peoples. Image from the Walt Disney-Tishman Collection, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution. Page 8.

Figure: Fon peoples
Figure: Fon peoples. Image from the Walt Disney-Tishman Collection, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution. Page 9.

Male figure: Bembe peoples
Male figure: Bembe peoples. Image from the Walt Disney-Tishman Collection, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution. Page 11.

Male figure: Kissi peoples
Male figure: Kissi peoples. Image from the Walt Disney-Tishman Collection, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution. Page 12.

Hunting horn: Bullom or Temne peoples
Hunting horn: Bullom or Temne peoples. Image from the Walt Disney-Tishman Collection, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution. Page 10.

Stool: Dogon peoples
Stool: Dogon peoples. Image from the Walt Disney-Tishman Collection, National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution. Page 14.

Southern African Rock Art: Buffalo #2
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 6.

Southern African Rock Art: Caracal #1
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 7.

Southern African Rock Art: Eland #1
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 8.

Southern African Rock Art: Elephant #1
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 9.

Southern African Rock Art: Elephant and Calf
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 10.

Southern African Rock Art: Giraffe #1
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 13.

Southern African Rock Art: Guinea Fowl #1
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 11.

Southern African Rock Art: Guinea Fowl #2
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 12.

Southern African Rock Art: Hartebeest #1
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 14.

Southern African Rock Art: Leopard #1
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 15.

Southern African Rock Art: Monkey #1
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 16.

Southern African Rock Art: Nguni Cow #1
A collection of stencils of Southern African rock art animals. Page 17.

Tunisia
A brief history of the colonization and independence of Tunisia. Page 5.

Western Sahara
A brief history of the colonization and independence of Western Sahara. Page 6.

Algeria
A brief history of the colonization and independence of Algeria

Egypt
A brief history of the colonization and independence of Egypt. Page 2.

Libya
A brief history of the colonization and independence of Libya. Page 3.

Morocco
A brief history of the colonization and independence of Morocco. Page 4.

Smithsonian, National Museum of African Art - Walt Disney-Tishman Collection
A Gallery of Images from the Smithsonian's Walt Disney-Tishman Collection

Smithsonian, National Museum of African Art - Walt Disney-Tishman Collection
A Gallery of Images from the Smithsonian's Walt Disney-Tishman Collection

Kikuyu Location Map -- Location of the Kikuyu Ethnic Group in Kenya
Map showing location of the Kikuyu ethnic group in Kenya.

Luo Location Map -- Location of the Luo Ethnic Group in Kenya and Tanzania
Map showing location of the Luo ethnic group in Kenya and Tanzania. Page 2.

Maasai Location Map -- Location of the Maasai Ethnic Group in Kenya and Tanzania
Map showing location of the Maasai ethnic group in Kenya and Tanzania. Page 3.

Maps of the Major Ethnic Groups of Kenya
Maps showing the locations of major ethnic groups in Kenya.

The Commonwealth of Nations - African History
18 countries in Africa are currently part of the Commonwealth of Nations (with Zimbabwe having departed in 2003).

Hominid Fossils in Kenya and Ethiopia
Discoveries in Africa in 2001 alter our understanding of our family tree.

Cape Verde -- A Very Short History of Cape Verde
A potted history of the island archipelago of Cape Verde.

Eritrea Today
Great things were expected of Eritrea, but today a flood of refugees is fleeing its borders. What is the news out of Eritrea and how did it get to this point?

Explorers of Africa in History
Over the centuries, explorers have found the allure of the unknown reaches of Africa irresistible. Find out who was who, where they went, and when.

The Quest for the Source of the Nile
The Quest for the source of the Nile was the focal point of European exploration in Africa in the 19th century. It made or broke men's reputations and remains in dispute to this day.

Congo Free State Atrocities: the Rubber Regime
The Congo Free State was the site of some of the worst atrocities witnessed during the European colonization of Africa - all in the name of rubber.

Biography of the Scots Explorer Mungo Park
Mungo Park, a Scottish surgeon and explorer, was sent out by the 'Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior of Africa' to discover the course of the River Niger. Having achieved a degree of fame from his first trip, carried out alone and on foot, he returned to Africa with a party of 40 Europeans, all of whom lost their lives in the adventure.

A Brief History of Cameroon, Africa
A brief introduction to the history of Cameroon from the time of early humans to the present day.

Robben Island Prison Museum: 1894 Primary School
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: 1894 Primary School. Page 38.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Entrance to A and C Sections
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Entrance to A and C Sections. Page 13.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Admin Block Entrance
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Admin Block Entrance. Page 30.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Admin Block Entrance
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Admin Block Entrance. Page 6.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Anglican Church
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Anglican Church. Page 39.

Robben Island Prison Museum: B-Section Entrance
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: B-Section Entrance. Page 21.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Criminal Section Cell
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Criminal Section Cell. Page 8.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Courtyard Display
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Courtyard Display. Page 18.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Ferry at Nelson Mandela Gateway
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Ferry at Nelson Mandela Gateway. Page 2.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Your Tour Guide is an Ex-prisoner
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Your Tour Guide is an Ex-prisoner. Page 7.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Jeff Masemola's Key
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Jeff Masemola's Key. Page 15.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Mandela's Cell (View 1)
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Mandela's Cell (View 1). Page 22.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Mandela's Cell (View 2)
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Mandela's Cell (View 2). Page 23.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Mandela's Cell (View 3)
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Mandela's Cell (View 3). Page 24.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Mandela's Cell (View 4)
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Mandela's Cell (View 4). Page 25.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Mandela's Cell (View 5)
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Mandela's Cell (View 5). Page 26.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Nelson Mandela Gateway
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Nelson Mandela Gateway.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Reunion Cairn
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Reunion Cairn. Page 33.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Entrance
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Entrance. Page 4.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Ferry
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Ferry. Page 3.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Tour Bus
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Tour Bus. Page 31.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Robert Sobukwe House
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Robert Sobukwe House. Page 34.

Robben Island Prison Museum: B-Section Security
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: B-Section Security. Page 29.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Sobekwe Meets National Party Officials
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Sobekwe Meets National Party Officials. Page 35.

Robben Island Prison Museum: View Down B-Section Corridor
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: View Down B-Section Corridor. Page 27.

Robben Island Prison Museum: B-Section Courtyard
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: B-Section Courtyard. Page 16.

Robben Island Prison Museum: B-Section Courtyard (View 2)
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: B-Section Courtyard (View 2). Page 17.

Robben Island Prison Museum: B-Section Tour Exit
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: B-Section Tour Exit. Page 28.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Prisoners' Bedding
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Prisoners' Bedding. Page 12.

Robben Island Prison Museum: View Towards Cape Town
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: View Towards Cape Town. Page 41.

Robben Island Prison Museum: View Towards B-Block
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: View Towards B-Block. Page 5.

Robben Island Prison Museum: WWII Howitzer
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: WWII Howitzer. Page 45.

Robben Island Prison Museum: WWII Gun Enplacement
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: WWII Gun Enplacement. Page 46.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Warden's Housing
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Warden's Housing. Page 40.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Wreck
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Wreck. Page 42.

North African Independence
An atlas of North African colonization and independence.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Criminal Cell (View 2)
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Criminal Cell (View 2). Page 10.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Prisoner's ID Card
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Prisoner's ID Card. Page 9.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Jeff Masemola
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Jeff Masemola. Page 14.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Leper Cemetery
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Leper Cemetery. Page 36.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Leper Church
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Leper Church. Page 37.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Lighthouse
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Lighthouse. Page 43.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Limestone Quarry
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Limestone Quarry. Page 32.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Prisoners' Menu
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Prisoners' menu. Page 11.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Moturu Kramat
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Moturu Kramat. Page 44.

Rumble in the Jungle
The Rumble in the Jungle between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman in 1974 in Zaire was one of the defining sporting moments for anti-colonial sentiment and Black Power

Maya Angelou in Africa
Maya Angelou lived in Egypt and then Ghana between 1961 and 1965. Page 3.

Michelle Obama in Africa
Michelle Obama, the first African American woman to be the First Lady of the United States made several state visits to Africa. Page 6.

Oprah Winfrey in South Africa
During a visit with Nelson Mandela, Oprah Winfrey, an American, billionaire media personality, promised to found a school in South Africa. Page 4.

Barack Obama's Trips to Africa
During his Presidency of the United States of America, Barack Obama has made four visits to Africa, traveling to six African countries. Page 5.

Robben Island Prison Museum
Gallery of images of Robben Island Prison Museum, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison.

Robben Island Prison Museum
Gallery of images of Robben Island Prison Museum, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison.

Robben Island Prison Museum
Gallery of images of Robben Island Prison Museum, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison.

Robben Island Prison Museum
Gallery of images of Robben Island Prison Museum, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 9.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 15.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 14.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 13.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 12.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 11.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 10.

Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X
Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X were controversial figures in the United States but both found they were welcomed warmly during their trips to Africa. Page 2.

W. E. B. Du Bois
W. E. B. Du Bois was an intellectual, activist, and pan-Africanist who emigrated to Ghana in 1961.

The Owl House: The Long Bedroom
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: The Long Bedroom. Page 17.

The Owl House: The Lion
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: The Lion. Page 11.

The Owl House: Kitchen Ceiling
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: Kitchen Ceiling. Page 14.

The Owl House: The Patio
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: The Patio. Page 12.

The Owl House: Owl
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: Owl. Page 13.

The Owl House: Donkeys, Sheep and Camels
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: Donkeys, Sheep and Camels. Page 6.

The Owl House: The Walls
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: The Walls. Page 15.

The Owl House: The Shepherd
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: The Shepherd. Page 7.

The Owl House: The Nativity
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: The Nativity. Page 8.

The Owl House: The Pantry
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: The Pantry. Page 16.

The Owl House: Corner of Debauchery
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: Corner of Debauchery. Page 2.

The Owl House: Wise Men
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: Wise Men. Page 9.

The Owl House: Egypt
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: Egypt. Page 10.

The Owl House: The Gates of Paradise #2
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: The Gates of Paradise #2. Page 4.

The Owl House: The Gates of Paradise #1
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: The Gates of Paradise #1. Page 3.

The Owl House: Hostesses
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: Hostesses

The Owl House: Owls
A Gallery of images of The Owl House: Owls. Page 5.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 8.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 7.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 6.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 5.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 4.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 3.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 2.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 19.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 18.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 17.

Taalmonument, the Afrikaans Language Monument
The official monument to the Afrikaans language, at Paarl, South Africa. View this gallery of images. Page 16.

Prominant African-Americans in Africa
A look back at seven of the most prominent African-Americans to visit Africa in the past sixty years and the ideas and ties that their visits represented.

Independent Africa
The struggle for independence which followed the First World War had a serious effect on European empires. Investigate both peaceful and bloody resistance to Colonial domination as Africa reclaims it's own identity.

African history - Military History of Africa
Africa is a turbulent continent with many wars in its history, from ancient conflicts, to wars of independence, to civil wars today.

A Timeline of Events Leading Up to the Tripartite Invasion
Unclear on what happened with the Suez Canal Crisis? Here is a complete timeline of events leading up to the Tripartite Invasion.

Colonial Africa
Africa is transformed under internal and external pressures. Famine and disease, as well as territorial conflicts such as the Mfecane, cause distinct changes in African society. The abolition of the slave trade, forcibly imposed on European interests in Africa by Britain, as well as the scramble for Africa leaves traditional cultures fractured and bleeding.

Full Text of General Act of the Berlin Conference on West Africa
Read the General Act of the Berlin Conference on West Africa from 1885.

Timeline of French Colonization of Algeria to the 'Battle of Algiers'
A timeline of the Algerian War of Independence from French colonization to the end of the 'Battle of Algiers'.

African Countries' Independence Dates
A comprehensive list of African Countries' independence dates and from what prior ruling country.

Apartheid
The Afrikaans word meaning ‘separation’, Apartheid was the racial, social policy introduced by the National Party government of South Africa in 1948.

Apartheid Era Documents
A selection of texts from significant Apartheid era documents.

Apartheid FAQ
Find the answers to commonly asked questions about South Africa's Apartheid era.

African History Glossary - Apartheid Terms
A glossary of terms and expressions relevant to the history of Apartheid.

Bantu Education -- Background and Resources About Apartheid Era Bantu Education
Bantu Education, the separate and limited experience encountered by non-whites in South Africa when pursuing an education, was a cornerstone of the apartheid philosophy.

African History Glossary -- Pre-Apartheid Laws
A glossary of pre-Apartheid era legislation in South Africa.

Answers to Common Questions About South Africa's Apartheid Era
What was Apartheid? Find the answers to your questions in this FAQ.

What Were South African Apartheid Era Identity Numbers?
An explanation of how the Apartheid Era Identity Number recorded racial categories in South Africa.

Biography: Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu
An explanation of how the Apartheid Era Identity Number recorded racial categories in South Africa.

Biography of Nobel Peace Prize Winner Chief Albert Luthuli
The life and death of Chief Albert Luthuli, Africa's first winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace and president of the ANC.

African History
African History.

African History
African History.

African History
African History.

African History
African History.

African History
African History.

Southern African Independence Explained By Country
An atlas of Southern African colonization and independence, explained by country.

Short Biography: Stephen Bantu (Steve) Biko
A short biography of Steve Biko, founder and martyr of the Black Consciousness movement in South Africa.

4 Types of Slavery in Africa
Africans were subjected to several forms of slavery over the centuries, including chattel slavery under both the Muslims and Europeans.

An Overview of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
A brief review of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, with particular reference to the triangular trade and recent statistics.

South Africa's National Holidays
When Apartheid ended, the national holidays were changed to days that would be meaningful to all South Africans.

What Was Ujamaa and How Did It Affect Tanzania?
What was Ujamaa and how did Nyerere's social and economic policy affect Tanzania in the 1960s and 70s?

Memorable Quotes by Steve Biko
A selection of quotes by Steve Biko, one of South Africa's most significant political activists & a founder of South Africa's Black Consciousness Movement.

Countries in Africa Considered Never Colonized
There are two countries in Africa which are considered to never have been colonized. The truth, however, is much more complex and open to debate.

History of the African Slave Trade
Although slavery has existed for almost all of recorded history, the numbers involved in the African slave trade has left a legacy which can not be ignored.

The Origin and Meaning of Adinkra Symbols
What is the meaning of Adinkra Symbols?

Blog


African Country Histories A to Z
The histories of Africa countries are varied. Find out more about the history of these 55 African countries, from continent and surrounding island groups.

Country History - Guinea
Despite opposition by the resident Muslim empire, France made Guinea a colony in 1890 -- part of the trade-off between France and Britain over African territories. Independence was achieved in 1958. (A Portuguese backed coup failed in 1970.)

The N'ko Language of Souleymane Kante
In 1949, Guinean Souleymane Kante invented the N'ko alphabet to give Maninka speakers their own script and to counter racist claims about African people.

Socialism in Africa and African Socialism
At independence, socialism was very appealing, but African socialism soon failed, and the turn to Marxist socialism in the 1970s fared little better.

The Challenges African States Faced at Independence
When African states gained their independence from Europe's colonial empires, they faced numerous challenges starting with their lack of infrastructure

Kente Cloth
Kente cloth is the most widely known type of African cloth. It is associated with the Akan people of West Africa and each color has a particular meaning.

South Africa's FIFA World Cup 2010
The 2010 FIFA World Cup finals in South Africa was a crowning moment in the advance of African football and a welcomed success for South Africa.

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
ECOWAS was created in 1975 to promote economic integration and has evolved into a regional group with legislative, economic, and military functions.

Five Things You Don't Know About Africa
One fact that many people get wrong about Africa and four they will find surprising.

Liberia
Liberia, where the American Colonization Society established the first settlement, Monrovia, in 1822 on land 'granted' by local rulers, becomes an independent republic with a constitution based on that of the US. Unfortunately the ex-slave colonists applied the US template too well, and set about enslaving Africans from the interior, and neighboring countries.

Liberia
Liberia, where the American Colonization Society established the first settlement, Monrovia, in 1822 on land 'granted' by local rulers, becomes an independent republic with a constitution based on that of the US. Unfortunately the ex-slave colonists applied the US template too well, and set about enslaving Africans from the interior, and neighboring countries.

African Religion Books
A selection of recommended books on African Religion.

Exploration of Africa Books
A selection of books on the exploration of Africa and explorers of Africa.

Human Origins in Africa Books
A selection of recommended books about Human Origins in Africa.

Independence in Africa Books
A selection of books about Independence in Africa.

Liberia - People
Biographies of important and/or famous Liberians.

Rwandan Genocide Books
A selection of recommended books and DVDs about the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.

World War II Books and DVDs
A selection recommended of African History books covering World War II.

African History Bookcase
Book reviews, publishers and stockists of essential Africana, magazines and other periodicals.

Ghana
The two year war between the British and the Ashanti was brought to an end in 1874 when the defeated King, Asantehene, signed a treaty with the British. The Gold Coast colony was created. Independence was achieved in 1957, and the country named after an Islamic empire that existed a thousand years ago in the Sahel region south-west of the Sahara.

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela - Former President of South Africa
A biography of Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela.

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela - Law Practice, the ANC, and more.
A biography of Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela. (Part 2 of 3). Page 2.

Biography: Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela - 1960's to Present
A biography of Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela. (Part 3 of 3). Page 3.

Biography of Nontsikelelo Albertina Sisulu -- Part 2
Biography of Albertina Sisulu. Prominent leader in the African National Congress and 'Mother of the Nation'. Part 2 1960-2011. Page 2.

Biography of Nontsikelelo Albertina Sisulu -- Part 1
Biography of Albertina Sisulu. Prominent leader in the African National Congress and 'Mother of the Nation'. Part 1 1918-1958.

Life and Times of Cetshwayo kaMpande, King of the Zulus
Find out more about the life and times of Cetshwayo kaMpande, and how he faced internal rivalry and conflict with the Boers and the British.

Sharpeville Massacre -- The 21 March 1960 Sharpeville Massacre -- The Events of the Day
The events of the day. African History.

Biography: Martin Thembisile (Chris) Hani -- Part 2
A short biography of Chris Hani, South African political activist, chief-of-staff of Umkhonto we Sizwe, and Secretary-General of the South African Communist Party, assassinated in April 1993. Page 2.

World War II in Africa Timeline: June 1940
War came to Africa in June 1940 when Italy, who had colonies on the continent, declared war against Britain and France...

World War II in Africa Timeline: June 1940
When Italy declared war against Britain and France in June 1940 it seemed inevitable that the conflict would come to Africa Italy wanted an empire, and it was only on the African continent that it would be able to achieve such conquest. But even with Britain's pre-emptive forays into Libya, the war was slow to start

Red Colors in Ancient Egypt
Red Colors in Ancient Egypt. African History.

Modern Alternatives for Ancient Egypt Colors
Modern Alternatives for Ancient Egypt Colors

Colors of Ancient Egypt
Color in Ancient Egypt. African History.

Blue Colors in Ancient Egypt
Blue Colors in Ancient Egypt. African History.

Green Colors in Ancient Egypt
Green Colors in Ancient Egypt. African History.

Yellow Colors in Ancient Egypt
Yellow Colors in Ancient Egypt. African History.

Black and White Colors in Ancient Egypt
Black and White Colors in Ancient Egypt

The Federation of Mali
What was the Federation of Mali and how long did it last?

Color Technology in Ancient Egypt
Today we consider chemistry to be a science, but its roots, back in Ancient Egypt, lie in art and the creation of synthetic pigments.

Color Technology in Ancient Egypt: Synthetic Pigments
There were three basic groups of synthetic pigment used in Ancient Egypt: powdered glass, corrosion products, or those altered through the application of heat. Page 2.

Anti-Apartheid and Apartheid Leaders - Apartheid Era Leaders in South Africa
The struggle against Apartheid in South Africa produced many heroes and scoundrels alike. Here are a few from either side of the fence.

Explorers
Explorers of Africa, especially those of the nineteenth century have had a special influence on the continent's development. Had it not been for their zeal to discover the unknown (to them) the rest of the world would not have been brought so harshly into the political, social, and economic development of Africans.

Country History: Chad
Chad, formally known as

African History - Countries in Central Africa
From the Tibesti mountains in the north to the great rainforest basin of the Congo (Zaire) River. This region was relatively free of European influence until the end of the 19th century when France and Belgium developed colonies. Are the current conflicts a legacy of colonial occupation?

African History - Countries of West Africa
The desert lands of the southern Sahara, the lush rainforest of the coastal areas, the rich natural resources and, of course the slave trade have influenced the development of this region.

Country History by Region
The histories of Africa countries show a strong regional flavor, from the Muslim north to the British colonial south and French colonial West. Use these five regional groupings to locate the country you are particularly interested in.

African History -- Egyptology
Explore Ancient Egypt through its magnificent architecture and sculpture, the pyramids, hieroglyphs, the lives of the pharaohs, gods and goddesses, and more.

African History Glossary
A glossary of terms and expressions relevant to African history.

Pre-Colonial Africa
During this era Africa was influenced by two major movements: the expansion and consolidation of Islam and the dispersion of the Bantu peoples which led to the the development of many kingdoms and empires. Investigate the impact, interaction, and conflict which arose and the development of trade and exchange -- both of commodities and culture.

History By Region: North Africa
Contained by the shores of the Mediterranean to the north and the arid sands of the Sahara to the south, the countries of North Africa were heavily influenced by ancient European civilizations such as Rome as well as the more recent expansion of Islam.

Significant Events in Apartheid History
Much occurred during the history of the Apartheid era in South Africa, but a few events have special significance. Find out more about those events which were turning points in the development and fall of Apartheid.

Slavery and the Slave Trade
African people have been captured and sold as slaves within their own continent, across the Atlantic, and in the East. Even today reports in the news suggest slavery still exists.

Timelines for African History
A selection of timeline resources covering African History.

World War II in Africa
Africa provided a major turning point for World War II, with the Allies making their first major victories against the Axis.

Society and Politics
Articles that cross-over between pre-colonial, colonial, and/or independent Africa

African Fiction Books
A selection of recommended African Fiction.

Apartheid Books
A selection of books on Apartheid South Africa.

Biographical Books
A selection of biographies and autobiographies of people in Africa.

Egyptology Books and DVDs
A selection of books on Egyptology.

Rock Art Books
A selection of recommended books on African Rock Art.

History of South Africa Books
A selection of books on the history of South Africa.

Stencils
A collection of free stencils with an African theme. For personal, non-commercial use only.

Chris Hani -- Biography and Resources about Chris Hani
Political activist, chief-of-staff of Umkhonto we Sizwe, and Secretary-General of the South African Communist Party, who was assassinated in April 1993.

Joe Slovo -- Biography, Quotes, and Resources about Joe Slovo
Joe Slovo, anti-Apartheid activist, was one of the founders of Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), the armed wing of the ANC, and was general secretary of the South African Communist Party during the 1980s.

Nelson Mandela -- Biography, Quotes, and Resources on Nelson Mandela
Perhaps the most famous African of the twentieth century, Nelson Mandela spent 27 years in Prison for his stalwart leadership in the struggle against Apartheid.

PW Botha -- Biography, Quotes, and Resources about PW Botha
PW Botha was the archetypal kragdadige (hardheaded) Afrikaner politician. Known as the Groot Krokodil ('Great Crocodile') because of his abrasive nature, he lead South Africa's white-minority government during the most violent years of anti-Apartheid resistance.

Sharpeville Massacre -- Background and Resources About the Sharpeville Massacre
The Sharpeville Massacre signaled the start of armed resistance in South Africa, and prompted worldwide condemnation of South Africa's Apartheid policies.

Slavery of Africans and Slavery in Africa Books
A selection of books on Slavery of Africans and Slavery in Africa.

Steve Biko - Biography, Quotes and Reference Material on Stephen Bantu Biko
Steve Biko, the founder of the Black Consciousness movement in South Africa, died in a Pretoria prison cell on 12 September 1977. He was to become a martyr and symbol of black resistance to the oppressive Apartheid regime.

World War I Books
A selection recommended of African History books covering World War I.

Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt -- Biographies and Timelines for Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt
Biographies and timelines for the Pharaohs of Egypt. From the Pre-Dynastic era to the Roman Period.

Country History – South Sudan
Africa's fledgling country became an independent republic on 9 July 2011.

Country History – Algeria
The Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria achieved independence on 3 July 1962, after 130 years of French rule. The country has had a bloody history -- both through the National Liberation Front's fight against the French colonial administration and with the current struggle between the country's military and Islamic militants.

Country History - Egypt
From an ancient African civilisation which developed writing and agriculture, Egypt underwent several periods of foreign domination: starting with Alexander the Great in 330 BCE, cycling through the Ptolemaic Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Mamelukes, Ottoman Turks, and French, and ending up under British authority until independence was achieved in 1936.

Hieroglyphs
Hieroglyphs are the ancient Egyptian signs used for writing. First decoded in 1822 by Jean-Franois Champillion, a French scholar expert in ancient languages, hieroglyphs are still a fascinating subject for study and discovery.

Mary Henrietta Kingsley -- Mary Henrietta Kingsley
Mary Henrietta Kingsley, a Victorian explorer and writer who greatly influenced European ideas about Africa and its people.

René-Auguste Caillié
René-Auguste Caillié was the first European who lived to tell the tale of reaching Timbuktu. The French explorer disguised himself as an Arab to gain entrance to the city and remain undetected – he had studied Islam and could speak Arabic.

Country History - Benin
In 1625 indigenous slave traders, known as the Fon, founded the kingdom of Dahomey. They conquered the neighboring Dan and Allada and extended their kingdom to the coast. A trading post was set up in 1857 by the French at Grand-Popo. In 1892 Dahomey became a French protectorate and part of French West Africa in 1904. Independence was gained in 1960 and the country was renamed Benin in 1975.

Country History – Cameroon
The region was inhabited by north-western Bantu societies who prospered from the trade in slaves from the interior. It came under British control until annexed by Germany in 1884. In 1919 Cameroon was divided between the French and the British. The French sector declared independence in 1960. The British southern sector joined Cameroon in 1961 whilst the northern sector joined Nigeria.

Country History - Republic of the Congo
This region was annexed by the French in the 1880's when two kingdoms (Teke and Loango) were incorporated into the

Country History - Equatorial Guinea
A colony of Spain for 190 years Equatorial Guinea achieved independence in 1968. Ruled during this time by two members of the same family -- the current president, Obiang Nguema, deposed his uncle in 1979 and has since used alleged coups as an opportunity to remove other key opposition figures.

Country history - Gabon
Gabon, the last of the four territories which had formed French Equatorial Africa, achieved independence on 17 August 1960 with Gabriel Léon M'Ba as president. Find out more about Gabon with these resources…

Country History - Libya
The Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Libya's official name, achieved independence from Italy on 24 December 1951, although it had been held under British (for Tripolitania and Cyrenaica) and French (Fezzan) administration since 1943. Initially ruled as a monarchy under King Idris, the country became a republic when Gadaffi took power in 1969.

Morocco
The Kingdom of Morocco achieved independence from being a French Protectorate (part of France's trans-Saharan empire) on 2 March 1956, although additional territories held by Spain were joined shortly afterwards – northern Marruecos on 7 April 1956, Tangier on 29 October 1956, and finally Tarfaya (southern Marruecos) on 27 April 1958.

Country History – Tunisia
The republic of Tunisia achieved independence from France on 20 March 1956. Its history, however, is one of occupation – by the Phoenicians, the Romans, Byzantine, Arab, and Ottoman empires, and then by the French in 1883. It was also briefly under Axis control during World War II.

Country History – Western Sahara
In 1975 an international court of Justice granted Western Sahara, previously a Spanish Overseas Province, self-determination. Unfortunately, King Hassan of Morocco sent 350,000 people to take control of the territory. Initially partitioned by Morocco and Mauritania, it came fully under Moroccan control in 1979. Morocco has yet to comply with UN demands for the territory's complete release.

Country History - Burkina Faso
From the 16th to the early 19th century this was the kingdom of Ouagadougo, part of the Mossi empire. In the early C19th the Mossi empire broke down into internal warfare. At the end of the 19th century the warlord Samori Ture was expelled by the French and it became part of French West Africa. It gained independence from the French as Upper Volta in 1960 and was renamed Burkina Faso in 1984.

Country History - Cape Verde
The archipelago of Cape Verde became a Portuguese colony in 1462. A joint struggle for the liberation of Cape Verde and the mainland colony of Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea-Bissau) began. Independence was achieved in 1975 with proposed union to the new state of Guinea-Bissau. In 1981 Cape Verde finally split away to form an independent republic.

Country History - Central African Republic


Country History - Côte d'Ivoire
Originally one of the great trading empires of West Africa, the region was made the French colony of Cte d'Ivoire in 1893. The Malinke empire of the interior resisted the French until 1918. Towards the end of the 1940's French rule became excessively oppressive. In 1958 it became a French Republic and in 1960 it achieved independence.

County History - Gambia
Continental Africa's smallest nation, The Gambia is one of the few west African countries to have extended periods of political stability since gaining independence from Britain on 18 February 1965. Find out more with these resources…

Country History - Guinea
Despite opposition by the resident Muslim empire, France made Guinea a colony in 1890 -- part of the trade-off between France and Britain over African territories. Independence was achieved in 1958. (A Portuguese backed coup failed in 1970.)

Country History - Guinea-Bissau
Following Portuguese exploration in the 15th century, Portuguese Guinea finally became a colony in 1897. War for independence started in 1960, and independence was achieved on 10 September 1974. (It was the first Portuguese colony to gain independence.) Find out more about Guinea-Bissau with these resources…

Country History - Mali
Once the home to a major trans-Saharan empire based on the trade of salt and gold, this area was colonized by the French in the 1880's. Complete independence was achieved on 22 September 1960 - after initially being federated with Senegal from 20 June 1960 to 20 August 1960. Find out more about Mali with these resources…

Country History - Mauritania
At the end of the first millennium this was the western extreme of the Saharan trade routes and was famous for date plantations. By the time of Mali Empire it was home to nomadic Berber, and eventually became part of the Islamic Almoravid state. Portuguese explorers visited and documented the area (and raided for slaves). Mauritania became a French colony in 1814 and achieved independence in 1960.

Country History - Niger
Part of the once powerful Islamic Sokoto Empire it was annexed by France at the end of the nineteenth century. It was created an autonomous republic within a greater French community in 1958, and independence followed in 1960.

Country History - Nigeria
Originally a collection of African states whose wealth came from trans-Saharan (and trans-Atlantic) trade, it became a British colony in 1861, divided into two British Protectorates in 1898, and then merged in 1914 to form the colony of Nigeria. A federal system of government was created in 1954 and independence achieved in 1960. Find out more about Nigeria with these Country Guides.

Country History - Senegal
The region of Senegambia (formed by the combined basins of the Senegal and Gambia rivers) was a dependency of the states of the Sudan (the historical state not the modern republic) and Sahara. Senegal was colonized by the French in 1890 (with The Gambia split off as a British enclave). Independence was achieved on 20 August 1960 under the socialist president Leopold Senghor. Find out more about Senegal with these resources…