Ancient/Classical History Sitemap - Page 10 2016-09-26

What Is Brahmanism? (Definition)
Brahmanism is an early religion of the Indian sub-continent.

Han Dynasty in China History
The Han Dynasty ruled China for about 400 years.

What Is the Pythagorean Theorem?
The Pythagorean Theorem of geometry may have been first proven by Pythagoras, although the Pythagorean theorem had been in use since well before Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans.

Athenian General Alcibiades of the Peloponnesian War
Alcibiades was a relative of Pericles. Alcibiades was also an Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War.

The Story of Adonis and Aphrodite From Metamorphoses
Read the story of the ill-fated love affair of Adonis and Aphrodite as told by the Roman poet Ovid in the Metamorphoses.

What Is the Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus?
Learn about the history of the sarcophagus in Ancient Egypt, the best known example being the gilded sarcophagus of King Tut.

What is the Definition of the Synoptic Gospels?
The Synoptic Gospels are the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke.

Equites (Roman Knights) - Description and Development
Equites were Roman horsemen or knights. The name is derived from the Latin for horse, equus. The equites came to be a social class.

What Were the Four Tasks Psyche Had to Complete?
The 4 tasks of Psyche. Ancient / Classical History.

The Myth of Er From the Republic of Plato
English translation, by Jowett, of the Myth of Er, from Plato's Republic.

Bas-Relief Sculpting Style Definition
Bas-relief is a type of sculpture.

Caesar's Famous Last Words Before Death
These are the words made famous by Shakespeare and Suetonius spoken in the midst of Caesar's assassination.

Sumerian Gods - Primary Deities - Names and Functions
Names and functions or identities of the primary Sumerian deities.

What Is the Name for a Hybrid Monster?
Term for a creature in Greek mythology that is half-human, half-animal.

Plutarch of Chaeronea - the Greek Historian
Profile of Plutarch. Ancient / Classical History.

How Do You Mark and Scan a Line of Latin Poetry?
An explanation of the process of scanning a line of Latin poetry.

Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite - English Translation
Read a public domain translation of the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite in which Aphrodite falls for the father-to-be of Aeneas, founder of the Latin race.

Definition and Description of King Priam of Troy
Glossary entry on King Priam of Troy.

Quod Erat Demonstrandum Definition
Quod erat demonstrandum means that which was to be demonstrated.

Fast Facts About the Olympians - The Goddess Demeter
Fast facts about the Olympian goddess Demeter.

Understanding Endings on Latin Comparative Adjectives
Information on forming the comparative of Latin adjectives.

Climate of Israel - Data From the Library of Congress
LOC data on the climate of Israel.

Women of the Torah and Co-founders of Israel
Although tradition has focused on the Bible's patriarchs, the women of the Torah played equally important roles as ancestors of Israel. Indeed, without the matriarchs Sarah, Rebekah, Leah and Rachel, there could have been no fulfillment of God's promise to Abraham that he would be the ancestor of a great nation.

Women of the Torah - Sarah, Rebekah, Leah and Rachel Are the Bible's Matriarchs
Although tradition has focused on the Bible's patriarchs, the women of the Torah played equally important roles as ancestors of Israel. Indeed, without the matriarchs Sarah, Rebekah, Leah and Rachel, there could have been no fulfillment of God's promise to Abraham that he would be the ancestor of a great nation. Page 2.

History and Definition of the Edict of Milan
The Edict of Milan was granted by Emperor Constantine the Great in the West and Licinius Augustus in the East.

About the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius
Information on the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius.

Dinah of the Bible - Her Unknown Story
Dinah, the daughter of Jacob and Leah, is the central character of a biblical story in which she never says a word for herself. This bloody episode in Genesis 34 can be seen as a prime example of the way in which the Bible fails to take into account historical documentation of women's lives. Dinah has been given a new voice during the past 14 years thanks to a best-selling novel and a follow-up non-fiction interpretative work.

Population Figures for Dynasties of Ancient China
These are approximations of the population figures for periods of ancient China.

Julian the Apostate and Fall of Paganism - Roman Empire
When Julian came to power Christianity was less popular than paganism, but when the pagan Julian was killed in battle, it was the end of Roman official acceptance of polytheism.

Freya - the Norse Goddess of Fertility
The Norse goddess of love and fertility was Freya.

Why Are There Problems Choosing Bible Translations?
Learn about the issues involved in Bible translation that make it hard to know which version of the Bible is best for studying Biblical history.

Plutarch Describes the Assassination of Caesar
The scene of the assassination of Caesar as described by Plutarch.

Ancient Olympic Games Origins and History
Information on the origins of the ancient Olympic games.

Rome City - Various Names and Synonyms
Here are some of the names and synonyms for Rome.

The Archaic Age of Ancient Greek History
Shortly after the Trojan War, Greece fell into a dark age about which we know little. With the return of literacy at the beginning of the eighth century B.C. came what is called the Archaic Age.

What Were Ancient Roman Apartments?
In ancient Rome apartments were where most people lived.

Greek Mythology to Rational Pre-Socratic Philosophy
What distinguishes Pre-Socratics from those who looked to mythology for explanations of the universe? Here you'll find an introduction to Pre-Socratic philosophy and its connection to the supernatural explanations found in Greek mythology.

Epithet in Homer's Iliad and Odyssey Definition
An Homeric Epithet is a mnemonic device used in the Iliad and the Odyssey that helped the poet (Homer) make his words suit his meter.

Pakistan Early Civilizations History
Early civilizations in Pakistan. Library of Congress article on the early civilizations in the region of Pakistan.

Machu Picchu Wonder of the World Info Profile
Machu Picchu is a city in the Andes at an altitude of 8000 feet that was built by a ruler of the Inca called PachacutiInca Yupanqui.

Canopic Jars Definition in Ancient Egypt
Which vessel held which organ in the Egyptian canopic jars found with mummies in ancient Egyptian tombs?

Egyptian Makeup - A Quick Look at Ancient Egyptian Makeup
A quick look at ancient Egyptian makeup

List of Names and Dates of Spartan Kings
Names and dates of the Spartan kings.

Books of the Odyssey, I-XXIV - Quizzes and Review
Here are quick, self-grading quizzes on the books of the Odyssey.

Glossary of Roman Terms
An A to Z glossary of Roman terms.

Plato on the Story of Atlantis
Atlantis is a story from Plato's Timaeus.

Hippocratic Oath - First Do No Harm - Myth vs Fact
Are the words

Symbols of the Greek God Apollo
A listing of the symbols of Apollo the god.

Table of Common Latin Pronouns - Learning Latin
Table of the declensions of common Latin pronouns.

Poseidon's Loves and Their Children
Learn the names of the mates and children of the Greek sea god Poseidon.

What Are the Goddess Athena's Symbols?
A listing of Athena's symbols. Ancient / Classical History.

Table of Egyptian Goddesses Through History
Table of the goddesses of ancient Egypt. Identification of ancient Egyptian goddesses.

Who Was Buddha? - Biographical Information
A basic glossary entry on Siddharta Gautama, the Buddha.

"If You Want Peace, Prepare for War" (Latin Expression)
Latin quote from Vegetius. Prepare for war and the Latin version of the quote from Vegetius.

Caesar, Crassus, Pompey and The First Triumvirate
The first triumvirate is a modern term for the coalition of Crassus, Caesar, and Pompey formed for their own political ends.

Bye-Bye Blog
That's right, this blog is going away on May 31. About.com has decided to eliminate blogs from the sites. This site is NOT going away. There are still several

7 Points to Know About Ancient Greek Government
Ancient Greek government varied from place to place and time to time.

Fall of Rome - Common Theories and Causes
Common theories or reasons for the fall of rome.

Rome 101 - An Outline of History From 300 B.C. to the Christian Era
Here you'll find an outline of topics to know about Roman history from 300 B.C. to the beginning of the Roman Empire (or the Christian era), along with relevant readings in the areas.

Greek and Latin Quotes With Translations
Latin quotes for various occasions with translations, plus a few Greek quotes.

Myth Monday - Min
A relief adorning the main gate of the temple at Deir el-Haggar, depicting Amun-Min.2006 NYU Excavations at Amheida Even such a specific food item as

Paintings Based on Homer's 'The Odyssey'
Homer's Odyssey has inspired impressive artwork. Here are some of the artistic representations of people Odysseus encountered, based on the Odyssey.

The Slaughter of the Suitors
The Slaughter of the Suitors. Ancient / Classical History.

Odysseus and Nausicaa - Odyssey Scene of Nausicaa and Odysseus
Odysseus and Nausicaa. Ancient / Classical History.

Odysseus at the Palace of Alcinous - Odyssey Scene of Odysseus at the Palace of Alcinous
Odysseus at the Palace of Alcinous

Odysseus, His Men, and Polyphemus - Odyssey Scene of Odysseus and Polyphemus
Odysseus and his men blind the Cyclops Polyphemus.

Circe in the Odyssey - Circe Offers a Cup in the Odyssey
Circe is a sorcerer who enchants Odysseus' men.

Odysseus and the Sirens in the Odyssey
Odysseus has been warned about the Sirens and knows that they are dangerous, so his men put wax in their ears, but Odysseus is tied to a mast.

Odysseus and Tiresias - Red-figure Calyx-krater of Odysseus With Tiresias
Odysseus consults with Tiresias in the Underworld.

Odysseus and Calypso - Painting of Odysseus and Calypso Based on the Odyssey
Odysseus stayed with Calypso but longed for Ithaca.

Odysseus and His Dog Argos
Odysseus and His Dog Argos. Ancient / Classical History.

City of Rome Map
Map of the city of Rome. Ancient / Classical History.

Ancient Map of the Western Roman Empire
See a portion of an ancient map of the Roman Empire circa A.D. 395. Click on the map for a close-up view. Page One.

Eastern Roman Empire Map - A.D. 395
Map of the Eastern Roman Empire in A.D. 395

Time Periods of Pottery From Ancient Greece
An introduction to the periods of ancient Greek pottery.

Pictures of Roman Emperors
Assorted pictures of Roman emperors.

Types of Eunuchs in Imperial Rome
A description of the different categories of eunuchs in Rome, especially as recognized during the Roman Empire.

The Deaths of the First Triumvirate
Learn about the deaths of the members of the First Triumvirate in Republican Rome.

Ancient People
A starting place to learn about the important people of the ancient world.

Most Beautiful Women of Ancient Times
Here are my choices for the most beautiful ancient women.

Roman Gods and Goddesses: Table and Links
A list of Roman gods and goddesses, compiled by Gregory Flood.

The Apotheosis of Hercules
This picture shows Jupiter leading Hercules from the pyre to his new life as a god on Mt. Olympus.

Ghost Stories - The Younger Pliny's Haunted House
The Younger Pliny's ghost story about a haunted House in Latin.

Hades - Basic Facts About the Greek God
Information about the Greek god Hades who abducted Persephone and made her the queen of the Underworld.

Celtic Gods and Goddesses List
A list of major Celtic gods and goddesses.

Hermes Greek God - Basic Info & Attributes
Information on Hermes, the Greek god.

The Seven Early Kings of Rome - Ancient History
The names and dates of the legendary kings of Rome.

The God Apollo - Facts About the Olympians
Fast facts about the Olympian god Apollo.

Egyptian Gods - Tables and Descriptions
Table of the gods of ancient Egypt, including

Jewish and Biblical Names - Meanings
The meaning of some popular Jewish and Biblical names.

The Diverse Climate Throughout China
LOC data on the climate of China.

Odysseus (Ulysses) - Ancient Roman and Greek Mythology
Odysseus fought in the Trojan War, came up with the idea of the wooden horse and returned home by an adventure-filled circuitous route that took ten years.

What Armor Did Ancient Chinese Warriors Wear?
A look at Qin Dynasty Chinese armor based on the terra cotta warriors.

Theseus Had a Hand in It
Theseus had a hand in so many adventures his name became proverbial.

Theseus - King Theseus of Athens
Pictures of the king and hero of Athens, Theseus.

Theseus Returns From Crete
Pictures of the king and hero of Athens, Theseus.

The Deeds of Theseus
Theseus was almost as prolific a hero as Hercules.

Who Were the Sirens in Greek Mythology
Basic information on the sirens of Greek mythology.

Endings for Latin Verbs in the Indicative
When using the indicative with Latin verbs, there are a number of endings you can use, to indicate singular and plural.

9 Muses - Ancient / Classical History Glossary
The 9 Muses. The names and specialties of the nine Muses.

The 12 Labors of Hercules
The 12 Labors of Hercules. Ancient / Classical History.

List of Deaths in the Iliad
The names of the Greek or Trojan killer, his Greek or Trojan victim, the manner of death, and the place in the Iliad of Homer.

Climate and Hydrology of Algeria
Northern Algeria is in the temperate zone and enjoys a mild, Mediterranean climate. It lies within approximately the same latitudes as southern California.

Nestor
Nestor is an old king of Pylos, son of Neleus and Choris, who appears in the Iliad and Odyssey.

Some of the Famous Queens in Ancient History
Here are some of the most famous ancient queens in ancient history.

Brief Biography of Nefertiti - Queen of Ancient Egypt
Here are some of the most famous ancient queens in ancient history. Page 2 of 7.

Tomyris - Queen of the Massagetae
Here are some of the most famous ancient queens in ancient history.

Arsinoe II - Queen of Ancient Thrace and Egypt
Here are some of the most famous ancient queens in ancient history.

Cleopatra VII - Queen of Ancient Egypt
Here are some of the most famous ancient queens in ancient history.

Boudicca - Queen of the Iceni
Here are some of the most famous ancient queens in ancient history.

Zenobia - Queen of Palmyra
Here are some of the most famous ancient queens in ancient history.

The Punic Wars Between Rome and Carthage
A basic overview of the Punic Wars.

Bribery and Cheating at the Ancient Olympics
Here are some instances of cheating during the ancient olympics, based on the testimony of the second century A.D travel writer Pausanias.

Picture of The Ebers Medical Papyrus
Housed at the University Library of Leipzig, the EbersMedical Papyrus is the longest of the medical papyri.

Chinese Dynasties Timeline - Ancient History
Chinese Timeline Dynasties of China.

The Roman Relationship Between Patron and Client
Patrons was an officially recognized high status position in Roman society.

When Were the 10 Christian Persecutions?
List of the ten persecutions of Christians in the Early Church.

Fast Facts About Ancient Greek Colonies
An introductory look at and fast facts about the ancient Greek colonies.

Who Are the Lotus Eaters? - Ancient / Classical History
The lotus in Greek mythology. Companions of Odysseus come across the lotus-eaters in the ninth book of the Odyssey.

Queen of Sheba - Ancient / Classical History
The Queen of Sheba was a legendary figure who went to the court of King Solomon of the Bible. Read more about the queen's stories and references.

Cleisthenes' Creation of the Ten Tribes of Athens
Cleisthenes created the ten tribes of Athens as one of a long line of changes to the democracy of Athens.

The Greek God Aeolus - Ancient / Classical History
This is a 1911 encyclopedia article on the Greek God Aeolus. In Greek and Roman mythology, Aeolus was a wind god.

Love and Marriage in the Bible FAQs
Love and marriage in the Bible were quite different from what most people experience today. For example, men could have many wives at one time, while women could only have one husband at a time. Here are some frequently asked questions about husbands, wives and lovers in the Old Testament.

Latin Ordinal Numbers
This is a list of the ordinal numbers in Latin.

Examiniation of the Climate of Bangladesh
LOC data on the climate of Bangladesh.

Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy of Stoicism
Stoicism was a philosophy that spread from Greece to Rome.

The Definition and Pharaohs of the New Kingdom
New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. Ancient / Classical History.

Corinth - Legends and History: The Basics
Find out about this polis (city-state) in ancient Greek and Roman history, and read about its place in mythology. A link to a quiz on Corinth is included.

Ancient Spartan Public Education
T. Rutherford Harley describes the Spartan education system.

Roman Family and the Exposure of Infants
Romans practiced various means of population control, including exposure of infants.

Cato the Younger
A brief look at the Roman statesman Cato the Younger.

Word Derivations - Greek and Latin Bases
The more Greek and Latin word bases/roots you know the better you will be able to guess the meaning of unfamiliar words derived from Greek or Latin.

What Was Greek Religion?
Some basic information on the nature of the religion of the ancient Greeks and its connection with Greek mythology.

Important People in Ancient African History
Many historically important people in ancient African history became so through their contact with ancient Rome.

Homeric Hymn to Apollo (Translated by Evelyn-White)
English translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White of the Homeric Hymn to Apollo. This hymn is to Apollo in his aspect as Delian Apollo.

Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo Page 2
English translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White of the Homeric Hymn to Apollo. This hymn is to Apollo in his aspect as Delian Apollo. Page 2.

Roman Emperor Vespasian - Biography
A biography of the Roman emperor Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus), including dates of reign, offspring and cause of death.

Panhellenic Games
The basics on the ancient Panhellenic Games.

The Names and Dates of the Tragedies of Euripides
The names and dates of the tragedies by Euripides.

Review - 'Dying Every Day' by James Romm
Review of James Romm's Dying Every Day: Seneca at the Court of Nero.

The Suicide of Seneca
Information on the suicide of Seneca.

Review of 'Ghost on the Throne: The Death of Alexander the Great and the War for Crown and Empire'
'Ghost on the Throne: The Death of Alexander the Great and the War for Crown and Empire' is yet another book on Alexander the Great, but it serves a very useful purpose for those of us interested in Alexander the Great or ancient history in general.

Review of Anthony Everitt's Cicero
Review of Cicero, by Anthony Everitt, a biography of Cicero -- Marcus Tullius Cicero and the times in which he lived -- the end of Republican Rome.

The Parthian Empire
Information on the Parthians and the Parthian Empire

Cicero - Statesman, Orator, Philosopher
Cicero was a famous orator who allied himself with Pompey and then Caesar, and finally Octavian.

Prophecy in the Ancient World
Prophecy in the ancient world was a multi-faceted aspect of daily life. Ordinary people sought oracles for life events and generals sought divine approval beforehand for what their campaigns.

Top 10 Discoveries About Jesus' World: Scholars List Both Sites and Artifacts
The quest for the historical Jesus has consumed scholars since the dawn of the scientific age. In 2001, two world-renowned authorities, biblical scholar John Dominic Crossan and archaeologist Jonathan L. Reed wrote a book Excavating Jesus: Beneath the Stones, Behind the Texts based on their own

Servius Tullius - The 6th King of Rome
Servius Tullius, the sixth king of Rome was a reformer and builder. Here are some of what are considered his main contributions to ancient Rome.

Plutarch Quotes - A Collection of Plutarch Quotes
A collection of Plutarch quotes.

The Ancient Roman Theater - About the Types of Plays
Information about the types of plays in the ancient Roman theater.

What Did Julius Caesar Do?
Do you know who Julius Caesar was? You should. Here is what he did to make him so famous.

Ancient Law-Givers
Ancient kings and other leaders of their city-states or countries developed laws to use to govern their people.

Victory Wreaths - Winners of Panhellenic Games Received Victory Wreaths
The winners of the ancient Panhellenic games, including the Olympics, received victory wreaths.

Sophocles' Oedipus Dramatis Personae - The Roles of the Main Characters in Sophocles' Oedipus
The dramatis personae of the Oedipus Rex, by Sophocles.

Aeneid Glossary - Glossary of People in the Aeneid
A glossary of major people and some places. in the Aeneid

Aeneid Glossary - Glossary of People in the Aeneid
A glossary of major people and some places. in the Aeneid

Classical Greece Timeline
A history timeline of the Classical period of ancient Greek history.

Hellenistic Greece Timeline
A history timeline of the Hellenistic period of ancient Greek history.

Flavian Emperors - Fast Facts About the Flavian Emperors
Basic data about the three Flavian emperors.

Ancient India and the Indian Subcontinent
Modern India and Pakistan have a long history with one of the world's oldest writing systems, and a religious system still in use Notable mathematical and scientific contributions round out its importance. Read more about the region of the ancient Indian subcontinent.

Women Who Were Models of Roman Virtue
Women who have been considered as paragons of Roman virtue.

8 Saints of the Early Christian Church
Read about eight of the major saints of the early Christian Church.

Romans B - Famous Ancient Romans Beginning With a B
Famous ancient Romans whose names begin with the letter B.

Romans - Famous Ancient Romans Whose Names Begin With G
Famous ancient Romans whose names begin with the letter G.

Romans - Famous Ancient Romans Whose Names Begin With J
Famous ancient Romans whose names begin with the letter J.

Romans - Famous Ancient Romans Whose Names Begin With P
Famous ancient Romans whose names begin with the letter P.

Winter Solstice Holidays - About Winter Solstice Holidays
On this page you will find information on ancient holidays that have been celebrated on or around the Winter Solstice.

Church Fathers - Eastern Church Fathers
Short descriptions of the four fathers of the Eastern Church.

Thermopylae - Terms to Know About The Battle of Thermopylae
When reading about the Greeks and Persians at the Battle of Thermopylae, it will help to know the following names and other terms.

Herodotus Passages on Artemisia of Halicarnassus
Herodotus Passages on Artemisia of Halicarnassus

The Tomb of Darius the Great at Naqsh-i Rustam
A look at the tomb of Darius the Great, Achaemenid king of Persia.

Metrics for Ancient Epic, Lyric, Elegiac, Comedy and Tragic Poetry
Some terms used for standard meters used by ancient Greek epic, lyric, elegiac, iambic, comic and tragic poets.

Plutarch describes the suicide of Cato the Younger.
Read how Plutarch says Cato the Younger spent his last hours with friends and Stoic philosophy before committing suicide.

The Fravahar Symbol or Winged Sun DIsk
Symbolizing Iran for the Pahlavi shahs and Ahura Mazda for Zoroastrians is sometimes called the Fravahar or Faravahar.

Simplified Picture of the Fravahar
Simplified Picture of the Fravahar. Page 2.

An Allegorical Figure
A renaissance version of an ancient muse.

Emperor Claudius on Farts
The buffoonish portrayal of the emperor Claudius includes a proclamation on the freedom to fart.

"Soulful Creatures" Review
Review of a book from the Brooklyn Museum, home to a substantial collection of ancient Egyptian animal mummies.

Temple of Solomon - About the Temple of Solomon
About the connection between Solomon and the Temple in Jerusalem.

Alba Longa
Glossary entry on the city of Alba Longa.

The Italic Dialects
Introduction to the languages of the the Italic peninsula in the area of initial settlement of Rome and how the Latin language came to dominate Italy.

Hyperborea
Learn where the ancient Greeks thought the mythological Hyperborea was located.

The Mad Odysseus
The story about the madness of Odysseus so perfectly suits him that it is disappointing not to find it spelled out in Homer. Where does the story of Homer's attempted draft dodging through madness come from?

Regions of Ancient Asia Minor
A list of the regions of ancient Asia Minor.

Februarius
The month of February (Februarius) was not always the second month of the Roman year.

Thucydides
Thucydides is an ancient Greek historian who wrote about the Peloponnesian War.

Ancus Martius - Roman King
Ancus Martius was the fourth king of Rome.

Isthmian Games
The Isthmian Games were one of the panhellenic games held in ancient Greece.

The Presocratic Philosophers - Pythagoras of Samos
Pythagoras of Samos is the most familiar of the Pre-Socratics, yet we know surprisingly little about him.

Parthenon
The Parthenon is a temple to the Greek goddess Athena on the acropolis.

Stoic New Year's Resolutions - Five Stoic Mottoes As Resolutions For New Years
Here are five general behaviors based on Stoic philosophy that can be substituted for typical New Year's resolutions.

Croesus of Lydia - 10 Points to Know
Ten points to know about Croesus of Lydia.

Hanno of Carthage and West Africa - Hanno of Carthage Travels Down the West Coast of Africa
Hanno of Carthage traveled down the west coast of Africa to the land of the gorilla people whom he flayed and brought back to Carthage to put on display.

Uranus' Revenge - Rise of the Olympians - Cycles of Fate and Uranus' Revenge
Uranus' Revenge: The Olympian gods and goddesses came to power at the expense of their father, the Titan Cronus.

Semitic Languages Map
Map of the ancient semitic languages.

Why the Field of Mars Was Important
The importance of the Campus Marius (Field of Mars) especially in Republican Rome.

Callisto in Greek and Roman Myth
Some of the ancient writers on the myth featuring the transformation of Callisto.

Shapur I the Great of Persia vs the Romans
Information on the events that made the Persian king Shapur I so important for the Roman Empire.

Campus Martius
Basic information about the Campus Martius, an ancient area first adjacent to and then included in the city of Rome.

Alcmene
Basics on Alcmene, Heracles' mother.

Ecbatana
A picture of the remains and an introduction to an important ancient city called Ecbatana.

The Tomb of Cyrus the Great at Pasargadae
A look at the tomb of Cyus the Great, Achaemenid king of Persia.

Caesar's Role in the Collapse of the Roman Republic
An overview of the later years of the Roman Republic and Caesar's role in the events leading to the next period, the Empire.

Symbolism of the Caesar Elephant Denarius
A look at the symbols on the Denarius of Caesar showing an elephant on the obverse.

Apollo Tortures Marsyas
Apollo figures out how to defeat Marsyas and then demands his right to torture the mortal. Page 2.

Sisyphus Punished While Persephone Watches in the Underworld
When he was still alive, Sisyphus led an evil enough life to warrant eternal torture in the Underworld. Learn about this tricky figure from Greek mythology.

A picture of Nebuchadnezzar's inscription on the Ishtar Gate
A picture of Nebuchadnezzar's inscription on the Ishtar Gate

Apollo and Marsyas
Learn about the contest between the Greek god Apollo and Marsyas, a mortal who paid the ultimate and a gruesome price for daring to compete with a god.

The Capitoline Wolf (Lupa Capitolina)
A picture of the Capitoline Wolf (Lupa Capitolina

Apotheosis of Romulus
This picture depicts one popular theory about the death of Rome's first king, Romulus -- his apotheosis.

Hannibal Crossing the Rhône
Hannibal thought the Alps were the best means to attack the Romans. To do so he led his forces, some of which are shown here, across the Rhτne.

Map of the Indian Subcontinent Showing the Gupta Empire
A public domain map of the Gupta Empire in the Indian Subcontinent.

Mesopotamia - City Walls and Other Fortifications
At Nineveh, in ancient Assyria, and at Babylon, you can see that there were structures similar to the castles of the medieval period.

Bust of Cleopatra at the British Museum
An exhibition on Cleopatra was shown at the British Museum in 2001. Here is a bust from the collection.

Trajan's Markets in Rome
A picture of the Roman remains and a description of the giant geology-defying building project undertaken by

Acrocorinth - Corinth's Citadel and High Rock
Learn about one of the main geographic features of ancient Corinth, its high spot and citadel, the Acrocorinth.

A Quick Look at Ancient Corinth
Highlights of the ancient Greco-Roman city of Corinth.

Temple of Apollo at Corinth
A look at what is thought to be an ancient Temple of Apollo at Corinth. Page 2.

Julia Flavia
An aquamarine intaglio showing what may be the last of the Flavians, Julia Flavia. 1.5 cm long. Perhaps from A.D. 94.

An Introduction to the Development of the Greek Alphabet
Learn about the development of the Greek alphabet and the differences between writing systems and alphabets.

Studying Roman Art? Learn These Terms About the Greek Orders
These are some terms to learn about the Greek architectural orders if you're studying Greek or Roman art history. Answers: Which is the fanciest order? Why on earth isn't the pediment on the bottom?

A Basic Lesson in Latin Prepositions
Read some of the basics on Latin prepositions.

Eteocles and Polynices
Eteocles and Polynices were the paternally cursed fratricidal brothers who fought for control of Thebes after their father Oedipus abdicated.

Comparison of Dido and Aeneas
Vergil (Virgil) shows similarities between Dido and Aeneas in his 'Aeneid'. Here are some.

Latin Prepositions With the Accusative
Try to memorize this basic list of Latin prepositions that take the Accusative case.

Porta Capena
Basic information on the Porta Capena, located on the Appian Road.

Kronia
A basic description of the Kronia

Hecatomb
Glossary entry for a hecatomb in the context of Ancient/Classical History.

Battle of Guadalete
The Battle of Guadalete was fought between Visigoths and the united forces of Moors and Berbers from North Africa.

The Amarna Letters
Before you look at the Amarna Letters, made available online in 2011, find out what they're all about.

What Is the Hindu Holiday of Holi All About?
A brief description of the Hindu holiday of Holi.

Sui Dynasty of China
The Sui dynasty ruled China from A.D. 581–618.

Eunuchs in Ancient Rome
Eunuchs in Ancient Rome. Ancient / Classical History.

What Language Did They Speak in Ancient Constantinople?
What Language Did They Speak in Ancient Constantinople?

Purpose Clauses in Latin
Basic information on Latin's use of the Purpose Clause and some examples in Latin with English translation.

Relative Clauses in Latin
Basic information on Latin's use of the Relative Clause and some examples in Latin with English translation.

De Bello Gallico Passages for the AP Latin Caesar Liber I
Passages for the AP Latin Caesar exam from Book I of Caesar's Gallic Wars (de bello Gallico).

Review: 'Rome: An Empire's Story'
A review of Greg Woolf's 2012 story of the Roman Empire.

Hun-Driven Barbarian Invaders of the Roman Empire
The fate of the Roman Empire would have been different had the Huns not pushed these tribes into Roman territory.

The Cities of Coastal Asia Minor
List of the major cities in coastal Asia Minor.

Aristotle on Logical Fallacies in Arguments
A list of the 13 logical fallacies Aristotle lists in Sophistical Refutations.

Who Was Seleucus?
Basic information on Alexander the Great's follower Seleucus.

Constantine Remained Pagan - Why One Reader Denies That Constantine Was a Christian.
A reader explains why he or she believes Constantine never became Christian.

Latin 3rd Conjugation
Learn how to distinguish and conjugate Latin verbs of the third conjugation.

Matching Quiz on the Greek Gods and Goddesses
Try your hand at this matching quiz on the gods and goddesses.

Casca and the Assassination of Julius Caesar
Read about the role of Casca in the assassination of Julius Caesar on the Ides of March, 44 B.C.

A List of Latin Conjunctions
Learn the basic words of Latin. Here are the conjunctions with definitions.

Os - Latin Noun Declensions
Here's the declension of the Latin noun os.

Polyphemus and Galatea
'Polyphemus and Galatea,' from an English translation of 'The Idylls of Theocritus,' by James Henry Hallard (1901).

Greco-Roman Mystery Religions - Review of Hugh Bowden's Mystery Cults of the Ancient World
Hugh Bowden's Mystery Cults of the Ancient World shows how Greco-Roman mystery religions were not like the monotheistic religions of the Book and examines the relationship between participants and the god connected with the mystery cult.

Aeschylus' "Agamemnon" Plot Summary
Plot and episode summary of the

Heracles Has to Choose Which Path to Take
Read the passage that explains how Heracles was told about the two very different paths he might take in life.

Was Cicero One of Caesar's Assassins
A look at Cicero's connection with the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 B.C.

How Do You Pronounce Greek Names?
Read some comforting advice on facing a daunting Greek name or other word.

Did the Greeks Believe Their Myths?
A possible answer to the question of whether the Greeks believed their myths.

How do you say "I used to go" in Latin?
To show habitual action, Latin uses the imperfect.

Hemikotylion
Hemikotylion. Ancient / Classical History. Page 26.

Attic Amphora With Artemis
Attic Amphora of Heracles with Artemis and Athena, by the Rycroft Painter. Page 2.

Picture of Artemis of Ephesus
Picture of Artemis of Ephesus. Ancient / Classical History. Page 5.

Museum of Suweida: Actaeon surprising Artemis in the bath; mosaic found in the environs of Philippopolis (IIIrd century)
Museum of Suweida: Actaeon surprising Artemis in the bath; mosaic found in the environs of Philippopolis (IIIrd century)

Picture of Heracles, Deianira and Nessus. Attic black-figured hydria, ca. 575–550 BC.
Picture of Heracles, Deianira and Nessus. Attic black-figured hydria, ca. 575–550 BC. Page 4.

Picture of Jason Showing Pelias the Golden Fleece. At the Louvre.
Picture of Jason bringing Pelias the Golden Fleece. Apulian red-figure calyx crater, 340 BC–330 B.C. Page 6.

Caligula - Roman Emperor Caligula
The Roman Emperor Caligula was one of the Julia-Claudian emperors and is known as one of Rome's most depraved emperors. Page 4.

Velletri Pallas Bust of Athena
Velletri Pallas, a copy of a 2nd century A.D. votive statue by Kresilas (ca. 430–420 B.C.), in the Glyptothek, Munich, Germany.

Chalice krater produced in cooperation by Euphronios and Euxitheos. Dionysos and his thiasos. Side A from an Attic red-figure krater, 510–500 B.C.
Chalice krater produced in cooperation by Euphronios and Euxitheos. Dionysos and his thiasos. Side A from an Attic red-figure krater, 510–500 BC. Page 19.

Heracles and Antaios on a chalice krater.
Signed by Euphronios (painter), attributed to Euxitheos (potter). Heracles wrestling with the Libyan giant Antaeus. Main side of a red-figured calix krater, 515–510 BC. Page 18.

Clytemnestra Vase - Clytemnestra Trying to Awaken Sleeping Erinyes
Apulian red-figure bell-krater, from 380–370 B.C., by Eumenides Painter showing Clytemnestra trying to awaken the Erinyes, at the Louvre. Page 13.

Heracles entering Olympus, olpe by the Amasis Painter, 550–530 BC.
Heracles entering Olympus, olpe by the Amasis Painter, 550–530 B.C. Page 5.

Heracles and the gathering of the Argonauts (or Heracles in Marathon?). Attic red-figure calyx-krater, 460–450 B.C. From Orvieto. Niobid Painter
Heracles and the gathering of the Argonauts (or Heracles in Marathon?). Attic red-figure calyx-krater, 460–450 BC. From Orvieto. Niobid Painter. Page 10.

Monsters From Greek Mythology
See what the major mythological monsters looked like -- the ones that destroyed lives and ravaged the countryside.

Cerberus - Watchdog Hound of Hades
The hound of Hades is sometimes shown with two heads and various body parts, but the most familiar form is the three-headed Cerberus. Page 2.

Sphinx - the Mysterious Riddler
the sphinx is mostly familiar from ancient Egypt, but shows up in Greek myth in the story of Oedipus. Page 3.

Medusa - the Face that Turned Men to Stone
Judge whether this face could turn a man to stone. Page 4.

Harpies - the Winged Females Who Defiled Food
Harpies. Ancient / Classical History. Page 5.

Minotaur - the Bull and Man Monster
The minotaur was half-man and half-bull and was locked in the labyrinth until Theseus killed him. Page 6.

Nemean Lion - One of Hercules' Conquests
The Nemean Lion is known more as the source of Hercules' distinctive wardrobe than as a terrifying monster. Page 7.

Hydra - One of the Monsters Hercules Destroyed
The hydra was a many-headed monster destroyed by Hercules. Page 8.

Testudo
Testudo is the Latin word for a formation used in the military, especially during sieges that comes from the fact that it serves much like the shell of a tortoise.

Other Dates for Rome's Fall: Pros and Cons
There are many critical events in Roman history that might be thought of as the moment when the Roman Empire fell. Here are some pros and cons.

Classical Writers Directory
Directory of Classical Writers and the genres written by Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman writers.

Elegiac Couplet
Explanation of and example of an Elegiac Couplet is.

Egyptian Pyramids - Pictures and Background on Egyptian Pyramids
Egyptian Pyramids. Ancient / Classical History. Page 2.

Carthage - The Founding
Information on the founding of Carthage.

Egyptian Terms Glossary
Glossary of terms connected with the history of ancient Egypt.

Harappan Culture
Harappan Culture refers to a period in the history of the Indian subcontinent when Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were major cities.

About the 4 Macedonian Wars
The Romans fought four Macedonian Wars between 215 and 148 B.C.

Tarquin - The Roman King L. Tarquinius Priscus
Learn about the first Tarquin, an Etruscan, but also one of the seven kings of Rome.

About Numa Pompilius
Information on and a picture of King Numa Pompilius.

Help Your Fellow Man
Ancient / Classical History. Page 2.

Develop Good Habits
Ancient / Classical History. Page 3.

Duty
Ancient / Classical History. Page 4.

Attitude
Ancient / Classical History. Page 5.

Pagan - Changed Meaning of the Word Pagan
The word pagan has changed its meaning since the pre-Christian Romans.

What Were Vespasian's Famous Last Words?
Vespasian still kept his wit about him as he uttered his memorable last words.

The Nominative Case - Learning Latin
An introduction to the Nominative Case in Latin.

Oedipus
The tragic story of Oedipus begins with an abandoned baby who survived and grew up to fulfill the oracle that had led to his exposure as an infant.

The Term 'Silk Road' in Ancient History
Learn some of the basics about the Silk Road in ancient history.

Ecclesia - The Assembly of Athens Known as the Ecclesia
In Athens, the ecclesia or assembly was the principle organ of Athenian democracy.

Lysander - Spartan General
Learn about an important Spartan general of the Classical Age of Greece.

2 Jewish New Years - Passover (Pesach) and Rosh Hashanah
2 Jewish New Years - Passover (Pesach) and Rosh Hashanah. The lunisolar Jewish calendar has two new years.

Secular vs. Religious New Year Passover and Rosh Hashanah
2 Jewish New Years - Passover (Pesach) and Rosh Hashanah. The lunisolar Jewish calendar has two new years. Page 2.

Herodotus on Delphi
Herodotus on Delphi. Ancient / Classical History.

Herodotus on Delphi
Herodotus on Delphi. Ancient / Classical History. Page 2.

Cush - Ancient Sudan
Cush - Ancient Sudan. The early relationship between ancient Egypt and Cush.

Cush - Meroe - Egypt - The Meroitic Kingdom
Attacks on Cush and the Meroitic Kingdom and the influence of Egypt on Meroe. Page 2.

Turkey - Ancient Anatolia - The Hittites in Anatolia
The early residents of ancient Anatolia - The Hittites.

Turkey - Ancient Anatolia - Phrygians Kurds Armenians Lydians
Ancient Anatolia. Phrygians, Lydians, Armenians, and Kurds in Anatolia. Page 2.

Turkey - Ancient Anatolia - Greeks
Greeks and Persians in Anatolia. Page 3.

Turkey - Ancient Anatolia - Rome Byzantine Empire
The Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire and ancient Turkey -- Anatolia. Page 4.

Qatar - Ancient Persian Gulf
Qatar is the modern name for an ancient Near East area on the Persian Gulf.

Qatar
Qatar - Controlling trade routes in the Ancient Persian Gulf. Page 2.

Odin and the Mead of Poetic Inspiration
Odin and the Mead of Poetic Inspiration

A Map of the Gupta Empire in India
Gupta Empire Map from Frank Smitha's site.

Maps - Myths - Timelines
Maps, myths and timelines. Ancient / Classical History.

Mauryan Empire Maps
Mauryan Empire Maps. The Mauryan Empire of Ancient India

Studies in Mithraism
Studies in Mithraism. Research from Cumont and Ulansey into the Roman soldiers favorite mystery religion, Mithraism and Mithras, also known as Mitra and Mithra.

Teaching Ancient History - Learning About Teaching Ancient History
Learning about teaching Ancient History

Teaching history so students will learn
Teaching history so students will learn. Page 2.

Early Greek Poets Timeline
Ancient Greek posts wrote in a variety of styles that evolved over time. Here is a list of ancient Greek poets timeline during the archaic period divided according to genre of ancient Greek poetry.

Learning Latin on the Internet
Learning Latin on the Internet. Ancient / Classical History.

Lycurgus - Spartan Lawgiver
Lycurgus is known as the lawgiver of Sparta much as Solon is known as the lawgiver of Athens. Lycurgus is an even more legendary figure than his Athenian counterpart.

Isocrates - In the Areopagiticus Isocrates Looks at Democracy
In the Areopagiticus of Isocrates looks at how to form a good democratic society.

People in Odyssey Book I Names and Places
Names and places in Book I of The Odyssey by Homer

Odyssey Book I: A Goddess Intervenes
Odyssey Book I: A Goddess Intervenes

Themis, Dike, Justitia and Lady Justice
Modern images of Lady Justice are based on ancient goddesses, including the Roman goddess of Justice, Justitia, and the Greek goddess Themis.

Predynastic Egypt - Period of Egypt Before the First Dynasty
Egypt during the predynastic period and the first and second dynasties.

Predynastic Egypt - Period of Egypt Before the First Dynasty
Egypt in the predynastic period and the first and second dynasties. Egyptian history and the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. Page 2.

Celtic Myth and Legends of the Celts
Celtic Myth and Legends of the Celts

Legends of the Jews - Bible Times and Characters From the Creation to Jacob, by Louis Ginzberg.
E-text of Legends of the Jews - Bible Times and Characters From the Creation to Jacob, by Louis Ginzberg.

Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses - Table of Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses
Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses. Table of Mesopotamian gods and goddesses.

Egypt - Art and Architecture in the New Kingdom
Art and Architecture in the New Kingdom

Ancient Egypt 664-323 B.C. - Late Period of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt 664-323 B.C. - Egypt The Late Period

Egypt - New Kingdom 3d Intermediate Period
Egypt - The New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period

Egypt - Pyramid Building in the Old and Middle Kingdoms
Egypt - Pyramid Building in the Old and Middle Kingdoms

Asia Minor Maps
Asia Minor Maps. Ancient / Classical History.

Ephesus - History
Resources on the History of Ephesus, which is currently part of Asia Minor. Ephesus was important in the ancient world for religious and political reasons.

Augustus and the Augustan Age of the Roman Empire
Augustus set out to end the problems of the Augustan Age.

Augustan Age - Vice - Literature - Successors
Augustus history Augustan Age. Ancient / Classical History. Page 2.

Hispania - Ancient Spain and Portugal
A look at ancient Spain and Portugal as the Roman province of Hispania.

Latin Declensions
Paradigms for the five Latin declensions, plus the third declension i-stems.

Knowing Jesus' Language Is Key to Understanding Biblical History
Why should it matter what Jesus' language was? After all, the Bible has been translated some 4,000 of the world's 6,000-plus languages, so that most readers can find a version in a language they know. Yet biblical scholars insist that Jesus' language matters critically, because without knowledge of Jesus' language, it can be next to impossible to fully understand his teachings and the history of his era.

Alleged Relics of Jesus' Crucifixion Tied to High Priest's Tomb
In 1990, a construction crew building a park south of Jerusalem's Old City made a startling discovery: a cave holding an ossuary bearing the name of Joseph Caiaphas, the high priest who turned Jesus over to the Romans for crucifixion. Also found in the tomb were two Roman nails. A new documentary explores whether the nails from the tomb may be those used in Jesus' crucifixion.

Numbers in the Bible: Centuries-Old Practice to Understand Scripture Rooted in Mystical History
The role of numbers to interpret sacred texts has been rooted in both spiritual and cultural practices since the beginning of human civilization. In fact, the meaning of numbers in the Bible has taken on mystical significance across thousands of years and often has been used by humans to influence cultural practices and historical events.

Roman Crowns - 5 Types of Roman Crowns
Crowns (coronae) were awarded to Roman soldiers for various accomplishments. Read about the types of Roman crowns.

Caius Marius - Timeline
A timeline of the events in the life of 7-time consul and military leader Caius Marius.

Julian Dates - On the Roman Calendar
The calendar reformed by Julius Caesar is known as the Julian Calendar. Here are its dates.

Latin Interrogative Pronouns
The declension of Latin interrogative pronouns.

Ovid Timeline - Main Events and Publications on the Ovid Timeline
A timeline showing the main events and major publications in Ovid's life.

Origin of the Dead Sea Scrolls - 6 Theories on the Origin of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Biblical scholars have put forth new theories on the origins of the Dead Sea Scrolls, considered by many to be the greatest archaeological find of the 20th century. Theories range from their creation by a community of ascetic Jews to their preservation by various groups during nearly three centuries of political turmoil throughout Judea. One Israeli scholar even claims that the most commonly accepted group of authors, the Essenes, never existed at all.

the Religion of Ugaritic Texts May Have Influenced Abraham - A Look at How the Religion of Ugaritic Texts May Have Influenced Abraham
The Religion of Ugaritic texts provide possible evidence of contact between Abraham and Canaanite religion.

Martha and Mary - Martha and Mary Were Early Christian Leaders
Article on Martha and Mary in the New Testament.

Why Your Kids Should Learn Latin - Differences - Prestige - Fun Are Reasons Why Your Kids Should Learn Latin
Reasons your kids should learn Latin include a sense of the differences between people of today and yesterday, a personal sense of prestige and fun.

A Table of Roman Battles
Read a summary of Roman battles during both the Republican and Imperial periods listing the date, name/location of the battle, the winner and loser.

Japan - Timelines
Timelines of periods in Japanese history, based on pottery, achievements and rulers.

Ancient History Last Minute Study Tips - Ancient History Last Minute Study Tips for School Students
Some Suggestions About Studying Ancient History for Unprepared Students

Kampe - Who Is Kampe
Descriptions of the mythological character Kampe

Greek Plays in English Translation
Translations of the plays by Aeschylus (Agamemnon, Choephori, Eumenides, Persians, Prometheus, Seven against Thebes, Suppliants), Aristophanes (Birds, Clouds, Ecclesiazusae, Frogs, Knights, Peace, Plutus, Thesmophoriazusae, Wasps), Sophocles (Ajax, Antigone, Electra, Oedipus, Philoctetes, Trachiniae), and Euripides (Alcestis, Andromache, Bacchantes, Cyclops, Electra, Hecuba, Helen, Heracleidae, Heracles, Hippolytus, Ion, Iphigenia, Medea, Orestes, Phoenissae, Rhesus, Suppliants, Trojan Women)

The Allegory of Atlantis - Plato's Myth of Atlantis From The Timaeus
English translation, by Jowett, of the Myth of Atlantis, from Plato's Timaeus.

Description From Plato of the Execution of Socrates
In his dialogue the Phaedo, Plato describes the execution of Socrates.

A Quick Look at Roman Education
In Margaret A. Brucia and Gregory N. Daugherty's To Be a Roman, they present the following very basic information about the ancient Roman education.

Homeric Questions Part II: The Great Homer Nodding
Literary questions on Homer with answers from Milman Parry, Alfred Lord and others.

Odyssey Book XIX - Summary of the Events in Odyssey Book XIX by Homer
Information on the Nineteenth Book of the Odyssey of Homer, in which Eurycleia recognizes Odysseus.

Notes on Book XIX
Information on the Nineteenth Book of the Odyssey of Homer, in which Eurycleia recognizes Odysseus. Page 2.

Major Figures in the Nineteenth Book of the Odyssey
Information on the Nineteenth Book of the Odyssey of Homer, in which Eurycleia recognizes Odysseus. Page 3.

Odyssey Book XVI - Summary of the Events in Odyssey Book XVI
Information on the Sixteenth Book of the Odyssey of Homer, in which Odysseus and Telemachus plot against the suitors.

Notes on Book XVI
Information on the Sixteenth Book of the Odyssey of Homer, in which Odysseus and Telemachus plot against the suitors. Page 2.

Major Figures in the Sixteenth Book of the Odyssey
Information on the Sixteenth Book of the Odyssey of Homer, in which Odysseus and Telemachus plot against the suitors. Page 3.

Odyssey Book V - Summary of the Events in Odyssey Book V
Information on the Fifth Book of the Odyssey of Homer.

Odyssey Book VIII - Summary of the Events in Odyssey Book VIII
Information on the Eighth Book of the Odyssey of Homer.

Major Figures in the Eighth Book of the Odyssey
Information on the Eighth Book of the Odyssey of Homer. Page 2.

Notes on Book VIII
Cultural Notes on Book VIII. Ancient / Classical History. Page 3.

Major Figures in the Fifth Book of the Odyssey
Information on the Fifth Book of the Odyssey of Homer. Page 2.

Iliad Book XXIV
Information on the twenty-fourth book of the Iliad of Homer.

Major Figures in the Twenty-Fourth Book of the Iliad
Major Figures in the Twenty-Fourth Book of the Iliad. Page 2.

Odyssey Book II - Summary of the Events in Odyssey Book II
Information on the second book of the Odyssey of Homer.

Odyssey Book III - Summary of the Events in Odyssey Book III
Information on Book III of the Odyssey of Homer. In this book Telemachus, the son of Odysseus, meets with Nestor.

Notes on Book III
Cultural Notes on Book III. Ancient / Classical History. Page 2.

Major Figures in the Third Book of the Odyssey
Information on Book III of the Odyssey of Homer. In this book Telemachus, the son of Odysseus, meets with Nestor. Page 3.

Major Figures in the Second Book of the Odyssey
Information on the second book of the Odyssey of Homer. Page 2.

Iliad Book XVIII - The Shield of Achilles
Information on the eighteenth book of the Iliad of Homer -- the Shield of Achilles. A blacksmith and a god, Hephaestus fashions wonderful armor for Achilles.

Major Figures in the Eighteenth Book of the Iliad
Major Figures in the Eighteenth Book of the Iliad. Page 2.

Iliad Book XXIII - Funeral Games for Patroclus
Information on the twenty-third book of the Iliad of Homer.

Major Figures in the Twenty-Third Book of the Iliad
Major Figures in the Twenty-Third Book of the Iliad. Page 2.

Iliad Book XI
Information on the eleventh book of the Iliad of Homer.

Iliad Book XIV
Information on the fourteenth book of the Iliad of Homer.

Major Figures in the Fourteenth Book of the Iliad
Major Figures in the Fourteenth Book of the Iliad. Page 2.

Major Figures in the Eleventh Book of the Iliad
Information on the eleventh book of the Iliad of Homer. Page 2.

Iliad Book II
Information on the second book of the Iliad of Homer.

Iliad Book III
Information on the third book of the Iliad of Homer.

Major Figures in the Third Book of the Iliad
Major Figures in the Third Book of the Iliad. Page 2.

Notes on Iliad III
Information on the third book of the Iliad of Homer. Page 3.

Major Figures in the Second Book of the Iliad
Major Figures in the Second Book of the Iliad. Page 2.

Notes on Iliad Book II
Information on the second book of the Iliad of Homer. Page 3.

Iliad Book IX
Information on the ninth book of the Iliad of Homer.

Major Figures in the Ninth Book of the Iliad
Information on the ninth book of the Iliad of Homer. Page 2.

Iliad Book V
Information on the fifth book of the Iliad of Homer.

Iliad Book VI
Information on the sixth book of the Iliad of Homer.

Iliad Book VII
Information on the seventh book of the Iliad of Homer.

Major Figures in the Seventh Book of the Iliad
Information on the seventh book of the Iliad of Homer. Page 2.

Major Figures in the Sixth Book of the Iliad
Information on the sixth book of the Iliad of Homer. Page 2.

Major Figures in the Fifth Book of the Iliad
Major Figures in the Fifth Book of the Iliad. Page 2.

1st Decade 4th Century B.C. Timeline - Classical Greek and Republican Roman Timeline for the 1st Decade of the 4th century B.C.
Classical Greek and Republican Roman Timeline for the fourth century B.C. with related features.

Mongolia Timeline
The Library of Congress' chronology of events in Mongolia.

Mongolia Timeline
The Library of Congress' chronology of events in Mongolia. Page 2.

Timelines 5000-1595 B.C. Sumer
Events in chronological order that took place in ancient Sumer.

Theodosius the Great - The Accession of Emperor Theodosius I The Great
Theodosius the Great or Theodosius I was an important figure in the history of the Roman Empire because he was the last to have the entire empire under his control.

Mary Renault's Theseus - A Review of Mary Renault's Books on Theseus
Bingley looks at the stories Mary Renault tells about the Greek hero Theseus in The King Must Die and The Bull From the Sea.

Theseus and the Minotaur - Hawthorne Tells the Greek Myth of Theseus and the Minotaur
Hawthorne Tells the Greek Myth of Theseus and the Minotaur.

Hawthorne's Theseus and the Minotaur Part II
Hawthorne's Theseus and the Minotaur Part II. Page 2.

Marcus Aurelius Quotes on Pain
A list of quotes on pain and pain management from Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius' quotes, which are based on his Stoic philosophy and found in his 'Meditations'.

Sparta and Samos - Spartan Colony Samos
Relations between Samos and Sparta were at times close despite the fact that Samos was not properly a colony of Sparta.

Ancient Nepal, ca. 500 B.C.-A.D. 700
Ancient Nepal, ca. 500 B.C.-A.D. 700

Ancient Nepal, ca. 500 B.C.-A.D. 700
Ancient Nepal, ca. 500 B.C.-A.D. 700. Page 2.

Ancient Nepal, ca. 500 B.C.-A.D. 700
Ancient Nepal, ca. 500 B.C.-A.D. 700. Page 3.

Ancient Nepal, ca. 500 B.C.-A.D. 700
Ancient Nepal, ca. 500 B.C.-A.D. 700. Page 4.

Ancient Nepal, ca. 500 B.C.-A.D. 700
Ancient Nepal, ca. 500 B.C.-A.D. 700. Page 5.

Nepal - Historical Setting of Nepal
Library of Congress entry on the historical setting of Nepal.

Nepal - Historical Setting of Nepal
Library of Congress entry on the historical setting of Nepal. Page 2.

Nepal - Historical Setting of Nepal
Library of Congress entry on the historical setting of Nepal. Page 3.

Climate of Nepal
Library of Congress entry on the historical setting of Nepal. Page 4.

Nepal - Historical Setting of Nepal
Library of Congress entry on the historical setting of Nepal. Page 5.

Aspects of Venus the Roman Goddess of Love and Beauty
You could say Venus was 'the Roman goddess' since she was counted the ancestor of the ancestral founder of Rome. While Venus was the Roman goddess of love and beauty, like her Greek counterpart Aphrodite, there was more to her. Here you'll learn about various aspects of Venus the Roman goddess.

Greek Winter Solstice Celebration in Honor of Poseidon
In Greece there were winter solstice celebrations, including ones honoring the sea god Poseidon.

Seneca - Seneca on Healthy Mind Healthy Body
Seneca refers to a variety of sports in his philosophical writing because they were familiar to his audience and because he thought exercise was good, so long as it wasn't an end in itself.