Archaeology Sitemap - Page 1 2016-09-26

About Archaeology - The Study of Human History
Archaeology is not just a set of techniques: the study is the source of everything we know about human cultures before writing was invented,

Archaeology Glossary: C Terms
Archaeological terms defined from C-Group culture through Cycladic culture.

Cultural Ecology - Connecting the Environment and Humans
Cultural Ecology is an anthropological theory that considers humans as part of the environment and how that relationship drives societal changes.

Archaeological Sites in Israel and Palestine
What you need to know about archaeological resources in the modern day countries of Palestine and Israel.

Archaeology Glossary: G Terms
Archaeological terms defined from Gallinazo culture through the Gundestrup Cauldron, Denmark.

La Isabela - Columbus's First Colony in the Americas
La Isabela is the name of the first European town and lead mining operation established in the Americas, settled by Christopher Columbus 1494.

Chultun - Ancient Maya Storage Systems
Chultuns are underground cavities dug by the ancient Maya, used to store water and possibly for other purposes as well.

Gesher Benot Ya'aqov - Lower Paleolithic Site in Israel
Gesher Benot Yaaqov is a Lower Paleolithic site located on the edge of paleolake Hula in the northern Jordan valley of Israel.

Brosimum alicastrum, The Ancient Maya Breadnut Tree
Brosimum alicastrum, or asli and known more commonly as the breadnut or ramon tree, was an important and widespread plant in ancient Maya forest.

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Maya Archaeological Ruins in the Yucatan
The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico has many fascinating and lovely archaeological sites built by the Maya civilization, described here.

Ruins of the Maya Civilization
The Maya people lived throughout Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, in sites such as Bonampak, Kaminaljuyu, and many others.

Sites of the Northern Maya Lowlands
Archaeological sites of the Northern Maya Lowlands

Normans - Medieval Viking Rulers in France and England
The Normans were descendants of Vikings, who settled in the northwest France in the early 9th century AD and crossed the English Channel in 1066.

Ix Chel - Mayan Goddess(es) of Fertility and Death
Ix Chel was the Maya moon goddess, and the patron deity of fertility, childbirth, and weaving; but was she the only moon goddess?

Archaeology Glossary: E Terms
Archaeology glossary entries from Earthlodge through Extinctions.

Plant Domestication Histories
A handful of plants were first domesticated by humans at least 12,000 years ago.

Domestication History of Emmer Wheat (T. dicoccoides)
Most of the types of wheat that we consume today derived from the initial domestication of the wild form of emmer wheat, some 11,000 years ago.

Maya Religion - Articles and Reference Material on the Maya Cosmology and Gods
The Maya religion is and was a rich, nuanced story of creation myths and time cycles, gods of power and nature.

Indigenous Peoples
Studies of indigenous peoples of the world are crucial to understanding our collective past--and being better prepared for our future.

Berbers - Ancient History of North African Pastoralists
The Berbers is a collective term referring to sheep and goat herders in North Africa, who played an important role in the Arab Conquest of Iberia.

Archaeological Glossary Entries between Maadi and Mezhirich
Dictionary entries beginning with Ma and Me, from the Maadi civilization and site, through the Ukrainian site of Mezhirich.

Mehrgarh (Pakistan) - Life in the Indus Valley Before Harappa
Mehrgarh is a Neolithic and Chalcolithic (7000-3200 BC) site in Pakistan and one of the earliest sites with evidence for farming in south Asia.

Archaeological Guide to Human History
Archaeologists study humans and human behaviors, and the data they produce help to understand the past, present and future. The time lines they study begin with prehumans (Australopithecus) and continue down to the present day. Here you'll find resources on archaeological information gathered about each of these time periods.

Chalcolithic Period - The Beginnings of Copper Metallurgy
The Chalcolithic is the name given to the period in the Near East and Europe between the Neolithic and Bronze Age, from about 4500 and 3500 BC.

The History of Vanilla - America's Gift to Chocolate Fiends
Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia or tahitensis), that wonderfully spicy and sweet flavoring, created from the vanilla orchid, the only edible orchid known.

Uruk - Mesopotamian Capital City in Iraq
The ancient Mesopotamian capital of Uruk is located on an abandoned channel of the Euphrates river about 155 miles south of Baghdad.

Sites of Ancient Mesopotamia
Along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers can be found the ruins of many an ancient site belonging to the Mesopotamian culture, including the kingdoms of Assyria, Sumer and Akkad.

Career Options for Archaeology Degrees
Not all archaeologists are professors at college. There are many different allied jobs associated with archaeological investigations.

Glossary Entries between Pachamac and Paviland Cave
Dictionary entries for words used in archaeology between with Pa through Pd.

Guide to World History
Two hundred years of archaeology have contributed to the development of a world history; in some cases, archaeology is the only way we know anything about the history of the ancient world.

Paleolithic - Study Guide, Chronology of the Stone Age
A brief introduction of the Stone Age, more commonly known to scholars as the Paleolithic era.

Books on the Archaeology of the Indus and Sarasvati Rivers
Lots of good books have been published on the ancient civilization of the Indus and Sarasvati Rivers in Pakistan and India. Here's a sampling.

Indus Civilization
The Indus and Sarasvati river valleys of India and Pakistan were the home to the ancient civilization of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa.

Top Books on the Indus Civilization
Many great books have been written about the mysterious Indus civilization, by several of the best-known researchers. Here's a selection.

Wootz Steel - Raw Material for Damascus Steel Blades
Wootz is the name given to an exceptional grade of iron ore steel first made in southern and south central India and Sri Lanka as early as 400 BC.

Archaeology Glossary: W Terms
A guide to the obscure jargon of archaeology, for terms beginning with the letter W, and Wadi Raba.

Archaeology of the Iron Age
The technology of iron smelting was developed at different times throughout the Old World, and provided access to efficient and durable metal tools and weapons.

Hunahpu and Xbalanque - The Maya Hero Twins
Hunahpu and Xbalanque are two semi-god​ twins whose story is narrated in the Popol Vuh,the sacred book of the Maya Quiché of Guatemala.

World History: Stone Age Hunter Gatherers
By the end of the Pleistocene, Homo sapiens were the only hominid on earth. They were very nearly uniform in their lifestyles and artifact assemblage, and they spread throughout the world.

Glossary Entries between Sa Huynh and Saxons
Dictionary entries in archaeology beginning with Sa, from Sa Huynh to Saxons.

Sahul - Ancient Pleistocene Continent of Australia
Sahul is the great Pleistocene-era continent made up of Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea, and its boundaries were crucial for Australia's peopling.

Archaeology Digs in Australia
Numerous field schools and other planned excavations are held each year in Australia and New Zealand. Here are a few of the recent listings.

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Lady Dai's Funeral Banner - 2200 Year Old Silk Tapestry
Lady Dai was a member of the Han Dynasty ruling elite, and by some minor miracle, the banner that attended her burial 2200 years ago is still lovely.

Archaeology Glossary: L Terms
Archaeological terms from La Chapelle aux Saintes to Lydenberg.

Mortuary Studies
The archaeology of death--the study of how cultures treat the dead and what they believe about the afterlife.

Mawangdui - Han Dynasty Tombs of Lady Dai and Her Son
Mawangdui is the name of three Han dynasty [202 BC-AD 9] tombs in Changsha, China where fabulously preserved ancient manuscripts were recovered.

The Aqueduct at Jerwan - Assyrian Water Control in Iraq
The Jerwan aqueduct is a marvel of engineering, built over a ravine by the Assyrian king Sennacherib some 2,700 years ago.

Ostrich Domestication - Really? Who Domesticated Them?
It must be said: the human and ostrich relationship is a difficult one. But the meat, feathers, and eggs lured us into domesticating them anyway.

Bibliography on the Domestication of Ostriches
A brief bibliography of sources on ostrich domestication history, including archaeology and animal science. Page 2.

Animal Domestication - Table of Dates and Places
This annotated animal domestication table lists the dates and places that scholars have discovered about when over 30 animals were domesticated

The History of Human Interactions with Caribou
Reindeer, or caribou, were first domesticated about 3000 years ago--much later than most other animal domesticates. Why that should be is an interesting puzzle.

Why Weren't Reindeer Domesticated Earlier?
Why weren't reindeer domesticated earlier? Maybe they just don't like us very much. Page 2.

Upper Paleolithic Period
The Upper Paleolithic Period includes the period of time during which anatomically modern human became behaviorally modern humans, beginning about 40,000 years ago.

Venus Figurines - Early Human Sculptural Art


Hohle Fels Figurines - 35,000 Year Old Carved Ivory Art
The Hohle Fels figurines are a set of mammoth ivory figurines carved by humans and buried in the Hohle Fels, Germany 30,000 and 35,000 years ago.

A Water Bird Figurine from Hohle Fels - Ivory Figurines from Hohle Fels
This mammoth ivory figurine is of a waterbird of some sort. Its pieces were recovered in 2001 and 2002 near the bottom of the Aurignacian sequence

Venus Figurine from Hohle Fels - Ivory Figurines from Hohle Fels
The Venus figurine from Hohle Fels is dated to the earliest Aurignacian level at the site, perhaps as old as 40,000 years ago.

Microphotographs of the Venus of Hohle Fels - Ivory Figurines from Hohle Fels
This detailed view of the Venus of Hohle Fels includes microphotographs of the delicate incisions cut into the ivory, giving the figurine clothing and shape.

More Resources on Hohle Fels Cave
Recent scholarly research on Hohle Fels.

Archaeology Glossary Entries from Appenine Culture through Assyria
Dictionary entries for words beginning with Ap, Aq, Ar, and As, from Appenine through Assyria.

Archeology - Wait, Am I Spelling that Right?
Archeology is an alternative spelling for Archaeology, and the reason for your spelling choices might be blamed on Geoffrey Chaucer.

Shang Dynasty - Ancient Chinese Bronze Age State
The Shang Dynasty was a state level society in Bronze Age, China, that received its ruling authority from the ancestors via the use of oracle bone divination.

Myths, Religion, Cult, and Magic
Archaeological studies of religion and magic throughout the past.

Archaeology of Raw Materials - Ancient Artifact Sources
Raw materials are substances exploited for their specific characteristics--whether they were strong, sharp, malleable, sticky, or just darn pretty.

What Has Science Learned about the Buddha?
A collection of archaeological and historical studies focused on the historical Buddha, including occupation sites and shrines associated with him and his followers.

Archaeology Glossary: O Terms
Archaeology glossary terms beginning with O, from Oasis Theory to Owo, Nigeria.

Oracle Bones - Predicting the Future in Shang, China
Oracle bones were used to tell the future in Shang Dynasty in China--and they relate a lot about the past to modern day scholars.

Moche Portrait Vessel
This portrait vessel, with its commanding features, depicts a prominent ancient Moche ruler from northern Peru. The Moche people were masters of sculpture and frequently depicted elite individuals through sculpture, often creating record of their childhood, adulthood and even death. Page 19.

Aztec Sculpture, Templo Mayor, Mexico City
This Aztec stone statue is similar to others that were found buried between construction layers of the Great Temple, known as

Squash History North of South America
The squash was also domesticated in North America, as part of a Late Archaic pattern of subsistence known as the Eastern North American Neolithic. Page 2.

Domestication History of Squashes (Cucurbita spp)
The domesticated squash, including pumpkins and gourds, is an American domesticate, first farmed by people perhaps as long ago as 10,000 years.

Begash (Kazakhstan)
Begash is an archaeological site in Kazakhstan, where evidence concerning the spread and transmission of agriculture has been identified.

Resources on Begash
Recent scholarly articles on the Bronze Age site of Begash, Kazakhstan. Page 2.

Frankopan's The Silk Roads: A New History of the World
Peter Frankopan's history called the Silk Roads is a dense and fascinating story of the roots of today's political and social world.

Frankopan's Fatalistic Perspective of Global History
Frankopan's broad world history provides a deep underpinning to today's events, with revelations from world-class libraries and declassified documents. Page 2.

The Ancient History of Making Olive Oil
The history of olive oil, how it was produced, who produced it and why, based on the archaeological and historical evidence.

World History Timelines - Two Million Years of Humanity
An assembly of timelines for the world history of ancient cultures and civilizations, spanning from the Stone Age through the Middle Ages.

San Lorenzo - Olmec Civilization in Veracruz
The archaeological site of San Lorenzo is the royal center of the larger San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan Olmec period site located in the state of Veracruz, Mexico

San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán - Olmec Capital Polity
San Lorenzo Tenochtitln is the name of a polity capital of the Olmec civilization, located in the Coatzacoalcos floodplain in the state of Veracruz, Mexico.

Initial Period through Late Horizon - Ancient Andes Timeline
Ancient Andes Timeline (II). Learn more about the chronology of Ancient Pru from the Initial Period to the Late Horizon (1800 BC - AD 1534)

Olmec Civilization - Timeline and Definition
A guide to the Olmec civilization, including timelines, important sites, important facts, subsistence and settlement, burning issues, and a bibliography

Persepolis (Iran) - Darius the Great's Persian Empire
The archaeological site of Persepolis was part of the Achaemenid Dynasty of the Persian Empire, established by King Darius about 515 BC.

Ancient Americas - American Archaeology at the Field Museum
A photo essay of artifacts and archaeological sites from American archaeology collected for a special exhibition at Chicago's Field Museum

Archaeology Glossary: D Terms
Archaeology terms defined from Da But, Vietnam through Dyukhtai Cave, Siberia.

The History of the Wheel, its Invention and Development
Wheeled vehicles were invented pretty much simultaneously in Southwest Asia and Northern Europe, about 5500 years ago.

Ancient Wheels, Ancient Models
Archaeological examples of early wheeled vehicles; and sources on the history of the wheel. Page 2.

Beginner's Guide to Korea's Medieval Joseon Dynasty
The architecture and burial customs of the medieval Joseon Dynasty reflect a neo-Confucianism reform reacting to corrupt Buddhist predecessors.

Joseon Dynasty Scientific Research
Joseon astronomy; and a list of bibliographic sources used in this article. Page 2.

Indus Civilization Timeline and Description
The Indus is one of the oldest societies we know of, including over 2600 known archaeological sites located along the Indus and Sarasvati rivers.

Ancient Farming - Concepts, Techniques, and Experiments
This collection of ancient farming includes core concept definitions, archaeological research into ancient farming, and special farming techniques.

Ancient Farming - Concepts, Techniques, and Experiments
This collection of ancient farming includes core concept definitions, archaeological research into ancient farming, and special farming techniques.

Burial Types - Mortuary Behaviors of the Ancient Past
Over the millennia since the earliest burial, people have buried their dead in many different ways. Each burial type listed on this page includes descriptions, dates and images of typical burials.

Best Anthropology Videos - DVD Format Documentaries on Archaeology and Anthropology
Reviews of recent anthropology and archaeology videos, currently available in DVD format.

Ancient Civilizations - The Kingdom of Kush
After classical Egypt, the first civilization in Africa was called Kush or Kushite, located on the third cataract of the Nile River in what is now the Sudan.

Greek amphitheatre, Butrint, Albania
Greek amphitheatre, Butrint, Albania. Page 2.

Roman Gymnasium, Ancient City of Butrint
Roman Gymnasium, Ancient City of Butrint. Page 3.

Byzantine Basilica in Butrint, Albania
Byzantine Basilica in Butrint, Albania

The Rise and Fall of Ethiopia's Emperors - The Royal Tombs of Aksum
The Rise and Fall of Ethiopia's Emperors - The Royal Tombs of Aksum. Page 5.

The Royal Tombs of Aksum
The text for this photo essay of the Ethiopian site of Aksum was written by the late archaeologist Stuart Munro-Hay, who discusses his work with Neville Chittick at the Iron Age site.

Berat Orthodox Church, Albania
Berat Orthodox Church, Albania. Archaeology. Page 6.

Durres, Albania
Durres, Albania. Archaeology. Page 5.

Ottoman Bridge, Mes, Albania
Ottoman Bridge, Mes, Albania. Archaeology. Page 7.

Petrela Castle, Tirana, Albania
Petrela Castle, Tirana, Albania. Archaeology. Page 8.

Rozafa Castle, Shkodra, Albania
Rozafa Castle, Shkodra, Albania. Archaeology. Page 9.

Tirana Mosque of Et'hem Bey, Albania
Tirana Mosque of Et'hem Bey, Albania. Page 4.

Archaeology Glossary: P Terms
A guide to the obscure terminology of archaeology for the letter P, from Pachacamac through the Pyramid Texts.

Vietnamese Culture History and Archaeology
Vietnamese Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Vietnam.

Dongson Culture - Bronze Age in Southeast Asia
The Dong Son culture is a Bronze age culture of northern Vietnam, whose fantastic drums spread throughout southeast Asia by the mid first millennium BC.

Boat Burials and Theoretical Disputes about the Dongson
Archaeology. Page 2.

Plant Domestication - Table of Dates and Places
A collection of plant histories, when and where humans domesticated them, with a table of dates and places and links to the stories themselves.

History of Rice Outside of China
Rice was domesticated in China, but its story includes the spread and adaptations of this splendid and important grain outside of China as well. Page 2.

The Origins of Rice Domestication in China
Most scholars agree that the domestication of rice occurred somewhere in China about 12,000 years ago, but how did they come up with that?

Dong Son Drums - Symbols of a Maritime Bronze Age Society in Asia
The Dongson drum is an iconic--but much debated--symbol of those marvelous sailors of northern Vietnam, the late Bronze Age Dongson.

Quotations from Archaeologists
Quotations taken right from the work of professional archaeologists.

National Geographic Expedition Week - Archaeology Viewers Guide of National Geographic Expedition Week
The National Geographic Society is one of the oldest continuously publishing journals in the world. Founded in 1888, the society has as its main goals

Unlocking the Great Pyramid - National Geographic's Expedition Week
During the reign of Cheops (2589-2566 BC), his architect Hemiunu planned and built the Great Pyramid. How was that done? Architect Jean-Pierre Houdin has a theory...

Direct from the Moon
The Kaguya lunar orbiter was launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency on September 14, 2007, and Direct from the Moon promises to provide a wealth of new images of our closest satellite.

Shipwreck - Captain Kidd and the Quedah Merchant
Captain Kidd was a privateer, unwittingly turned pirate when he took off with the multinational cargo ship Quedah Merchant. Shipwreck! is about the investigation of the wreck of the Quedah Merchant, scuttled off the coast of Catalina Island in 1599

The Real George Washington - National Geographic Expedition Week
George Washington was truly a founding father of the United States--but there's a lot historians and archaeologists can tell us about this complex man that we've never learned before.

Lost Cities of the Amazon
In the 16th century, Spanish conquistadors got lost and traveled down the length of the Amazon. When they returned to Spain, they reported lost cities and huge populations--and they were completely disbelieved. Archaeological evidence has revealed that they were not just telling stories.

Alexander the Great's Lost Tomb
Alexander the Great spent six months in Egypt in the year 332 BC, but he was there long enough to make himself a pharaoh and establish an Egyptian dynasty. Was he buried there, at least once?

Mystery of the Screaming Man
Unknown Man E, excavated from the royal cache of burials at the Deir el Bahri oasis, is the stuff of nightmares. How did this screaming mummy come to be mummified in so odd a manner?

Herod's Lost Tomb
Herod the Great was a controversial figure--a Jewish governor raised to a king by the Roman overlords. He was a fabulous architect, who slaughtered his own children and wife because he didn't trust them.

Albania Archaeology in Photos
A photo essay of important and interesting archaeological sites to see in Albania

Yersinia pestis - The Bacteria that Causes Bubonic Plague
New evidence that the Black Death, the Justinian Plague and modern bubonic plague are just the latest versions of the bacteria that plagues humans.

Did Rats Cause the Bubonic Plague of the Middle Ages?
Did rats cause the bubonic plague? The evidence shows that it was fleas. Page 2.

The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) in North American Prehistory
The scarlet macaw's vibrant plumage was used in Mesoamerican societies far outside the bird's natural range on the central American gulf coast.

Pompeii - Archaeology of the Famous Roman Tragedy
Pompeii is arguably the best known archaeological site in the world--and crucial to the history of archaeological science.

Recent Archaeology at the Roman Empire Site of Pompeii
The modern excavations at Pompeii ended in 2006: but the excavators have concentrated the intervening years since then publishing their results. Page 2.

How to Become an Archaeologist - Career Path Resources
Have you always dreamed of being an archaeologist, but don't know how to become one? Here's how you can get started exploring that dream job.

Why Should We Call the Aztec Empire the Mexica Empire?
The name Aztec is a simply the incorrect term to define the ancient inhabitants of the city of Tenochtitlan or the inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico.

But Wait - Isn't Mercury a Poison?
The problem with cinnabar is it is eminently deadly to be in contact with. Page 2.

The Historical Use of Cinnabar, a Mercury Mineral
Cinnabar is a natural form of mercury, and its bright orange color was used by humans to decorate walls, pots and burials for at least 9,000 years.

Chicomoztoc - Mythical Place of Origins of the Aztecs
The mythical Chicomoztoc,the place of the seven caves, was the sacred place of origin for the Aztec/Mexica, the Toltecs, and other Mesoamerican groups.

Three Sisters - Ancient Cornerstone of American Farming
The Three Sisters were what Native American groups called the combined intercropping of maize, beans and squash.

Vikings - Ancient Norse Explorers
While it would debatable to call the Vikings a civilization they were certainly explorers and their sites are found all over northern Europe into Germany and Canada. Here are a collection of resources on what those villages and settlements looked like.

Chinese Purple - Ancient Pigment of Terracotta Soldiers
Chinese or Han Purple was a manufactured pigment used in China between about 500 BC and 220 AD, including the famous Qin dynasty terracotta soldiers.

Linear A - Undeciphered Writing System of the Minoans
Linear A is the as-yet undeciphered written language of the Minoan people on the island of Crete, used during the Proto-palatial period (1900-1700 BC)

The Shieling System - Animal Husbandry of the Vikings
The Vikings also used a specialized version of pastoralism, called shieling, which was fairly successful in Greenland, until a sharp change in climate. Page 2.

Landnám and Shieling - Viking Farming Methods
Landnm is the Old Norse word (roughly translated as

Mayahuel - The Aztec Goddess of Maguey
Mayahuel is the name of the Aztec goddess of maguey, the agave plant from which pulque and mezcal are produced.

Aztec Gods - The Top 10 Deities of Mexica Mythology
The top ten of the 200 Aztec gods and goddesses recognized by scholars include the most famous and the important figures of the Aztec religion.

Aksum - African Iron Age Kingdom on the Horn of Africa
The Kingdom of Aksum (first through sixth centuries AD) was one of the most powerful kingdoms in sub-Saharan Africa, connecting with Rome and Egypt.

Great Zimbabwe - African Iron Age Capital in Zimbabwe
Great Zimbabwe is an important African Iron Age site and the capital of the Zimbabwe kingdom between the 10th and 15th centuries AD.

Living at Great Zimbabwe - Agriculture and Material Culture
Archaeological evidence shows that people who lived in Great Zimbabwe had access to a wide variety of trade items from China and the Near East. Page 2.

Pigs - The Domestication History of Sus scrofa
Our modern domestic pig (Sus scrofa) was developed from the ferocious wild boar in two very distant places in the world: Turkey and China.

37 Different Ways to Define What Archaeologists Do
The study of archaeology has been defined in a number of silly and serious ways. Here's a pithy collection from professionals and non-professionals.

Archaeology Definition Collection from Geoff Carver
Definitions of archaeology, by archaeologists, compiled by archaeologist Geoff Carver. Page 2.

The History of the Bean - Phaseolus vulgaris L.
The common bean's colorful past includes two domestication events: one in the Andes mountains of South America, and one in central Mexico.

Recent Archaeological Research on the Common Bean
Scholarly studies on the ancient history of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris. Page 2.

Artifacts and Art History
Artifacts are one of the primary studies of archaeological work, and something that many people find of interest. Archaeological investigations have recovered untold numbers of art objects and artifacts created by our ancestors. These artifacts of stone, pottery, glass, wood, and metal, tell us much about our collective past.

Lithics
Lithic artifact analysis stone chipped stone flakes chert rock tools arrow heads scrapers

Hammerstone - The Simplest and Oldest Stone Tool
A hammerstone is the archaeological term used for an object used as a prehistoric hammer, to bang on another object, beginning 3 million years ago.

North American Culture History and Archaeology
North American Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the continent of North America.

American Southwest Culture History and Archaeology
American Southwest Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the southwestern United States.

Maya Civilization
Archaeological sites and studies of the ancient Maya civilizations of Central America.

Archaeology Glossary: M Terms
Archaeological terms from Maadi culture to Mycenae, Greece.

Roman Empire - Archaeology of Ancient Rome
The Roman Empire ruled throughout Europe, and parts of Asia and Africa; their architectural ruins are found in many many modern cities of today.

Archaeology Glossary: S Terms
A guide to the obscure terminology of archaeology for the letter S, beginning with the Sa Huynh culture.

Transportation in Archaeology
The history and archaeology of roads, canals, viaducts, the wheel, and other assorted pieces that led to the mobility of the human race is an important study in archaeology.

Archaeology Glossary: T Terms
A guide to the obscure terminology of archaeology for the letter T, from Taima-Taima to Tutankhamun's Tomb.

Glossary Entries between Skateholm and Spiro Mounds
Dictionary entries in archaeology beginning with Sk, Sl, Sm, Sn, So, and Sp, from Skateholm (Sweden) to Spiro Mounds (USA).

Archaeology Glossary: V Terms
A guide to the obscure jargon of archaeology, for terms beginning with the letter V, from Valcamonica to Vuelta Limon.

Roman Empire Archaeological Ruins
The Roman Empire was truly stunning in its breadth and reach through Europe and northern Africa, and establishing a trade network deep into Asia. Here are a few of the archaeological sites.

Archaeology Book Reviews
Book reviews of general science books which are excellent sources of information about the study of archaeology.

Mesoamerica Culture History and Archaeology
Mesoamerica Culture History and Archaeology - Mesoamerica includes the ancient Aztec, Maya, Toltec, and Olmec civilizations of the Central American continent. These advanced civilizations Mesoamerica culture a rich and fascinating study, including the countries of Mexico, Belize, Colombia, Venezuela, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica and the Caribbean Islands.

Movies and Cinematic Explorations of Archaeology
Archaeology has always been of intense interest to the public, something movie directors and companies have known for a very long time.

Paleoindian Period in the American Continents
The American continents were the last of the continents to be colonized, probably around 15,000 years or so ago. The period of colonization is called 'Paleoindian'.

Video Archaeology - Archaeological Videos of Excavation in Action
Videos filmed of archaeological excavations and other events recorded by the working archaeologist.

Aztec Religion - Religion of the Aztec Empire
This collection of articles describes different aspects of the Aztec religion, including the Aztec gods, ceremonies and beliefs.

Betatakin
These spectacular cliff dwellings were built in response to war, protecting the inhabitants by keeping them in hard-to-reach locations and they often included windowless walls and enclosed plazas with removable ladders for additional security. Located within the Navajo National Monument in Arizona, Betatakin was one of the many farming villages that dotted the Southwest in what is known as the

Cahokia Mounds, Illinois
Located in Collinsville, Illinois where the Illinois, Mississippi, and Missouri rivers intersect, Cahokia was the largest community north of Mexico in the ancient Americas. It is well-known for its more than 120 massive mounds of earth that were used as foundations for public buildings and homes of high-ranking officials, the largest mound is over one hundred feet tall. Visitors will be able to view a scale model of the site in the exhibition The Ancient Americas. Page 2.

Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon
Located in present-day northwestern New Mexico, Pueblo Bonito was one of many spectacular

Bibliography for Ocampos Caves
Bibliography of recent scholarly articles on the Ocampo caves. Page 2.

Child Burials at Upward Sun River
Three burials of children at the Upward Sun River Paleoindian site represent evidence of complex mortuary burials for the first migrants into the Americas. Page 2.

Upward Sun River Site - Arctic Paleoindian Site in Alaska
11,500 year old child burials at the Upward Sun River site in central Alaska exhibit complex burial practices of Siberian migrants into the Americas.

Ocampo Caves (Tamaulipas, Mexico)
The Ocampo Caves refers to three caves in the Sierra Madre Oriental mountains of Tamaulipas State, Mexico, where early evidence for bottle gourd, pumpkin and maize has been found.

Wadi Jilat - Epipaleolithic Archaeological Sites in Jordan
The archaeological sites in the dry-steppe desert basin of Wadi Jilat hold important archaeological evidence about the epipaleolithic.

Tula de Hidalgo (Mexico) - Toltec Capital City of Tollan
The archaeological ruins of Tula (also called Tula de Hidalgo), represent the ancient Toltec capital city of Tollan and hold some fascinating friezes.

Eastern Settlement - Norse Settlement of Greenland
The Eastern Settlement is the name of a community in Greenland, which was settled by Norsemen led by Erik the Red in the 10th century AD.

Viking Social Structure - Living in a Norse World
Viking society was highly stratified, with three distinct classes, from slave to aristocracy; and clearly defined professions that described life.

Viking Trading and Exchange Networks
The Vikings had an extensive trade network throughout Europe, based on cod and exotic goods and maintained by a group of tradesmen.

NOVA - Making North America, Part 1: Origins - A Review
American Public Television's NOVA program presents Making North America: Origins, a brand new, CGI-enhanced introduction to ancient geology.

Ivory and Bone Figurines, Bracelets, and a Mysterious Plate
Mal'ta's site assemblage included a large number of ivory artifacts, including a mysterious plate that scholars still puzzle over. Page 2.

Tower of Abusir - Lighthouse of Alexandria in Miniature
The Tower of Abusir is believed to be a scale model of the ancient Lighthouse of Alexandria, and it still stands on the Egyptian coast today.

Mal'ta (Siberia): Upper Paleolithic Site in Central Siberia
Mal'ta is an Upper Paleolithic site in Siberia, where a child's DNA provides evidence for the genetic complexity of the first American colonists.

Top 10 Things to Know About the Vikings
The ancient Vikings were undoubtedly raiders: in that the History Channel series is correct. But they were so much more interesting than television tells us...

Upper Paleolithic Sites in Europe (A-D)
The Upper Paleolithic period in Europe was a time of great change, with a blossoming of human capabilities and a huge increase in the number of sites and the size and complexity of those sites.

Upper Paleolithic Sites in Europe (A-D)
The Upper Paleolithic period in Europe was a time of great change, with a blossoming of human capabilities and a huge increase in the number of sites and the size and complexity of those sites.

Upper Paleolithic Sites in Europe (A-D)
The Upper Paleolithic period in Europe was a time of great change, with a blossoming of human capabilities and a huge increase in the number of sites and the size and complexity of those sites.

Upper Paleolithic Sites in Europe (A-D)
The Upper Paleolithic period in Europe was a time of great change, with a blossoming of human capabilities and a huge increase in the number of sites and the size and complexity of those sites.

Pre-Clovis Sites - First Colonists of the Americas
Preclovis is the name given to what archaeologists are coming to consider the founding population of the American continents

Tonatiuh the Aztec Sun God
Tonatiuh (pronounced Toh-nah-tee-uh) was the Aztec sun god. This deity had both a positive and negative aspect.

Aztec Architecture in Tlatelolco, Mexico
the archaeological site of Tlatelolco, in Mexico City, holds the remains of the city that was the twin capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec empire. Tlatelolco was its commercial center...

History of Textiles - When People Learned to Make Cloth
The term textiles includes cloth, baskets, sandals, nets, string, cords--anything made of natural fibers. Textiles are very old indeed!

Bibliography of Steppe Societies
Scholarly research into the archaeology of the steppe societies of Bronze age central Eurasia. Page 2.

Sediment Core Analysis in Archaeology
Sediment cores are an extremely useful tool used in conjunction with archaeological studies. Basically, a geologist uses a long narrow metal (generally aluminum) tube to sample the soil deposits in the bottom of a lake or wetland. The soils are removed, dried, and analyzed in a laboratory.

Shanidar Cave (Iraq) - Neanderthal Violence and Purposeful Burials
Excavations were conducted at the Neanderthal site of Shanidar Cave during the 1950s by Ralph S. Solecki and Rose L. Solecki.

Is there a Solutrean-Clovis Connection in the American Colonization?
The Solutrean-Clovis connection suggests that at least some of the first people in North America were direct descendants of European Solutreans.

What is Sampling in Archaeology
It is not always prudent or possible to excavate all of a particular site, or survey all of a particular area. In those cases, it is important to design an excavation or survey strategy that will obtain enough information to make realistic interpretations of a site or area.

Southern Dispersal Route - Early Modern Humans Leave Africa
The Southern Dispersal Route refers to a theory concerning an early migration of modern human beings from southern Africa to the east along the coastlines of Africa, Arabia and India to Australia and Melanesia between about 70,000 and 45,000 years ago.

Bibliography of the Southern Dispersal Route
Recent scholarly studies about the pathway out of Africa that resulted in the peopling of South Asia. Page 2.

Bronze Age Mobile Pastoralists of Central Asia
Steppe societies refers to the mobile pastoralist nomads of the central Asia, who roamed the broad steppes of Asia on horseback.

A Catalog of the Archaeological Ruins of Ancient Roads
Modern road systems are often built atop ancient road ways, roads built hundreds or thousands of years ago to sustain empire building, trade and cultural connections. This page describes several of our most ancient roadways, from the most ancient trackways to the Inca road system.

Silk Road Cities
A guided tour to the cities of the Silk Road

A Catalog of the Archaeological Ruins of Ancient Roads
Modern road systems are often built atop ancient road ways, roads built hundreds or thousands of years ago to sustain empire building, trade and cultural connections. This page describes several of our most ancient roadways, from the most ancient trackways to the Inca road system.

Books on Ancient Civilizations
If you're looking for some interesting in-depth books on the ancient cultures of the world, whether the Greeks, Romans, Maya, Inca, Indus Valley, or other cultures really fascinate you, here's the place for you.

Chaco Canyon (New Mexico)
Chaco Canyon is an archaeological site of great beauty and mystery, important to the Anasazi and their descendents, still living in the Four Corners Region of the American Southwest.

Archaeology Glossary: Q Terms
A guide to the obscure terminology of archaeology for the letter Q, from Qandahar through Qusayr'Amra.

Books on World Archaeology by Region
This category of the catalogue is set up to describe books that are on special regions of the world, countries or adjacent areas. At the moment, this category will point up the shallowness of the range of books I've seen to date; the list is weak in everything except the archaeology of the Americas. Look for that to change in the coming months.

Roman Ruins in Italy
The capital of the Roman Empire was Rome, in Italy: and there are many other Roman empire sites to see.

Belize Culture History and Archaeology
Belize Culture History and Archaeology - Archaeological sites, cultural history, and other information about the past of the modern country of Belize.

Research Institutions in Latin American Archaeology
Links to research institutions conducting and publishing archaeological investigations in Latin America.

Turks and Caicos Culture History and Archaeology
Turks and Caicos Culture History and Archaeology - archaeological sites, research, and other information about the cultural history of the Turks and Caicos Islands.

Persian Empire Archaeological Sites
This includes detailed information on many of the archaeological sites dated to the periods of the ancient Persian Empire

Climate Change - Past Perspectives
Climate change is something that our ancestors wrestled with--and sometimes lost. Archaeology has documented evidence of their successes and failures as the planet warmed or cooled, got drier or wetter, or was subjected to natural disasters.

History of Archaeology
The roots of archaeology begin with the last emperor of Babylon, Nabonidus or Nebuchadnezzar II. Since then, archaeology has grown into a serious science; but the road btween now and then was a crooked one.

Inca Empire - the Ancient Incan Civilization
The Inca Empire ruled much of the Andes Mountains along the west coast of the South American continent beginning in the 13th century AD; their architecture speaks to their awesome abilities and artistry.

Medieval and Renaissance
Net resources on medieval and renaissance sites dark ages links web sites

Maya Writing, Art and Architecture
The Maya civilization is known for its lovely art and iconographic systems.

Ancestral Puebloan Cultures - The Anasazi
Ancestral Puebloan Cultures, or the ancient Anasazi, established the great communities of Chaco Canyon and are the ancestors of the modern pueblo people of Arizona and New Mexico.

Top 10 Inventions in Ancient Human History
We have been on this planet, depending on how you define

World History Timelines - Two Million Years of Humanity
An assembly of timelines for the world history of ancient cultures and civilizations, spanning from the Stone Age through the Middle Ages.

The Dawn of Angkor - Cemetery Studies at Ban Non Wat, Thailand
Ban Non Wat, Thailand: This is a double burial from the Bronze Age of Ban Non Wat, containing two very rich women. Page 6.

Ancestral Puebloan Vase
This decorated ceramic vase was found in southwest United States and was made by the Ancestral Puebloan peoples of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. This classic Chaco cylinder vessel is one of only a few hundred known to exist in the world, of which 192 were found at Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon. Page 20.

Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde
In The Ancient Americas exhibition, visitors will be able to walk through a recreation of a Puebloan household similar to the one shown here at Mesa Verde National Park. Visitors can learn more about how ancient Pueblo people lived, ate and slept through a variety of hands-on interactives. Page 4.

Inca Gold Figurine, Peru
This gold figurine, and similar gold pieces from Cuzco, are rare finds. While at one time the Inca had plentiful gold deposits, objects such as this, along with most of Cuzco's gold, were taken by Spanish conquistadors in the early 1500s and shipped to Europe. Page 13.

Inca Textile Tunic, Peru
This finely woven shirt is an example of the type of textiles created for Inca officials by highly skilled female weavers. The Inca placed great value on textiles of cotton, alpaca and vicua wool. Page 9.

Maya Carving with Glyphs
This fragment was found in part of the Maya kingdom in Belize, and though the text is incomplete, it tells of a ruler known as K'an III whose military skills earned him the title

Moche Owl Warrior
This ceramic vessel of a supernatural owl warrior illustrates how the Moche people of northern Peru associated warriors and predators, likening warfare to hunting prey. These vessels frequently featured beings with characteristics of both people, plants and animals. Page 18.

Shell Fishhooks, Saint Nicholas Island, California
These fishhooks were made from AD 900-1600 off the southern coast of California on Saint Nicholas Island. These curved shell hooks are an improvement from the earlier straight hooks, and were adapted in order to catch ocean fish more successfully. Page 11.

Stone Llamas, Inca Civilization, Peru
These stone figurines illustrate the important role of domesticated animals to the Inca economy, and may have had ritual or ceremonial uses. Llamas, as depicted in these figurines, were used as pack animals to carry goods across Inca roads. Llamas were also an important food source. Page 14.

Tikal, Guatemala
Located in what is now Guatemala, the kingdom of Tikal's ceremonial center covered more than 550 acres and was one of the largest and most elaborate of any Maya city. Mayan kings and queens immortalized themselves by building monumental structures that served as sites for the public religious ceremonies, though they were abandoned in AD 900 only to be uncovered by archeologists in the 1800s. Visitors can learn more about Maya societies in the exhibition The Ancient Americas. Page 5.

Nazca Vessel, Ica Region, Peru
This vessel, made by the Nazca people of southern Peru, shows a man grasping plants in both hands. Prior to AD 300, Nazca pottery primarily featured similar nature motifs; however, around AD 300, artistic themes began to change in style and increasingly reflected scenes of violence. Page 12.

Ancient Paquime and the Casas Grandes World: Review
Ancient Paquim and the Caas Grandes World is an edited book of articles on new interpretations of the massive site in Chihuahua state, Mexico.

Royal Purple - Dying to be Elite in Ancient History
Royal Purple made from whelks is one of the first color-fast dyes, and associated with elite and ceremonial purposes for at least 2,500 years.

Manis Mastodon Site - Pre-Clovis Megafauna Hunting
The Manis Mastodon site, discovered in the 1970s and widely discounted as too early, is now believed to be pre-Clovis.

Predynastic Egypt Timeline and Definition
The Predynastic period in Egypt is the name archaeologists have given to the three millennia before the emergence of the first unified Egyptian state society.

Quarry Sites - The Archaeological Study of Ancient Quarries
A quarry or mine site is where raw material--stone or metal ore--was mined for use as building material or tool construction.

Introducing Quipu - Undeciphered Inca Writing System
The quipu (also spelled khipu or quipo) is the only known precolumbian information system in South America: it has yet to be fully deciphered.

Pueblo Bonito - Chaco Canyon Great House in New Mexico
Pueblo Bonito, or beautiful town, is the most famous of all the Anasazi Great Houses in the Ancestral Pueblo region of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico.

Qesem Cave - Middle and Lower Paleolithic Site in Israel
Qesem Cave is a cave located in Israel near Tel Aviv, some 12 km from the Mediterranean Sea. Its deposits include artifacts dated to the Acheulo-Yabrudian Cultural Complex.

Bibliography for Qesem Cave
Recently published scholarly research on Qesem Cave, Israel. Page 2.

Anzick Clovis Site (Montana, USA)
The Anzick site is a human burial from the Clovis period in the American northwest, dated approximately 12,800 years ago.

Were-Jaguar: Olmec Civilization Iconic Art
The were-jaguar is an important iconographic symbol of the Olmec civilization, and many later civilizations in Central and North America.

Olmec Subsistence and Settlement - Guide to the Olmec Civilization
The cities, settlement patterns, and subsistence methods of the Olmec. Page 2.

Important Facts about the Olmec
Facts about the Olmec concerning their colossal heads of stone, their written language, their rituals, their artwork. Page 3.

Olmec Sites, Issues, and Bibliography - Guide to the Olmec
Olmec archaeological sites, importation issues under consideration, and a brief bibliography. Page 4.

Oc Eo - Funan Culture Site in Vietnam
Oc Eo is a very large Funan culture site in the Mekong Valley of Vietnam, dated approximately 1500 years before the present.

Ohalo II - Upper Paleolithic Site in Israel
Ohalo II is the name of a submerged late Upper Paleolithic (Kebaran) site located on the southwest shore of the Sea of Galilee.

Paleoanthropology - Definition
Paleonanthropology is the study of our near-human ancestors, Australopithecus, Neanderthals, and other primates. Here are some other definitions of the study.

Inca Royal Estate at Ollantaytambo
Ollantaytambo is the royal Incan estate of the Inca king Pachacuti, built in the 15th century AD, and the last refuge of the Inca against Pizarro.

Decoding Neanderthals - Video Review of the Latest from NOVA
Decoding Neanderthals is a summary of recent research into the broader understanding of the abilities of Neanderthals, their history and the living legacy of them walking around today.

Mongoose Animal - The History of Mongooses
Mongooses are native to Africa and Asia, but a small group of them are to be found in the southwestern Iberian peninsula. This article discusses how they got there and who brought them.

Bibliography on the History of Mongooses
Recent scholarly articles on mongooses. er, mongeese? Page 2.

Neolithic Demographic Transition
The Neolithic Demographic Transition refers to evidence that a population boom occurred when people stopped hunting and began farming--all over the world.

Bibliography on the Neolithic Demographic Transition
Archaeology. Page 2.

Olmec Were-Jaguar Research
Recent scholarly research on were-jaguars and their meaning in Olmec society. Page 2.

Durrington Walls - Stonehenge's Lesser Known Sister Site
Durrington Walls is an immense timber circle and ditch enclosure, larger than the later but much better known Stonehenge and located only 2 miles away.

Pioneering Pig Domestication Data at Durrington Wells
Recent investigations at Durrington Walls have centered on what we can learn from the terrific collection of domestic pig and cattle bones from the site. Page 2.

Uruk Period Mesopotamia: The Rise of Sumer
The Uruk period in Mesopotamia is largely synonymous with the rise of the Sumerian state, the first great flourishing of the oldest cities in the world.

Legacy of a Lost Civilization - Documentary on the Old Temples of Malta
Legacy of a Lost Civilization is a documentary film about the ancient Neolithic temples on the islands of Malta and Gozo, produced by the Mediterranean Institute of Ancient Civilizations and the Old Temple Study Foundation.

Time Team: The Team's Favorite Digs - Video Review
The 2013 compilation of videos from nearly 20 years of the British reality TV series the Time Team is just a hoot, as this review argues.

Recent Research on Mesopotamia's First Cities
What forces brought about the rise of the Mesoptamian societies, their urge to colonize their neighbors and their first abrupt collapse? Page 2.

Manot Cave - Early Modern Humans Out of Africa and Into the Levant
Manot Cave is a recently-discovered karst cave in Israel, that might very well hold evidence for the first anatomically modern human departure out of Africa.

Associating the Manot Cave Calveria to the Initial Upper Paleolithic
The skull cap from Manot Cave may have been one of the first anatomically modern humans to leave Africa and live close to Neanderthals. Page 2.

Mummies Alive! Otzi the Iceman (Review)


Roman Mosaic: Gazelle in a Medallion
Roman mosaic of a gazelle in a medallion, from the Brooklyn Museum's planned exhibition of Roman mosaics from a Jewish synagogue in Tunisia in the latter days of the Roman empire.

Roman Mosaic of Partridge
Roman mosaic of a partridge, from the Brooklyn Museum's planned exhibition of Roman mosaics from a Jewish synagogue in Tunisia in the latter days of the Roman empire.

Roman Mosaic of a Date Palm Tree, Synagogue of Hammam Lif
Roman mosaic of date palm tree, from the Brooklyn Museum's planned exhibition of Roman mosaics from a Jewish synagogue in Tunisia in the latter days of the Roman empire.

Late Roman Mosaic of a Dolphin
Roman mosaic of swimming dolphin, from the Brooklyn Museum's planned exhibition of Roman mosaics from a Jewish synagogue in Tunisia in the latter days of the Roman empire.

Roman Mosaic: Bird in a Vine
Roman mosaic of a bird in a vine, from the Brooklyn Museum's planned exhibition of Roman mosaics from a Jewish synagogue in Tunisia in the latter days of the Roman empire.

Mosaic of Duck Facing Left in Vines
Roman mosaic of a duck in a vine, from the Brooklyn Museum's planned exhibition of Roman mosaics from a Jewish synagogue in Tunisia in the latter days of the Roman empire.

Roman Mosaic of Fish's Head
Roman mosaic of a fish's head, from the Brooklyn Museum's planned exhibition of Roman mosaics from a Jewish synagogue in Tunisia in the latter days of the Roman empire.

Roman Mosaic of Lion
Roman mosaic of a lion, from the Brooklyn Museum's planned exhibition of Roman mosaics from a Jewish synagogue in Tunisia in the latter days of the Roman empire.

Scenes from Paradise: Jewish Roman Mosaics from Tunisia
A selection of images from the Brooklyn Museum's planned exhibition of Roman mosaics from a Jewish synagogue in Tunisia in the latter days of the Roman empire.

Roman Mosaic of a Menorah with Lulav and Ethrog
Roman mosaic of menorah, from the Brooklyn Museum's planned exhibition of Roman mosaics from a Jewish synagogue in Tunisia in the latter days of the Roman empire.

Pipestone Bibliography
Scholarly articles, references on the historic and prehistoric Native American use of pipetone.

Catlinite and Calumets
The most famous type of pipestone is called catlinite, after artist and ethrnographer George Catlin

Sourcing Pipestone
To identify where each

Hopewell Platform Pipes
Hopewell platform pipes were studied by researchers, who found that connecting specific artifacts to raw sources did not match current archaeological interpretations.

Cahokia Style Figurines
Emerson's research team discovered support for the notion that all pipestone does not come from Pipestone National Monument, but instead came from numerous sources.

Pipestone - Metamorphic Raw Material for Sacred and Elite Artifacts
Pipestone was used for at least the past 2,000 years by Native American groups in North America for the construction of sacred and elite artifacts.

Cascajal Closeup: Earliest Writing in Americas?
Cascajal Closeup: Earliest Writing in Americas? Page 5.

Cascajal Closeup: Earliest Writing in Americas?
Cascajal Closeup: Earliest Writing in Americas? Page 6.

Cascajal Closeup: Earliest Writing in Americas?
Cascajal Closeup: Earliest Writing in Americas? Page 8.

Monumental Carved Stone Relief
Monumental carved stone relief from the Northwest Palace at Nimrud, ancient Kalhu, dating to the time of the Assyrian kings Assurnasirpal II (883-859 BC).

The Dawn of Angkor - Cemetery Studies at Ban Non Wat, Thailand
Excavations by Charles Higham at the Neolithic, Iron Age, and Bronze Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat in Thailand The 2006 excavation at Ban Non Wat covered an area of 12 by 11 metres. 160 burials were uncovered in just one season.

The Dawn of Angkor - Cemetery Studies at Ban Non Wat, Thailand
Excavations by Charles Higham at the Neolithic, Iron Age, and Bronze Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat in Thailand. This member of an elite Bronze Age group was buried in a clay coffin with many superb pottery vessels and shell ornaments. Page 4.

The Dawn of Angkor - Cemetery Studies at Ban Non Wat, Thailand
Excavations by Charles Higham at the Neolithic, Iron Age, and Bronze Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat in Thailand. Two mysterious early crouched burials from Ban Non Wat. This form of interment is very rare other than among hunter-gatherers in Southeast Asia. Page 3.

Enhanced Photograph of the Cascajal Block
This image is slightly enhanced to allow a little better viewing of the detail. You may be able to tell from this photograph that the surface has been weathered, and a patina is apparent on the incisions, attesting to the authenticity of the block, according to researchers. It appeared in Science magazine, 15 September 2006. Page 3.

The Cascajal Block: Evidence of Early Olmec Writing
Side view of Cascajal block, Veracruz, Mexico.

Cascajal Block: Epigraphic Drawing
Cascajal Block: Epigraphic Drawing. Page 4.

Ileret Footprints - Ancient Homo Erectus Footprints from Ileret, Kenya
The Ileret footprints were made in the mud by our hominid ancestor Homo erectus more than 1.5 million years ago.

Ancient Human Footprints - Ileret Footprints
The Ileret footprints were found near animal prints on two separate layers. They are both believed to have occurred after a flooding event, when pools of water were standing near a stream or river.

Evolution of Bipedalism - Ileret Footprints
Bipedalism--walking on two feet--is a hominid adaptation which is first seen in the fossil record six million years ago.

Comparing Ileret and Laetoli - Ileret Footprints
Compared to the much-older Laetoli footprints, the Ileret footprints are much more like modern humans, and probably represent H. erectus.

Recording the Ileret Footprints
After excavation and for the purposes of this study, the Ileret footprints were carefully mapped, photographed and digitally recorded.

Contour Maps of Ancient Footprints - Ileret Footprints
Using the results of the study, researchers were able to estimate the size of the individuals who made the tracks, and hypothesize which of our ancestors might have made them.

Clay Tablet with a Map of Nippur
Clay tablet, dated 14th-13th century BCE, with a map of the countryside around the city of Nippur, located in the middle of the southern Mesopotamia floodplain, near the modern city of Diwaniyah. Page 5.

Mesopotamian Cylinder Seal Impression
Mesopotamian Cylinder Seal Impression, circa 2350-2150 BC. Page 4.

Mesopotamian Cylinder Seal
Mesopotamian Cylinder Seal, circa 2350-2150 BC. Page 3.

Votive Statue, Khafajah
Votive Statue of a Worshipper from the Nintu temple at Khafajah, circa 2500 BC. Page 2.

Ancient Americas - American Archaeology at the Field Museum
A photo essay of artifacts and archaeological sites from American archaeology collected for a special exhibition at Chicago's Field Museum

Introduction to the Malta Temples
The Malta Temples are ancient stone structures sited on two tiny islands in the Mediterranean Sea off the south coast of Sicily.

Temple Building Periods on Gozo and Malta
As temple building on Gozo and Malta increased, the economic situation plummeted, coupled with an isolation of the islands and a crash in the agricultural production.

Architecture of the Malta Temples
The internal structure of the Malta temples was dark and closed off, with odd smells and odd sounds throughout.

Physical Environment of the Malta Temples
Malta and Gozo are two islands in the Mediterranean sea, on which were built some of the oldest temples in the world. Their geography is a piece of the path to learning about the Malta Temples.

Archaeological Investigations of the Malta Temples
A description of the archaeological investigations of the temples of Malta and Gozo.

Early History of the Malta Temples
The history of colonization of Malta and Gozo and early growth leading up to the Malta Temple Period.

Bibliographic Sources and Further Reading for Malta Temples
A bibliography of reading materials and sources for the Malta Temples project.

Why Were the Malta Temples Built
We don't really know why the Malta temples were built--but archaeologists have a lot of theories.

Malta Temples and the Goddess Movement
The temples at Malta are often considered the founding location of a pan-European Goddess movement. Here's why and what the evidence suggests.

ArchaeoAstronomy and the Malta Temples
Are the Malta temples aligned to the stars?

Neolithic Sites in Europe - European Neolithic
European sites with important Neolithic components are detailed in this list.

Neolithic Sites in Europe - European Neolithic
European sites with important Neolithic components are detailed in this list.

Mesopotamian Art on Loan to the Beijing World Art Museum from the University of Pennsylvania
A photo essay of Mesopotamian artifacts from the University of Pennsylvania including artifacts from Nimrud, Ur, Gudea, and Tell el Ubaid.

Earliest Excavations at Pine Springs Camp - Apaches and Buffalo Soldiers in Texas
Excavations at the Buffalo Soldiers camp called Pine Springs, in the Guadelupe Mountains of West Texas. Page 4.

Mapping Features at Pine Springs Camp
Pine Springs Camp at the foot of the Guadalupe Mountains. Page 7.

Apaches and Buffalo Soldiers at Pine Springs Camp
Archaeological evidence of the Apache War--the conflict between US government forces and Native American tribes in the southern Plains--is found at Pine Springs Camp.

History of the Apaches in Texas - - Archaeology at Pine Springs Camp and the Apache
History of the Apaches in Texas. Archaeology. Page 3.

Bibliography of the Mescalero-Buffalo Soldiers Archaeological Project
A bibliography of papers and articles describing investigations at Pine Springs Camp. Page 11.

Apache Features at Pine Springs Camp
Apache Features at Pine Springs Camp. Page 9.

Archaeological Evidence of Buffalo Soldiers at Pine Springs Camp
Archaeological features identified at Pine Springs Camp with ties to the US Military operations include tent pads, hearths and outposts. Page 8.

Bibliography of the Apache Wars in Texas
A brief bibliography of sources on the Apache Wars. Page 12.

Archaeology's Role in Historical Events
What archaeology brings to the study of military history. Page 10.

History of the Buffalo Soldiers - Archaeology at Pine Springs Camp and Buffalo Soldiers
The history of the Buffalo Soldiers, and how they ended up in Texas fighting the Apache. Page 2.

National Park Service Excavations at Pine Springs Camp
Excavations at the Buffalo Soldiers camp called Pine Springs: Map of Pine Springs Camp showing usable camp area. Page 5.

Warriors Project Excavations at Pine Springs Camp - Buffalo Soldiers and Apaches in Texas
The history of the Warriors Project excavations at Pine Springs Camp begins in 2002. Page 6.

Headdress of Queen Puabi
Puabi was the name of a woman buried in one of the richest of the tombs excavated by Woolley at the Royal Cemetery. Her headress is legendary.

Beaded Cape and Jewelry of Puabi
Queen Puabi was clearly a person of high status, although whether she was a leader in her own right has been debated. This beaded cape and jewelry consists of gold pins and lapis lazuli and carnelian beads.

Artifacts of the Royal Cemetery of Ur
A collection of artifacts from C. Leonard Woolley's excavations of the Royal Cemetery at Ur, and the collection at the University of Pennsylvania's Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology

Ram Caught in a Thicket
Woolley, like many of his generation of archaeologists, was steeped in the literature of ancient religions, and the name he gave to this object discovered in the Great Death Pit is taken from the Old Testament of the bible.

Bibliography of the Royal Cemetery at Ur
A few of the most recent publications on Leonard C. Woolley's excavations at the Royal Cemetery at Ur.

Bull-Headed Lyre from the Royal Cemetery at Ur
The bull-headed lyre discovered at the Royal Cemetery of Ur likely belonged to a musician, buried with one of the retainers in an elite burial.

Feasting and Death at Ur
The people buried at the Royal Cemetery were members of the elite classes, who held ritual or managerial roles in the temples or palaces at Ur.

Retainers and Courtiers of the Royal Cemetery
The exact role of the retainers buried with the elites in the Royal Cemetery at Ur has been long debated. Excavator C. Leonard Woolley was of the opinion that they were willing sacrifices; but later scholars disagree.

Feathered Serpent Façade at Teotihuacán
The Feathered Serpent Faade at Teotihuacn has the most ornately sculpted facade in Teotihuacan and depicts a rattlesnake wearing a feathered ruff and carrying a helmet. Page 9.

Feathered Serpent Façade at Teotihuacán, Drawing by Linda Schele
Archaeologist Linda Schele's drawing of the Feathered Serpent Faade at Teotihuacn is one of many created by this thoughtful and dedicated scholar. Page 10.

Teotihuacán Warrior Who Was Buried in the Fill of the Feathered Serpent Pyramid
Diehl discusses the discovery of warrior sacrifices beneath the Feathered Serpent Pyramid, and what the discovery did to the reputations of the Teotihuacanos. Page 11.

Interior of the Ciudadela at Teotihuacán
The Dance Platform and the Plataforma Adosada of the Ciudadela at Teotihuacan may have been the place to find regularly scheduled ritual enactments. Page 8.

Downtown Teotihuacán Showing the Walking Tour Suggested Route
Archaeologist Dick Diehl gives us an introduction to Teotihuacan, noting that the city covered an area of eight miles (20 km) and housed between 125,000 and 200,000 people at its height, between AD 300 and 550. Page 4.