African History Sitemap - Page 2 2016-09-26

Country History – Rwanda
This small, mountainous region is the home of the Banyarwanda people, divided into three groups: the Tutsi, the Hutu, and the Twa. The country developed a lord/serf society, with the cattle owning Tutsi in charge, and the Hutu as farmers. Tutsi domination was reinforced by German / Belgian colonization from 1890. Since independence in 1962 continued violence has erupted between the two factions.

Country History - Senegal
The region of Senegambia (formed by the combined basins of the Senegal and Gambia rivers) was a dependency of the states of the Sudan (the historical state not the modern republic) and Sahara. Senegal was colonized by the French in 1890 (with The Gambia split off as a British enclave). Independence was achieved on 20 August 1960 under the socialist president Leopold Senghor.

Country History - Seychelles
The islands of the Seychelles were claimed by France in 1756 although sailors had known about them since the early 16th century. The Seychelles ended up under British rule after the Napoleonic Wars, becoming a British Crown Colony in 1903. Independence was achieved in 1976, but was followed soon after by a coup and a one-party socialist state. Democratic elections were held once again in 1995.

Sierra Leone
First colonized in 1787 when the British founded Freetown (now the capital) as a settlement for Africans freed from slavery. The coastal region became a British colony in 1808, with the interior annexed in 1896. Independence was achieved in 1961.

Country History - South Africa
South Africa's rich history is overshadowed by its colonial heritage and the Apartheid era. Start exploring its history with this collection of links.

Country History – Sudan
Since independence from British/Egyptian rule in 1956 the Sudan has experienced little relief from civil war between the Arab, Islamic north and African south.

Country History - Swaziland
This little state was made a protectorate of the Transvaal in 1894 and a British protectorate in 1903. It achieved independence on 6 September 1968 after four years of limited self-government under King Sobhuza. Find out more about Swaziland with these resources…

Country History - Tanzania
The mainland of Tanzania became a German colony called Tanganyika in 1884 whilst the Sultanate of Zanzibar became a British Protectorate in 1890. Tanganyika became a British mandated territory in 1918 and achieved independence in 1961. In 1963 Zanzibar achieved independence, and a year later formed a union with Tanganyika under the new name of Tanzania.

Country History - Togo
After initially being colonized by Germany in 1894, the larger region of Togoland was divided between the French and British in 1914. At independence, the eastern half of French Togoland became Togo while western British Togoland became part of Ghana.

Country History - Togo
After initially being colonized by Germany in 1894, the larger region of Togoland was divided between the French and British in 1914. At independence, the eastern half of French Togoland became Togo while western British Togoland became part of Ghana.

Timeline : World War II in Africa
Between 10 June 1940 when Mussolini declared war against Britain and France, and 13 May 1943 when the last Axis troops in North Africa surrendered, Africa was a significant theatre of operation for World war II. Find out more about this significant period in Africa's history.

First Italo–Ethiopian war
Italy probably had the smallest and least productive of all the colonial empires. It was, however, directly responsible for unifying Ethiopia into a nation state, and through the battle of Adowa in 1896 gave the African continent proof that the Europeans were not unbeatable.

Country History - Democratic Republic of the Congo
Once the Kongo kingdom, Belgium's King Leopold II claimed most of the Congo basin in 1876 - the most brutal of all European colonial experiments. Belgium took over the country in 1908, after international outcry, as the Belgian Congo. Independence was achieved in 1960 under the name Congo-Kinshasa. The country was renamed Zaire in 1971 and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (or DRC) in 1997.

African History Glossary - Military History Terms
A glossary of terms and expressions relevant to Military History in Africa.

Country History – Tunisia
The republic of Tunisia achieved independence from France on 20 March 1956. Its history, however, is one of occupation – by the Phoenicians, the Romans, Byzantine, Arab, and Ottoman empires, and then by the French in 1883. It was also briefly under Axis control during World War II.

Country History - Uganda
A collection of ancient kingdoms were combined to from a British protectorate in 1893. Independence was achieved in 1962. The ethnic strife under the rule of Idi Amin lasted from 1971 to 1980.

Country History - Zambia
Formally the British colony of Northern Rhodesia, the country was developed purely for its vast copper resources. It was grouped with Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and Nyasaland (Malawi) as part of a federation in 1953. Independence from Britain was achieved in 1964 as part of the program to dilute the power of white racists in Southern Rhodesia.

Country History - Zimbabwe
The British colony of Southern Rhodesia became part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland in 1953. In 1963 Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland pulled out of the Federation, citing the extreme conditions in the Southern Rhodesia. In 1965, Ian Smith made a Unilateral Declaration of Independence. Negotiations towards independence started in 1975 and independence was achieved in 1980.

African History FAQ
Find the answers to commonly asked questions about African History.

African Proverbs
Much of Africa's history has been passed on through the generations orally. One consequence of this is that morals and lessons have been crystallized in the form of proverbs. Here are collections of proverbs from across the African continent.

African History -- Anglo-Boer War
Also known as the South African War, the Anglo-Boer War was fought between the republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal against the British. Explore the origins and development of the war -- including the concentration camps where the British held Boer women and children -- with this collection of links.

Anglo-Zulu War 1879
The Zulu kingdom, created by Shaka kaSenzangakhona, lasted just over six decades before meeting the imperial might of the British Empire. Within six months the kingdom lay in pieces. A full military campaign, known as the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879 was required to ensure its demise.

Religion, Myths, Witchcraft, and Sacred Sites
Africa isn't home only to traditional religions, but has many followers of Christianity and Islam. There are also numerous ancient sacred sites, such as the Mud Mosque of Djenn, Mali.

Science, Technology, and Medicine
While Africa may no longer be at the forefront of science, technology, or medicine, many things were discovered on the continent, including some historically attributed to Europe.

African History Glossary - A
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with A relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - B
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with B relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - C
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with C relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - D
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with D relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - E
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with E relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - F
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with F relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - G
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with G relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - H
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with H relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - I
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with I relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - J
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with J relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - M
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with M relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - K
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with K relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - L
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with L relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - N
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with N relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - O
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with O relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - P
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with P relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - Q
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with Q relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - R
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with R relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - S
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with S relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - T
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with T relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - U
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with U relevant to African history.

The powerful ancient kingdoms of Africa
In the ancient period, from 3100 BCE to roughly 500 CE there were several large, powerful kingdoms in Africa. This period also witnessed the development of ironworking in Africa and stunning works of art.

African History Glossary - V
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with V relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - W
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with W relevant to African history.

African History Glossary - XYZ
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with X, Y, or Z relevant to African history.

The Environment
Environmental issues facing African states.

African History Glossary - Apartheid Laws
A glossary of Apartheid Legislation in South Africa.

Artists and Writers -- Biographies of Africa's Artists and Writers
Africa's long history of artistic works has its roots in the rock art of hunter gathers and the oral traditions of storytellers and griots.

African History: Slavery Images
A collection of links to various illustrations of slaves and slavery, including slave ships.

Slavery in South Africa
Many South Africans are the descendents of slaves brought to the Cape Colony from 1653 until 1822. Follow the main events in this period of South Africa's history.

Sports
We think of sports as entertainment or fun, but a lot of history over the last 200 years can be studied through sports. International sporting matches can be mired in politics on and off the field, and sports can be used to send powerful messages that reach much further than dry speeches.

Apartheid Images -- Images from South Africa's Apartheid Era
A selection of images from Apartheid Era South Africa, collected in themed galleries.

Country history - Algeria
The Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria achieved independence on 3 July 1962, after 130 years of French rule. The country has had a bloody history -- both through the National Liberation Front's fight against the French colonial administration and with the current struggle between the country's military and Islamic militants.

Country History - Angola
Once a Portuguese colony, Angola achieved independence in 1975 but has experienced 25 years of civil war since then. During the Cold War Angola acted as a primary base of operations for the Soviet-backed MPLA and Western supported UNITA. Peace was only achieved in 2002. Find out more about Angola from this series of Country Guides.

Country History - Botswana
Originally home to the indigenous San peoples, they were displaced by migrating Tswana in the 17th century. In 1885, under the urging of Cecil Rhodes, the region became the Bechuanaland Protectorate, held by the British against incursions by Boers and Germans. Independence was achieved in 1966. Find out more from these country profiles…

Burkina Faso
From the 16th to the early 19th century this was the kingdom of Ouagadougo, part of the Mossi empire. In the early C19th the Mossi empire broke down into internal warfare. At the end of the 19th century the warlord Samori Ture was expelled by the French and it became part of French West Africa. It gained independence from the French as Upper Volta in 1960 and was renamed Burkina Faso in 1984.

Country History – Burundi
From the 16th century Urundi was ruled by the minority Tutsi with the majority Hutu as their serfs. It was merged with Rwanda and controlled by Germany, as

Cameroon
The region was inhabited by north-western Bantu societies who prospered from the trade in slaves from the interior. It came under British control until annexed by Germany in 1884. In 1919 Cameroon was divided between the French and the British. The French sector declared independence in 1960. The British southern sector joined Cameroon in 1961 whilst the northern sector joined Nigeria.

Country History - Central African Republic


Country History - Comoros
The Comoros were under Arab control until they became a French Protectorate in 1880 and proclaimed as a French colony in 1912. The Comoros achieved self-government in 1961 and independence in 1975.

Country History - Côte d'Ivoire
Originally one of the great trading empires of West Africa, the region was made the French colony of Cte d'Ivoire in 1893. The Malinke empire of the interior resisted the French until 1918. Towards the end of the 1940's French rule became excessively oppressive. In 1958 it became a French Republic and in 1960 it achieved independence.

Democratic Republic of the Congo
Once the Kongo kingdom, Belgium's King Leopold II claimed most of the Congo basin in 1876 - the most brutal of all European colonial experiments. Belgium took over the country in 1908, after international outcry, as the Belgian Congo. Independence was achieved in 1960 under the name Congo-Kinshasa. The country was renamed Zaire in 1971 and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (or DRC) in 1997.

African History - Exploration of Africa
Explorers through the ages have been fascinated by the unknown regions of Africa. Join them on their travels.

Country History – Djibouti
What was once the Islamic State of Adal was made the capital of French Somaliland in 1896. In 1946 the French gave it Overseas Territorial status and in 1967 it was renamed the Territoire Franais des Afars et des Issas. Independence was achieved by the Republic of Djibouti on 27 June 1977.

Country History - Egypt
From an ancient African civilization which developed writing and agriculture, Egypt underwent several periods of foreign domination: starting with Alexander the Great in 330 BCE, cycling through the Ptolemaic Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Mamelukes, Ottoman Turks, and French, and ending up under British authority until independence was achieved in 1936.

Country History - Equatorial Guinea
A colony of Spain for 190 years Equatorial Guinea achieved independence in 1968. Ruled during this time by two members of the same family -- the current president, Obiang Nguema, deposed his uncle in 1979 and has since used alleged coups as an opportunity to remove other key opposition figures.

Eritrea
Eritrea, once part of the long departed Axumite empire, is a country created by the Italians out of a collection of warlord's domains. Even in African terms the country is little known to the world, but its history is a fascinating one, a shows the best, and worst, of Africa.

Country History - Ethiopia
Africa's oldest independent country which, except for a four-year occupation by Mussolini's Italy at the end of the 1930s, has never been colonised. Famous for the notable defeat of the invading Italian army at Adowa in 1896, Ethiopia inspired the rest of Africa in its path to independence.

Country history - Gabon
Gabon, the last of the four territories which had formed French Equatorial Africa, achieved independence on 17 August 1960 with Gabriel Léon M'Ba as president. Find out more about Gabon with these resources…

County History - Gambia
Continental Africa's smallest nation, The Gambia is one of the few west African countries to have extended periods of political stability since gaining independence from Britain on 18 February 1965. Find out more with these resources…

Ghana
The two year war between the British and the Ashanti was brought to an end in 1874 when the defeated King, Asantehene, signed a treaty with the British. The Gold Coast colony was created. Independence was achieved in 1957, and the country named after an Islamic empire that existed a thousand years ago in the Sahel region south-west of the Sahara.

Country History - Guinea-Bissau
Following Portuguese exploration in the 15th century, Portuguese Guinea finally became a colony in 1897. War for independence started in 1960, and independence was achieved on 10 September 1974. (It was the first Portuguese colony to gain independence.) Find out more about Guinea-Bissau with these resources…

Kenya
Home to indigenous Bantu and Nilo-Saharan speaking peoples, the region was colonized by Arab traders from the 10th century and by the British in 1895. The route to independence was marked by the violent struggle of the Mau Mau Rebellion in the 1950s which resulted in the British authorities declaring a State of Emergency. Independence was achieved in 1965, and a republic was declared in 1964.

African-Americans in Africa
African American interest in Africa has long been high. These articles look at the views of and impacts of African Americans in Africa.

Country History - Madagascar
After increasing contact with Europeans from the 15th century, Madagascar became a French colony in 1895. Following the Second World War there was increasing tension in the country, with civil uprisings resulting in French troops killing thousands. Independence was achieved in 1960.

Mali
Once the home to a major trans-Saharan empire based on the trade of salt and gold, this area was colonized by the French in the 1880's. Complete independence was achieved on 22 September 1960 - after initially being federated with Senegal from 20 June 1960 to 20 August 1960. Find out more about Mali with these resources…

Country History - Malawi
This region became the British colony of Nyasaland after aggressive diplomatic conflict with Germany in 1890. In 1964, as part of the program to dilute the power of white racists in Rhodesia, Britain released the colony and it became Malawi. Find out more from these country profiles…

Country History - Mauritania
At the end of the first millennium this was the western extreme of the Saharan trade routes and was famous for date plantations. By the time of Mali Empire it was home to nomadic Berber, and eventually became part of the Islamic Almoravid state. Portuguese explorers visited and documented the area (and raided for slaves). Mauritania became a French colony in 1814 and achieved independence in 1960.

Country History - Mauritius
Originally colonized by the Dutch in the 17th century, Mauritius later came under French rule and then was captured by the British in 1810. On 12 March 1968 it achieved independence within the Commonwealth with Seewoosagur Ramgoolam as prime minister. Mauritius holds the record for the longest period spent as a Commonwealth Realm, 24 years, with it becoming a republic on 12 March 1992.

Morocco
The Kingdom of Morocco achieved independence from being a French Protectorate (part of France's trans-Saharan empire) on 2 March 1956, although additional territories held by Spain were joined shortly afterwards – northern Marruecos on 7 April 1956, Tangier on 29 October 1956, and finally Tarfaya (southern Marruecos) on 27 April 1958.

Country History - Mozambique
Once a Portuguese colony, Mozambique achieved independence in 1975 following a 12 year struggle by FRELIMO. Under the Marxist, single-party government, Mozambique was embroiled in a 16 year civil war with RENAMO, who were originally sponsored by the white Rhodesian government and then the South African apartheid government. A peace deal was signed in 1992, and multi-party elections held in 1994.

Country History - Namibia
The German mandated territory of South West Africa was given to South Africa in 1915 by the League of Nations. In 1950 South Africa refused a UN request to give up the territory. It was renamed Namibia in 1968 (although South Africa continued to call it South West Africa). In 1990 Namibia became the forty-seventh African colony to gain independence. Find out more from these country profiles…

Niger
Part of the once powerful Islamic Sokoto Empire it was annexed by France at the end of the nineteenth century. It was created an autonomous republic within a greater French community in 1958, and independence followed in 1960.

Nigeria
Originally a collection of African states whose wealth came from trans-Saharan (and trans-Atlantic) trade, it became a British colony in 1861, divided into two British Protectorates in 1898, and then merged in 1914 to form the colony of Nigeria. A federal system of government was created in 1954 and independence achieved in 1960. Find out more about Nigeria with these Country Guides.

Country History - Republic of the Congo
This region was annexed by the French in the 1880's when two kingdoms (Teke and Loango) were incorporated into the

Country History - Réunion
Runion was first visited by the Portuguese c.1512 and settled by France in 1642. The island was developed first for coffee plantations and then for sugar cane. It changed hands briefly as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, but was returned to France under the Treaty of Paris. After World War II the island became a French overseas dpartement, in the hope of improving conditions for its inhabitants.

African History - Human Origins in Africa
Is Africa truly the cradle of humankind? The oldest fossils of humankind's early ancestors have been found on the African continent. Other scientific evidence supports Africa's significant role in human evolution.

South Africa's Jewish Population
South Africa's Jewish population is known for anti-Apartheid activism, but many SA Jews had a more ambivalent relationship with Apartheid and white society.

The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act
The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act (1949) forbid white people from marrying non-white people in South Africa, but did not prevent other inter-racial marriages.

The Tripartite Invasion also known as the 1956 War
Britain, France and Israel attempt to wrest the Suez Canal from Egyptian control - Part 1: Nasser takes control.

The Origin Of The Modern Calendar in Ancient Egypt
The way in which we divide the day into hours and minutes, as well as the structure and length of the yearly calendar, owes much to pioneering developments in ancient Egypt.

Ancient Egypt: The Father Of Time -- Counting The Hours
The way in which we divide the day into hours and minutes, as well as the structure and length of the yearly calendar, owes much to pioneering developments in ancient Egypt. Page 2.

Longest Reigning African Leaders still in power
Descriptions of the five longest reigning African leaders still in power, plus a sixth leader who has been ruling three forgotten African islands even longer.

Is Africa Overpopulated?
People refer to Africa as overpopulated, but the continent is less densely populated than Asia. Why is Africa's growing population a concern?

A Brief History of Ghana Since Independence
A concise history of Ghana since independence with pictures of key moments and facts about the country.

Country History - Kenya
Home to indigenous Bantu and Nilo-Saharan speaking peoples, the region was colonized by Arab traders from the 10th century and by the British in 1895. The route to independence was marked by the violent struggle of the Mau Mau Rebellion in the 1950s which resulted in the British authorities declaring a State of Emergency. Independence was achieved in 1965, and a republic was declared in 1964.

Kenya - People
Biographies of important and/or famous Kenyans.

The Legacy of World War I in Africa
World War I was the last phase of the Scramble for Africa, and the cost in African lives was astounding and too often forgotten.

Selection of Quotes by Hastings Kamuzu Banda
A selection of quotes by Hastings Kamuzu Banda, first president of Malawi.

What was the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland?
The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland lasted for 10 years, part of Britain's approach to independence in Africa. Find out more about the federation and why it ended.

Hastings Banda, Life President of Malawi
Hastings Banda, President of Malawi, was a man of glaring contradictions that were united only by his puritanical focus and the inner man so few knew.

Hastings Banda, the early years
Hastings Banda of Malawi was one of the more enigmatic “Big Men” of post-independence Africa. His early life gave few hints of the dictator he would become.

Biography: Idi Amin Dada, the Butcher of Uganda
Idi Amin, who became known as the 'Butcher of Uganda' for his brutal, despotic rule whilst president of Uganda in the 1970s, is possibly the most notorious of all Africa's post-independence dictators. Find out more in this biography.

Biography of Idi Amin Dada
Idi Amin, who became known as the 'Butcher of Uganda' for his brutal, despotic rule whilst president of Uganda in the 1970s, is possibly the most notorious of all Africa's post-independence dictators. Find out more in this biography. (Part 2 of 2). Page 2.

Milton Obote
Milton Obote was the President of Uganda before and after the rule of Idi Amin. Who was he and how did he come into power twice?

Biography of the Anti-Apartheid Activist Helen Suzman
Helen Suzman -- South African politician and anti-Apartheid activist who spent thirteen years as the lone liberal opposition MP to the Apartheid era National Party

Blaise Diagne
Blaise Diagne, the first black African elected to the French Parliament where he represented Senegal (1914-34). Page 2.

Flag of the Republic of Senegal
The flag of the Republic of Senegal was adopted on 20 September 1960, a month after the Federation of Mali broke up. It is modeled on the French tricolorThe green star represents Islam. The three colored strips are typical pan-African colors: the green represents unity, hope and natural bounty; the yellow represents progress and mineral wealth; and the red represents the blood of the people, sacrifice and determination. Page 3.

Léopold Sédar Senghor: a brief biography
Lopold Sdar Senghor (1906 - 2001), first president of Senegal, internationally acclaimed poet, writer and statesman.

History of Senegal Image Gallery
A collection of photographs, maps, and images related to the history of Senegal with brief histories of each.

Political Map of Senegal
Senegal Political Map showing capital, port of Saint-Louise, Casamance Province, Senegal River, Gambia River. Page 4.

Apartheid Signs -- Apartheid Beach 1979
Sign on a Cape Town beach in 1979 reserves it for white people only:

Apartheid Signs -- Exclusive Use of European Mothers 1971
Sign outside a Johannesburg park in 1971 restricts its use:

Apartheid Signs -- Road Sign 1956
A fairly common road sign around Johannesburg in 1956:

Apartheid Signs -- Segregated Toilets 1979
May 1979: Public conveniences in Cape Town in 1979 allocated to white people only:

Apartheid Signs -- Telegraph Office 1955
Signs in English and Afrikaans, in Wellington railway station, South Africa, enforcing the policy of apartheid or racial segregation in 1955:

Apartheid Signs -- White Area 1976
An apartheid notice on a beach in 1976 near Cape Town, denoting the area for whites only. Page 4.

Apartheid Era Signs Image Gallery
A gallery of images of Apartheid Era Signs from the mid 1950s to late 1970s.

Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act No 46 of 1959
Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act No 46 of 1959 allowed for the transformation of reserves into fully-fledged independent Bantustans. Find out more

Natives (or Black) Land Act No. 27 Law of 1913
The Natives (or Black) Land Act stripped black South Africans of their ability to own, or even rent, land outside of limited reserves and changed the map of South Africa.

Suppression of Communism Act No 44 Apartheid Law of 1950
What was the Suppression of Communism Act No 44 of 1950

What Was the Sobukwe Clause of 1963?
What was the Sobukwe Clause? African History.

What Was the Loi Cadre Law in 1956?
Loi Cadre -- What was the Loi Cadre?

Influx Control Regulation in South Africa
What was Influx Control? African History.

History of Zimbabwe – Early Kingdoms to UDI
A brief introduction to the history of Zimbabwe from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 1 - Early Kingdoms to UDI

Blacks Abolition of Passes and Co-ordination of Documents Act
Blacks (Abolition of Passes and Co-ordination of Documents) Act No 67 of 1952 required all black persons over the age of 16 to carry a reference (or pass) book at all times. Find out more...

Biography of Sobhuza II King of Swazi
Paramount Chief of the Swazi from 1921 and king of Swaziland from 1967 to 1982.

Collection of Zulu Proverbs
Much of Africa's history has been passed on through the generations orally. One consequence of this is that traditional wisdom has been crystallized in the form of proverbs. Here is a collection of proverbs attributed to the Zulu of South Africa.

Biography of the German Explorer Carl Peters
Carl Peters was a German explorer, journalist and philosopher, instrumental in the founding of German East Africa and helped create the European

Selection of Quotes by Seretse Khama
A selection of quotes by Seretse Khama, first president of Botswana.

Biography of South African Leader Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd
National Party Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 until his assassination on 6 September 1966, Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd was the chief architect of 'Grand Apartheid', which called for the separation of races in South Africa.

Quotes by Ahmed Sékou Touré
A Selection of Quotes by Ahmed Skou Tour

The Afrikaans Medium Decree that Led to the Soweto Uprising
The decree that Afrikaans had to be used as a language of instruction in schools contributed to the 16 June 1976 Soweto uprising in South Africa.

Levy Patrick Mwanawasa - President of Zambia 2002-2008
Biography of Levy Patrick Mwanawasa -- respected statesman and third president of an independent Zambia (2002-2008)

Lovedu Rain Queen South Africa's Female Royal Succession
The female royal line which has lasted for two centuries in South Africa. The Rain Queen, or Mudjadji, is responsible for protecting the Lovedu from drought and maintaining the favorable cycle of the seasons.

Biography of PW Botha, Apartheid Era President
PW Botha was the archetypal hardheaded Afrikaner politician. Known as the Great Crocodile because of his abrasive nature, he lead South Africa's white-minority government during the most violent years of anti-Apartheid resistance.

A Biography of PW Botha - Part 2 (of 3)
PW Botha was the archetypal hardheaded Afrikaner politician. Known as the Great Crocodile because of his abrasive nature, he lead South Africa's white-minority government during the most violent years of anti-Apartheid resistance. Page 2.

A Biography of PW Botha - Part 3 (of 3)
PW Botha was the archetypal hardheaded Afrikaner politician. Known as the Great Crocodile because of his abrasive nature, he lead South Africa's white-minority government during the most violent years of anti-Apartheid resistance. Page 3.

The Life of Jomo Kenyatta - First President of Kenya
First president of Kenya and prominent independence leader. Born into dominant Kikuyu culture, Kenyatta became its most famous interpreter of Kikuyu traditions through his book Facing Mount Kenya. Part 2 of his biography, from his political awakening to the Mau Mau Rebellion.

The Journalist, the Vulture, and the African Child
The haunting photo of a vulture stalking an emaciated Sudanese girl who'd collapsed on her way to a feeding station won photographer Kevin Carter a Pulitzer

What is a Bicameral Parliament?
What is a Bicameral Parliament? African History.

Burkina Faso: Key Facts and History
Key facts about Bukina Faso, including location, capital city, and government, and its history ifrom independence up to the recent coup.

Extension of University Education Act, 1959
The Expansion of University Education Act segregated Apartheid universities by race and ethnicity, ensuring non-white students received limited educations.

Soweto Student Uprising - 16 June, 1976
The historical background to the June, 16 1976 protest by high-school students in Soweto, South Africa, where police fired teargas and live bullets

Past United Nations Missions in Africa
Concluded United Nations missions in Africa, chronologically organized with brief descriptions of their context and outcomes.

Ongoing UN Peacekeeping Missions in Africa
Background and mandates of the current United Nations peacekeeping operations in Africa.

The African Standby Force
Answers to some of the frequently asked questions about the African Standby Force, which became fully operational as of January 2016.

Full Product Review: 'The Sword and the Flame'
Full review of 'The Sword and the Flame'

South Africa -- Changes in Town and Geographical Names
Since the end of apartheid, a number of town and geographical names in South Africa have changed. Here's a list of them.

Homosexuality as Part of Pre-Colonial Africa


Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition: Gilded Coffin of Tjuya
A gallery of artifacts from the Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition: Gilded Coffin of Tjuya. Page 2.

Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition: Royal Canopic Bust
A gallery of artifacts from the Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition: Royal Canopic Bust. Page 6.

Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition: Diadem
A gallery of artifacts from the Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition: Diadem. Page 5.

Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition: Floor Plan
A gallery of artifacts from the Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition: Floor Plan.

Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition: Inlaid Pectoral
A gallery of artifacts from the Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition: Inlaid Pectoral. Page 8.

Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition: Mannequin
A gallery of artifacts from the Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition: Mannequin. Page 3.

Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition: Statuette Upper Egypt
A gallery of artifacts from the Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition: Statuette Upper Egypt. Page 7.

Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition: Viscera Coffin
A gallery of artifacts from the Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition: Viscera Coffin. Page 4.

Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition
A gallery of artifacts from the Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Exhibition.

Interracial Marriage Under Apartheid
Officially, there were no interracial marriages under Apartheid, but pre-existing interracial marriages existed and others embraced illegal relationships

Poaching in Africa
Poaching in Africa, which during the colonial era was what all hunting by Africans was called, has become a way for terrorists to secure funding for their operations.

Ivory Trade in Africa
International trade in African ivory dates back to Antiquity. A brief look at the major eras in the African ivory trade from the Roman Empire to the twentieth century.

Africa in 2015
A brief look back at the key political, social, and cultural events in Africa in 2015.

The Second Congo War
In 1998, the multi-national conflict in the Congo turned into a lucrative resource war for many, and a devastating conflict for everyone else.

Conflict in the Congo
The Rwandan Genocide officially ended in June 1994, but the ethnic fighting continued in neighboring Zaire and provoked the first war in the Congo Conflicts.

The Second Congo War
The Second Congo War involved 9 countries officially and some 20 rebel groups. At stake was the leadership of the Congo - and its wealth of resources.

Joseph Kabila
Joseph Kabila surprised everyone when he assumed the presidency of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, but now the question is, when will he step down?

Zion in Africa
In the early twentieth century, Zionists turned their gaze to Africa and considered first Kenya and then Angola as the possible sites of a Jewish state in Africa.

The Tripartite Invasion: Israel, Britain, and France Invade
Britain, France and Israel attempt to wrest the Suez Canal from Egyptian control - Part 2: Israel, Britain, and France invade. Page 2.

Félix Houphouët-Boigny of Côte d'Ivoire
Nationalist, doctor, and first president of Cte d'Ivoire, Flix Houphout-Boigny and his one party state created Africa's strongest and prosperous nation in the 1960s and 70s. At his death in 1993 he was the longest serving president of Africa and the third longest in the world. Part 2 - from Independence of Cte d'Ivoire to his Death in Office. Page 2.

Biography of Félix Houphouët-Boigny
Nationalist, doctor, and first president of Cte d'Ivoire, Flix Houphout-Boigny and his one party state created Africa's strongest and prosperous nation in the 1960s and 70s. At his death in 1993 he was the longest serving president of Africa and the third longest in the world. Part 1 -- Early days to Independence.

Danie Theron - Hero of the Anglo-Boer War - From Paardeberg to Death
Danie Theron was a true patriot -- believing in the just and divine right of the Boer to stand against British interference. Part 2: From Paardeberg to a Hero's Death. Page 2.

Danie Theron -- Hero of the Anglo-Boer War
Danie Theron was a true patriot -- believing in the just and divine right of the Boer to stand against British interference. Part 1: The Just and Divine Right of the Boer to Stand Against British

Review of Country of My Skull by Antjie Krog
If you want to understand modern South Africa there is no better place to start than the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Antjie Krog's masterwork places you in the mind of both oppressed black freedom fighters and entrenched white Afrikaner.

Review of Country of My Skull by Antjie Krog
If you want to understand modern South Africa there is no better place to start than the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Antjie Krog's masterwork places you in the mind of both oppressed black freedom fighters and entrenched white Afrikaner. Page 2.

The Black Nova Scotian Settlers of Sierra Leone
The Nova Scotian settlers who founded Sierra Leone in 1787 became the first wave of African-American settlers in Africa.

George Washington Williams
George Washington Williams was one of the first African-American men to travel to colonial Africa, and what he saw in the Congo Free State horrified him.

Child Marriage in Africa: Day of the African Child 2015
At current rates, the number of child marriages in Africa will double by 2050, making this a vital issue for African women, families, and states.

Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting in Africa
Female Genital Mutilation / Cutting is practiced in 29 African countries, and is considered a human rights violation by the international community.

Ahmed Ben Bella
Ahmed Ben Bella is a Pan-Africanist and nationalist leader of Algeria. He was one of the first to take up the armed struggle against French colonial rule. He became the first president of Algeria in 1963 and was deposed by military coup in 1965.

Ahmed Ben Bella- The First President of Algeria
Ahmed Ben Bella is a Pan-Africanist and nationalist leader of Algeria. He was one of the first to take up the armed struggle against French colonial rule. He became the first president of Algeria in 1963 and was deposed by military coup in 1965. Part 2: The Algerian War and Independence. Page 2.

The Great Rift Valley / Eastern Rift Valley of Africa
Where is Africa's Great Rift Valley?

JE Casely Hayford's Rise as a Pan-Africanist
Joseph Ephraim Casely Hayford was a teacher, author, lawyer, politician, Pan-Africanist, and founder of the National Congress of British West Africa (one of the continent's first Pan-African organizations). In the period following WWI Casely Hayford was probably the most important nationalist leader in Africa. Part 2 -- Becoming a Pan-Africanist. Page 2.

JE Casely Hayford
Joseph Ephraim Casely Hayford was a teacher, author, lawyer, politician, Pan-Africanist, and founder of the National Congress of British West Africa (one of the continent's first Pan-African organizations). In the period following WWI Casely Hayford was probably the most important nationalist leader in Africa. Part 1 -- An Early Life

Events Leading to the Scramble for Africa
Why was Africa so rapidly colonized?

What Caused the Scramble for Africa?
What was happening in Europe to cause the Scramble? Page 2.

The Empire of Songhai
Songhai was a powerful West African state that reached its zenith in the 1400s, following the decline of Mali, and lasted until 1591.

Timeline of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
A timeline of the trans-Atlantic slave trade from its origins to the final emancipation of slaves in the New World with explanations of key events in the trade.

The Effects of Abolition in Africa
The abolition of the trans-Atlantic slave trade ended a horrific trade in human beings, but it also had many unintended consequences in Africa.

How Many Slaves Were Taken from Africa?
Information on how many slaves were shipped from Africa across the Atlantic to the Americas during the sixteenth century can only be estimated as very few records exist for this period.But from the seventeenth century onwards, increasingly accurate records, such as ship manifests, are available.

Abolition of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
The trans-Atlantic slave trade was at its peak when Britain and the United States abolished it. How did campaigners bring down this centuries-old trade?

Burkina Faso: Explaining the Coup
The background to the 17 September 2015 coup in Burkina Faso and its rapid conclusion. Why did the Presidential Guard think they would succeed?

Population Registration Act No 30 of 1950
The Population Registration Act required South Africans to be identified and registered as belonging to one of four distinct racial groups. Find out more...

Why was Africa called the Dark Continent?
Europeans did not call Africa the Dark Continent simply because they didn't know much about it. Slavery, missionaries, racism, and savagery were all part of this myth.

Hissene Habre's Landmark Trial
Hissne Habr's landmark trial was decades in the making and has set a new precedent for legal action against former dictators and heads of state.

Hissène Habré
In July 2015, Hissène Habré, also known as Africa’s Pinochet, was put on trial in Senegal for crimes against humanity. Who is he and what is accused of?

Racial Classification under Apartheid
Under Apartheid, your race determined everything, but legally, race was a matter of opinion. Here is how the state assigned everyone to a race.

Explaining the Decolonization of Africa
The decolonization of Africa was almost as fast as the more famous Scramble to colonize the continent had been, and there were five main causes.

Cold War in Africa
Newly independent African states came into being in the midst of the Cold War, at a time when foreign support could be easily tapped, by leaders and rebels.

Grand Apartheid
Under Apartheid, the South African government built on earlier discriminatory laws to segregate whole populations and deny black South Africans political rights.

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta traveled about 75,000 miles between 1325-1353. His journeys, fortunes, marriages, (& divorces) says much about the 14th century world.

15th Century West Africa Trade Routes
Between the 11th and 15th centuries West Africa was a major trading region, exporting goods to Europe, Arabia, India, and China across the Sahara Desert.

Somalia
Somaliland became British and Italian colonies in the 1880's, although it was ruled solely by the British from 1941 to 1950. In 1960, Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland were united to form an independent Somalia.

Libya
The Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Libya's official name, achieved independence from Italy on 24 December 1951, although it had been held under British (for Tripolitania and Cyrenaica) and French (Fezzan) administration since 1943. Initially ruled as a monarchy under King Idris, the country became a republic when Gadaffi took power in 1969.

Issayas Afeworki, Eritrea
Image of President Issayas Afeworki of Eritrea, IRIN

Issayas Afeworki, Eritrea
Image of President Issayas Afeworki of Eritrea, IRIN. Page 2.

Issayas Afeworki, Eritrea
Image of President Issayas Afeworki of Eritrea, IRIN. Page 3.

Levy Patrick Mwanawasa, Zambia
Image of President Levy Patrick Mwanawasa of Zambia, IRIN. Page 7.

Levy Patrick Mwanawasa, Zambia
Image of President Levy Patrick Mwanawasa of Zambia, IRIN. Page 9.

Samuel Daniel Nujoma, Namibia
Image of President Samuel Daniel Nujoma of Namibia, IRIN. Page 12.

Samuel Daniel Nujoma, Namibia
Image of President Samuel Daniel Nujoma of Namibia, IRIN. Page 13.

Country History – Eritrea
Eritrea, once part of the long departed Axumite empire, is a country created by the Italians out of a collection of warlord's domains. Even in African terms the country is little known to the world, but its history is a fascinating one, a shows the best, and worst, of Africa.

A Brief History of Eritrea Part 2: Independence to Present Day
A brief introduction to the history of Eritrea from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 2: Independence to Present Day

Photo Gallery of African Leaders
Browse through this photo gallery of African Leaders.

Photo Gallery of African Leaders
Browse through this photo gallery of African Leaders.

Nigeria - People
Biographies of important and/or famous Nigerians.

African Members of the Commonwealth of Nations A to Z
A list of when various African countries joined the Commonwealth of Nations.

The Mau Mau Revolt
The Mau Mau revolt (1952-1960) is one of the most hotly contested issues in the history of British colonialism in Kenya.

Alphabetical List of All African Countries
Alphabetical list of all African countries as of 2015, with state capitals and the names of each state as known within their respective countries.

Soil Erosion in Africa
Soil erosion in Africa threatens food and fuel supplies. Many efforts to stop erosion have failed, but recent research and policies are charting new directions.

Causes of Desertification in Africa
Desertification is one of the most pressing problems in Africa today, but it is not just an

The Assassination of Patrice Lumumba
Patrice Lumumba is one of the most well-known nationalist leaders due to the causes, legacies, and controversies surrounding his assassination in 1961.

Timeline of the Mau Mau Rebellion - 1951-1954
The Mau Mau were a militant African nationalist movement active in Kenya during the 1950s whose main aim was to remove British rule and European settlers from the country.

Timeline: Mau Mau Rebellion
The Mau Mau were a militant African nationalist movement active in Kenya during the 1950s whose main aim was to remove British rule and European settlers from the country. Page 2.

African Nobel Prize Winners
Twenty-five Africans have won a Nobel Prize. The first won the 1951 Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

Boko Haram
The origins, tactics, targets, and current status of the Nigerian, separatist Islamist group known to the world as Boko Haram.

Boko Haram's Appeal in Nigeria
Boko Haram's violence has led to thousands of deaths and displaced over a million people. What explains their appeal in northern Nigeria?

How to Teach with the Benin Bronzes
How and when the Benin Bronzes were made, the ethical issues they raise, and how to use them to teach African history and imperialism.

Africa's 100 Best Books of the 20th Century
In February 2002 a list of Africa's Top 100 books was announced. Find out why.

The Meaning of Ubuntu
Ubuntu is the southern African word describing a person's connectedness to others that became the centerpiece of the humanist philosophy promoted by Mandela.

What was the Black Consciousness Movement?
The Black Consciousness Movement started as a student movement and quickly became the voice and spirit of anti-Apartheid resistance in 1970s South Africa.

Second Moroccan Crisis: the Agadir Incident
The Second Moroccan Crisis (1 July-4 November 1911), a.k.a. the Agadir crisis, was one of the imperial showdowns that set the stage for World War I.

What Was the Kingdom of Kush?
The Kingdom of Kush was a powerful ancient African state that lasted for 2400 years and once ruled over Egypt, .

European Exploration of Africa
Explorers like Livingstone and Stanley became household names in the 19th century, but the exploration of Africa was centuries in the making.

Nigeria Timeline -- From Colonization to the Biafran Secession
A chronology of key events in Nigeria's history

Who Was the First Pharaoh of Egypt?
Ancient Egyptian historians taught that, Menes was the first pharaoh, the founder of the unified Egyptian state: But who was Menes?

Nigeria Timeline -- From Prehistory to Colonization
A chronology of key events in Nigeria's history

Quotes: Idi Amin Dada
A selection of quotes by Idi Amin Dada, president of Uganda from 25 January 1971 to 13 April 1979.

The Colonial Names of African States
What was that colony? Modern Africa states listed according to their former colonial names with an explanation of significant border shifts.

Idi Amin Timeline
A Timeline of Key Events in the Life of Idi Amin Dada.

Biography of the African statesman: Sir Seretse Khama
A biography of Sir Seretse Khama, African nationalist leader and first president of Botswana.

A Brief History of Guinea - Part 1
A brief introduction to the history of Guinea from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 1 - Kingdoms to Independence

A Brief Intro and History of Benin, Africa
A brief introduction to the history of Benin from the time of early humans to the present day.

A Brief History of Botswana
A brief introduction to the history of Botswana from the time of early humans to the present day.

Biography: Thomas Joseph Mboya
Thomas Mboya was a Kenyan trade unionist and statesman. Earmarked as Jomo Kenyatta's successor, Mboya was assassinated six years into independence, sparking tribal unrest between Kenyatta's Kikuyu supporters and Mboya's Luo.

A Brief History of Djibouti – Part 1
A brief introduction to the history of Djibouti from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 1 – Islamic State to French Overseas Territory

A Brief History of Djibouti – Part 2
A brief introduction to the history of Djibouti from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 2 – Independence to Present Day

A Brief History of Equatorial Guinea
A brief introduction to the history of Equatorial Guinea from the time of early humans to the present day.

History of Eritrea – Part 1: Warlords to Independence
A brief introduction to the history of Eritrea from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 1 - Warlords to the referendum on Independence from Ethiopia

A Brief History of Angola - Part 1
A brief introduction to the history of Angola from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 1 - Kingdoms to Independence

A Brief History of Angola - Part 2
A brief introduction to the history of Angola from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 2 - Independence to Present Day

António Agostinho Neto
A biography of Antonio Agostinho Neto - doctor, poet and first president of Angola.

Yoruba Proverbs
Much of Africa's history has been passed on through the generations orally. One consequence of this is that morals and lessons have been crystallized in the form of proverbs. Here is a collection of proverbs attributed to the Yoruba people of Nigeria.

Cape Town's Infamous Robben Island
A short history of island that housed the most notorious prison of the South African apartheid regime.

History of Apartheid: Crossroads
South African police and rioters in South Africa's Cape Town informal settlement of Crossroads clashed over an attempt to move residents to the new Township of Kayelitsha.

Mandates in Africa
Mandates were granted by the League of Nations for former German colonies in Africa. Find out more about who received these mandates and what they were required to do.

Chronological List of African Members of the Commonwealth of Nations
A list of when various African countries joined the Commonwealth of Nations.

'Miss Helen', South Africa's Foremost Outsider Artist
Helen Martins (Miss Helen) is considered South Africa's foremost Outsider Artist.

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, Global Economic Leader
Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala is one of the most influential economic leaders in the world though her policies have not been universally popular.

Ory Okolloh, Internet Activist
Ory Okolloh's civic based websites and blog have inspired change in Kenya, and she calls on others to speak up and make change happen. Page 2.

Juliana Rotich, Internet Activist
Juliana Rotich is an IT professional who is improving internet access globally and providing open-source software to use with it. Page 3.

Betty Makoni, Girls Rights Activist
Zimbabwean Betty Makoni has fought against sexual violence and striven to empower girls worldwide. Page 4.

The Bambatha Rebellion
The Bambatha Rebellion was the last Black armed resistance to colonial domination in South Africa.

The Bambatha Rebellion - Part 2
The Bambatha Rebellion was the last Black armed resistance to colonial domination in South Africa. Page 2.

King's African Rifles -- Profile of the King's African Rifles KAR
History of the King's African Rifles, a British Regiment which recruited soldiers from East Africa and saw action in both World Wars.

Apartheid Era Laws: Black (Bantu) Authorities Act No 68 of 1951
The Black Authorities Act No 68 of 1951 allowed for the creation of traditional tribal, regional and territorial authorities. Find out more

Groote Schuur Minute
What was the Groote Schuur Minute?

Apartheid Era Pass Laws
What were the Pass Laws in Apartheid era South Africa?

Pre-Apartheid Era Laws: Native (Black) Urban Areas Act No 21 of 1923
The Native (Black) Urban Areas Act strictly controlled the movement of Black males between urban and rural areas in South Africa. Find out more...

Apartheid Era Laws: Immorality Amendment Act No 21 of 1950
What was the Immorality Amendment Act No 21 of 1950

Apartheid Era Laws: Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act (National States Citizenship Act) No 26 of 1970
The Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act No 26 of 1970 required that all South African Blacks become citizens of one of the self-governing territories. Find out more

Kenyan Proverbs
Much of Africa's history has been passed on through the generations orally. One consequence of this is that traditional wisdom has been crystallized in the form of proverbs. Here is a collection of proverbs from Kenya.

A Brief History of Zimbabwe – Part 3: Independence to a One Party State
A brief introduction to the history of Zimbabwe from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 3 – Independence to a One Party State

A Brief History of Zimbabwe – Part 4: A Growing Crisis in Zimbabwe
A brief introduction to the history of Zimbabwe from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 4 – A Growing Crisis in Zimbabwe

Usman dan Fodio and the Sokoto Caliphate
Usman dan Fodio led one of the largest Fulani jihads of 19th century West Africa, establishing the Sokoto Caliphate, and revitalizing Islam.

Timeline: Slavery in the Cape Colony
Many South Africans are the descendants of slaves brought to the Cape Colony from 1653 until 1822. Follow the main events in this period of South Africa's history in this timeline.

Genealogy of Afrikaners
The ideology of Apartheid was based on segregation of races, yet if you look at the origins or heritage of the Afrikaner people the ideology is rather ironic. Just how 'pure' was the Afrikaner? Not very if you look closely at historical records.

A Brief History of Sudan - Part 1
A brief introduction to the history of Sudan from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 1 - Kingdoms to Independence

A Brief History of Swaziland in Africa
A brief introduction to the history of Swaziland from the time of early humans to the present day.

A Brief History of Tunisia
A brief introduction to the history of Tunisia from the time of early humans to the present day.

A Brief, Introductory History of Zambia
A brief introduction to the history of Zambia from the time of early humans to the present day.

A Brief History of Zimbabwe - Part 2
An introduction to the history of the African nation. This part confronts the effect of nationalistic shifts and the new constitution.

A Brief History of Mauritius
A brief introduction to the history of Mauritius from the time of early colonization to the present day.

A Brief History of Mozambique - Part 1
A brief introduction to the history of Mozambique from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 1 - Indigenous Peoples to Independence

A Brief History of Mozambique - Part 2
A brief introduction to the history of Mozambique from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 2 – Civil War to the Present Day

A Brief History of Niger – Part 1
A brief introduction to the history of Niger from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 1 – Early Humans to Military Rule

Quotes: Desmond Tutu
A selection of quotes by Desmond Tutu

A Brief History of Seychelles – Part 1
A brief introduction to the history of Seychelles from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 1 – Discovery to Independence

A Brief History of Seychelles – Part 2
A brief introduction to the history of Seychelles from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 2 – Independence to Present Day

Slave Laws in South Africa
It is a popular misconception that slavery in South Africa was mild compared to America and the European colonies in the Far East. This is not so, and punishments meted out could be very harsh.

Nok Culture: Sub-Saharan Africa's First Civilization?
There are many unknowns about the ancient, West African culture of Nok, but what we know from its superb terracotta sculptures and iron working is enticing.

A Brief History of Lesotho
A brief introduction to the history of Lesotho from the time of early humans to the present day.

About Timbuktu: The El Dorado of Africa
Timbuktu is widely used to describe a place extremely far away and regarded by many as a myth. In reality it's a city in Mali, West Africa, of such great historical importance that in 1988 it was designated a World Heritage Site.

More Quotes: Nelson Mandela
A selection of quotes by Nelson Mandela

Quotes about Nelson Mandela
A selection of quotes about Nelson Mandela

A Brief History of Mauritania
A brief introduction to the history of Mauritania from the time of early humans to the present day.

A Brief History of Guinea-Bissau - Part 1
A brief introduction to the history of Guinea-Bissau from the time of early humans to the present day. Part 1 - Early Kingdoms to Civil War

A Brief History of Morocco
2000 years of Moroccan history, from the Phoenician invasion to present day conflicts over the status of the Western Sahara.

Resolution 435
What was Resolution 435? African History.

World War I in Africa
With the declaration of World War I, much of Africa was immediately at war and more than 1.5 million African men were recruited into service.

African Teams at the World Cup, 1986-2014
A football fan's description of African qualifiers and team performances for each of the FIFA World Cup finals from 1986-2014.

African Teams' First Appearances at the World Cup
African qualifiers and team performances for each of the FIFA World Cup finals from 1986-2014.

The Rise of African Football
When will an African team win the World Cup? African teams and players have hit numerous milestones since the days of 1986. What more will it take?

Sonni Ali - Biography of the Songhai Monarch
West African monarch who ruled Songhai from 1464 to 1492, expanding a small kingdom along the Niger River into one of medieval Africa's greatest empires.

A Brief History of Nigerian Elections - and Coups
For decades Nigeria was governed by a succession of military governments but a turning point appears to have been reached with the Fourth Republic

Congo Free State Reform
Congolese, European, and American efforts to stop the atrocities in the Free State is one of the few bright spots in this tragic history.

The Congo Free State: King Leopold's Heart of Darkness
King Leopold II of Belgium founded his own colony in the Congo in 1885 and exploited it ruthlessly for the next 23 years.

24 September 1828 - Death of Shaka Zulu
Shaka kaSenzangakhona, Zulu king and founder of the Zulu empire, is murdered by his two half-brothers Dingane and Mhlangana at kwaDukuza on 24 September 1828.

11 November 1975 – Angola Gains Independence
Angola, sub-Saharan Africa's second largest oil producer, has had a tempestuous history. Bantu migrants first entered the region during the first millennium,

5 May 1941 – Ethiopia regains its Independence
Exactly five years after Addis Ababa fell to Mussolini's troops, Emperor Haile Selassie was reinstalled on the Ethiopian throne. He reentered the city through

Nzinga, Queen of Ngola and Matamba
Queen Njinga's resistance to Portuguese expansion has made her a nationalist hero in Angola and an icon of powerful African womanhood.

Ethiopia Timeline -- Timeline of Ethiopia from Prehistory to the Death of Dawit I (1413)
A chronology of key events in Ethiopia's history

Kenya Timeline -- Timeline of Kenya from Independence to Present Day
A chronology of key events in Kenya's history

Côte d'Ivoire Timeline -- Timeline of the History of Côte d'Ivoire
A chronology of key events in Cte d'Ivoire's history

Swaziland Timeline #1 -- Timeline of Swaziland from Prehistory to Independence
Part 1 of a chronology of key events in Swaziland's history

Mali Timeline #1 -- Timeline of Mali from Prehistory to Independence
Part 1 of a chronology of key events in Mali's history

Algeria Timeline -- Timeline of Algeria from Prehistory to Colonization
A chronology of key events in Algeria's history

Pre-Colonial Cultures in South Africa: San and Khoikhoi
Two thousand years ago the first of several waves colonists swept into South Africa. In the first of these waves, the pastoralist Khoikhoi moved down into the western and southern coastal regions - pushing the hunter-gatherer San inland.

Biography: Mary Henrietta Kingsley
A biography in three parts of Mary Henrietta Kingsley, a Victorian explorer and writer who greatly influenced European ideas about Africa and its people. Part 1: Early Life in England

Timeline of Apartheid History: 1912 to 1959
A Timeline of Key Apartheid Events from 1912 to 1959.

An Atlas of African Independence
By the mid 1960's the majority of African states were free from colonial rule. Read more about each country's story in this Atlas of Independence.

Tanzania Timeline -- Timeline of the History of Tanzania
A chronology of key events in Tanzania's history

This Day in African History: January calendar
Monthly calendar for Events from Africa's past.

East African Independence
A chronology of colonization and independence.

East African Independence
A chronology of colonization and independence.

West African Independence
A chronology of colonization and independence.

Kenyan Leaders Since Independence
A list of the leaders of Kenya since gaining independence on 12 December 1963.

1976 Student Uprising (Protest) in Soweto
On 16 June 1976 high-school students in Soweto, South Africa, protested for better education. Police fired teargas and live bullets into the marching students. Part 2: Students organize a protest.

- By Category
An index of categories in the

World War II in Africa Timeline: July 1940
Meanwhile in the rest of Africa ...

World War II in Africa Timeline: July 1940
Italy pushed against the borders of its colonies in East Africa ...

World War II in Africa Timeline: July 1940
One month into war in Africa and both sides were testing the waters the British had to deal with the potential threat of a French fleet under the command of Germany, whereas Italy was looking to secure its position in East Africa

World War II in Africa Timeline: July 1940
Britain had to deal with the threat of the French fleet at port in Africa...

The Causes of the Biafran War
The Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Biafran War, was fueled by regional and ethnic differences, exacerbated by British colonial rule.

The Organization of African Unity (OAU)
The pan-Africanist Organization of African Unity was mocked as the Dictator's Club, but its policies set the course of African politics for 39 years

The Kagera War
The Kagera War began when Uganda invaded the Kagera region of Tanzania, igniting the long-simmering animosity between the two countries, and their leaders.

Disease and the European Conquest of Africa
Sleeping sickness, malaria, and the cattle disease rinderpest all helped set the stage for European colonization.

African Women Activists in History
Biographies of key African women activists in the 20th century, who fought against imperialism, racism, sexism, and economic exploitation.

African Women Activists in History
Brief biographies of three African women activists, Huda Sha'arawi, Bibi Titi Mohammed, and Wangari Maathai.

The West African Jihads of the 19th Century
In the early 1800s, a wave of Fulani-led jihads led to the expansion of Islam in West Africa and the creation of several new, Islamic states.

The History of African Football
The history of African football teams in the FIFA World Cups, from Egypt's 1934 entrance to the infamous Anschluss of 1982.

Biography of Tanzanian Leader Julius Kambarage Nyerere
A Biography of Julius Kambarage Nyerere, the father of Tanzania.