African-American History Sitemap - Page 1 2016-09-26

The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom is credited with pushing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 into law.

African-American Culture: Literature, Music, Dance, Art
Discover the literature, music, dance and art of African-American culture. Find topics such as the meaning of spirituals, the Harlem Renaissance, the rise of hip-hop and African-American film history in this section.

Biographies
Read profiles of influential African Americans from the colonial era to the present-day. From abolitionists to jazz musicians, discover more about the figures who shaped African-American history.

Causes of the Great Migration (1910-1970)
The Great Migration was movement from rural southern areas to northern, Midwestern and western cities.

History of Race Segregation in the U.S.
The late 19th and early 20th centuries witnessed the rise of Jim Crow laws in the South and de facto segregation in the North.

William Monroe Trotter: An Uncompromising Agitator
William Monroe Trotter opposed everyone--from government officials to Booker T.Washington--for not believing that African-Americans deserved immediate equality in American society.

Robert Sengstacke Abbott
Robert Sengstacke Abbott published the first issue of

African-American History from About.com
Learn the major people and events that shaped African-American history, from slavery and abolitionism to the Harlem Renaissance and civil rights movement.

Slavery and the Abolition Movement
The nearly 250-year history of slavery in the United States had a profound effect on African-American history. In this section, learn about topics ranging from the economic importance of slavery to the operations of the Underground Railroad.

Civil Rights
Read about the struggles of African Americans to obtain and maintain civil rights from the late 19th century through the present.

Timelines
Review the chronology of major events in African-American history. When did Europeans introduce slavery to North America? On what day did Abraham Lincoln sign the Emancipation Proclamation? Find the answers here.

African-American Milestones
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What Impact Did the Stono Rebellion Have on the Lives of Slaves?
The Stono Rebellion was the largest slave revolt in colonial America. This profile of the rebellion outlines its causes, significance and aftermath.

American Negro Academy: Promoting the Talented Tenth
The American Negro Academy promoted the work of African-American scholars in the late 19th and early 20th century.

Abolitionist James Forten - Profile
James Forten was more than a wealthy African-American. He was an abolitionist and sociopolitical activist.

African-American History Timeline: 1910 to 1919
Key events and issues occurring between 1910 and 1919.

National Negro Council of Women
The National Council of Negro Women was established by Mary McLeod Bethune to unite African-American women's groups and improve race relations in the United States.

Hip Hop Culture Timeline: 1970 to 1983
A timeline of hip hop culture tracing the beginning of the movement in the 1970s through the 1990s.

C. Delores Tucker: Social Activist and Politician
C. Delores Tucker was the first African-American secretary of state in Pennsylvania and co-founded the National Congress of Black Women.

Harry Pace and Black Swan Records
In 1921 Harry Pace established Black Swan Records, the first African-American owned recording company.

Paul Laurence Dunbar
Paul Laurence Dunbar was the most prominent African-American literary figure prior to the Harlem Renaissance.

Ralph Abernathy: Advisor and Confidante to MLK
Ralph Abernathy was a prominent Baptist minister who worked with Martin Luther King Jr., during the civil rights movement.

Biography of Matthew Henson
Matthew Henson, along with Edwin Peary, was the first to reach the North Pole in 1909.

Thurgood Marshall
Before Thurgood Marshall became the first African-American to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court, he represented African-Americans in many landmark cases.

Charles Hamilton Houston: Civil Rights Attorney and Mentor
Charles Houston Hamilton was a civil rights attorney whose strategies for dismantling Jim Crow segregation led to the Brown v. Board of Education ruling.

Madam C.J. Walker's Life and Achievements
Madam C.J. Walker developed a line of hair products for African-American women. She is considered the first woman to become a self-made millionaire.

Ralph Ellison: 20th Century American Writer
Ralph Ellison's 1952 novel,

Romare Bearden
Romare Bearden was a visual artist who utilized painting, cartoon and collage to depict African-American life.

The Origins of Black History Month
How did Black History Month get its start?

African-American Business Owners in the Jim Crow Era
During the Jim Crow Era, African-Americans established businesses in banking, insurance, news publishing, beauty and sports. They didn't just make a profit, they created change.

George Moses Horton
George Moses Horton is the first African-American in the South to publish a book.

Lucy Terry Prince
Lucy Terry Prince, best known for the ballad

Jupiter Hammon (1711 - 1806)
Jupiter Hammon was the first African-American to publish his work in the United States.

Phillis Wheatley
Phillis Wheatley was the first African-American woman to publish a collection of poetry.

Early African-American Poets
Who was the first African-American to publish a poem? Who was the first African-American to publish a book? What themes did early African-American poets explore?

Zina Garrison
Professional tennis player Zina Garrison is an Olympic gold and bronze medalist and is remembered for her 14 wins during her career.

Venus Williams: Olympic Gold Medalist and Top Tennis Player
Professional tennis player Venus Williams is the first woman to win three career gold medals at the Olympics.

Ora Washington: The Queen of Tennis
Ora Mae Washington was known as the

Althea Gibson: Breaking Racial Barriers on the Tennis Court
Althea Gibson broke racial barriers to play in international tennis matches. She also won 11 Grand Slam Tournaments.

Serena Williams
Serena Williams is currently the no. 1 ranking female tennis player in the world. She is an entrepreneur and philanthropist in addition to her tennis career.

How have African-American women contributed to the game of tennis?
Serena and Venus Williams, Zina Garrison, Althea Gibson, and Ora Mae Washington have all mastered the game of tennis.

Afrika Bambaataa: Amen Ra of Hip Hop Culture
Afrika Bambaataa is known as the

Grandmaster Flash
Grandmaster Flash developed distinct dj techniques and established Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five.

DJ Kool Herc: Founding Father of Hip Hop
DJ Kool Herc is credited with throwing the first hip hop party in 1973 in the Bronx.

DJ Kool Herc: Founding Father of Hip Hop
How did hip hop culture begin? Where did it start? Who is credited with throwing the first hip hop party in 1973?

5 Writers of the Harlem Renaissance
Five prominent writers of the Harlem Renaissance include Claude McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes, Jessie Redmon Fauset and Joseph Seamon Cotter, Jr.

African-American Men and Women of the Progressive Era
Men and women of the Progressive Era.

African-American Dancers
While Pearl Primus and Katherine Dunham established modern dance techniques, Alvin Ailey, popularized modern dance with his company, the Alvin Ailey American Dance Company.

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African-American Firsts in Film and Theatre
Who was the first African-American to produce a full-length feature film? Who was the first African-American to win an Academy Award?

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Phillis Wheatley:
Phillis Wheatley's collection of poetry made her the first African-American woman to publish a book.

Anthony Benezet Opens First School For African-American Children
Anthony Benezet established the first free school for African-American children in colonial America.

Prince Hall
Prince Hall established the the African Lodge of the Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons in 1784.

Stono Rebellion
The Stono Rebellion is considered the first slave revolt in South Carolina.

Fort Mose: The First African-American Settlement
Fort Mose was established by fugitive slaves in 1738. It is the first permanent African-American settlement in the New World.

Richard Allen: Abolitionist and Religious Leader
Early abolitionist and minister, Richard Allen established the Free African Society and the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME)

African-American Firsts in the 18th Century
Who was the first African-American to publish a collection of poetry? What two men founded the Free African Society? Who was the first settler in Chicago?

Jupiter Hammon
Jupiter Hammon was the first African-American to publish a poem.

Lucy Terry: First African-American to Compose a Poem
Lucy Terry's

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African-American Organizations of the Progressive Era
Five organizations established during the Progessive Era with the purpose of helping African-American achieve social equality.

Five African-American Male Writers to Remember
Five African-American male writers who reveal importance of themes such as alienation, unity and racial pride in their work.

Notable Early African-American Physcians
Who were some of the first African-American men and women to become physicians​ in the United States? Who was the first to be recognized as a doctor?

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13 Amazing Years of Independence: Unforgettable Photos of Motown
African-American History.

13 Amazing Years of Making Hits: Unforgettable Photos of Motown
Why did Berry Gordy start Motown? Who were some of the recording label's biggest stars?

Lincoln Motion Picture Company: The First African-American Film Production Company
Lincoln Motion Picture Company was the first African-American film production company.

Contributions to the Silent Film Industry
African-Americans became owners of silent film companies in response to films such as

The Norman Studios
Norman Studios featured African-American talent in its silent films from 1920 to 1928.

Michaeux Film and Book Company
Oscar Micheaux produced more than 40 films between 1918 and 1948 through the Michaeux Film and Book Company.

Negro Baseball Leagues
Satchel Paige, Josh Gibson, and Jackie Robinson are three of the most prolific players in the Negro Baseball Leagues.

Jackie Robinson: 1919 to 1972
Jackie Robinson is known for breaking the color line in baseball. However, Robinson player for the Kansas City Monarchs for two years before integrating the major leagues.

Josh Gibson: 1911 to 1947
Known as the

Satchel Paige: Powerful Pitcher
In 1948, Satchel Paige became the oldest rookie in baseball history. Yet, he'd played as a pitcher for several Negro Baseball League teams since 1924.

Patrick Reason
Patrick Reason's is well known for the 1938 engraving entitled

Charles Ethan Porter
Charles Ethan Porter is best known for creating oil paintings of fruit and floral still life.

Edmonia Lewis
Edmonia Lewis was the first African-American woman to be recognized as a sculptor.

Henry Ossawa Tanner
Henry Ossawa Tanner is the first African-American artist to achieve international acclaim.

Julien Hudson
Julien Hudson is the second known African-American portrait artist in the United States and worked out of his studio in New Orleans.

Joshua Johnson
Joshua Johnson was the first professional African-American portrait artist in the United States.

African-American Businesswomen in the Jim Crow Era
Three African-American women were noted for their entreprenurial endeavors during the Jim Crow Era. Maggie Lena Walker, Madam CJ Walker and Annie Turnbo Malone.

How The NACW Fought Sexism and Racism in Jim Crow Era
The NACW has worked to provide social services to communities in need and end racial injustice in the United States for more than 100 years.

Why is Claude McKay Considered a Protest Poet?
Why is Claude McKay considered one of the most prolific writers of the Harlem Renaissance? Why did he write a poem about the Red Summer of 1919?

Why Did Richard Allen Establish the AME Church?
What is the first African-American religious denomination​ in the U.S.? Why was the AME Church established? Who is Richard Allen?

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Charles Clinton Spaulding: Businessman and Member of the Black Cabinet
Charles Clinton Spaulding served as president of the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company. Spaulding used his power to raise funds for HBCUs.

The North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company
The North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company was founded in 1898 by African-American businessman John Merrick.

African-American History Timeline: 1990 - 1999
39 key events in African-American History occurring between 1990 and 1999.

What is Jim Crow?
The Jim Crow Era in American society lasted from the late 1870s to 1965 with the passage of the Voting Rights Act.

3 Major Ways Slaves Showed Resistance to Slavery
Slaves in the United States showed resistance to the oppressive system of slavery by organizing rebellions and running away from their masters.

Civil Rights Movement Timeline From 1960 to 1964
This civil rights movement timeline covers the struggle's second phase in which nonviolent action was put to the test during the early 1960s.

Frederick Douglass: Abolitionist and Advocate for Women's Rights
Who is Frederick Douglass? How did Douglass become an abolitionist? Why did he publish a slave narrative? What was the name of his newspaper?

Civil Rights Movement Timeline From 1965 to 1969
This civil rights movement timeline covers the struggle's final years, including the rise of black power, the Voting Rights Act, and urban riots.

Harriet Tubman Biography - Early Life and Accomplishments
A biography of Harriet Tubman, a former slave who helped over 200 others escape from slavery to the North.

A Biography of Harriet Tubman
A biography of Harriet Tubman, a former slave who helped over 200 others escape from slavery to the North. Page 2.

Civil Rights Movement Timeline From 1951 to 1959
This civil rights movement timeline covers the start of the racial equality fight, such as the Montgomery Bus Boycott and Martin Luther King's rise.

Enslavement: 1619 to 1696
How did slavery become an important aspect of colonial America? What is the difference between indentured servitude and servitude for life?

Granville T. Woods: The Black Edison
Granville T. Woods is known for developing several inventions such as the multiplex telegraph, egg incubator, and power pickup device.

Five African-American Women Writers
Five African-American women writers whose work spans through colonial America through the Black Arts Movement

Alex Haley: Documenting History
Writer Alex Haley became a celebrated writer after the publication of

Edmonia Lewis: First Acclaimed African-American Sculptor
Edmonia Lewis was the first African-American woman to be recognized as a sculptor.

"Their Eyes Were Watching God" by Zora Neale Hurston


Banned Books by African-American Authors
Novels such as

James Baldwin
Novels such as

"Native Son" by Richard Wright
Native Son has been banned because of its sexually graphic and violent content.

Ralph Ellison's "Invisible Man"


"I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" and "Still I Rise" by Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou's memoir

Selected Texts by Toni Morrison
Novels such as

Alice Walker's "The Color Purple"


Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller: Visual Artist of the Harlem Renaissance
Sculptor Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller was the first African-American woman to be commissioned by the U.S. government to create visual art.

Frances Watkins Harper: Writer and Activist
Writer and social activist Frances Watkins Harper spoke out against sexism and racism.

Jessie Redmon Fauset: Literary Editor of The Crisis
Jessie Redmon Fauset was the literary editor of The Crisis and promoted the work of African-American writers.

Men of the Harlem Renaissance
Poets such as Countee Cullen, Arna Bontemps, Sterling Brown, Claude McKay and Langston Hughes all made significant contributions to the Harlem Renaissance.

Civil Rights Struggles
As segregation became entrenched in the South, African Americans pursued civil rights through the courts, persuasive oratory and demonstrations from the late 1800s through the 1900s. Examine the events and trends of the Civil Rights era and the post-sixties period of African-American history.

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5 Men Who Inspired Martin Luther King, Jr. to be a Leader
What religious leaders and civil rights activists provided Martin Luther King, Jr. with guidance and inspiration?

A Biography of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.
A biography of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., including the slain civil rights leader's childhood, education, activism and assassination.

African-American Playwrights
African-American playwrights such as Langston Hughes, Lorraine Hansberry, August Wilson, Amari Baraka, Ntozake Shange, and Suzan Lori Parks are discussed.

African-American History Timeline: 1970 to 1979
Key African-American History events occurring between 1970 and 1979.

The Black Panther Party
This timeline features key events of the Black Panther Party.

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
SNCC was established in 1960 on the campus of Shaw University as a civil rights organization.

Why Nat Turner's Rebellion Scared White Southerners
Nat Turner's rebellion in 1831 became one of the most memorable slave uprisings in U.S. history. It also challenged the idea that slaves were content.

Chester Himes: Father of Black Detective Fiction
Chester Himes began his writing career while imprisoned for armed robbery and became famous for writing detective fiction based in Harlem during the 1950s.

Frankie Muse Freeman: Civil Rights Attorney
How did Frankie Muse Freeman become the first African-American woman to win a civil rights case? How did she help establish the Civil Rights Act of 1964?

James Farmer Jr.
James Farmer Jr. established CORE, the organization that spearheaded Freedom Rices in 1961. Throughout the rest of his life, Farmer worked to help people gain political and civic power in their communities.

A. Philip Randolph
A. Philip Randolph was important to organizing several moments in the Civil Rights Movement.

A. Philip Randolph
A. Philip Randolph was important to organizing several moments in the Civil Rights Movement.

A. Philip Randolph
A. Philip Randolph was important to organizing several moments in the Civil Rights Movement.

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.'s career began in 1955 with the Montgomery Bus Boycott. For the next 13 years, he'd work to end legal and social discrimination.

A. Philip Randolph
A. Philip Randolph was important to organizing several moments in the Civil Rights Movement.

The "Big Six:" Organizers of the Civil Rights Movement
Who are the

United Negro College Fund: College Scholarships and Grants
The United Negro College Fund was established in 1944 to help African-American students complete college at its member schools.

African-American History Timeline: 1960 to 1964
When did the

African-American History Timeline: 1950 to 1959
African-American historical events that occurred between 1950 and 1959.

Maya Angelou: Writer and Civil Rights Activist
Maya Angelou was a prominent memorist and poet whose work encouraged Americans of all walks of life.

African-American History Timeline: 1940 to 1949
How did African-Americans integrate the armed services? Who is the first African-American to publish a best selling novel?

Benjamin Banneker
Benjamin Banneker was known as the

Richard Allen: Leader of the AME Church and Social Activist
Richard Allen established the AME Church and was an abolitionist and social activist.

Mary Ann Shadd Cary, Abolitionist and Suffragette
Abolitionist and suffragette Mary Ann Shadd Cary advocated for self-reliance and education for African-Americans.

Mary Church Terrell
Mary Church Terrell was a lifelong fighter against the disenfranchisement of African-Americans and women.

African-American Women and the Abolition Movement
Seven African-American women and their contributions to the anti-slavery movement.

W.C. Handy: Father of the Blues
W.C. Handy is known as the

Women of the Harlem Renaissance
Jessie Redmon Fauset, Zora Neale Hurston and Regina Anderson are just a few of the women who played a significant role in the Harlem Renaissance.

Francis Lewis Cardozo
How did Francis Lewis Cardozo become the first African-American to hold political office in South Carolina? How did Cardozo use his influence in U.S. Society?

African-American History Timeline: 1965 to 1969
How was Kwanza established? When was Malcolm X assassinated? Why was the Poor People's Campaign established? Who was the first black Supreme Court Justice?

African-American History Timeline: 1980 to 1989
A timeline of African-American history from 1980 to 1989

Nikki Giovanni
Poet and activist Nikki Giovanni a distinguished professor at Virginia Tech University.

Timeline of Brown v. Board of Education
The Brown v. Board of Education ruling in 1954 dismantled the longstanding

African-American Golfers Timeline: 1896 to 1980
African-American participation in golfing from 1896 to 1980. Highlights include the first African-American to play in the U.S. Open as well as the PGA lifting its

Expatriate Writers
James Baldwin, Richard Wright and Chester Himes were all expatriate writers who lived and published in France.

Fletcher Henderson
Fletcher Henderson was the first jazz musician to organize an orchestra. He also produced singers such as Bessie Smith and Ethel Waters.

Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong
Louis

James Hubert "Eubie" Blake
Eubie Blake was a prominent musician, composer and performer during the Harlem Renaissance and Jazz Age.

James P. Johnson
James P. Johnson is known as

Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington
Duke Ellington's career as a composer, writer, pianist and bandleader spanned more than 50 years.

Who are the legends of jazz music?
Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Eubie Blake, James P. Johnson and Fletcher Henderson are all considered legends in jazz music.

6 Revealing Autobiographies by African-American Thinkers
Why did Ida B. Wells write her autobiography? How did Alex Haley help Malcolm X tell his life story? How did

Leaders of the Black Panther Party
Who were prominent members of the Black Panther Party? What role did they play in the organization?

Organizations
Learn about various organizations developed by African-Americans throughout history.

Events
Various timelines of African-American History.

Bill "Bojangles" Robinson
Bill Bojangles Robinson's career spanned vaudeville, the Broadway stage and film.

Martin Delany
Martin Delany's life as an abolitionist, Civil War hero and believer in emigration makes him the

African-American History Timeline: 1860 to 1864
This timeline features events related to African-American history that occurred between 1860 and 1864.

African-American History Timeline: 1880 to 1889
Why was Spelman College established? Who is considered the

African-American History Timeline: 1920 - 1929
Important events in African-American history occurring between 1920 and 1929.

African-American History Timeline: 1840 to 1849
This is an African-American history timeline highlighting significant events between 1840 and 1849.

African-American History Timeline: 1700 - 1799
Who was the first African-American to publish a collection of poetry? Why was the African Masonic Lodge established? Why was the AME Church founded?

The Power of the Press: African-American News Publications in the Jim Crow Era
The African-American press was instrumental in campaigning against Jim Crow in the South and de facto segregation in the North.

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
CORE played an important role in galvanizing young adults to help African-Americans in the South fight against racial discrimination.

The Reconstruction Era
The Reconstruction Era saw the advent of new freedoms for African Americans, but the period ended with the establishment of Jim Crow laws in the South. Read more about this contentious period in African-American history.

African-American Religion
Religion, from Voodoo in colonial Louisiana to 20th-century African-American evangelicalism, has been a vital force in the lives of African Americans throughout American history. Read here about the role of religion in the lives of African Americans over time.

African-American Women's History
Explore the major themes in African-American women's history, such as building families under slavery, fighting for abolition and women's rights or protesting during the Civil Rights Movement.

Post-Civil Rights Period
Read all about the issues facing African Americans between the 1970s and the present.

The Civil War
Find articles here about causes, battles and effects of the American Civil War (1861-1865) and their relation to African-American history.

African-American Soldiers in World War I
African-American men who fought in World War I (1917-1918) enjoyed the tolerant atmosphere of Europe, only to come home after the war to strict segregation in the South and racism in the North. Read about the African-American soldiers who fought in the First World War here.

Civil War & Reconstruction
The experiences of African-Americans during the Civil War (1861-1865) and Reconstruction (1865-1877). Read about the service of African-American soldiers during the Civil War, the impact of freedom on former slaves at the war's end and the election of African Americans to political office during Reconstruction.

Black History Month Educational Resources
Americans have been celebrating Black History Month since February 1976. That year, Gerald Ford extended the usual week-long celebration of African-American history and culture to a month. Read more about the origins of Black History Month and get ideas for classroom activities and lessons for Black History Month.

Florence Mills: International Performer
Actress, singer and vaudeville performer Florence Mills is considered the first African-American international superstar.

The Emmett Till Story and its Impact on Civil Rights
The Emmett Till story shocked the nation and propelled civil rights activists to take action over the black teen's racially motivated killing.

How Executive Order 9981 Desegregated the U.S. Military
President Harry Truman signed Executive Order 9981 in 1948, ending segregation in the U.S. military and paving the way for the civil rights movement.

What Is Juneteenth and What Does it Commemorate?
What is Juneteenth and what does the holiday commemorate? Get the facts with this profile of the event and its importance in black history.

Four Major Civil Rights Speeches and Writings
The civil rights speeches given by Martin Luther King, John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson highlight their thoughts on the fight for racial equality.

How Martin Luther King Day Became a Federal Holiday
Martin Luther King Day became a federal holiday due to the efforts of the civil rights leader's supporters who worked tirelessly to have him honored.

A Biography of Marcus Garvey and His Views Defined
This Marcus Garvey biography defines the radical views he popularized after founding the UNIA and urging blacks to embrace their African heritage.

T. Thomas Fortune: Founder of the First Civil Rights Organization in the U.S.
How did T. Thomas Fortune become the most influential black journalist during the Progressive Era? How did Fortune help Booker T. Washington?

Scott Joplin: King of Ragtime
Known as the King of Ragtime, Scott Joplin is considered one of the greatest composer of the 20th Century.

A Biography of Booker T. Washington
Booker T. Washington was the most influential African-American leader from 1895 until his death in 1915.

Medgar Evers: Local Activist
Medgar Evers work as a civil rights activist in Mississippi. He helped end segregation at the University of Mississippi.

Biography of Black Historian Carter G. Woodson
This biography of historian Carter G. Woodson details how he created black studies and founded Negro History Week, today known as Black History Month.

What Led to the Formation of the NAACP?
What four organizations helped pave the way for the NAACP to be established in 1909?

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The National Afro-American League: First Civil Rights Organization
What is the National Afro-American League? Why was the NAAL established? How did the NAAL inspire the creation of the Niagara Movement and NAACP?

Bishop Alexander Walters: Religious Leader and Civil Rights Activist
How did Alexander Walters work to launch the NAACP?

The Afro-American Council: Creating One Voice for African-Americans
What was the Afro-American Council? Why was it established? How did it inspire the establishment of the NAACP?

Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller: First African-American Psychiatrist
What contributions did Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller make to understanding Alzheimer's disease?

The Changing Definition of African-American History
The definition of African-American history has evolved. This overview shows how historians have classified the field in the past and do so today.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Did Not End the Movement
The fight for racial equality did not end after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was enacted, but the law allowed activists to meet their major goals.

5 Unforgettable Slave Rebellions
What do rebellions prove about the plight of African-Americans before the emancipation of slavery? These five rebellions prove the desire for freedom.

- By Category
An index of categories in the

Lugenia Burns Hope
How did Lugenia Burns Hope work to improve the lives of African-Americans in Georgia? How did she help challenge racism on the national level?

A Biography of Boston Massacre Hero Crispus Attucks
Who was Crispus Attucks? This biography of the slave-turned-sailor reveals how he became the first person to die in the 1770 Boston Massacre.

Major Highlights of the Civil Rights Movement
Get acquainted with the civil rights movement with this overview of the major highlights, speeches and writings that shaped the era and modern race relations.

Slavery Documents Offer Direct Look at Life in Bondage
Want to learn about slavery from those who lived through it? This roundup of slavery documents, memoirs and narratives is a great way to start.

African-American History Timeline: 1865 to 1869
How did African-Americans become citizens? How did African-American men gain the right to vote? What HBCUs opened right after the Civil War?

Four Publications of the Harlem Renaissance
What newspaper published Claude McKay's poem,

African-Americans and the Progressive Era
How did African-American reformers emerge in the Progressive Era? How did Ida B. Wells help establish the Anti-Lynching Campaign? Why was the NAACP founded?

William Still: Father of the Underground Railroad
Why is William Still known as the

James Weldon Johnson: Distinguished Writer and Civil Rights Activist
What famous song did James Weldon Johnson cowrite? Why did Johnson publish

Negro Baseball League Timeline
When were the Negro Baseball Leagues established? Why did African-Americans establish their own baseball leagues? Who were major players in the leagues?

Josephine Baker: French Resistance and the CIvil Rights Movement
How did Josephine Baker become a performer? Why did Baker become popular in Paris? How did Baker help with the French Resistance? How did Baker contribute to the Civil Rights Movement?

Jesse Owens: Four Time Olympic Gold Medalist
How did Jesse Owens become the first American to win four gold medals? How did Adolf Hitler feel about Owens' accomplishments?

Who Popularized the term 'Talented Tenth'
Who were the Talented Tenth? Who developed the term

Hip Hop Culture Timeline: 1990 to 1999
How did rap music reach its popularity in the 1990s? What fueled the East Coast-West Coast beef?

Lena Horne: The Triple Threat
Lena Horne performed as a dancer, singer and actress. Her career spanned the Harlem Renaissance through the post Civil Rights Movement.

Billie Holiday: Lady Day
Billie Holiday also known as

Sarah Vaughan: The Divine One
Sarah Vaughn was a prominent jazz vocalist best known for singing

5 Unforgettable Jazz Singers Who Led Big Bands
Who is known as the most popular black female recording artist of the 1950s? The Divine One? Lady Day? First Lady of Song? The Triple Threat?

Ella Fitzgerald: First Lady of Song
Known as

5 Unforgettable Jazz Singers Who Led Big Bands
Who is known as the most popular black female recording artist of the 1950s? The Divine One? Lady Day? First Lady of Song? The Triple Threat?

National Negro Business League: Fighting Jim Crow with Economic Development
Why did Booker T. Washington establish the National Negro Business League? What were the successes of the organization?

Ella Baker: Grassroots Civil Rights Organizer
Why did Ella Baker become involved in grassroots organizing? What strategies did Ella Baker use to help members of the Civil Rights Movement?

Rebecca Lee Crumpler: First African-American Woman to Become a Physician
Rebecca Lee Crumpler was the first African-American woman to achieve​ a medical degree. Where did Crumpler work? What did she do after the Civil War?

James McCune Smith: First African-American to Achieve a Medical Degree
James McCune Smith was the first African-American to receive a medical degree. He was also an impotant membe in the abolitionist movement.

W. E. B. Du Bois
What men and women used their influence to help the Harlem Renaissance an artistic movement?

James Weldon Johnson
African-American History.

W. E. B. Du Bois
What leaders helped to make the Harlem Renaissance a true artistic movement? Who helped find funding for artists? What news outlets published their stories and essays?

Alain Leroy Locke
Alain Leroy Locke is considered a

Jessie Redmon Fauset
Jessie Redmon Fauset was an author, educator and served as literary editor of Crisis magazine during the Harlem Renaissance.

Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey established the UNIA and the

A. Philip Randolph
A. Philip Randolph not only organized the Brotherhood for Sleeping Car Porters. He was instrumental in the Harlem Renaissance by publishing the Messenger.

Timeline of the NAACP - 1909 to 1965
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is the oldest and most recognized civil rights organization in the United States.

Dred Scott Timeline
The Dred Scott case was a seminal case in United States history. Dred Scott, an enslaved man, unsuccessfully fought for his and his wife's freedom.

Macon Bolling Allen: First African-American Licensed Attorney
Macon Bolling Allen was the first African-American licensed attorney and judge in the United States.

William Wells Brown: First African-American Novelist and Playwright
Why did William Wells Brown become an abolitionist? How did Wells Brown become the first African-American to publish a novel and a play?

Timeline of the Scottsboro Boys Case
The Scottsboro Boys were nine African-American teens ranging in age from thirteen to nineteen. Each was tried and convicted of raping two white women on a Southern railroad freight train.

What Events in U.S. History Led to the Development of the Civil Rights Movement?
What events had to occur U.S. History for the Civil Rights Movement to develop? What organizations played a role in the development of the Civil Rights Movement?

African-American History
African-American History.

African-American History
African-American History.

African-American History
African-American History.

African-American History
African-American History.

What Events in U.S. History Led to the Development of the Civil Rights Movement?
What events had to occur U.S. History for the Civil Rights Movement to develop? What organizations played a role in the development of the Civil Rights Movement?

African-American History
African-American History.

African-American History
African-American History.

African-American History
African-American History.

African-American History
African-American History.

African-American History
African-American History.

African-American History
African-American History.

What Events in U.S. History Led to the Development of the Civil Rights Movement?
What events had to occur U.S. History for the Civil Rights Movement to develop? What organizations played a role in the development of the Civil Rights Movement?

African-American History
African-American History.

Hip Hop Culture Timeline: 1984 to 1989
How did hip hop culture--especially rap music--become popular in the 1980s? What controversy existed as a result of rap music's popularity​?

What is Hip Hop Culture?
What is hip hop culture? What are the four elements of hip hop culture? How did each element become popular in mainstream culture?

Jean-Michel Basquiat
Why is Jean Michel Basquiat's work so prominent in American History?

Ethel Payne: The First Lady of the Black Press
Ethel Payne is known as the

Mary Mcleod Bethune: Educator and Civil Rights Leader
Mary McCleod Bethune was a lifelong educator and civic leader.

African-American History Timeline: 1850 to 1859
Why were the 1850s such a turbulent decade for African-Americans?

African-American History Timeline: 1890 - 1899
Who was the first doctor to perform a successful open heart surgery? What landmark Supreme court class created the

Anti Lynching Movement
The Anti Lynching movement was a movement aimed at abolishing the practice of lynching.

What is Abolitionism?
Abolitionists worked to end slavery. Their philosophies on how to end slavery were very different. Historian Herbert Aptheker outlines the three types of abolitionism.

Anthony Burns: Escaping the Fugitive Slave Law
Anthony Burns was a fugitive slave who was caught in Boston two months after he reclaimed his freedom.

The Red Summer of 1919
The Red Summer of 1919 began in May and lasted until the end of October. During this time, race riots erupted in many northern cities.

Timeline of the Abolition Movement: 1830 - 1839
What role did freed blacks play in abolitionism? How did

John Mercer Langston: Abolitionist, Politician and Educator
John Mercer Langston was not only the first African-American to serve in Congress, he was also an abolitionist, educator and fighter for racial unity as well as equality.

3 Pioneering and Innovative African-American News Publications
What African-American publications and news sources were milestones in the industry? How did they get started? Why?

8 Groundbreaking African-American Attorneys Who Made History
How did African-Americans begin to work in the legal field? Who was the first African-American to practice law? Who was the first black woman to practice law?

Berry Gordy: Inventor of the Motown Sound
Why did Berry Gordy establish Motown Records? How did he build the company to become the most successful black owned company in the 1960s?

Timeline of Little Rock School Integration
Who were the Little Rock Nine? Why did it take so long to integrate public high schools in Little Rock, Ark?

Montgomery Bus Boycott Timeline
Why did the Montgomery Bus Boycott begin? How long did it last? What impact did the boycott have on the Jim Crow Era?

Gabriel Prosser: Plotting for Freedom
Gabriel Prosser prepared for the farthest reaching rebellion by enslaved men in United States' history.

Georgia Douglas Johnson Biography
Georgia Douglas Johnson was a prolific poet who provided her home as a literary salon during the Harlem Renaissance

Robert Morris Sr.
Robert Morris Sr. fought many cases and worked with abolitionists.

Early African-American Lawyers - Macon Bolling Allen
Who was the first African-American to receive a license to practice law in the U.S.? Who was the first to file a lawsuit on behalf of a client?

Mary Ann Shadd Cary
Mary Ann Shadd Cary was known as

Charles Hamilton Houston
Charles Hamilton Houston helped to dismantle Jim Crow Era Laws through litigation.

Benjamin Banneker
Benjamin Banneker published almanac's and helped design Washington D.C.

African-American History Timeline: 1930 to 1939
How did African-Americans defy Jim Crow Era laws and the Great Depression in the 1930s?

Ida B. Wells-Barnett: Anti-Lynching Advocate
Ida B. Wells-Barnett was a journalist, suffragist and overall crusader for justice.

Biography W.E.B. Du Bois
Historian, sociologist, writer, educator and sociopolitical activist, W.E.B. Du Bois fought throughout his career to uplift African-Americans through a variety of methods.

Rosa Parks: Mother of the Civil Rights Movement
With one single refusal, Rosa Parks became the mother of Civil Rights Movement.

Biography of Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander
Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander was the first African-American woman to receive a PhD in the United States.

Arturo Alfonso Schomburg: Digging Up African History
Arturo Alfonso Schomburg's collected artifacts of the African Diaspora. Today, the Schomburg Center for Research and Black Study is world renowned.

Top Five Cities of the Abolitionist Movement
What five cities played an important role in the Abolition Movement?

John Baxter Taylor: 1st African-American Gold Medalist
John Baxter Taylor was the first African-American to represent the United States in an international athletic competition and the first to win an Olympic gold medal

The Abolition Movement Timeline: 1820 - 1829
The 1820s planted the seeds for the burgeoning Abolition Movement of the 1830s.

National Negro Convention Movement
The National Negro Convention Movement allowed freedmen to meet on the local, state and national level to fight racial discrimination and enslavement.

Lewis H. Latimer: Inventor and Engineer
Lewis H. Latimer was a celebrated engineer and inventor whose patents helped to improve technological advancements such as the telephone and lightbulb.

Benjamin "Pap" Singleton: Leader of the Exodusters
Benjamin

Louis Farrakhan: Leader of the Nation of Islam
Louis Farrakhan rose to prominence in the Nation of Islam under the leadership of Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X. How did Farrakhan help the mission of the Nation of Islam grow?

African-American Muslims in the United States
When did African-Americans begin converting to Islam in the United States?

Elijah Muhammad: Leader of the Nation of Islam
How did Elijah Muhammad inspire many African-Americans to become members of the Nation of Islam?

Women of the Black Arts Movement
Prominent women of the Black Arts Movement

John Lewis: Civil Rights Activist and Elected Politician
John Lewis is an United States congressman. At the age of 23, he became one of the

Benjamin Tucker Tanner
Benjamin Tucker Tanner was a prominent 19th Century African Methodist Episcopal bishop. He is also the father of artist Henry Ossawa Tanner.

Watch This: Three African-American Documentaries
Three documentary sets providing vivid footage and historical reenactments to inform viewers of the African-American experience in the United States.

On the Bookshelf: Four African-American Children's Books
Ready to introduce your young reader to a biography or memoir of an African-American historical figure? This list is a great start!

James Monroe Trotter: Educator, Musical Historian and Military Man
James Monroe Trotter was a true Renaissance Man. An educator, military officer and musical historian, Trotter was also the first black man to be employed by the postal service.

Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield
Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield was the first African-American concert perform to achieve international acclaim and perform at the Royal Palace.

Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson is an activist, minister and politician whose career in the public eye has lasted more than 50 years.

Organizations of the Civil Rights Movement
Four prominent civil rights organizations that helped to end segregation and Jim Crow Era laws.

Dorothy Height: Advocate for Women and Civil Rights
Dorothy Height's career as an advocate for women's rights and racial equality spanned the Jim Crow Era and into the post-modern Civil Rights Movement.

Major Literary Publications of the Harlem Renaissance
This timeline highlights significant literary works published during the Harlem Renaissance, a period lasting from 1917 to 1937.

Maggie Lena Walker
Maggie Lena Walker was the first woman in the United States to establish and run a bank. Walker's work as an activist is also well noted.

Arna Bontemps: Documenting the Harlem Renaissance
Writer Arna Bontemps never gained notoriety during the Harlem Renaissance but his work as a curator of black literature and culture makes him notable.

Kwanzaa: Seven Principles to Honor African Heritage
Kwanzaa is an annual celebration of African heritage taking place from December 26 to January 1.

The Niagara Movement: Organizing for Social Change
The Niagara Movement was an organization established in 1905 by journalist William Monroe Trotter and scholar W.E.B. Du Bois to fight racial injustice

Fanny Jackson Coppin: Pioneering Educator and Missionary
Fanny Jackson Coppin was the first African-American woman to be a school principal and the first African-American to become a school superintendent.

Mary McLeod Bethune
Mary McLeod Bethune established Bethune-Cookman College and was an advocate for African-American women's rights.

Nanie Helen Burroughs
Nanie Helen Burroughs established the National Trades and Professional School for Women in 1909.

Booker T. Washington
Booker T. Washington was the founder of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. He was also instrumental in helping African-American establish businesses.

Fanny Jackson Coppin
Fanny Jackson Coppin was the first African-American woman to serve as a principal.

HBCU Timeline: 1900 to 1975
What historically black colleges and universities were established between 1900 and 1975? What organizations helped African-Americans attend college?

American Tennis Association: Creating Spaces for Black Tennis Players
The American Tennis Association (ATA) was established to provide a space for African-American tennis players to compete against each other.

Julian Bond: Civil Rights Activist and Elected Politician
Julian Bond’s career as an activist, politician, professor of history made him an elder statesmen in the Civil Rights Movement.

Biography of Jacob Lawrence
Jacob Lawrence depict African-American historical figures and events in visual narrative series.

Paul Leroy Robeson: Human Rights Activist and Performer
Paul Robeson was a celebrated actor and singer whose rendition of

HBCU Timeline: 1871 to 1899
How did the Freedmen's Bureau and Freedmen's Aid Society help African-Americans achieve an education during the Reconstruction Period?

HBCU Timeline: 1837 to 1870
What was the first historically black college to be established in the United States? What organizations helped establish schools for African-Americans?

African-American History Timeline: 1980 to 1989
This month's historical timeline features events taking place between 1980 and 1989. As a result of various civil rights struggles in previous decades, it

African-American News Publishers: Fighting The Jim Crow Era
Why did Black newspaper publishers fight against Jim Crow Era laws and racial injustice?

African-American News Publishers: Fighting Enslavement and Social Reform
How did abolitionists use African-American newspapers to fight against slavery?

Power of the Press: Black Women as News Publishers
What contributions did African-American women make to the news publishing industry?

African-American Press Timeline: 1901 to 1975
How did African-American newspapers serve as vehicles for change during the Jim Crow Era?

The African-American Press Timeline: 1827 to 1895
Why did African-Americans begin publishing their own newspapers? When did this occur? Why did publishing news throughout the United States become so important to African-Americans?

Annie Turnbo Malone: Inventor of Healthy Hair Care Products
Annie Turnbo Malone invented hair care products, is credited with giving Madam CJ Walker her start in the hair care business and opened a beauty school.

Pan African Leaders
What is Pan Africanism? What African-American figures were believers in this ideology?

Claude Barnett and the Associated Negro Press
Claude Barnett established the Associated Negro Press to distribute daily news coverage to African-American newspapers.

Thomas Dorsey: Father of Black Gospel Music
Thomas Dorsey wrote

Early Black Nationalist Leaders
Early Black Nationalists included Paul Cuffee, Martin Delany and Henry McNeal Turner. These men all envisioned a better world for African-Americans outside of the United States.

African-American Musical Pioneers
W.C. Handy, Scott Joplin and Thomas Dorsey are all considered musical pioneers for their ability to take chances and create new sounds.

The Black Theater Movement: 1816 to 1967
The Black Theater Movement began in 1816 when William Brown established the African Company and troupes such as the Negro Ensemble Company continue the movement today.

Arthur Ashe
Not only was Arthur Ashe a tennis player that broke racial barriers, but he used his position to shed light on several humanitarian issues.

Marva Collins: Chicago Educator
Marva Collins was an educator who established a low-cost private school for young children residing in Chicago.

Timeline of the PAS
The Pennsylvania Abolition Society used moral suasion followed by political action as a method to abolish enslavement.

David Ruggles
David Ruggles was a prominent African-American abolitionist based out of New York City. Ruggles was the first African-American to own a bookstore.

Zora Neale Hurston: Anthropologist, Folklorist and Novelist
Zora Neale Hurston's work as a novelist was heavily influenced by the folklore she heard as a child and her research as an anthropologist.

Lucille Clifton: Poet and Children's Book Author
Poet and children's book author Lucille Clifton's career began during the Black Arts Movement. She won the National Book Award in 2000.

Lorraine Hansberry
Lorraine Hansberry wrote

Augusta Savage: The Teaching Artist
Sculptor Augusta Savage created busts of Harlem Renaissance leaders such as W.E.B. DuBois and Marcus Garvey.

Profile: Gwendolyn Brooks
Gwendolyn Brooks is the first African-American to win a Pulitzer Prize in Poetry. Brooks poetry is influenced by the Great Migration and later the Black Power Movement.

The Children's Crusade
In the 1960s, no place in the United States was believed to be more racist than Birmingham, Alabama. The old steel town earned the name

African-American History Timeline: 1900 to 1909
This timeline traces important moments in African-American history between 1900 and 1909

Augusta Savage: Sculptor and Teaching Artist
Augusta Savage was a sculptor who was active during the Harlem Renaissance and later established the Harlem Community Art Center for young artists.

"Drawing in Two Colors" by Weinold Reiss
German born F. Winold Reiss illustrated African-Americans during the Harlem Renaissance. He also served as a mentor to Aaron Douglas.

Lois Mailou Jones
Painter Lois Mailou Jones was the only African-American female painter to achieve international success in the 1930s and 1940s.

Archibald Motley's "Black Belt"
Visual artist Archibald Motley illustrated portraits to chronicle African-American life in the 1920s and 1930s.

Aaron Douglas: Father of African-American Arts
Painter Aaron Douglas was a prominent artist during the Harlem Renaissance. He employed themes such as African heritage in his paintings.

Alain Leroy Locke: Uplifting African-Americans through the Arts
Like Jessie Redmon Fauset, Alain Leroy Locke worked diligently to promote the literary and artistic work of African-Americans during the Harlem Renaissance.

African-American History Timeline: 1800 to 1819
African-American History Timeline of 1800 to 1819 documents specific acts of legislation, events and people who were prominent societal figures.

African-American History Timeline: 1820 to 1839
Important events and people from 1820 to 1839.

Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller
Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller was an African-American sculptor. She was the first African-American woman to receive a commission from the U.S. government.

Jacob Lawrence
Jacob Lawrence's painting series

Henry Ossawa Tanner
Henry Ossawa Tanner, created

African-American Performers Reaching Mainstream Acclaim During the Jim Crow Era
African-American performers defied great odds to appear on Broadway stages and feature films during the Jim Crow Era.