Ancient/Classical History Sitemap - Page 7 2016-09-26

Odyssey Study Guides - Summaries of the Individual Books of the Odyssey
Brief notes describing the main events and topics in each book of Homer's Odyssey.

Senate
About the Roman Senate, including its members and where they met in ancient Rome, particularly during the period of the Roman Republic.

Art, Archaeology, and Architecture of the Ancient World
Information on ancient architecture and ancient monuments.

Ancient China - Empires of China - Ancient China and Its Empire
Economy, trade, the rulers, and technology of ancient China.

Ancient/Classical History Glossary/Dictionary
This is the site's glossary, a set of short identifications for terms to know related to Ancient / Classical History. This site deals with ancient history, from roughly the beginning of time until the Fall of Rome in A.D. 476. For all practical purposes, however, it covers only the era of written history.

Bible People - People from the Old Testament of the Bible
People from the Old Testament of the Bible.

Early Christianity Glossary
An early Christianity Glossary with definitions of terms relevant for the study of early Christianity.

Articles on Ancient Egypt
Resources on ancient Egypt, Egyptian pharaohs, hieroglyphs, pyramids, the Egyptian gods and goddesses, archaeology, art, and the life of the people.

Esperanto
Esperanto, the invented international language that preceded Interlingua.

Etymology and Word Histories
Etymology of words particularly English words with roots in Latin and Greek.

Democracy | Law and Government
Democracy was an invention of the ancient Greeks living in small polis or city-state of Athens. Sparta, another Greek polis, adopted a very different form of government involving kings. Rule by the best, or aristocrats, was common.

Greek - Resources on the language, dialects, and alphabet of the Ancient Greeks.
Resources on the language, dialects, and alphabet of the Ancient Greeks.

Daily Life & Death and Society in Ancient Greece
Death and dying, family, fashion, food, magic, society, and the roles of women in ancient Greece.

Ancient Mathematics
Resources on ancient mathematics.

Themes in Mythology and Religion
Themes in ancient mythology and religion, especially creation and the flood. Also topics and definitions.

Proto Indo-European
Most European languages are thought to have evolved from one original highly inflected language referred to as (proto) Indo-European.

Sun Tzu and The Art of War
Resources on Sun Tzu, his Art of War, and bibliography.

Ancient Wars
Ancient Wars. Ancient/Classical History.

Ancient Quotes - Philosophers and Moralists Quotes from the Ancient World
Collections of quotes from philosophers and moralists in the ancient world.

Basics -101
Basic information on topics of interest in Ancient History and the Classics.

Fall of Rome - Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and the Fall of Rome
Learn about the fall of Rome, the facts, the theories, the why, and the when.

Hieroglyphs and Other Egyptian Writing Systems
Translating hieroglyphs into English and English into Egyptian symbols.

Linguistics and Ancient Languages
Resources and instructional materials on linguistics and ancient languages.

Latin Language - Resources on the Latin Language
Resources for those studying, reviewing, or who wish to learn the Latin language.

Law | Government | Politics | Economics
Resources on the law, government, politics, and economics of ancient societies, including the rise of democracy.

Language Learning Hebrew Cuneiform Aramaic
Languages of the ancient Near East and Middle East, Hebrew, cuneiform, and Aramaic.

Polytheistic Religions - Gods and Goddesses - Multiple Deities
Pagan religions with multiple gods and goddesses and the stories attributed to deities.

Roman History
Ancient histories of Rome and more modern histories, including Livy, the Gesta Romanorum, Mommsen, and a public domain modern history.

Science, Math, Medicine, Technology, and Engineering in the Ancient World
Resources on ancient science, medicine, mathematics, technology, and engineering.

Information on basic fighting techniques and weapons for those new to wargaming.
Information on basic fighting techniques and weapons for those new to wargaming.

Warriors Soldiers and Formations
Resources on the ancient fighting men themselves (including Pedites, Equites, and hoplites) and their formations into legions and other groupings.

WEAPONS - Ancient Weapons - Ancient Warfare
Ancient weapons. Ancient/Classical History.

Recently Added Ancient / Classical History Content
Recently Added Ancient / Classical History Content.

Panhellenic Games Including the Olympics
The Panhellenic Games were festivals held at various sanctuaries in Greece during each Olympiad.

Myth and history in the media
Ch-check it out! Ancient/Classical History.

Cupid and Psyche
A love story and myth known through the Latin of Apuleius in his Golden Ass. This is an ancient beauty and the beast love story about the beautiful princess Psyche and her invisible, divine husband, Cupid.

Eras and Events in Ancient Greece - Timeline of Events
To understand ancient Greece, it is important to have an idea of which events preceded and which followed. Major events include the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars and the conquest of ancient Greeks by the Macedonians. These timelines put all the major events of ancient Greek history into perspective.

Roman Living
Resources on the ancient Roman family and aspects of daily life, including food, drink, clothing, and hygiene.

Ancient Greek Cities Especially Athens and Sparta
The geography of ancient Greece had much to do with how it developed. Isolated communities or poleis (city-states) developed their own systems.

Gods and Goddesses - Deities of the World's Pantheons
Resources on the gods and goddesses of ancient mythology and some modern religions.

Greek Gods and Goddesses - The Deities of Greek Mythology
Pages on the Ancient Greek gods and goddesses of Greek mythology.

Modern Writers on Classical Subjects and Fiction
Mostly reviews of modern fiction and non-fiction writers.

Monotheistic Religions - Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity
Attributes of monotheistic religions.

Old English Origins
Germanic language speakers migrated to Britain where their language largely replaced the Celtic languages that were in use and became Old English.

Reenactment - Historical Recreation
Resources about reenactment societies focusing on recreation of the ancient period of history.

Rhetoric
Rhetorical techniques like metaphors, metonomy, synecdoche, periphrasis, and tropes help make better delivery for presentations, whether academic or legal

Romance Languages - Lingua Romana
Romance Language or Lingua Romana developed out of Latin -- Lingua Latina. Information on the development from the lingua latina to the lingua romana.

Teachers and Writers - Research
Resources for those doing academic research, writing books, or those involved in re-enactment societies. Bibliographies, re-enactment societies, professional groups, journals, and more.

Traditional Myth Collections - Bulfinch, Hawthorne, and Children's Myth Collections
Hawthorne and Bulfinch wrote collections of myths that have been read by generations. Here are sets of their ancient myths, as well as collections from other English writers of Greek myths for children.

In the News
Current affairs. Ancient/Classical History.

What's going on...
...in the world today? Ancient/Classical History.

Aramaic
About the ancient language called Aramaic, a language spoken by Jesus.

Cuneiform
Cuneiform is wedge-shaped writing used for various Near Eastern ancient languages.

Classical Social Customs and Daily Life - Death - Food - Hygiene - Marriage - Women - Family
The daily habits and customs of ancient people, including food, bathing, marriage, social position of women, and funerals.

Homeric Hymns
The Homeric Hymns were not written by Homer, but may have been composed by the professional descendants of Homer, the Homerids who survived at least into the 4th century B.C., according to M.I. Finley.

Study guides for Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.
Study guides for Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.

Homer's Iliad
The Iliad of Homer is the major work we have about the Trojan War. Ilus, the son of Tros, founded the city of Troy, which was called Ilium after him. The Iliad was a very important piece of literature for the ancient Greeks, considered a source for history and religion.

The Ladin (Rhaeto-Romance) Language
One of the romance languages that is a direct descendant of Latin and spoke by pockets of people in the general area of northwestern Italy and parts of Switzerland.

Maps - Ancient Maps and Moder Maps of the Ancient World
Maps of places in the ancient world.

Famous People - Biographies of important ancient people
Famous People. Biographies of important ancient people, including Cleopatra, Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, and Constantine the Great.

Ancient Civilizations
Information on the ancient history of many places in the ancient world.

South Asian - Writing
Ancient languages of South Asia.

Ancient History Timelines - Dynasties and Chronologies
Ancient Time Line, Dates, and Events. Information on the sequence of events in the ancient world, timelines, and the dynasties of ancient kings and pharaohs.

Church History - Early Christianity Church History
Resources on the history of the early Christian church. Information on the early church fathers, heresies, orthodoxy, and documents.

The city of Rome
The ancient city of Rome, its layout and hills.

Culture, Civilization, and Daily Life in Ancient Rome
The culture of ancient Rome, including both the social and material culture.

Epigraphy
Chiseled in stone or written on papyrus, epigraphical and papyrological records of antiquity are among the limited resources available for studying ancient history. Coins, literature, art/architecture, and archaeological finds are the other major resources.

Greece & Rome: Greek & Roman Engineering / Mechanics
Mechanics, engineering, and technology in Ancient Greece and Rome.

Medicine - Cross Cultural - Training Diagnosis Surgery Dentistry
Medicine as practices in various cultures throughout the ancient world, including ancient hospitals, dentistry, training, diagnosis and plastic surgery.

Interlingua
International auxiliary languages based primarily on Classical Latin. The language is supposed to be easier to learn than Latin or even Esperanto and can be understood by people of all European nationalities, although, perhaps, not by all people of all European nationalities.

Articles on the opening of Homer's book on the return of Odysseus from the Trojan War.
Articles on the opening of Homer's book on the return of Odysseus from the Trojan War.

Teaching and Resources for Teachers - Homeschool and Classroom
Resources for teachers in schools and homeschools and resources for independent learners.

Greek Wars
Some of the most important literature of ancient Greece deals with wars, especially the Trojan, Persian, and Peloponnesian Wars.

Christmas - Articles on the history of Christmas
Articles on the history of Christmas

Online Quizzes
Takes these free online quizzes to test your knowledge of ancient history and the classics.

Biblical History and Biblical Archaeology
Resources on Biblical history and Biblical archaeology.

Zoroastrianism - The Ancient Persian Religion Known as Zoroastrianism
The name Zarathustra is an alternative to Zoroaster, which is the name of the founder of an ancient Persian monotheistic religion. Learn more about it and its founder.

Ancient Italy
Learn about the boot-shaped area around the original settlement of Rome that quickly became the start of Rome's expanding empire.

Greek Philosophy
Greek Philosophy. Ancient/Classical History.

Men, Women, Maps, and Ancient Civilizations
Biographies of famous ancient people. Maps and timelines of ancient people and places.

China and Egypt - Ancient Empires of China and Egypt
History, archaeology, and rulers of ancient Egypt, and ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. Economy, trade, the rulers, and technology of ancient China.

Greek Culture
The Greeks made a wealth of contributions to human culture, especially in the areas of government, philosophy, drama, and the visual arts.

Ancient Greece
Ancient Greek topics include philosophy, drama, history, arts, and languages, myths, timelines, photos, maps, and democracy.

Homer - Troy - Homer and "The Iliad" and "The Odyssey"
While everything said about Homer is subject to debate, the popular opinion about Homer is that he was a blind bard who composed and recited

Studying Ancient History and Classics
Basics, glossary, maps, and resources on classical literature. Includes material on ancient Greek and Roman poets and playwrights, and online texts in English and Latin.

Greek (& Roman) Science, Medicine, Philosophy - Physics and Ethics
Resources on ancient sciences, philosophy, medicine, geometry and other mathematics, technology, and engineering.

Mythology and Polytheistic, Pagan Religions
The religion and mythology of the ancient world.

The History of Ancient Rome
From legends through the Republic and Empire, including biographies of emperors, kings, and writers, timelines, maps, social life, and Latin.

Gladiators / Wars / Warfare / Battles / Weapons / Arms & Armor
Resources on ancient battles, wars, conflicts, weapons, and armor, as well as violent punishments, and gladiators.

Cross-Cultural Writing, Epigraphy & Scripts
Language, literature, dictionaries, documents, inscriptions, epigraphy, writing, and writing about writing in ancient Mediterranean countries, including the dead sea scrolls.

Latin and Greek
Resources on the languages of Latin and ancient Greek.

Digital Humanities
Learn more. Ancient/Classical History.

Current Affairs
Historical. Ancient/Classical History.

Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome - Comparisons and Contrasts
Ancient Greek and Roman comparisons. Resources for students who want to compare and contrast ancient Greece and ancient Rome.

1 God: Judaism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism
Resources on religions of the book, the ancient religions of Judaism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Biblical history.

Ancient and Classical History at About.com
Explore classical history, Greek and Roman mythology, Latin language and literature, and the many fascinating figures of the ancient world.

What happened to the Ancient Romans?
What ever happened to the Ancient Romans?

If Helen of Troy Had Kids, What Happened to Them?
Helen of Troy was the most beautiful (mortal) woman in Greek mythology. But what was it like having her as a mother?

Winter Holidays Celebrating the Solstice
6 Winter Holidays Besides Christmas. At or around the Winter Solstice there have been festivals and holidays in ancient as well as modern times.

Diodorus on the of Battle of Thermopylae
Diodorus Siculus and others, including Plutarch and Justin, based on Pompeius Trogus, tell the story of the Battle of Thermopylae differently from Herodotus.

Variations on the story of the Battle of Thermopylae
Varied accounts of the Battle of Thermopylae. Page 2.

Lucius Cornelius Sulla (138-78 B.C.) - Brief History
Sulla was a Roman political and military leader involved in the Roman revolution.

Hetaira
Hetaira is a type of Greek courtesan or prostitute.

The Life of Lucius Annaeus Seneca (4 B.C. - A.D. 65)
Notes on Seneca's life, philosophy and tragedy.

Saturnalia Quotes
Read some public domain translations of quotations from Macrobius, author of a work on the Saturnalia.

Battle of Salamis During the Persian Wars
The Battle of Salamis was a battle during the Persian Wars. Read about the date and a very brief description of naval battle leading to the defeat of the Persians.

King Tut
The Egyptian pharaoh, King Tut (Tutankhamen), who is known as the boy king, receives much attention but little is known about him.

Timeline of Augustus
A look at the life of Augustus that highlights major events on a 4-step timeline.

Augustus - Timeline of Augustus for 43-31 B.C.
A look at the life of Augustus that highlights major events on a 10-step timeline.

Augustus - Timeline of Augustus for 31-19 B.C.
A look at the life of Augustus that highlights major events on a 10-step timeline.

Augustus - Timeline of Augustus from 17 B.C. - A.D. 14 - Legislation Until the Death of Augustus
A look at the life of Augustus that highlights major events on a 10-step timeline.

The Classics Come to Life! Learning with Ancient Rome Live
Check out the latest in classics and digital humanities: Ancient Rome Live! Archaeologist Darius Arya dishes on his new project.

Principate in Roman History
The principate is the name we give the period of Roman history beginning with the dominance of one man, Augustus.

Review - Ancient Greek Love Magic
Review - Ancient Greek Love Magic. Christopher Farone's Ancient Greek Love Magic brings the world of ancient Greek magic to the modern layman.

Epicurus & His Philosophy of Pleasure
From atomism Epicurus developed a moral philosophy at odds with the myths about him.

Aspasia of Miletus - Prisoner of History, by Madeleine Henry
Aspasia of Miletus was the very influential mistress of Pericles and a philosopher to the philosophers.

The Battle of Plataea in the Persian Wars
The date and very brief description of the Persian War Battle of Plataea at which the Persians were beaten.

The 30 Tyrants After the Peloponnesian War
After the Peloponnesian War the Thirty Tyrants replaced Democracy with Oligarchic rule in Athens.

Timelines - Anatolia
Timeline of events and rulers in that area of ancient Turkey now known as Anatolia where once the Hittites lived.

Latin Lyrics for Christmas Carols
Lyrics for Christmas Carols in Latin.

Gloria in Excelsis Deo - Lyrics to the Latin Christmas Carol
The Lyrics to the Latin Christmas Carol Gloria in Excelsis Deo.

The Lyrics to Latin Christmas Carol Adeste Fideles
The Lyrics to the Latin Christmas Carol Adeste Fideles.

Roman Numeral Origins and List from I to CI
The possible origins of Roman numerals and a list of Roman numerals from I to CI (1-101).

Lysistrata by Aristophanes - Greek Play
Women barricade themselves in the acropolis and go on a sex strike to persuade their husbands to stop the Peloponnesian War.

Lysistrata - Make Love Not War
Ancient/Classical History. Page 2.

About Jesus as a Historical Figure
Jesus is the central figure of the Christian religion. Learn more about Jesus as an historical figure.

The Ancient Levant With Map
Maps showing an area of the eastern Mediterranean important in antiquity and known as the Levant.

The Bible Story of Moses, the Hebrew Law Giver
The Bible story of Moses, the Hebrew giver of Jewish Law and the 10 Commandments.

Exodus and Moses as a Leader of the Hebrew People
The Exodus and Moses as a Leader of the Hebrew People. Page 2.

10 Commandments References
Ancient/Classical History. Page 3.

Athenian Months - Festival Calendar
Months of the festival year on the ancient Athenian calendar.

An Examination of One of the Most Famous Love Poems of Ancient Rome
Take a deep dive into the structural genius present in the passionate love poetry of ancient Rome's own Catullus.

Blog


Here's the One of the Oldest Peace Treaties from the Ancient World
The world's first peace treaty involves Sumerian kings and gods capturing enemy prisoners in giant nets. Here's the low-down on this boundary-breaking (literally) monument.

Who Was the Ancient Greek Goddess Hestia?
Hestia was the Greek goddess of the hearth, home, and more!

Here are the Latin Names for the Days of the Week
The ancient Romans used their gods as inspiration for naming the days of the week, but only some of that divine influence survived in modern language.

When Should I Use A.D. or C.E.?
What is the difference between A.D. and C.E.? Well, they technically refer to the same thing, but it's a matter of style and respect.

Here's the Deal on the Gigantomachy in Greek Mythology
Here's how the Gigantomachy - a story of the giants revolting against Zeus and the Olympians - echoes a previous Greek mythological cycle.

How Did Hannibal Die?
How did the great Carthaginian general Hannibal, who fought the Romans during the Punic Wars, kick the bucket?

What Was the Pax Romana?
According to scholars both ancient and modern, Rome was at peace - at least internally - for a few centuries. But how peaceful was the

What Was a Rudis?
Here's the deal on the rudis, a special sword a gladiator got when he was finally liberated.

These Greco-Roman Curses Were the Best Form of Ancient Revenge
Whether you wanted to cast a love spell or get your stolen tunic returned, there was only one remedy in the ancient world: curse tablets!

"Gods of Egypt": A Deeply Problematic Film About the Ancient World
About.com interviews experts and examines the truly troublesome whitewashing and cultural erasure in the new film

Democracy Debate in Herodotus
The Greek historian Herodotus describes a debate on the three government types in which proponents tell what's wrong or right with democracy.

How Hercules Got His Name
Read about how the Greek demigod-superhero Alcides came to be called Hercules.

Who Was the Roman and Greek God Pluto?
Pluto was an underworld god and a god of riches, but how'd he get the name - and the gig?

This Ancient Cult Leader Tricked the Entire Mediterranean With a Snake Puppet
Who's the ancient cult leader who made his followers drink the Kool-Aid? Meet Alexander the False Prophet, who drugged himself and had a fake snake puppet.

The Ancient Spartans Had a Murderous Secret Police
The ancient Spartans were brutal to their own people and those they ruled, massacring their serfs with some secret police called the krypteia.

How Did the Greek Hero Hercules Die?
Hercules didn't have an easy life, so you shouldn't be surprised to learn how difficult it was for him to die. Learn about his death and what came next.

Which Ancient Greek God Carried the World on His Shoulders?
Here's the skinny on the big god/Titan, Atlas.

Meet Janus, Father of Zeus and Roman Original
Meet the ancient Roman god Janus. Here are the ins and outs of his life!

What You Need to Know about Mount Vesuvius
Mt. Vesuvius is a volcano in Campania, near Naples, Italy, whose eruption in A.D. 79 destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum.

The Tang Dynasty in China -- A Golden Era
The Tang Dynasty, which ruled China from A.D. 618–907, is considered the golden age of Chinese culture and civilization. Learn about this major era.

Did Ancient Egyptians Found Modern Scotland?
Do the Scots descend from an ancient Egyptian princess? Explore the national myth that brings Egypt to Edinburgh.

City Dionysia - Ancient Athenian Festival
The City Dionysia was a major state-sponsored festival, in ancient Athens, featuring dramatic competitions. In addition to the major City Dionysia, there was also a rural Dionysia.

Miltiades - Athenian Leader of Colonists
Miltiades. Ancient/Classical History.

Aristotle on the Mixed Form of Government in Sparta
Aristotle describes the mixed government of ancient Sparta.

Nemesis in Greek Mythology
In Greek mythology, Nemesis was the Greek goddess of divine retribution.

Which Pharaoh Built the Great Pyramid?
Which pharaoh of ancient Egypt ordered the Great Pyramid at Giza built?

How the Qin Dynasty Unified Ancient China
The Qin dynasty is remembered for its inventions and achievements, primarily unifying China under Emperor Qin Shi Huang.

Ancient History Glossary: Emperor Ch'in
Glossary entry on Emperor Ch'in.

Timeline of Events in Ancient Babylonia
Timelines of the developments in Mesopotamia focusing on the Babylonians before their conquest by the Persians.

Four Lost Cities of the Ancient World
Go beyond Atlantis and dig up a treasure trove of information on long-lost ancient cities.

Boudicca: A Mother's Revenge
Celtic women were entitled to seek revenge for rape

Legendary Lycurgus the Lawgiver of Sparta
Lycurgus was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta. Plutarch describes the life of Lycurgus as if Lycurgus had been a real person. Herodotus and Xenophon also wrote about Lycurgus and his constitution.

Carthaginians crucified their losing generals
Carthaginians crucified their losing generals. Roman citizens could not be crucified by the Romans. Page 2.

Punic War POWs - Prisoners of War in Punic Wars
During the Punic Wars commanders were crucified, but not necessarily when they were prisoners of war. Other forms of torture were used on Punic War POWs.

Constantine the Great, First Christian Emperor of Rome
Constantine the Great was the first Christian emperor of the Roman Empire.

Pelopidas - Theban General Pelopidas
Read about the Theban general and statesman Pelopidas.

Roman Marcus Licinius Crassus Biography
Learn about the third member of the first triumvirate of Republican Rome, Marcus Licinius Crassus in this biography by Bingley.

Cybele and Attis - The Love Story
Cybele and Attis is the story of the Phrygian great mother goddess Cybele and her tragic love for Attis.

Hanging Gardens of Babylon - Wonder of the World
Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Ancient / Classical History.

Latin Verbs - Semi-Deponents
Semi-deponent verbs in Latin. Ancient/Classical History.

Latin Verbs - Deponents
Deponent Verbs. Latin Deponent Verbs.

Latin Personal Pronouns
Latin Personal Pronouns. Ancient/Classical History.

Latin Intensive Pronoun Ipse
Latin intensive pronoun ipse. Ancient/Classical History.

Iliad Outline
Iliad - Outline of the Iliad. What happens in each of the 24 books of the Iliad by Homer.

Sparta's Rise to Power (How it Happened)
Sparta built a navy while Athens suffered the plague. Sparta had a downwardly mobile society with fewer elites than helots, but it still defeated Athens, largely as a result of luck -- the Athenian plague -- and the development of a superior navy.

Pan - Noisy Goat-Footed God of the Greeks
Greek God Pan. Ancient / Classical History.

Ares - Greek God of War and Violence
Ares was a Greek god of war and homicide.

Ghost Stories - Vergil, Homer, Gilgamesh, and Pliny's Ghost Stories
Vergil (or Virgil), Pliny, Homer, and the Epic of Gilgamesh on haunted houses, ghosts and ghost stories. Underworld ghosts and spirits that haunt the living.

Greek Festival the Thesmophoria
The Thesmophoria was an ancient fertility festival for women commemorating the loss of Demeter's daughter Persephone to Hades.

5 Wonderfully Weird Practical Jokes from Ancient Rome
The Romans weren't all about speeches and battles! Here are five ancient Roman practical jokes to try this April Fool's Day.

What the Expression "Crossing the Rubicon" Means
What does it mean when we say someone crossed the Rubicon? Here's the ancient low-down.

Ancient Roman Calendar Terminology
Roman Calendar Terminology - Nones, Kalends, Ides, and Pridie, their connection with the Roman lunar month and their places on the Julian calendar.

Panic - The Greek Idea of Panic
The emotion of panic was attributed by the Greeks to the god Pan. Don't panic....it's not too scary!

What Augustus Said About Rome and Marble
Here's the source and context of a famous saying by Augustus on Rome and marble.

Confucianism - When Did Confucianism Begin?
Confucianism is a religion or way of life that started in ancient China.

Who Were the Parents of Hercules?
Who were the parents of Hercules? Let's meet the triad that raised this future superhero.

The Murder of Germanicus, (Almost) Everyone's Favorite Julio-Claudian
Who killed Germanicus? Ancient history's greatest murder mystery comes to life.

5 Gods Who Are Ready for Spring Weather
Spring into spring with these warm-weather gods, ranging from the goddess who inspired Easter to a last-time lover who died tragically.

Where Did the Famous Latin Saying "Veni, Vidi, Vici" Come From?


List of Gods and Goddesses by Culture
List of ancient gods and goddesses by Culture.

Ode 29 Book III of the Odes of Horace in English Translation
Book III, Ode 29 of 'The Odes of Horace' in English Translation.

Pliny on Praxiteles' Cnidian Venus
Praxiteles was a famous sculptor specializing in marble statues. See a copy of the first full nude female statue, which is attributed to him, with the description given of it by the Elder Pliny.

The Shi Ji of Sima Qian
The Shi Ji is a universal history of lasting importance to the Chinese. Read more about it.

AP Latin Prose - Caesar
For the 2012-2013 academic year, the Latin AP exam and course include not just Vergil, but also the prose of Julius Caesar's Gallic War.

De Bello Gallico Passages for the AP Latin Caesar Liber VI
Passages for the AP Latin Caesar exam from Book VI of Caesar's Gallic Wars (de bello Gallico).

Ode 2 Book III of the Odes of Horace in English Translation
Book III, Ode 2 of 'The Odes of Horace' in English Translation.

Quotations from Leonidas of Sparta
Quotations attributed to Leonidas about the Battle of Thermopylae.

5 Ancient Roman Emperors to Avoid in a Bathhouse
Which emperors should you avoid at all costs, especially when soaking in the bathhouse? Tiberius, Galba, Commodus, Caracalla, and Nero!

6th Century BC Timeline - Archaic Greece/Legendary Rome
Archaic Greek and Legendary Roman Timeline for the sixth century B.C. with related features from the Ancient / Classical History site.

Ecclesia - What Was the Ecclesia in Sparta
Glossary entry on the ecclesia in Sparta.

Rome 1st Century B.C. Chronology
During the first century B.C., Rome ceased to be a republic, but became, instead the Empire. This change was brought about by powerful men, like Julius Caesar, Sulla, Marius Pompey, Mark Antony, and Augustus Caesar, and factions.

The Cult Statue of Artemis of Ephesus
Read about the cult and statue of Artemis of Ephesus.

Andromache - Who Was Andromache
Glossary entry on Andromache. Ancient/Classical History.

What Color Was Alexander the Great's Hair?
What Color Was Alexander the Great's Hair?

What Is the Difference Between a City and a Settlement in Ancient History?
Answer to the question about whether there is a significant difference between a city and a settlement.

Play within a Play - Ovid's Metamorphoses
Midsummer Night's Dream owes much to Ovid, particularly his story of the transformation of the mulberry, aka Pyramus and Thisbe. Comparison of Ovid's 'Metamorphoses' and Shakespeare's 'Midsummer Night's Dream.'

Aphrodite - Goddess of Love and Beauty
Fertility, love, and beauty were Aphrodite's specialty. Read articles about Aphrodite's roles from Greek mythology.

Aristophanes and Greek Old Comedy
A basic look at Aristophanes, the surviving writer of ancient Greek Old Comedy.

The Nile River and Nile Delta in Egypt
The Nile River set Egypt up to be one of the major and earliest ancient civilizations. The Nile watered crops, via irrigation, and the long course of the Nile served to transport goods and people in each direction of the longest river in the world.

Anubis - Ancient Egyptian Funerary God
Anubis - Egyptian God Anubis. Ancient / Classical History.

The Council of Nicea and the Arian Controversy
Arius, the heresy named Arian after him, the controversy and adoption of the Nicene Creed at the Council at Nicea, and the changing reactions to the Arian heresy.

Iphigenia in Greek Mythology
Iphigenia was sacrificed by her father Agamemnon so the Greek fleet could sail to Troy for the Trojan War.

How to Say Happy Birthday in Latin
In Latin, words that mean may it be a happy birthday would convey the message of Happy Birthday.

Vulgar Latin - The Spread of Latin Through the Roman Empire
Not Classical Latin, but the common or vulgar Latin was the base for the modern Romance languages, like modern French, Spanish, Italian, etc.

What Was Binding Magic in Ancient Greece?
Binding magic is the most common form of Greek magic.

Alaric - Formation of the Gothic Kingdom Timeline
When Alaric sacked Rome, it was the end of his career, but a phoenix rose from his ashes, in Aquitaine, France -- the Gothic Kingdom.

Odyssey Book I - Summary of the Events
Information on the first book of the Odyssey of Homer.

Major Figures in the First Book of the Odyssey
Ancient/Classical History. Page 2.

Notes on Book I
Notes on Book I. Ancient/Classical History. Page 3.

Books of the Odyssey
Ancient/Classical History. Page 4.

Descendants of Chaos - Genealogy of the First Gods
Descendants of chaos include night and day, darkness and light, and a hots of ailments and some pleasures like sexual love (philotes), sleep (hynos) and dreams (oneiroi).

Aztec Gods and Goddesses - Ancient / Classical History
A list of the major gods and goddesses of the Aztec, including Huitzilopochtli and Quetzalcoatl, and the history behind each deity.

Maps of the Ancient Near and Middle East
Maps of of ancient empires, showing political changes and biblical events. Includes the earliest known map, and other maps on clay tablets.

The Rise of Octavianus, the First Roman Emperor
The rise to power of Octavianus who became known as the first Roman emperor, Augustus Caesar.

The Underworld Adventure of Aeneas in The Aeneid
In Book VI of The Aeneid by Vergil (or Virgil), Aeneas has an underworld adventure like Odysseus in The Odyssey of Homer.

De Bello Gallico Passages for the AP Latin Exam
Passages for the AP Latin Caesar exam from the second half of the selections from Book V of Caesar's Gallic Wars (de bello Gallico).

De Bello Gallico Passages for AP Latin Caesar Liber IV
Passages for the AP Latin Caesar exam from Book IV of Caesar's Gallic Wars (de bello Gallico).

Canaan: Geography, Maps and Information
Historic maps of Canaan. Ancient/Classical History.

Historic Hanukkah - The Roots of Historic Hanukkah
The popular Jewish holiday of Hanukkah actually has no biblical basis. Instead, it commemorates a Jewish revolt when a priestly family led followers to take back the Temple in Jerusalem.

Tables Showing the Achilles Genealogy
Tables showing the family and genealogy of Achilles.

Read About Ancient Mythology
Read about Greek mythology, gods and goddesses, and the flood and creation myths from around the world.

Julius Caesar Timeline and Major Life Events
Major events in the life of Gaius Julius Caesar.

Primary Sources of Classic Literature and E-Texts
English translations of primary texts mostly in the public domain, Classical literature, translations and ancient history texts.

The Ancient Calendar
The Ancient Calendar, development of the ancient calendar, the reforms made by the Julian and then Gregorian Calendars, and the names of days of the week.

Siddhartha Gautama's Eight-Fold Path of Buddhism
Eight rules recommended by Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) for leading one's life well.

Why Did Bar Kochba Revolt Against Rome?
Reasons for the second Jewish revolt against the Romans that is known as the Bar Kochba Revolt.

Hindu Gods and Goddesses
List of Hindu gods and goddesses, Brahma, Ganesha, Gauri, Hanuman, Kartikeya, Krishna, Lakshmi, Parvati, Rama, Sarasvati, Shiva, Surya, and Vishnu.

Etymology - English Words with Latin Prefixes
Etymology - English Word with Latin Prepositions for Prefixes. Formation of English words from Latin prepositions.

Ancient Canaanite Gods and Goddesses List
Canaanite gods and goddesses: Anat, Athirat, Athtart, Baal, El, Mot, Shapsu, Yam, and Yarikh.

Heroic Behavior Then
A look at ancient values to answer the question: Should heroism be guided by glory and fame or ethical behavior?

Aeneid VI: Hades Realm
Aeneas crosses over into the Underworld where he goes sightseeing in the Elysian and Mourning Fields, the area of the innocents, and Tartarus.

Bellona - About the Roman Goddess Bellona
Mars is a Roman goddess of war. Ancient/Classical History.

Different Versions of the Birth of Dionysus
There are different versions of the birth of Dionysus. Here are 3 versions of Dionysus' birth.

Ionians - Herodotus on the Ionians
Sallie Goetsch identifies the Ionians, philosophical and literary leaders of the Greeks, and the Ionian migrations. Also Herodotus on the Ionian Greeks.

Armenia - Early Period of Armenia
Settlement and early growth of Armenia until it became a pawn in the hands of the Romans and Parthians, from the Library of Congress article on Armenia.

Who is Charon in Greek Mythology
Charon was the ferryman of the dead who took those who were properly buried across the River Styx and received as payment the coin stuck under their tongues.

Genealogy of the Titans and First Gods in Greek Mythology
First Gods Genealogy : Origin of the Titans and Gods.

What Is a Dithyramb?
A choral hymn sung by fifty men or boys to honor Dionysus.Aristotle considered it to be the origin of Greek tragedy.

Aristophanes on Homosexual and Heterosexual Soul Mates
In Plato's Symposium, Aristophanes' contribution to the discussion of love is to tell the story of the creation of lesbians, gays, and heterosexuals.

Gods and Goddesses of Japan
Some of the major gods and goddesses of Japan.

Places in the Iliad - Towns, Cities, Rivers, and More
The names of the places in the Iliad of Homer.

Before You Buy Ancient History Books
Before You Buy Ancient History Books, read these suggestions and try a sample chapter.

Greek Goddesses - Learn About the Greek Goddesses
These are the major goddesses of Greek mythology.

English Translations of Seneca Quotations
English translations of some Seneca quotations.

Prometheus by Aeschylus
1911 article on Aeschylus and his Prometheus tragedy.

Sinis the Pine-Bender
Sinis, also called the Pine-Bender, is the name of one of Theseus' early opponents. Learn about this episode in the myths of the hero Theseus.

Roman Valentine's Day Holidays - Gamelion & Lupercalia
Cupid, gamelion, Lupercalia, Hieros Gamos, and Valentine's Day. In the month for purification, February, one of the events involved ritual scourging of women by the luperci for the purposes of making them fetile.

What Was a Spartan Ephor?
Ephors were selected by the assembly from the entire Spartiate body.

Mithridates and the Mithridatic Wars
Even as a child Mithridates had a fearful reputation. They say he killed his mother and had a paranoid fear of poison.

About the Power Structure of Early Rome
Although the power structure of early Rome was distinct from that of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, there were certain components that continued. Here you;ll learn about those and the distinct elements of the legendary period of Rome.

Words - Information on English Words With Roots in Latin and Greek
Information on English words with Latin roots and others based on the classical languages, Latin and Greek.

Miletus - Origins of the Greek Colony
Information on the Greek colony of Miletus.

The Great Vowel Shift
The English Great Vowel Shift helps to explain why we have such trouble figuring out how to pronounce Latin.

The Serpent Grail, by Philip Gardiner With Gary Osborn
Reader review of The Serpent Grail, by Philip Gardiner with Gary Osborn.

Common Latin Words Used in English
Some words come into English unchanged.

Vergil and the Classical Tradition
Although the author, Vergil aka Virgil, is dead, his Aeneid is immortal.

Vergil and the Classical Tradition
Although the author, Vergil aka Virgil, is dead, his Aeneid is immortal. Page 2.

First Punic War: An Overview of Events
An overview of the Punic War and what led to the fighting of the First Punic War.

Curse Tablets - Revenge on the Roman Bath House Thieves by Sympathetic Magic
Theft was a problem in Roman bath houses, so slaves watched bathers property and curse tablets punished those who stole.

Pantheon of Central Gods of Ancient Greek Mythology
Here are the eight main gods of Greek mythology. Learn about their main powers and attributes.

Myth Monday - Hercules the Giant-Killer
The story of Hercules as killer of giants comes either during the Gigantomachy or at the end of the 10th labor.

Information on King Pyrrhus of Epirus (318 - 272)
King Pyrrhus of Epirus (318-272)

The Achaemenid Empire, 550-330 B.C.
The Achaemenid Empire, 550-330 B.C. Page 2.

Alexander the Great, the Seleucids, and the Parthians
Alexander the Great, the Seleucids, and the Parthians. Page 4.

The Sassanids, A.D. 224-642
The Sassanids, A.D. 224-642. Ancient/Classical History. Page 5.

Darius in Ancient Iran (Persian) Economy
Darius and the Achaemenids. Trade in the Persian Empire was extensive under the Achaemenids and Darius expanded it by revolutionizing the economy with coinage. Page 3.

The Persian Empire of Ancient Iran
Pre-Achaemenid Iran, the Medes and the Persians.

Maps of Ancient Rome and the Roman Empire
A list of photo galleries that show maps of Ancient Rome, Italy, and the Roman Empire that are in the public domain.

What Are the Elysian Fields? - Definition in Mythology
Ever wondered where the Greeks believed the truly #blessed went after death? Check out the Elysian Fields for info about true paradise!

The Letters of Pliny the Younger, Edited by John B. Firth
Pliny the Younger. Letters of the Younger Pliny.

Did the Romans Believe Their Myths?
A look at Charles King's analysis of Roman religion as one answer to the question did the Romans believe their myths.

Foliage Words and Leaf Names Latin/Greek Etymology
The classification of plant names started by Linnaeus involves the use of Latin and sometimes Greek words.

Ancient/Classical History
Ancient/Classical History. Page 2.

Ancient/Classical History
Ancient/Classical History. Page 3.

Ancient/Classical History
Ancient/Classical History. Page 4.

Ancient/Classical History
Ancient/Classical History. Page 5.

He Possible Origins of the Words Sincere and Sincerely
It is not known whether the word sincere used in our salutations in the form sincerely comes from the Roman words for without wax.

What Is the Difference Between Affect and Effect?
Etymological explanation of the difference between affect and effect.

Classicist Barry Strauss on Why Julius Caesar is a Perennial Badass
Classicist Barry Strauss discusses his book, The Death of Caesar, and the dictator's enduring legacy.

Who Were the Achaeans Mentioned in Homer's Epics?
Who were the Achaeans mentioned repeatedly in the

What Were Nero's Famous Words as He Prepared to Die?
The Roman Emperor Nero didn't stop talking while dying. Here are the things he blurted out in his final moments.

How Were Caesar and Augustus Related?
What this the relationship between Julius Caesar and his adopted heir Augustus, the first emperor of Rome?

What are the Five Rivers of the Greek Underworld?
What were the five rivers of the Greek Underworld?

Ancient Greek History: Tripod at Delphi
Tripod comes from Greek words meaning

Ancient Roman History: Salutatio
Salutatio is a Latin word from which we get the word salutation. Salutatio was the morning greeting or salutation of the Roman patron by his clients.

Cassius Dio
Cassius Dio was a Greek historian from a leading family of Nicaea in Bithynia. He is well known for publishing a through history of Rome in 80 volumes.

Nothos
Nothos is an ancient Greek term meaning bastard. Nothoi in the plural is the plural of the word nothos, and means bastards.

Mastaba
A mastaba is a large rectangular structure that was used as a type of tomb, often for royalty, in Ancient Egypt. Mastabas preceded the first pyramid.

Meet the Nubian Pharaohs of Twenty-Fifth Dynasty Egypt
One of the last native dynasties to rule Egypt was the Twenty-Fifth. Hailing from Nubia to the south, these pharaohs revitalized Egypt.

Greek Mythology: Astyanax, Son of Hector
In Ancient Greek Mythology, Astyanax was the son of the King Priam of Troy's oldest son, Hector, the Crown Prince of Troy, and Hector's wife Andromache.

Terence - Famous Roman Playwright
Publius Terentius Afer, or Terence, was a famous playwright of North African descent in the Roman Republic. Terence wrote six separate plays.

Iambic Trimeter
Iambic Trimeter is a Greek meter used in Greek plays for speaking. An iambic foot is a short syllable followed by a long syllable.

Profile of the Roman God Jupiter
Jupiter is the god of sky and thunder, as well as the king of gods in Ancient Roman Mythology. Jupiter is the top god of the Roman pantheon.

Ancient Roman History: Optimates
The optimates were, literally, the

What was a Prefect in Ancient Rome?
A prefect was a military or civil official in Ancient Rome. Prefects ranged from low to high-ranking military of civil officials of the Roman Empire.

Heraclitus
Heraclitus of Ephesus was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, known for an expression commonly paraphrased as

Nabonidus
Nabonidus was the last king of Neo-Babylonian Empire. Nabonidus ruled Babylonia from 556-539 B.C., when Babylon fell to Cyrus and the Persians.

Gaius Mucius Scaevola
Gaius Mucius Scaevola is a legendary Roman hero and assassin, who is said to have saved Rome from conquest by the Etruscan king Lars Porsena.

Ancient Historians: Sima Qian
Read the basics on the chinese historian Sima Qian.

Ancient Egypt Fisherman - Picture of Ancient Egypt Fisherman
A picture of a fisherman from ancient Egypt.

Pictures of Ancient Egyptian Scribes
A picture of scribes in ancient Egypt.

Ancient Egypt Stone Workers - Picture of Ancient Egypt Stone Workers
A picture of Egyptian workers in stone, stone masons and stone cutters.

Ancient Egypt Potters - Picture of Ancient Egypt Potters
A picture of potters from ancient Egypt.

Pictures of the Adventures of Hercules
Here are pictures of some of the incidental adventures of Hercules that he had in addition to those directly involved in the 12 Labors.

Hercules Kills His Guest
Hercules violates the rules of hospitality and kills his guest.

Hercules the Giant-Killer
Hercules the Giant-Killer. Ancient/Classical History.

Hercules and the Argonauts
Hercules and the Argonauts. Ancient/Classical History.

Pictures of Parthenon Marbles
Lord Elgin took marble slabs from the Parthenon in Athens to England where they were put on exhibit at London's British Museum.

Centauromachy
Centauromachy. Ancient/Classical History.

Horse of Selene
Horse of Selene. Ancient/Classical History.

About Hermes, the Thief, Inventor, and Messenger God
A look at various aspects of the talented and versatile Greek God Hermes (Mercury in Roman mythology).

Parents of Hermes
The family of the Greek god Hermes in Greek mythology (Mercury, to the Romans).

Hermes - The Infant Thief & The First Sacrifice to the Gods
Hermes was just a baby when he established the practice of sacrificing to the 12 Olympian gods.

Hermes and Apollo
Hermes and Apollo had the same father and a great deal of sibling rivalry.

Zeus Puts His Idle Son Hermes to Work
Zeus found suitable work for the idle hands of his mischievous young son Hermes.

Hermes - The Messenger in the Odyssey Was Hermes
Hermes and Iris were both Messenger gods.

Offspring of Hermes
Hermes had many fascinating children.

Hermes the Helpful
Hermes was often involved in heroic exploits.

Hermes Less Than Helpful
Hermes retained a streak of mischief and also had some less than pleasant duties.

The Erechtheum of Athens
Here are pictures of the ruins of the Erechtheum temple in Athens.

The Porch of the Maidens - Caryatids
Caryatids. Ancient/Classical History.

Plan of the Erechtheum
Plan of the Erechtheum. Ancient/Classical History.

Trading Posts and Cities Along the Silk Road
The Silk Road was a trade route with cities where people exchanged goods, oases for refreshment in the great expanses of desert. Learn about the places in the ancient world that fell along the Silk Road.

Facts About the Silk Road
The Silk Road may be better known for its travel in the Middle Ages, but it was also an important trade route in Antiquity.

A Collection of Seneca Quotes
A collection of Seneca quotes.

Latin Names and Terms for Family Members
Latin names for the terms of Roman familial relationships, from John E. Sandys.

Top Ancient Philosophers
My list of top ancient philosophers.

List of Writers of Augustan Age
A list of writers from the Augustan Age.

The Poets of Latin Love Elegy
List of the main Poets of Latin love elegy.

The Wisdom of King Solomon
The Biblical passage showing the classical example of the wisdom of Solomon.

Roman Gladiator Salute: Morituri te salutant!
Ave, Imperator: Morituri te salutant is an old Roman salute to the Emperor attributed to gladiators who were about to die in the arena.

Ancient Myths about Athena
Myths about the Greek goddess Athena from Thomas Bulfinch's mythology.

Ancient Roman Ghosts and Shades
Ghosts or

Ancient History Glossary: Stele
Glossary entry on the stele. Ancient/Classical History.

Ancient History: The Corinthian War
Basics on the Corinthian War of 395 – 386 B.C.

Who is Telemachus in Greek Mythology
Brief identification of Telemachus.

What is Socratic Irony
An explanation of Socratic irony.

Ancient History Glossary: Sanctuary
Learn about the Greek sanctuary.

Ancient History Glossary: Templum
Glossary entry on templum in ancient Rome.

Ancient History Glossary: Client King
A glossary entry on the term Client King.

Ancient History Glossary: Toga Candida
Glossary entry on the Toga Candida

Ancient History Glossary: Toga Praetexta
Glossary entry on the Toga Praetexta

Ancient History Glossary: Comitia Centuriata
Glossary entry on ancient Rome's Comitia Centuriata.

Dactylic Hexameter Definition
Dactylic hexameter is a meter used in epic poetry.

Deccan Plateau, Southern India
The Deccan Plateau is a large plateau located in Southern India. The plateau covers a vast majority of the Southern and central parts of the country.

Greek Goddesses - Tisiphone
Tisiphone is one of the Erinyes 'Furies'.

Ancient Roman Law - Maiestas
Maiestas was a portmanteau charge in ancient Rome.

Ancient History Glossary: Hermopolis
Hermopolis was an important city in ancient Egypt.

Ancient History Glossary: Kleos
Glossary entry on kleos. Ancient/Classical History.

Latin vs English Word Order
One of the differences between Latin and English and one of the challenges facing English-speaking students of Latin is the word order: It matters a lot in English, but not so much in Latin.

Story of Moses in the Bulrushes
As a baby, Moses wasn't exposed, but he was stuck in a basket and set adrift amid the bulrushes. Read why and what happened next.

Modern Foods to Avoid When Writing Historical Fiction
A list of foods not to include in historical fiction set in the ancient Mediterranean.

Latin Supine
The supine is a verbal noun in Latin.

Who is Antinous in the Odyssey
Antinous is the name of Hadrian's lover and also is the name of one of the suitors in the Odyssey.

Letters of the Latin Alphabet
Here is an explanation of a change in the ancient Latin alphabet from the letters of the Greek alphabet.

The Samnite Wars
During the three Samnite Wars, the Samnites and Romans fought for control of Italy during the third and fourth century B.C.

Treaties Made in Ancient Rome
Part of Roman expansion into the Italic peninsula was the creation of Treaties

Latin Imperative Verbs
Information on Latin imperative verbs.

Attributes and Titles of Apollo
These are titles by which the Greek god Apollo was known.

Meals of Ancient Romans
About the names and times of the ancient Roman meals.

Ancient Greek and Roman Craftsmen
An overview of the crafts of the ancient craftsmen from Greece and Rome.

"The Beauty of Xiaohe," female mummy, ca 1800—1500 B.C.


Gold ring, ca 2nd–4th century A.D. Excavated from Jarintay, Nilqa County, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China.
Gold ring, c. 2nd–4th century A.D. Excavated from Jarintay, Nilqa County, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. © Xinjiang Institute of Archaeology

Green brocade with bird, goat, and tree designs, ca 7th–9th century A.D.
Green brocade with bird, goat, and tree designs, ca 7th–9th century AD. Excavated from Tomb No. 151, Astana, Turfan, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. © Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Museum. Page 4.

Side view of infant mummy, c. 8th century B.C. Excavated from Zaghunluq, Chärchän, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. © Wang Da-Gang
Side view of infant mummy, ca 8th century BC. Excavated from Zaghunluq, Chärchän, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. © Wang Da-Gang. Page 3.

Bronze figurine of a kneeling warrior, ca 500 B.C. Excavated from south bank of the Künäs River, Xinyuan (Künäs) County.
Bronze figurine of a kneeling warrior, ca 500 B.C. Excavated from south bank of the Künäs River, Xinyuan (Künäs) County. © Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Museum. Page 6.

Plum Blossom Dessert made from flour dough, pressed into shape and baked, ca 7th–9th century A.D.
Plum-Blossom-Dessert made from flour dough, pressed into shape and baked, ca 7th–9th century A.D. Excavated from Astana, Turfan, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. © Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Museum. Page 5.

Pullover skirted dress, ca. 5th—3rd century B.C.
Pullover skirted dress, ca. 5th—3rd century B.C. Excavated from Tomb No. 55 of Cemetery No. 1, Zaghunluq, Chärchän, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Page 7.

Saddle blanket with leaves pattern, ca 2nd century BC–AD 2nd century.
Saddle blanket with leaves pattern, ca 2nd century BC–AD 2nd century. Excavated from Tomb No. 2, Horse Pit, Sampul, Lop, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. © Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Museum. Page 8.

Wall hanging with warrior and centaur design, c. 2nd C. B.C. — A.D. 2nd C. Excavated from Sampul, Lop, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China.
Wall hanging with warrior and centaur design, ca 2nd century BC—2nd century AD. Excavated from Sampul, Lop, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Page 10.

Wooden coffin, c. 3rd—4th C. A.D. Excavated from a tomb northeast of site LE at Ancient Loulan City, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China.
Wooden coffin, ca 3rd—4th century AD. Excavated from a tomb northeast of site LE at Ancient Loulan City, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. © Xinjiang Institute of Archaeology. Page 9.

"Yingpan Man," front view of clothed body of male mummy, ca 3rd–4th century A.D.


"The Beauty of Xiaohe" shown in poplar “boat” coffin, ca 1800—1500 B.C.


Bronze Eyeshade Made from a piece of hammered bronze, ca 7th–9th century A.D.
Made from a piece of hammered bronze, ca 7th–9th century AD. Excavated from Tomb No. 227, Astana, Turfan, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. © Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Museum. Page 14.

Painted clay figure of an equestrienne, ca 7th–9th century AD. Excavated from Tomb No.187, Astana Turfan, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China.
Painted clay figure of an equestrienne, ca 7th–9th century A.D. Excavated from Tomb No.187, Astana Turfan, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Page 16.

Embroidered boots with gradated colors, ca 2nd–3rd century A.D.
Embroidered boots with gradated colors, ca 2nd–3rd century A.D. Page 13.

Gold Plaque with tiger design, 5th–3rd Century B.C.
Gold Plaque with tiger design, 5th–3rd Century BC. Excavated from Tomb No. 30, Alagou (Alwighul, Alghuy) Toksun, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. © Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Museum. Page 17.

Gold plaque with lion, ca. 5th—3rd century B.C.
Gold plaque with lion, ca. 5th—3rd century BC. Excavated from Tomb No. 30, at Alagou (Alwighul, Alghuy), Toksun, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Page 18.

White felt hat c. 1800–1500 B.C.
White felt hat, ca 1800–1500 B.C. Excavated from Xiaohe (Little River) Cemetery 5, Charqilik (Ruoqiang) County, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Page 15.

Silk Road Artifacts Exhibit
Museum Exhibit of Silk Road Artifacts.

Silk Road Artifacts Exhibit
Museum Exhibit of Silk Road Artifacts.

The Greek Priestess: Women and Ritual
Joan Breton Connelly's Portrait of a Priestess challenges common assumptions about the role and importance of women in public life in ancient Greece. Here is a chapter-by-chapter summary of the book.

Index of Aristotle's Tragedy Terminology
Index to essential elements of Greek tragedy according to Aristotle.

Aristophanes' Surviving Plays of Old Comedy
Descriptions of the surviving plays of Greek Old Comedy, by Aristophanes.

Cleopatra Movies
Movies about Cleopatra VII the last pharaoh of Egypt and the subject of Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra and George Bernard Shaw's Caesar and Cleopatra in DVD and VHS format.

Julius Caesar's Gallic War Battles
A list of the battles of Caesar's Gallic War noting the winners, losers, and years of the engagement.

Ancient Roman Family
An overview of the Roman family particularly during the Roman Republic.

Wars of the Roman Republic
One way to look at the history of Rome before the Roman Empire is to look at its major wars, battles, defeats, and conquests, as you can with this basic list of major conflicts.

Cannibals in Greek and Roman Mythology
Cannibalism in Greek mythology occasionally manifests itself when someone's children are served up at a dinner feast.

English to Latin Translations
These are some short English phrases in Latin translations.

English to Latin Translations
These are some short English phrases in Latin translations.

Roman History Books
A selection of books on topics in Roman history.

Rivers of the Underworld
List of the rivers of the Underworld.

Life of Tiberius Timeline
A timeline for the Roman emperor Tiberius.

Timeline of Archaic Period in Greek History
A history timeline of the Archaic period of ancient Greek history.

Second Punic War Timeline
A timeline of the second Punic War between Carthage, led by Hannibal, and Rome, led by Scipio.

Roman Empire Principate Timeline
A history timeline of the early period of the Roman Empire Known as the Principate.

Types of Roman Gladiators
There were many types of Roman gladiators, some based on stereotypes and others on functions.

Friends, Family, Enemies of Julius Caesar
People important to Caesar.

Rama and Sita
Rama and Sita were a couple in Hindu mythology aspects of whose relationship are highlighted in the fall festival known as Diwali.

Second Punic War Battles
List of the main battles of the Second Punic War and their Roman commanders.

Ancient Roman Poets
An annotated list of early Roman poets.

Ay and Horemheb: Final Pharaohs of the Eighteenth Dynasty
After King Tutankhamun died, he was succeeded by Vizier Ay and General Horemheb, two fascinating pharaohs who helped bring Egypt back to life again.

The Greek Poet and Singer Arion Was #Blessed
Meet the prince of poetry, the don of dolphins, the man behind the music: the ancient Greek poet Arion!

Pyrrhic Victory - Origin of the Term
A Pyrrhic victory is a type of win that actually inflicts so much destruction on the victorious side that it is basically tantamount to defeat.

Fabius Maximus in Ancient Rome
Fabius Maximus is the Great Delayer. One of the major achievements of this five-time consul was the capture of Tarentum in 209.

The Roman Social War 91-88 B.C.
The Social War was a civil war between the Romans and the Italians in the 1st century B.C.

Tarpeian Rock - Ancient Roman Execution
The Tarpeian Rock was a launching point for capital punishment in Rome.

Pornai - The Prostitutes of Ancient Greece
They were known as Pornai, the ancient Greek word for prostitutes. This is how they worked, where they lived, and how they were treated.