African History Sitemap - Page 3 2016-09-26

Julius Kambarage Nyerere -- Part 2 of a Biography of Tanzanian Leader Julius Kambarage Nyerere
A Biography of Julius Kambarage Nyerere, the father of Tanzania. Page 2.

Apartheid FAQ: When Did Apartheid Start in South Africa?
Unsure when Apartheid started in South Africa? Find the answer in this Apartheid FAQ.

What Are Political Institutions? - Definition
What are Political Institutions?

South African Apartheid Bantu Education Quotes
Bantu Education, the separate and limited experience encountered by non-whites in South Africa when pursuing an education, was a cornerstone of the apartheid philosophy. The following quotes illustrate the diverse viewpoints about Bantu Education from both sides of the anti-Apartheid struggle.

What Was the Mfecane? - Definition and History
A explanation of the term Mfecane and why the subject is controversial.

Group Areas Act No 41 of 1950
The Group Areas Act No 41 of 1950 forced physical separation between races by creating different residential areas for different races. Find out more…

A Brief History of Kenya
A brief introduction to the history of Kenya from the time of early humans to the present day.

What Is Pan-Africanism and How Has It Been Developed?
How has Pan-Africanism developed over the last couple of centuries into a socio-political movement?

Women's Anti-Pass Law Campaigns in South Africa
What happened when the South African government tried to force women to carry passes.

Nelson Mandela Quotes
A selection of quotes by Nelson Mandela

Overview of Mali History and Independence
A brief introduction to the history of Mali from the time of early humans to the present day.

Jomo Kenyatta Quotes
Jomo Kenyatta, the first president of Kenya, lived a fascinating life. Read a selection of his most famous quotes.

Quotes About the Rwandan Genocide
A Selection of Quotes About The Rwandan Genocide.

A Selection of Quotes by Julius Kambarage Nyerere
A Selection of Quotes by Julius Kambarage Nyerere

Harold MacMillan "Wind of Change" Speech
The. African History.

Apartheid - A History and Overview
From the Afrikaans' word for 'separation,' Apartheid was a social philosophy which enforced racial and economic segregation on the people of South Africa.

African History - Countries of Southern Africa
Now recognized as the Cradle of Humankind, southern Africa has been the home of many African societies. Although overshadowed by the era of Apartheid, this region has a rich and well documented history.

African History - Countries of East Africa
From the Libyan Desert, the source of the Nile and the Ethiopian highlands in the north to the rich volcanic soils surrounding the Great Rift Valley in the south, East Africa exhibits the strong influences of Arab traders and European colonization.

Country History - South Africa
South Africa's rich history is overshadowed by its colonial heritage and the Apartheid era. Start exploring its history with this collection of links.

South Africa - People
Biographies of important and/or famous South Africans.

This Day in African History
A daily chronicle of events which happened in African history.

Country History - Zambia
Formally the British colony of Northern Rhodesia, the country was developed purely for its vast copper resources. It was grouped with Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and Nyasaland (Malawi) as part of a federation in 1953. Independence from Britain was achieved in 1964 as part of the program to dilute the power of white racists in Southern Rhodesia.

Themes / Events
Africa's recorded past, whether by document or oral tradition, stretches back over five millennia. How we present a history is often dependent upon our direction of approach, and for African history today, there are two main approaches: as a Social Science and as a Humanity. The Social Science approach considers history organized along themes and looks to explore how people dealt with problems. Humanistic history is usually presented as a narrative, and often follows a chronological line.

Apartheid: Definition and Directory of Laws and History
Apartheid is an Afrikaans word that means 'separation', and is the name given to the particular racial-social ideology developed in South Africa during the twentieth century. Apartheid was all about racial segregation, and about political and economic discrimination which separated Black (or Bantu), Coloured, Indian, and White South Africans.

People / Places
With 55 different countries, the continent and associated islands of Africa have a diverse and fascinating collection of historical narratives. From the Islamic dominated north to the last outposts of white supremacy in the south, these resources will provide insight into the vast heritage of Africa.

Equatorial Guinea - Maps
Useful maps of Equatorial Guinea.

Equatorial Guinea - People
Biographies of important and/or famous Equatorial Guineans.

Information about Nelson Mandela
Find out more about Nelson Mandela, former president of South Africa, Nobel Laureate, and world acclaimed international statesman.

Kenya - Maps
Useful maps of Kenya. African History.

Slavery in South Africa
Many South Africans are the descendents of slaves brought to the Cape Colony from 1653 until 1822. Follow the main events in this period of South Africa's history.

Zambia - Maps
Useful maps of Zambia. African History.

This Day in African History: January
A daily chronicle of events which happened in African history in the month of January.

This Day in African History: June
A daily chronicle of events which happened in African history in the month of June.

Country History - Zimbabwe
The British colony of Southern Rhodesia became part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland in 1953. In 1963 Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland pulled out of the Federation, citing the extreme conditions in the Southern Rhodesia. In 1965, Ian Smith made a Unilateral Declaration of Independence. Negotiations towards independence started in 1975 and independence was achieved in 1980.

Country History - Botswana
Originally home to the indigenous San peoples, they were displaced by migrating Tswana in the 17th century. In 1885, under the urging of Cecil Rhodes, the region became the Bechuanaland Protectorate, held by the British against incursions by Boers and Germans. Independence was achieved in 1966. Find out more from these country profiles…

Country History - Lesotho
After defeat by the Boers in 1843, King Moshoeshoe I, of the Basotho people, looked to the British for aid. In 1884 a British Crown colony was formed. Independence as Lesotho was achieved in 1966.

Country History - Madagascar
After increasing contact with Europeans from the 15th century, Madagascar became a French colony in 1895. Following the Second World War there was increasing tension in the country, with civil uprisings resulting in French troops killing thousands. Independence was achieved in 1960.

Country History - Mozambique
Once a Portuguese colony, Mozambique achieved independence in 1975 following a 12 year struggle by FRELIMO (and a military coup). Under the Marxist, single-party FRELIMO government, Mozambique was embroiled in a 16 year civil war with the opposition party RENAMO, who were originally sponsored by the white Rhodesian government and then the South African apartheid government. A peace deal was signed between the two parties in 1992, and multi-party elections held in 1994.

Country History - Namibia
The German mandated territory of South West Africa was given to South Africa in 1915 by the League of Nations. In 1950 South Africa refused a UN request to give up the territory. It was renamed Namibia in 1968 (although South Africa continued to call it South West Africa). In 1990 Namibia became the forty-seventh African colony to gain independence. Find out more from these country profiles…

Country History - Seychelles
The islands of the Seychelles were claimed by France in 1756 although sailors had known about them since the early 16th century. The Seychelles ended up under British rule after the Napoleonic Wars, becoming a British Crown Colony in 1903. Independence was achieved in 1976, but was followed soon after by a coup and a one-party socialist state. Democratic elections were held once again in 1995.

Country History - Sierra Leone
First colonized in 1787 when the British founded Freetown (now the capital) as a settlement for Africans freed from slavery. The coastal region became a British colony in 1808, with the interior annexed in 1896. Independence was achieved in 1961.

This Day in African History: May
A daily chronicle of events which happened in African history in the month of May.

Country History - Ethiopia
Africa's oldest independent country which, except for a four-year occupation by Mussolini's Italy at the end of the 1930s, has never been colonised. Famous for the notable defeat of the invading Italian army at Adowa in 1896, Ethiopia inspired the rest of Africa in its path to independence.

Country History - Somalia
Somaliland became British and Italian colonies in the 1880's, although it was ruled solely by the British from 1941 to 1950. In 1960, Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland were united to form an independent Somalia.

Country History – Sudan
Since independence from British/Egyptian rule in 1956 the Sudan has experienced little relief from civil war between the Arab, Islamic north and African south.

Country History - Tanzania
The mainland of Tanzania became a German colony called Tanganyika in 1884 whilst the Sultanate of Zanzibar became a British Protectorate in 1890. Tanganyika became a British mandated territory in 1918 and achieved independence in 1961. In 1963 Zanzibar achieved independence, and a year later formed a union with Tanganyika under the new name of Tanzania.

Web Links: Chad
Chad, formally known as

Country History – Djibouti
What was once the Islamic State of Adal was made the capital of French Somaliland in 1896. In 1946 the French gave it Overseas Territorial status and in 1967 it was renamed the Territoire Français des Afars et des Issas. Independence was achieved by the Republic of Djibouti on 27 June 1977.

Country History - Cape Verde
The archipelago of Cape Verde became a Portuguese colony in 1462. A joint struggle for the liberation of Cape Verde and the mainland colony of Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea-Bissau) began. Independence was achieved in 1975 with proposed union to the new state of Guinea-Bissau. In 1981 Cape Verde finally split away to form an independent republic.

Country History - Lesotho
After defeat by the Boers in 1843, King Moshoeshoe I, of the Basotho people, looked to the British for aid. In 1884 a British Crown colony was formed. Independence as Lesotho was achieved in 1966.

Country History – Western Sahara
In 1975 an international court of Justice granted Western Sahara, previously a Spanish Overseas Province, self-determination. Unfortunately, King Hassan of Morocco sent 350,000 people to take control of the territory. Initially partitioned by Morocco and Mauritania, it came fully under Moroccan control in 1979. Morocco has yet to comply with UN demands for the territory's complete release.

A Selection of Insightful Quotes by PW Botha
A selection of quotes by PW Botha.

What Was the Afrikaner Broederbond?
What was the Afrikaner Broederbond?

Luba Kingdom in Mediaeval Central Africa
What was the Luba Kingdom? African History.

Conclusions About the Chris Hani Assassination
Conclusions about the Chris Hani Assassination from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report, Vol 2, Chapter 7

A Very Short History of Chad, Africa
A potted history of Chad. African History.

Biography of Alhaji Umaru Yar'Adua
Alhaji Umaru Yar'Adua was president of Nigeria from 2007, breaking the cycle of civilian rule and military coup which had dogged the country since independence. Yar'Adua was somewhat reclusive in his dealings with the public and press, and his only major political success was dealing with the civil unrest in the oil-rich Niger Delta -- convincing many to give up their arms during a three-month amnesty in 2009. Part I -- Early Life.

Biography of Alhaji Umaru Yar'Adua -- Alhaji Umaru Yar'Adua 13th president of Nigeria
Alhaji Umaru Yar'Adua was president of Nigeria from 2007, breaking the cycle of civilian rule and military coup which had dogged the country since independence. Yar'Adua was somewhat reclusive in his dealings with the public and press, and his only major political success was dealing with the civil unrest in the oil-rich Niger Delta -- convincing many to give up their arms during a three-month amnesty in 2009. Part II - Presidency. Page 2.

Biography of John Garang de Mabior, Sudanese Rebel
Colonel John Garang de Mabior was a Sudanese rebel leader and founder of the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) which fought a 22 year civil war against the northern dominated, Islamist Sudanese Government. Was made vice president of Sudan on the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, shortly before his death.

What Is a Trance Dance?
What is a Trance Dance? African History.

Zulu War Vocabulary - Zulu Words Used During Anglo-Zulu War
A list of common Zulu terms relevant to the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879.

South Africa's Pact Government of 1924 to 1933
Find out more about South Africa's Pact government which brought together Hertzog's National Party and Cresswell's Labour PArty

What Is the Case for Reparations for African Slavery?
There is a call for reparations to be made by the West for the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Are all the issues being considered?

Desmond Mpilo Tutu Biography
South African Anglican cleric, winner of the 1984 Nobel Peace Prize for his non-violent anti-Apartheid role, chairman of the TRC in late 1990s. Tutu was a powerful moral force in South Africa, and a central figure in the anti-Apartheid struggle.

What Is New Imperialism?
What is New Imperialism? African History.

Ahmed Sékou Touré Independence Leader and First President
Sékou Touré was one of the foremost figures in the struggle for West African independence, the first President of Guinea, and a leading Pan-African. He was initially considered a moderate Islamic African leader, but became one of Africa's most oppressive Big Men.

A Very Short History of Tanzania
A potted history of Tanzania. African History.

A Very Short History of Côte D'Ivoire
A potted history of Côte d'Ivoire

Tutankhamun: The Boy Pharaoh - Death of Tutankhamun
Be amazed at the treasures discovered in the tomb of the most famous Ancient Egyptian pharaoh, Tutankhamun. His was the first tomb found still containing treasure.

Chad History 101 -- History of Chad Resources
An overview of the history of Chad.

Civilizing Mission
What was the Civilizing Mission?

Tripolitan War of 1801-05
When the United States of America gained independence from Great Britain there was an unexpected problem - piracy. In 1783, the same year that the Treaty of Paris was signed, corsairs from the Barbary States began to attack American shipping in the Mediterranean. Part 1 Declaration of War.

Afar People of Djibouti
The Afar, or Denakil, are the second largest ethnic group in Djibouti. They speak version of Saho (known as Saho-Afar) which is one of the language groups of the Eastern Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. They are identified with sparsely populated areas to the north and west of the Gulf of Tadjoura…

The Issa People of Djibouti
The Issa are the foremost clan of Somali people (known collectively as the Dir), who live in the capital (Djibouti city) and the south-eastern region of the county. They are the county's largest ethnic group. Page 2.

Map of Cape Verde (Cabo Verde)
Map of Cape Verde (Cabo Verde). African History.

Biography of the Zulu King Cetshwayo kaMpande (Part 2 of 3)
Biography of Cetshwayo kaMpande, the last king of an independent Zulu nation (1872-1879). Part 2 - Battle of Ndondakusuka

Biography of the Zulu King Cetshwayo kaMpande (Part 1 of 3)
Biography of Cetshwayo kaMpande, the last king of an independent Zulu nation (1872-1879). Part 1: Heir to the throne

Biography of the Zulu King Cetshwayo kaMpande (Part 3 of 3)
Biography of Cetshwayo kaMpande, the last king of an independent Zulu nation (1872-1879). Part 3 - Anglo-Zulu War of 1879

Brazzaville Conference 1944
What was the Brazzaville Conference of 1944

British South Africa Company (BSAC)
What was the British South Africa Company (BSAC)?

Catechetical School of Alexandria
What was the Catechetical School of Alexandria?

Kordofanian Language Family
The Kordofanian language Family is a branch of the Niger-Congo family. It is located in Nuba Hills of Kordofan, Sudan.

Guthrie's Classification of Bantu Languages -- Geographical Distribution
A map showing Malcolm Guthrie's proposed geographical distribution of Bantu languages in Africa.

What is Glottochronology
Find out more about the field of Glottochronology, used in the study of historical linguistics.

National Democratic Congress (Ghana)
National Democratic Congress -- Political Party in Ghana

Deutsch-Westafrika (German West Africa)
What was Deutsch-Westafrika (German West Africa)?

Non-Indigenous Control
What is Non-Indigenous Control? African History.

The Derg -- Rulers of Ethiopia between 1974 and 87.
What was the Derg? African History.

Negus
What is a Negus? African History.

What are Language Universals
Find out more about Language Universals.

Islamic Calendar (in Africa)
Find out more about the Islamic calendar as used in Africa

Fellegha -- Algerian Bandit
Fellegha is an Algerian word especially related to the Algerian War of Independence.

COMESA -- Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
What is the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, COMESA?

Central African Empire
What was the Central African Empire?

What are Collectivism, Collective Farms, and Collectivize?
What is Collectivism? African History.

Gukurahundi -- Attempted Genocide in Zimbabwe
What was the Gukurahundi? African History.

Wāli
Find out more about the Ottoman title Wāli

First Moroccan Crisis
What was the First Moroccan Crisis?

Wilaya -- Algerian Administrative Region
Wilaya is an Algerian word introduced during the Algerian War of Independence.

World Bank
World Bank -- international financial institution which is affiliated to the United Nations

Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI)
What was the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI)

Union Française / French Union
What was the Union Française (French Union)?

Saylac / Zeila -- What is the significance of the port of Saylac
What is the significance of the port of Saylac?

Pasha
Find out more about the Ottoman title Pasha

Battle of Philippeville, 20 August 1955
The Battle of Philippeville was the first major engagement of the Algerian War of Independence.

Pied-Noir -- French Settlers
Pied-Noir is a French term of particular significance to the Algerian War of Independence.

Early Christianity in North Africa Part 1
Historical Background, Factors Which Influenced the Spread Of Christianity, Christianity Reaches North Africa

Early Christianity in North Africa Part 3
Monasticism, North Africa and Christian Heresies, Influential Theologians

Mswati II -- A Biography of Mswati II
Son of Ngwenyama Sobhuza I, second Ngwenyama (king) of the Swazi nation (for whom they are named), considered to be the greatest of the Ngwane-Dlamini dynasty.

Sobhuza I -- A Biography of Sobhuza I
African Ngwenyama (king) who's son, Mswati II, created the Swazi nation. Also known as Ngwane IV.

John Chilembwe
Biography of John Chilembwe. African History.

Moussa Traoré -- A Biography of Moussa Traoré
Moussa Traoré was the second president of the Republic of Mali. He came to power in a military coup on 19 November 1968, and was removed, in turn, from power by military coup on 26 March 1991.

Biography of Wangari Maathai (Part 1 of 3)
Biography of the environmental and human rights activist, and first African woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize, Wangari Maathai. Part 1: Early Life and Career.

Senzangakhona kaJama
Senzangakhona kaJama was a Zulu chief whose claim to fame is as father of Zulu kings Shaka, Dingane, and Mpande, and as grandfather to Cetshwayo.

The Suez Crisis -- Key Event in the Decolonization of Africa
Part 1 – Partial Decolonization Leads to Resentment

Key Events in the Decolonization of Africa: Suez Crisis
Part 2 – The Suez Crisis. African History. Page 2.

Macmillan's "Wind of Change" speech
The

Inside the Southern African Large Telescope, SALT – Sutherland, South Africa
Image of the Inside of the Southern African Large Telescope, SALT – Sutherland, South Africa, © Marion Boddy-Evans. Page 3.

South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) Telescopes – Sutherland, South Africa
South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) Telescopes – Sutherland, South Africa, © Marion Boddy-Evans. Page 4.

Southern African Large Telescope, SALT – Sutherland, South Africa
Southern African Large Telescope, SALT – Sutherland, South Africa, © Marion Boddy-Evans. Page 2.

Biography of Salva Kiir Mayardit -- First President of South Sudan
First president of the Republic of South Sudan, veteran of the Fist and Second Sudanese Civil Wars, and member of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement.

TRC Conclusions about the Sharpeville Massacre
From the Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report, Vol 3, Chapter 6.

The Life of Anwar el-Sadat, Third President of Egypt
Renowned Egyptian statesman and soldier, served as president of Egypt from 1970 to his assassination in 1981. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his part in the negotiations for the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Accord of 1978. Find out more about his life.

Anwar el-Sadat Quotes -- A selection of quotes by Anwar el-Sadat
A selection of quotes by Anwar el-Sadat, third president of Egypt.

Olive Emilie Albertina Schreiner -- A Short Biography of Olive Schreiner
A short biography of the South African writer and feminist Olive Schreiner.

Sharpeville Massacre -- The 21 March 1960 Sharpeville Massacre -- World Condemnation and Political Aftermath
World Condemnation and Political Aftermath

Early Zulu Battles
Several important battles took place for the Zulu nation before the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879. Here are a few of the more important encounters.

Biography: Martin Thembisile (Chris) Hani
A short biography of Chris Hani, South African political activist, chief-of-staff of Umkhonto we Sizwe, and Secretary-General of the South African Communist Party, assassinated in April 1993.

Biography: Joe Slovo
Joe Slovo, anti-Apartheid activist, was one of the founders of Umkhonto weSizwe (MK), the armed wing of the ANC, and was general secretary of the South African Communist Party during the 1980s.

Joseph Lagu -- Biography of Joseph Lagu
Founder and leader of the Sudanese rebel group Anya Nya.

The Role of Islam in African Slavery -- Part 2 Using slaves on the African continent
When Africans talk of slavery they inevitably mean the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Is this a true representation of the practice in Africa?

First-Fruit Ceremonies in Southern Africa
What First-Fruit Ceremonies are and why they are held.

The Jameson Raid
The Jameson Raid was an ineffective attempt to overthrow President Paul Kruger of the Transvaal Republic in December 1895.

Union Of South Africa, 31 May 1910
The politicking behind the scenes for the formation of the Union of South Africa allowed the foundations of Apartheid to be laid.

Free Adinkra Stencil Collection
A collection of free stencils with an African theme. For personal, non-commercial use only.

The Rwandan Genocide -- Part 1 Background to the Rwandan Genocide
Why was there such strong antagonism between the Hutu and Tutsi in Rwanda? What Role did European colonization play? Was the 1994 genocide the first outbreak of violence? Find out more about the origins of the Rwandan Genocide.

Origin of HIV in Africa
Current research suggests that AIDS has been in human circulation for at least 100 years and that its transformation in to a pandemic was triggered by the European colonization of the African continent.

Donald Woods -- Death of an Activist
Brief biography of South African newspaper editor and anti-apartheid activist Donald Woods.

More Wangari Maathai Quotes -- Additional Quotes by Wangari Maathai
Quotes by Wangari Maathai on her philosophy of life, on environmental issues, and culture.

Nok Terracottas
A distinctive style of terracotta sculpture associated with the ancient African Nok Culture. These terracotta sculptures date from 500 BCE to 200 CE, representing the earliest example of sub-Saharan tribal art.

Modibo Keïta -- the Life of Modibo Keïta, first president of Mali
Devout Pan-Africanist, African-nationalist, African-socialist, and first president of the Republic of Mali.

African History: Nilo-Saharan Language Group
A look at the Nilo-Saharan Language group, one of the four major language groups in Africa as identified by anthropologists and linguistic historians.

This Day in African History: June 10
A chronicle of events in African history on 10 June

The Scramble for Africa: The Heligoland Treaty
What is the connection between an island in the North Sea and the reason why Mt Kilimanjaro is in Tanzania rather than Kenya?

Timbuktu, the El Dorado of Africa
Timbuktu is widely used to describe a place extremely far away and regarded by many as a myth. In reality it's a city in Mali, West Africa, of such great historical importance that in 1988 it was designated a World Heritage Site.

Daniel Francois Malan -- A Biography of DF Malan
A biography of DF Malan, first prime minister of South Africa Apartheid regime

Text of the Freedom Charter (Part 1 of 2)
Freedom Charter. African History.

Text of the Freedom Charter (Part 2 of 2)
Freedom Charter. African History. Page 2.

Moments in Apartheid: The Treason Trial
In 1956, in response to the adoption of the Freedom Charter at the Congress of the People, the Apartheid government in South Africa arrested a total 156 people for high treason. The penalty for this was death.

Ancient Egypt: Predynastic Period (5500 -- 3100 BCE)
The Predynastic Period of Ancient Egypt saw the development of grouped communities, the worlds first written language, institutionalised religion, and the development of the plough. Archaeologists have divided the Period into four relatively distinct phases to aid their understanding of the social, scientific, and political developments in Egypt at that time.

Jomo Kenyatta Biography -- The Life of Jomo Kenyatta -- Part 3
Part 3 of his biography, from the Mau Mau Rebellion to his Presidency.

Edward Frederick Mutesa II
Edward Frederick Mutesa was the first president of a newly independent Uganda and the kabaka (king) of the BaGanda people. He was deposed by Apolo Milton Obote in 1966, after which he went into exile in Britain.

Biography: N'Garta François Tombalbaye
A biography of N'Garta François Tombalbaye, first president of Chad.

Mauritius -- A Very Short History of Mauritius
A potted history of Mauritius. African History.

Rock Art at Bushmans Kloof in the Cederberg, South Africa
A review of Bushmans Kloof, a wilderness reserve in the Cederberg region of South Africa that has more than 130 rock art sites you can visit.

Tunisia -- A Very Short History of Tunisia
A potted history of of the North African state of Tunisia.

Double Crown of Egypt
What was the Double Crown of Egypt?

Monet in Africa - Impact of Light on Monet in Algeria
The impact of light in Algeria on the Impressionist painter Claude Monet.

Where in Africa is Guinea-Bissau? - Location of Guinea-Bissau on the Continent of Africa - Republic of Guinea-Bissau
A map showing the location of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau in Africa. Page 3.

Where in Africa is Algeria? - Location of Algeria on the Continent of Africa - People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
A map showing the location of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria in Africa.

Where in Africa is Guinea? - Location of Guinea on the Continent of Africa - Republic of Guinea
A map showing the location of the Republic of Guinea in Africa. Page 2.

Where in Africa is Lesotho? - Location of Lesotho on the Continent of Africa - Kingdom of Lesotho
A map showing the location of the Kingdom of Lesotho in Africa. Page 4.

Where in Africa is Zambia? - Location of Zambia on the Continent of Africa - Republic of Zambia
A map showing the location of the Republic of Zambia in Africa. Page 5.

African History
African History. Page 3.

African History
African History. Page 4.

African History
African History.

African History
African History. Page 5.

African History
African History. Page 2.

African History
African History. Page 6.

Iry-Hor ('Belonging to Horus')
Pre-Dynastic King of Ancient Egypt

Origins of the trans-Atlantic slave trade
Portuguese exploration and trade: 1450-1500.

Origins of the trans-Atlantic slave trade
Portuguese exploration and trade: 1450 - 1500. Page 2.

São Tomé and the Slave Trade
São Tomé is considered to be a principal port in the export of slaves across the Atlantic, this is, however, only part of the story.

São Tomé and the Slave Trade -- Part 2
São Tomé is considered to be a principal port in the export of slaves across the Atlantic, this is, however, only part of the story. Page 2.

Book Review: Writing African History
Book Review of Writing African History edited by John Edward Philips

Egypt Rediscovering a Lost World - A Review of the BBC's Egypt Rediscovering a Lost World
It is probably every budding Egyptologist's dream to travel to Egypt and visit the sites of the pyramids, temples and tombs. For most of us it will remain a dream. The second best thing you can do is treat yourself to this BBC series about the discoveries which lay the foundations for today's knowledge about Africa's oldest recorded civilization.

Book Review: Ancient Egypt by Barry Kemp
Book Review of Ancient Egypt by Barry Kemp – A Comprehensive Study of Ancient Egyptian Culture and Society

African History
African History. Page 7.

Pre-Colonial Gabon -- A Brief History of Gabon -- The Pre-Colonial Era
The history of Pre-Colonial Gabon - from the arrival of the Bantu Migration to the first treaties with France.

Outline Map: Chad
Outline map (with scale) of Chad. Page 4.

Path to Independence: Chad
Map showing independence dates for Africa with a focus on Chad. Page 2.

Political Map: Chad
A political map (with scale) of Chad. Page 3.

Where in Africa is Chad?
A map showing the location of Chad and it's neighbors.

Book Review - Transformations in Slavery by Paul E. Lovejoy - Review of Transformations in Slavery by Paul E. Lovejoy - Cambridge University Press
An introduction to the history of slavery in Africa which examines how indigenous practices of slavery developed under the influence of international trade. Read this review of Paul E. Lovejoy's Transformations in Slavery.

Tricameral Parliament -- What is a Tricameral Parliament
What is a Tricameral Parliament?

Civilized Labour Policy (Beskaafde Arbeidsbeleid)
Civilized Labour Policy. African History.

Afrikaner Rebellion -- What was the Afrikaner Rebellion
The Afrikaner Rebellion of 1914 was an ill-fated revolt by Boer soldiers against the invasion of German South-West Africa.

Where Do You Find Hieroglyphs - Rosetta Stone
Hieroglyphs, the writing system of ancient Egypt, were used only by an elite – it is estimated that only 0.4 % of the population could read during the Pharaonic period. But where and how, exactly, were they used? Page 10.

Where Do You Find Hieroglyphs - Stelea
Hieroglyphs, the writing system of ancient Egypt, were used only by an elite – it is estimated that only 0.4 % of the population could read during the Pharaonic period. But where and how, exactly, were they used? Page 2.

Where Do You Find Hieroglyphs - Tomb Slabs
Hieroglyphs, the writing system of ancient Egypt, were used only by an elite – it is estimated that only 0.4 % of the population could read during the Pharaonic period. But where and how, exactly, were they used? Page 3.

Where Do You Find Hieroglyphs - False Doors
Hieroglyphs, the writing system of ancient Egypt, were used only by an elite – it is estimated that only 0.4 % of the population could read during the Pharaonic period. But where and how, exactly, were they used? Page 4.

Where Do You Find Hieroglyphs - Bas-reliefs
Hieroglyphs, the writing system of ancient Egypt, were used only by an elite – it is estimated that only 0.4 % of the population could read during the Pharaonic period. But where and how, exactly, were they used? Page 5.

Where Do You Find Hieroglyphs - Sarcophagi
Hieroglyphs, the writing system of ancient Egypt, were used only by an elite – it is estimated that only 0.4 % of the population could read during the Pharaonic period. But where and how, exactly, were they used? Page 6.

Where Do You Find Hieroglyphs - Coffins
Hieroglyphs, the writing system of ancient Egypt, were used only by an elite – it is estimated that only 0.4 % of the population could read during the Pharaonic period. But where and how, exactly, were they used? Page 7.

Where Do You Find Hieroglyphs - Papyri
Hieroglyphs, the writing system of ancient Egypt, were used only by an elite – it is estimated that only 0.4 % of the population could read during the Pharaonic period. But where and how, exactly, were they used? Page 8.

Where Do You Find Hieroglyphs - Writing tools
Hieroglyphs, the writing system of ancient Egypt, were used only by an elite – it is estimated that only 0.4 % of the population could read during the Pharaonic period. But where and how, exactly, were they used? Page 9.

School Enrollment in Apartheid South Africa
Graphical Representation of Data for White Enrollment in South African Schools in 1982. Page 2.

School Enrollment in Apartheid South Africa
Graphical Representation of Data for Black Enrollment in South African Schools in 1982. Page 3.

The Papyrus of Ani
Adoration of Osiris from the Papyrus of Ani (Book of the Dead). Page 3.

The Rosetta Stone
The Rosetta Stone. The stone contains identical text in three languages, hieroglyphs, Demotic, and ancient Greek, and was deciphered by French linguist Jean-Francois Champollion. Page 2.

Herero Executions -- Herero Executions in German South West Africa -- 1907
Group of Herero hanged by Germans in German South West Africa circa 1907. Page 4.

Herero Revolt Germans -- German Troops during the 1904 Herero Revolt
Troops in German Southwest Africa during the 1904 Herero revolt. Page 2.

Starving Hereros -- Starving Herero return from the Omaheke Desert -- German South West Africa -- 1907
Group of starving Herero survivors returning after being driven into the desert of Omaheke in German South West Africa by Germans, circa 1907. Page 3.

Map of Republic of Benin (Republique du Benin)
Map of Republic of Benin (Republique du Benin). Page 3.

Map of Republic of Botswana
Map of Republic of Botswana. African History. Page 4.

Map of Burkina Faso
Map of Burkina Faso. African History. Page 5.

Map of Republic of Burundi (Republique du Burundi/Republika y'u Burundi)
Map of Republic of Burundi (Republique du Burundi/Republika y'u Burundi). Page 6.

Map of Republic of Cameroon (Republique du Cameroun)
Map of Republic of Cameroon (Republique du Cameroun). Page 7.

African Free Stencils: Nguni Stencils
A collection of free stencils on an African theme - Nguni Symbols. Page 2.

Robben Island Prison Museum: B-Section Courtyard
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: B-Section Courtyard. Page 19.

Robben Island Prison Museum: Nelson Mandela under his cell window
Gallery of images of Robben Island, World Heritage Site and Apartheid era prison: Nelson Mandela under his cell window. Page 20.

Flag of Republic of Angola (Republica de Angola)
Flag of Republic of Angola (Republica de Angola). Page 2.

Flag of Republic of Benin (Republique du Benin)
Flag of Republic of Benin (Republique du Benin). Page 3.

Flag of Republic of Botswana
Flag of Republic of Botswana. African History. Page 4.

Flag of Burkina Faso
Flag of Burkina Faso. African History. Page 5.

Flag of Republic of Burundi (Republika y'u Burundi)
Flag of Republic of Burundi (Republika y'u Burundi). Page 6.

Flag of Central African Republic (Republique Centrafricaine), CAR
Flag of Central African Republic (Republique Centrafricaine), CAR. Page 9.

Flag of Republic of Cameroon
Flag of Republic of Cameroon. African History. Page 7.

Flag of Republic of Cape Verde (Republica de Cabo Verde)
Flag of Republic of Cape Verde (Republica de Cabo Verde). Page 8.

Flag of Republic of Chad (Republique du Tchad)
Flag of Republic of Chad (Republique du Tchad). Page 10.

Flag of Union of the Comoros (Union des Comores)
Flag of Union of the Comoros (Union des Comores). Page 11.

Flag of Republic of the Congo (Republique du Congo)
Flag of Republic of the Congo (Republique du Congo). Page 13.

Flag of Democratic Republic of the Congo, DRC (Republique Democratique du Congo)
Flag of Democratic Republic of the Congo, DRC (Republique Democratique du Congo). Page 12.

Flag of State of Eritrea (Hagere Ertra)
Flag of State of Eritrea (Hagere Ertra). Page 15.

Flag of Republic of Cote d'Ivoire (Republique de Cote d'Ivoire) / Ivory Coast
Flag of Republic of Cote d'Ivoire (Republique de Cote d'Ivoire) / Ivory Coast. Page 14.

Flag of Republic of Namibia
Flag of Republic of Namibia. African History. Page 17.

Flag of Tunisian Republic (Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah)
Flag of Tunisian Republic (Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah). Page 18.

Flag of Republic of Uganda
Flag of Republic of Uganda. African History. Page 19.

Map of Republic of Angola (Republica de Angola)
Map of Republic of Angola (Republica de Angola). Page 2.

Map of State of Eritrea (Hagere Ertra)
Map of State of Eritrea (Hagere Ertra). Page 8.

Frederick J. T. Chiluba, Zambia
Image of President Frederick J. T. Chiluba of Zambia, © IRIN. Page 4.

Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, Liberia
Image of President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf of Liberia, © Claire Soares/IRIN. Page 5.

Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, Uganda
Image of President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni of Uganda, © IRIN. Page 6.

Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, Uganda
Image of President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni of Uganda, © IRIN. Page 8.

Pierre Nkurunziza, Burundi
Image of President Pierre Nkurunziza of Burundi, © Judith Basutama/IRIN. Page 10.

Pierre Nkurunziza, Burundi
Image of President Pierre Nkurunziza of Burundi, © IRIN. Page 11.

Olusegun Obasanjo, Nigeria
Image of President Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria, © IRIN. Page 14.

Hifikepunye Lucas Pohamba, Namibia
Image of President Hifikepunye Lucas Pohamba of Namibia, © IRIN. Page 15.

The Gambia -- A Very Short History of The Gambia
A potted history of The Gambia. African History.

War of the Axe -- What was the War of the Axe
What was the War of the Axe? African History.

Treaty of Vereeniging -- What was the Treaty of Vereeniging?
Treaty of Vereeniging -- Treaty which ended the 2nd Anglo-Boer War

Truth and Reconciliation Committee -- What was the TRC
What was the Truth and Reconciliation Committee (TRC)?

Shaman -- What are Shamans
What are Shamans? African History.

Soweto -- What is Soweto
What is Soweto? African History.

Patrimonial Rule -- What is Patrimonial Rule
What is Patrimonial Rule? African History.

Portable Rock Art -- What is meant by Portable Rock Art
What is meant by Portable Rock Art?

Qadiriya -- Who are the Qadiriya?
Who are the Qadiriya? African History.

Nuclear Microsatellites -- What are Nuclear Microsatellites
What are Nuclear Microsatellites?

One-Party State -- What is a One-Party State
What is a One-Party State? African History.

Oldowan -- What are Oldowan Tools
What are Oldowan Tools? African History.

Oligarchy -- What is an Oligarchy
What is an Oligarchy? African History.

Ossewabrandwag -- Who were the Ossewabrandwag
Who were the Ossewabrandwag? African History.

Meroe -- What was the Kingdom of Meroe
What was the Kingdom of Meroe? African History.

Indels -- What are Indels
What are Indels? African History.

Inundation
What was the Inundation? African History.

Irredentism -- What is Irredentism?
What is Irredentism? African History.

Great Trek
What was the Great Trek? African History.

Constitutional Monarchy -- What is a Constitutional Monarchy
What is a Constitutional Monarchy?

Constitution -- What is a Constitution
What is a Constitution? African History.

Coup d'état -- What is a coup d'état
What is a coup d'état? African History.

Banning
What was the Banning? African History.

Bayajidda -- Who was Bayajidda
Who was Bayajidda? African History.

Pretoria Minute
What was the Pretoria Minute? African History.

Absolute Monarchy -- What is an Absolute Monarchy
What is an Absolute Monarchy? African History.

Anocracy -- What is an Anocracy
What is an Anocracy? African History.

Anya Nya -- What was the Anya Nya
What was the Anya Nya? African History.

School Enrollment in Apartheid South Africa
Data on School Enrollment for Blacks and Whites in South Africa in 1982.

Apartheid FAQ: How Did The Apartheid Government Come Into Power?
Unsure how the Apartheid regime came into power? Find the answer in this Apartheid FAQ.

Apartheid FAQ: Who Supported Apartheid?
Unsure who supported Apartheid in South Africa? Find the answer in this Apartheid FAQ.

Apartheid FAQ: What Were the Foundations of Apartheid?
Unsure what the Foundations of Apartheid were? Find the answer in this Apartheid FAQ.

Apartheid Legislation in South Africa -- An Overview of Significant Legislation in Apartheid South Africa
Descriptions of the main apartheid legislation enacted in South Africa.

Apartheid Legislation in South Africa -- An Overview of Significant Legislation in Apartheid South Africa
Descriptions of the main apartheid legislation enacted in South Africa.

Apartheid Legislation in South Africa -- An Overview of Significant Legislation in Apartheid South Africa
Descriptions of the main apartheid legislation enacted in South Africa.

The Abydos King List
The Abydos King List from the walls of the Temple of Seti I, Abydos, Egypt. On the list are the names of seventy-six kings and pharaohs of ancient Egypt.

Leutwein and Maharero -- Theodor Leutwein meets Samuel Maharero -- German South West Africa 1895
Theodor Leutwein meeting Samuel Maharero with Dr. Hartmann in German South West Africa circa 1895.

Humankind's African Origins
The number of recognised hominid species which form part of our greater family tree is growing. Find out where and when each of these many species was discovered.

African History Resources: Chad
A collection of useful maps and other history resources for Chad.

The Owl House, Nieu Bethesda, South Africa
A Gallery of images of The Owl House, Nieu Bethesda, South Africa.

The Owl House, Nieu Bethesda, South Africa
A Gallery of images of The Owl House, Nieu Bethesda, South Africa.

Where In Africa? Maps
A gallery of maps showing where on the continent countries are.

L'Agulhas Lighthouse, South Africa
L'Agulhas Lighthouse, South Africa, © Cameron Ewart-Smith

Historic South Africa
Images of Historic South Africa

Flag of People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah)
Flag of People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah)

Map of People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah)
Map of People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah)

Political Maps
A Gallery of Political Maps of Africa

Uganda Timeline -- Part 2: Road to Independence to Idi Amin[R]
A chronology of key events in Uganda's history

Uganda Timeline -- Part 3: End of Idi Amin to the Relaunch of the East Africa Community[R]
A chronology of key events in Uganda's history

Uganda Timeline -- Part 4: Relaunch of the East African Community to Present Day[R]
A chronology of key events in Uganda's history

Book Review – Into Africa by Martin Dugard
Book Review – Into Africa by Martin Dugard, the dramatic retelling of the Stanley-Livingstone story

Where Do You Find Hieroglyphs?
Hieroglyphs, the writing system of ancient Egypt, were used only by an elite – it is estimated that only 0.4 % of the population could read during the Pharaonic period. But where and how, exactly, were they used?

Bantustan
Bantu groups in South Africa were assigned their own homelands. Find out more...

Central African Republic History and Country Profiles


African History Glossary - A
A glossary of terms and expressions beginning with A relevant to African history.

René-Auguste Caillié -- Biography, Quotes and Resources about the Explorer René-Auguste Caillié
René-Auguste Caillié was the first European who lived to tell the tale of reaching Timbuktu. The French explorer disguised himself as an Arab to gain entrance to the city and remain undetected – he had studied Islam and could speak Arabic.