Archaeology Sitemap - Page 12 2014-04-23

Neolithic Thailand: Ban Non Wat
This week's photo essay is of excavations conducted by Charles Higham (University of Otago, New Zealand) at the Neolithic, Iron Age, and Bronze Age cemetery of

Pompeii Walking Tour: House of the Faun
A photo essay/walking tour of the House of the Faun at Pompeii

2011 Fieldwork in Focus: The Gault Site
This week's Archaeological Fieldwork in Focus comes from Ernst Skip Lohse, field director for the 2011 excavations at the famous Gault site.

New Mexico Attractions: Chaco Canyon
New Mexico as a travel destination is famous for many reasons. From an archaeological standpoint, you can't get much more interesting ruins to visit than Chaco

Hunter-Gatherer Villages at Keatley Creek
Hunting and gathering is an old lifestyle that hardly anyone practices any more. Basically, a hunter-gatherer family lived off the land, migrating as the birds

History of the Avocado
The avocado or alligator pear is among the most important and traded tropical fruit in the world. Hints about the history of the avocado are found in its

You won't hear this very often about an archaeological site, but Yaxchilán, located on the banks of the Usumacinta river on the border between Mexico and

Potato History
Archaeological and genetic evidence together indicate that all potatoes originated from South America--including sweet potatoes, Idaho potatoes and even these

Mesoamerican Ball Game
The Mesoamerican ball game is oldest known sport played in the Americas: the earliest example we have is at Paso de la Amada, dated to at least 1400 BC.

Is Anthropology a Science? #AAAFail
A long-standing debate in anthropological circles has become a recent and white-hot discussion on many science blogs--so hot both the New York Times and Gawker

2011 Fieldwork in Focus: Pottersville, Edgefield District (South Carolina)
This week's Fieldwork in Focus comes from Christopher Fennell at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, who is leading excavations at the Edgefield

Archaeology's Top Ten of 2010
Always on top of things, Archaeology magazine has selected an eclectic group of stories reported this year as their list of top ten discoveries. From

Update on Denisova Cave
Last week the journal Nature reported additional data supporting the astonishing idea that a previously unidentified hominid lived among us up until at least

Northwest Coast
Over the past few weeks, Contributing Writer Nicoletta Maestri has been assembling a new guide to the prehistoric cultures of the Northwest Coast of North

Archaeology in Arctic Norway
The Varanger Peninsula is at the very northeastern edge of the country of Norway, in fact the very northern limits of mainland Europe, well above the arctic

Qesem Cave: Evidence for Early Modern Humans in Israel?
Last week, a slew of news stories came out, stating that evidence had been discovered proving that Homo sapiens had evolved in Israel. I obtained a copy of the

Dinosaur Wars on American Experience
A review of the upcoming video on American Experience called Dinosaur Wars, which details the virulent rivalry between two pioneers of paleontology.

Archaeological Tool Types: Stone Hoe
The latest addition to the list of archaeological tool types is the stone hoe. Drawing of 19th Century Stone Hoe by Samuel Chesnutt Photo Credit: Samuel Lee

Ancient Houses: Tipis and Tipi Rings
Tipis, the movable homes for generations of Plains Indians, have left archaeological evidence in the form of stone circles called tipi rings.

The Ivory Bangle Lady
The Ivory Bangle Lady is a Roman period burial in York, England. Blue Glass Jar from the Ivory Bangle Lady Burial Photo Credit: Kate Stuart York was

Guide to Caribbean History
The Caribbean Sea is a body of water located off the eastern coasts of South and Central America. Within it lies several islands collectively called the Greater

FAQ: What's it Like to be an Archaeologist?
Reader contributed questions about archaeology often stimulate the best discussions. Here's a sample, beginning with What is it like being an archaeologist?

A Ramble Around Teotihuacan
Archaeologist Richard A. Diehl, currently professor emeritus at the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, worked at the massive ruins of Teotihuacán in the basin

Wine Production at Areni-1
Archaeological evidence of 6000 year old wine production has been identified at the site of Areni-1 in Armenia.

Caguana (Puerto Rico)
The Caguana ceremonial center in the Caguana Indian Ceremonial Park in Puerto Rico is a beautiful and interesting site to visit while making a trip to the Caribbean.

Dancing Girl of Mohenjo Daro
A bronze statuette is the focus of fascination for archaeologists studying the Indus civilization

Shipwrecks and Archaeology
Even without a cinematic romance, shipwrecks are fascinating to archaeologists, because they are archaeological sites that represent a single moment in time.

Outies and Social Science Fiction
Outies is a science fiction novel, written by archaeologist Jennifer Pournelle, as a sequel to the classic A Mote in God's Eye, published in 1974 by Pournelle's

Outies, Gender Neutrality and Social Science Fiction: an Interview with Jennifer Pournelle
Over the last month or so, I read and reviewed a book called Outies, written by archaeologist Jennifer Pournelle as her entry into the social science fiction

2011 Fieldwork in Focus: Rock Art Ranch (Arizona)
This week's archaeological Fieldwork in Focus comes from Dr. E. Charles Adams, at the University of Arizona.

Sheep History
Sheep were the first meat animal domesticated, more than 10,000 years ago; and some researchers believe that's because wild baby sheep are so cute!

Paleoindian Child Burial in Alaska: The Upward Sun River Mouth Site
A child's burial in a 11,500 year old site in Alaska, one of the earliest burials found, is evidence of the role of people from Siberia colonizing the Americas.

Aztec Gods
A guide to Aztec gods includes information about the origins, ceremonies, meanings and powers of eight of the most powerful of Aztec gods.

What's a Crescent?
Crescents are chipped stone tools, and they have been found in paleocoastal sites in the Channel Islands off southern California, dated 11,000-12,000 years ago.

2011 Fieldwork in Focus: Kincaid Mounds
Archaeological excavations at the Kincaid Mounds will be held in the summer of 2011; here is a description of the fieldwork and an opportunity to excavate.

Blogging Archaeology
The Society for American Archaeology meetings will be held the end of this month in Sacramento, California. One session of particular interest will be Blogging

Lower Paleolithic Controlled Use of Fire? Not so much
The controlled use of fire is one of the characteristics that archaeologists call behavioral modernity. In March 2011, researchers argued for a later date than previously considered.

Pre-Clovis in Texas: the Debra L. Friedkin Site
The Debra L. Friedkin archaeological site in Texas is an important Pre-Clovis site, dated to the earliest human occupations in the Americas.

Top Myths about the Mayan Civilization
The Internet and popular books may tell you a lot about the peaceful, mysterious, disappeared Mayan civilization, but that's a lot of hooey. Here's what archaeologists have learned.

Blogging Archaeology and Peer Review #blogarch
A recommendation to archaeological bloggers who want to get serious about what they do.

A Walking Tour of Palenque
A walking tour of the important structures at the Maya site of Palenque, located in the state of Chiapas in Mexico.

Blogging Archaeology: Post-Session Comments
A summary of the 2011 SAA Meeting session on Blogging Archaeology.

Sureyya the Shovel Bum
Several years ago, Australian Sureyya Kose decided to switch her boring (but well-paid) information technology career as a systems operator for a life in

Archaeology Field Photos and Geotagging Privacy
A warning about geotagging and where to find out how to turn off the geolocation element in your camera.

Herzog's Cave of Forgotten Dreams
Werner Herzog's 3-dimensional documentary on the Upper Paleolithic Chauvet Cave is a great gift to archaeologists and fans alike.

Mayapan: A Walking Tour
A tour of the main plaza at Mayapan, the largest Maya city within the Yucatan peninsula.

Bodies in the Bog: A Book Review
Bodies in the Bog is a book by Karin Sanders, and it describes some of the creative works derived from bog bodies in books, poetry, sculpture, movies and politics.

AD/CE Revisited: What do the journals say?
A list of some archaeological journals which have weighed in whether you should use AD and BC to refer to dates, or use the more neutral CE/BCE format

Walking Tour of Acanceh
Acanceh is a little Maya town on the Yucatan peninsula, with some early Classic period ruins right in its center.

Mayan Bloodletting
Bloodletting was an ancient ritual among the Mayan civilization, who used it to celebrate many events.

Cave of Forgotten Dreams: A Review
A review of Werner Herzog's documentary film about the 32,000 year old cave paintings in Chauvet Cave, France

Textile History at Guitarrero Cave
Ancient fibers collected from a cave in Peru and dated to 12,000 years ago represent the earliest evidence to date of textile use in the Americas

Amaranth Domestication
The domestication history of amaranth, a seed plant used by the cultures of central America for several thousands of years.

Reindeer and Humans
The June 2011 issue of Quaternary International contains papers from a symposium on

A Walking Tour of Monte Albán
Monte Alban is the capital of the Zapotec culture, and this walking tour of its architecture will give you an introduction to the buildings and the people who built them.

The Environment of Easter Island Moai
A photo essay of a handful of the 900+ moai on Easter Island, showing the variety of environments in which they are located.

Vitrified Forts
Vitrified forts are a type of archaeological site dated to the European Iron Age.

Alfred Maudslay [1850-1931]
A biography of Alfred Maudslay

The Bonampak Murals Photo Essay
The Bonampak murals are a detailed record of the battles and courtly life of a Maya king; this photo essay details the events and shows how the Maya lived.

A new paper on the domestication of coconuts is illustrated in this photo essay describing coconut types, coconut origins and how they came to be dispersed throughout the world

Tianluoshan: Wet Rice Domestication in China
A site on Hangzhou Bay in China provides new evidence of the history of paddy rice domestication

Co Loa: Fighting the Han in Iron Age Vietnam
An introduction to Co Loa, an important site of the Iron Age Dong Son culture in Vietnam

Norse and Thule in Greenland
Recent excavations at the site of Sandhavn in Greenland give us insight into trading by colonizing Vikings and their relationship with the indigenous people of Greenland

Hittite Capital City of Hattusha - A Walking Tour
The ruins of the Hittite capital of Hattusha are explored in this photo essay and walking tour.

Buffalo Soldiers, the Apache Wars, and Archaeology
In Guadalupe Mountains National Park of West Texas lie the archaeological remains of the Pine Springs Camp, a site which has been investigated by Howard

Fray Diego de Landa
Discussion of why Fray Diego de Landa is among the most reviled and forgiven members of the Spanish conquest of Mexico.

Mayan Jade
The term Mayan Jade refers to jadeite, a true jade used to make personal orgnaments by the elites of all Mesoamerican civilizations.

The Statues That Walked: Easter Island Reconsidered
A book review of a new book on Easter Island by scholars Terry Hunt and Carl Lipo

Terra Preta
Terra Preta, or Amazonian Dark Earths, is soil enhanced by charcoal, human waste and other organic materials. Its history supported the growth of village agricultural life in the Amazon rainforest, and the growth of the biochar movement in the world today.

Elixir: A History of Water and Humankind
A book review of Brian Fagan's Elixir, on the history of water control.

A chultun is an ancient storage facility, constructed by the Maya to hold water, food, and possibly make chichen beer...

Dama de Elche
The Dama de Elche is a piece of statuary art from the 4th-5th century BC in Spain

Vindolanda was a series of Roman forts on the Stanegate Road, approximately the border of Scotland and England. It's wet conditions allowed the preservation of over 1300 pieces of everyday writing.

Ake (Mexico)
Ake is a very old Mayan site in the Yucatan peninsula, first occupied in the 4th century BC

Castillo de Teayo (Veracruz Mexico)
The Castillo de Teayo is a modern town in Veracruz, with a pyramid in its town square

Social Ranking at Cuello
The rise of wealthy and powerful people is documented at the Maya site of Cuello, Belize.

Itzamná, Maya God of Creation
The Maya God of creation was Itzamna, who created all the other gods, and invented writing and divination. Whew! busy guy...

Tatiana Proskouriakoff
Epigrapher and Mayanist Tatiana Proskouriakoff is featured in a biographical sketch.

Coatepec - Sacred Mountain of the Aztecs
Coatepec is an ancient Aztec symbol for the mythical Serpent Mountain, but it comes from an older tradition in Mesoamerica.

Domestication of Pearl Millet
The history of the domestication of pearl millet is tied to climate change in west Africa about 45 hundred years ago.

Islamic Cities
An introdution to some of the fascinating cities of the Islamic civilization.

Guide to the Moche
The Moche civilization on the Pacific coast of Peru built huge temples and extensive canals, lived in cities and rural farmsteads, and made fabulous pottery.

Paleodemography is a method used by archaeologists to reconstruct the population make up of prehistoric communities

Actun Tunichil Muknal (Belize)
The Classic Maya cave of Actun Tunichil Muknal, or ATM Cave, is a fascinating glimpse into the ritual mind of the Maya.

100,000 Year Old Paint Pots at Blombos Cave
Two toolkits for producing red pigment were discovered in a cave off the Indian Coast of South Africa, used some 100,000 years ago. This photo essay looks at the finds in detail, as reported in Science.

Yana Rhinoceros Horn Site
The Yana Rhinoceros Horn site is a Siberian arctic archaeological site, some 27,000 years old. It holds part of the puzzle to the original American colonization

Archaeology and the History of Alcohol
The history of alcohol is tied up with the social evolution of society. Of course archaeologists are fascinated by the substance!

Mesoamerican Caves
Caves were of great ritual importance to the Maya and other Mesoamerican people, as reported in a new article by Nicoletta Maestri.

Maya Cave Paintings at Naj Tunich
Naj Tunich is a cave painting site in Guatemala, used by the ancient Maya for ritual purposes and holding 94 separate drawings of Maya ritual life.

The Piazza dei Cavalieri Blacksmith Shop
Blacksmiths had shops in the Piazza dei Cavalieri for some 500 years, and although you can't see them any more, archaeological evidence has uncovered the evidence.

Ruins of the Riviera Maya
The Riviera Maya is known for many things, not least of all for the Maya ruins you can visit there. Here's some suggestions for your visit.

Lake Dwellings and Otzi the Iceman
Lake dwellings, houses built on stilts at the shores of Alpine lakes between 4000-3000 BC, have been used to learn more about the lifestyles of Otzi the Iceman.

Burnum - The Roman Empire in Croatia
The Roman encampment of Burnum was a strategically important site for the Romans; and a site of great interest to archaeologists.

Australopithecus sediba: New Ancestor?
A new species of Australopithecus may upset much of what we understand of the human evolutionary tree.

Exploring the Northern Maya Lowlands
One way to experience the past is to design vacation travel around archaeological ruins. Nicoletta Maestri recommends we start our Maya explorations with the northern Maya lowlands.

Oxkintok is a pre-classic and classic period Maya site located on the northern Yucatan peninsula, and well worth a visit.

The Real Mound Builders
Building a Native American mound is far more complex and ritually significant that we knew.

World's Oldest Acheulean Handaxe - And What it Might Mean
An Acheulean handaxe suggests to some researchers that we may need to rethink our ideas about who-did-what in ancient times.

Mesoamerican World View
The ancient people of Mesoamerica shared many cultural traits, not the least of which was a broad notion of what the world was truly like.

Pre-Clovis Megafaunal Hunters
The Manis mastodon site illustrates the diversity of the founding populations of the Americas

Identifying the Effects of Landnám
Landnam is the name of an agricultural method used by the Vikings and their Norse descendants outside of the

Obsidian and the Lapita at Teouma
The Lapita culture colonized the parts of the Pacific Ocean called Remote Oceania beginning about 1200 BC. Most recently, their vast voyaging has been traced through their use of obsidian.

Thule Tradition and Climate Change
To learn about how to adapt to climate change, we can visit the Thule tradition, a cold-adapted culture that had more than its fair share of dealing with inclement weather.

The Temples of Malta - A Photo Essay
Several weeks ago, I had the opportunity to watch a video on the Malta Temples, 6,000-year-old ancient temples located on the islands of Malta and Gozo, out in

Climate Change and the Collapse of Angkor
The Khmer Empire collapsed in 1431, for a number of reasons: but the biggest one was an inability to adapt to climate change.

Hibabiya Recovered from Photographs
The early Islamic village of Hibabiya was identified by aerial photography back in the 1920s, and researchers are repiecing its history together from the photographs.

Egyptian Medicine
The ancient Egyptians are renowned for many scientific advances, including medicine, as seen in two ancient manuscripts from the Middle Kingdom

E-Groups are arrangements of buildings on Maya archaeological sites that are, at least in part, solar observatories for tracking the passing of time.

When Did Early Modern Humans Get to Europe?
New research at Kent's Cavern and Grotta del Cavallo have added to recent controversy concerning the innovative capabilities of Neanderthals.

Nabta Playa and the Predynastic of Egypt
The Nabta Playa-Kiseiba region in southern Egypt is where pottery, astronomy and plant and animal domestications were among the innovations developed by the ancestors of the pyramid builders.

Human Sacrifice at Royal Cemetery of Ur
A recent investigation into the deaths of the servants in a Mesopotamian royal cemetery coincides with a reopening of Penn Museum's exhibition.

The Neolithic Lake Dwelling of La Draga
La Draga is an early Neolithic lake dwelling, where about 100 people lived on the shores of Lake Byoles in Catalonia about 7,000 years ago.

Salt Production in Prehistory
Salt is an everyday condiment with a bad reputation, and a past that suggests that the expression

The Aurignacian at Franchthi Cave
New research in the lowest levels of Franchthi cave has shoved back the earliest dates of the Upper Paleolithic occupations in Greece

Dating Upper Paleolithic Cave Paintings
Dating Upper Paleolithic cave paintings is a tricky business, as was identified with the dating of Chauvet and Cosquer caves

Sites to Know: Nazlet Khater
Nazlet Khater is a site in Egypt, quite important for understanding the movement of early modern humans out of Africa and into Eurasia.

Göbekli Tepe: Houses, Shrines or Both?
Is Gobekli Tepe really just a cultic center, or are we seeing the trees and missing the forest?

Manioc among the Maya
Manioc is an important root drop, domesticated in South America some 8,000 years ago; recently, a field where it was planted was discovered at the Maya site of Ceren, El Salvador

Aztec Xaltocan
Xaltocan was an independent polity first before falling to the Aztec empire in 1428. Its history makes for great scholarly insights into the changes wrought by the Aztecs

Roads of the Khmer Empire
The Khmer Empire, or Angkor Civilization, of the 13th century AD had a vast road system that offered comfort and supplies to travelers to the capital city of Angkor Wat.

Winter Solstice at Stonehenge
Winter solstice is a time when most of the great religions of the world celebrate the middle of winter, and hope that the spring may come. Photographers generally document the sunrise on the solstice at Stonhenge, and this year is no different.

Mapungubwe - Iron Age Capital in Africa
Mapungubwe, important Iron Age capital in South Africa

Great Zimbabwe's Rulers
Great Zimbabwe, an African Iron Age capital dated between the 13th-16th centuries AD, is the subject of some ongoing debate considering where the rulers lived.

History of Olive Oil
The history of olive oil production takes us back 4,500 years, at least.

Tobacco and the Maya
Scientific analysis of the microscopic leftover contents of a 1300-year-old ceramic vessel confirms that it was used to carry tobacco snuff for its Mayan owners.

Panama's Golden Chiefdoms
National Geographic features excavations at the chiefdom level site of El Cano in central Panama, where thousands of gold artifacts attest to the power of these 10th century AD chiefs

Mongooses in Iberia
Mongooses are small mammals with voracious appetites for smaller mammals and birds. They arrived in the Iberian peninsula along with the Islamic civilization in the 8th century AD....

Broomcorn Millet and the Origins of Farming
Broomcorn millet is just one of several domesticated crops that have a lag time between domestication and full-blown farming.culture

Sites You Should Know: Shillourokambos
The archaeological site of Shillourokambos on Cyprus holds 10,000 year old evidence of animal management and the processes of domestication

Fish Traps and Archaeology
Fish traps, or fish weirs, are structures built to catch fish--and archaeologists tell us they were invented at least 6,000 years ago

Making Faience
Faience is the first 'high tech ceramic', and its manufacturing process will convince you of that, even if it was created over 5,000 years ago.

Upper Paleolithic Site of Abri Pataud
The Upper Paleolithic cave site of Abri Pataud contains evidence of human occupation dated between 20,000 and 40,000 years ago.

Camelids of South America: Llama and Alpaca
Llamas and alpacas are two South American domesticates which together made living in the high altitudes of the Andes mountains possible 6,000 years ago.

Bolomor Cave
The Middle Stone Age site of Bolomor Cave is located in the beautiful Valencia region of Spain.

Early Houses in the Azraq Basin of Jordan
Archaeological investigations have uncovered the remains of two 20,000 year old hut structures, at a site in the Azraq basin of Jordan.

Mammoth Bone Settlements
Mammoth bone settlements are Paleolithic homes, built of extinct elephant bones by humans at least as long ago as 40,000 years. Or so it seems.

Steppe Societies - Revisiting the Andronovo Culture
Steppe societies is what archaeologists use to refer to the broad sweep of horse-back riding nomads who owned a large hunk of Asia during the Late Bronze Age.

Yanghai Tombs of the Turpan Basin
the Yanghai Tombs, located in the desert of the Turpan Basin of western China, preserved plants, wood, clothing and mummies of the people buried there some 2500 years ago.

The Wild History of Beans
Beans are among the most important foods on earth, and given our needs to find plants that adapt well to climate change, they may just be what we need in the future.

Huaca Prieta
Huaca Prieta is a monumentally large temple located on the arid coast of Peru, and built beginning between 7500 and 6500 years ago...

Jerf el Ahmar
Jerf el Ahmar is 10,000-year-old village in Syria, where wild barley was consumed, and used as building material, on the Euphrates River in Syria.

Areni-1: a jug of wine, a pair of shoes?
Areni-1 is a site in Armenia, where early versions of footwear and wine, wine production, have been identified between 5000 and 3000 BC.

The Harbor at Ostia Antica
Ostia Antica is a Roman harbor, located only 15 miles away from the city of Rome. Built by the Emperor Claudius in the first century A.D., Ostia is still remarkably preserved, and well worth a visit if you're in Italy.

Abu Hureyra
Abu Hureyra is an important prepottery Neolithic site located in Syria. Its importance is based on evidence of the transition from hunting to agriculture, beginning 13,000 years ago.

Re-Sculpting Our Planet: Megafaunal extinctions
megafaunal extinctions, along with climate change and the movement of human populations, re-sculpted our planet beginning about 50,000 years ago.

Old Smyrna and Homer
Old Smyrna, an ancient town in what is today Turkey, is one of seven possible birth cities for the ancient Greek poet, Homer.

Debt Slavery and Colonial Plantations in the Yucatán
Hacienda Tabi is an archaeological sites and a colonial plantation, located in the Puuc region of Yucatán Peninsula. Archaeology there provides insight into debt slavery in the 18th and 19th centuries

Classic Maya Astronomical Mural
A new article in Science this week reveals information concerning the archaeoastronomical skills of the Classic Period Maya

Time Team: Unearthing the Roman Invasion
a new DVD box set of 12 episodes from the madly popular British reality TV series Time Team provides the viewer and entertaining and educational introduction to the archaeology of the Roman invasion of what is today the United Kingdom

The (Revised) History of Rice
scientific research into the domestication history of rice has made terrific inroads into how rice became one of our most widely used staple crops.

Bering Strait and Climate Control
new computer models of oceanic currents through the Bering Strait seem to suggest that it has the potential to strongly affect the global climate

Will Durant and Geological Consent
a quotation found off the Internet in 1998 and attributed toWill Durant is finally corrected.

The History of Wheeled Vehicles
Wheeled vehicles are the history of the invention of the wheel, at least at its most useful. They are about 5500 years old, and nobody knows who invented them first

The Moche Site of Huaca Colorada
Huaca Colorada is a Moche archaeological site in Peru, where archaeologist who discovered evidence for the manufacturer of copper tools at the Temple, for the practice of ceremonies held there

Where Did the First Farmers of Sweden Come From?
DNA analysis of 5000 year old burials from southern Sweden allow researchers to shed light on an old problem: from whence came the farmers of Europe?

Ancient Roadside Inns
The date of the first roadside inn is unknown, but they start at least 2500 years ago in Mesopotamia. This article describes archaeological ruins of roadside inns along the Inca Trail, the Roman Road, and the Silk Road

Reassessing Abri Castanet
New excavations at the site of Abri Castanet have identified its artwork as among the oldest in the world, similar in age to the amazing Chauvet cave.

Photo Essay from Abri Castanet
A photo essay of recently discovered images from the 35,000 year old Abri Castanet rockshelter.

Adzes, Isotopes and the LBK
A recent study examines evidence of social stratification of the First Farmers of Europe.

New Dates on European Paleolithic Art
New dates on a series of Paleolithic cave painting sites begs the question of Neanderthal artistry.

Toba Super Eruption
A super eruption of the Toba volcano occurred some 74,000 years ago in Indonesia. But did it change the course of human history?

New Evidence for the Pacific Coastal Migration Theory
New evidence supporting the entry of humans into the New World along the Pacific coast is reported.

Shieling and the Viking Colony Failures
Shieling as a practice of moving cattle from winter to summer pasturages may have mitigated--but ultimately not solved--the problems of environmental degradation for the Viking colonies on Greenland.

The Oldest Pottery in the World
New dates from Xianrendong Cave push the invention of pottery back to 20,000 years ago.

History of Invention: A Top Ten List
A list of ten top innovations in human history should include writing, don't you think?

West African Adobe Architecture in Danger
The traditional ephemeral architecture in the countries of West Africa known as Butabu is built of perishable fired mud brick or adobes. Ginna House, Ogol

Art of the Islamic Civilization: Lustreware Pottery
One of the many inventions of the great Islamic civilization was lustreware, a metallic pottery decoration technique. When the lustreware technique is done

Research Paper Topics: A Library
Research paper topics are something we all need at some point. Fortunately, archaeology can deliver.

Traveling to America, More than 15,000 Years Ago
Comprehensive investigation of genetic data from Native Americas lends support to multiple waves of migrations into the Americas.

Clovis, Western Stemmed and Paisley Caves
Western Stemmed Points found at Paisley Caves in Oregon lead researchers to confirm the pre-Clovis migration into the New World.

Dust Veil of AD 536
The dust veil of AD 536 was the natural effect of a volcanic eruption or a cometary impact that devastated parts of the northern hemisphere.

The History of Ivory
Ivory is one of those beautiful substances that ancient people were quick to recognize, use, and shepherd.

Border Cave and Cultural Continuity in the Later Stone Age
Findings at Border Cave in South Africa extends the history of hunter-gatherers in South Africa to more than 40,000 years ago.

Dilmun: Trading with Mesopotamia
Dilmun was an important trade center between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley some 4,000 years ago.

Date Palm History
Date palms are terrifically useful resources in the arid subtropical regions of the world, and that is probably why they were domesticated so long ago.

Chinchorro Mummies and the Environment
Chinchorro mummies may have been the result of unstable climatic events, say scholars.

Distinguishing Wild from Domestic Pigs
Distinguishing wild from domestic pigs in archaeology is not a simple matter, as scholars propose a variety of methods.

Mississippian Hawk Bells
Hawk bells are of interest to people who study the Mississippian culture because they were brought in trade by the Spanish explorers in the 16th century.

Archaeology in High School?
Caleb G writes: Two years from now I will be in college and I was hoping to get a major in history. Once I have completed college, how would I find a job

Minos' Palace at Knossos
Theseus fighting the Minotaur, Ariadne and her ball of string, Daedalus the architect and doomed Icarus of the wax wings; how many of us dream Minoan dreams

Columbus, Silver, and Failure
The first European town in the New World was established by Christopher Columbus after his second voyage across the Atlantic, in 1494. Samples of galena, a

The Archaeological Imagination: A Book Review
Michael Shanks' The Archaeological Imagination is an experiment in broadening the definition of an archaeologist.

The Mississippians
The Mississippians were a group of loosely connected chiefdoms who shared about one-third of what is today the United States between about 1000-1500 AD.

Meeting the Denisovans
A complete DNA sequence of the Denisovan hominid remains from Siberia leads some surprising information to human evolution.

Art of the Azilian: 14,000 year old Amber Elk Figurine
An elk cow sculpted in amber 14,000 years ago represents the cultural change required for people to survive the end of the last Ice Age.

The De Soto Chronicles
The De Soto Chronicles refers to three personal narratives and a literary masterpiece, describing the 1538-1544 Hernando de Soto expedition to North America.

A Walking Tour of Comalcalco
Comalcalco is a Maya archaeological site in the Mexican state of Tabasco, with an unusual architectural feature.

Garcilaso de la Vega (the Inca)
The Inca, Garcilaso de la Vega, was the first Spanish American writer of note, historian of the Inca civilization

Underwater Village of Atlit-Yam
Atlit-Yam is annine thousand year old underwater archaeological site, located off the coast of Israel

Archaeology of Natural Disasters
Natural disasters such as floods, eruptions, and earthquakes, have affected past cultures significantly. Here's a sample of what archaeological studies have

Damascus Steel
In Sir Walter Scott's book The Talisman, he recreated the scene of October 1192, when Richard Lionheart of England and Saladin the Saracen met to end the

The Human Family Tree on National Geographic
National Geographic's Human Family Tree is a 90 minute special (2 hours with commercials) on the current results of the ongoing Genographic Project, airing on

The Maya Plaza: A Photo Essay
The best known archaeological sites in North America to the public are probably the temples of the classic Maya civilization (~AD 250-900). Uxmal, Bonampak,

The Venus of Laussel
The Venus of Laussel is a sculpture recovered from a 25,000-year-old cave in France, that has created numbers of interpretations as to its meaning.

More on the Iceman
A few additional details of the last days of Otzi the Iceman appeared in the academic press over the last few months.

Pinnacle Point
Pinnacle Point is an important Middle Stone Age site, located on the southern coast of South Africa

Photo Essay of Moundville
Moundville is one of the largest capitals of the Mississippian culture, located in the Black Warrior river valley of Alabama, in the southeastern United States.

Radiocarbon Calibration News
Japan's Suigetsu Lake holds the potential to sharpen and refine radiocarbon calibration dates to the feasible limits of the technique.

Megamiddens of South Africa
Mussel shell heaps amassed over 1200 years and located on the coasts of South Africa are the focus of much hotly-debated archaeological study

Neolithic Canoes of Bercy
The Neolithic site of Bercy is known best for its ancient canoes, found on the banks of the Seine river in Paris, France.

A Plant Eating Ancestor: Australopithecus bahrelghazali
koro-toro, australopithecus, stable isotope analysis, archaeology, paleontology

Ancient Marvels: A NOVA Video Collection
Ancient Marvels is the name of a collection of six videos from the PBS science program NOVA, exploring ancient construction methods, and the methods archaeologists use to discover how they were built.

Nostalgia for the Light - Video Review
Nostalgia for the Light is an award-winning documentary from Patricio Guzman and Icarus Films, on the awe-inspiring Atacama Desert of Chile.

Color Pigments
A guide to ancient pigments describes the archaeology, history and chemistry that goes into making the ancient world a little more colorful.

500,000 Year Old Spearpoints at Kathu Pan
Kathu Pan, an archaeological site in South Africa, has revealed evidence that people have been making spearheads for half a millennium

Swahili Coast Town of Songo Mnara
During the Medieval period, Songo Mnara was an important trading town for those international trade experts along the Swahili Coast.

Human Ancestors You Should Know: Toumaď
Toumai is possibly an ancient human ancestor, who lived some 7 million years ago.

Wild Emmer Wheat
The cracking of the breadwheat genome represents the beginning of more information concerning the domestication processes of wheat (Triticum spp). Emmer is the progenitor of nearly all modern wheats.

Kilwa Chronicle: Oral History of the Swahili Culture
The Kilwa Chronicle consists of two written versions of the oral history of the founding dynasty of the sultans at Kilwa Kisiwani, largest of the communities of the Swahili Culture

Hvalsey Farm and Church
The Norse farmstead on Greenland called Hvalsey, was the site of the last documented event of the colony: a wedding

Ancient Art of Cheese-Making
A new study provides evidence of making cheese back to 7500 years ago.

Maya 2012 FAQ
The Maya 2012 phenomenon, as it is called by many people around the world, is not going to go away any time soon, so I thought I'd take an opportunity to talk

Swahili Towns
The medieval towns along the eastern coast of Africa called the Swahili culture, were a mix of stone, coral and thatch structures.

Solstice, Stonehenge and the Maya
The Winter Solstice passed at Stonehenge again, despite rumors of an apocalypse which was never, I'm afraid, foretold by any Maya.

A fabulous feast is an important part of any celebration, and we humans have been conducting them for some 12,000 years.

Hilazon Tachtit
Hilazon Tachtit is a 12,000 year old burial site in what is today Israel, where scholars believe a shaman was buried.

Walking in the Trees
A recent study of a Ugandan society reveals that we humans are still capable of climbing trees without support systems.

Paviland Cave and the "Red Lady"
Paviland Cave, or Goat's Hole Cave, was excavated nearly 200 years ago--and pretty much completely misunderstood.

The Human Use of Lead Ore
Lead ores have found their way into our human lives for at least the past 10,000 years or so.

Vermillion is the bright orange color derived from cinnabar, and it has been used as a pigment for some 9,000 years.

Sites You Should Know: Ohalo II
Ohalo II in Israel is a 22,000 year old archaeological site, a hunter-gatherer community with stunning artifact preservation.

The Art of Regional Survey in Archaeology
There is more to archaeological fieldwork than the big dig. Intensive excavation at a single site—whether that site is a tomb, temple, house or

Sureyya's Journey Part 9: In the Outback
Surreya Kose is an archaeologist, working in the outback of Australia. Sureyya's Journey describes how she reinvented herself from a information technologist to the sturdy, sunburned and rugged individual she is today.

The History of Metals: Copper
The History of Metals: Copper

28,000 Year Old Bone and Ivory Art from Siberia
28,000 year old bone and ivory artifacts from the Yana Rhinoceros Horn Site were featured in a recent article in Antiquity, and some images are seen in this photo essay.

Chichimec Capital of Tenayuca: Photo Essay
Tenayuca was the capital city of the Chichimec people, one of the tribes eventually absorbed into the Aztec nation.

Chinampa Traditional Farming System
Chinampa system agriculture is a traditional method of creating very fruitful agricutural land from wetlands.

China's Terracotta Warriors: Secrets of the Dead Video Review
The DVD China's Terracotta Warriors, from the PBS/NatGeo series Secrets of the Dead, is a close investigation of the amazing, 2200 year old sculptures and the society which produced them.

Poverty Point Site Architecture
Poverty Point is a 3,500 year old site located in northeastern Louisiana, with an elaborate configuration that has recently undergone investigation.

Neanderthal Refugium and the Ebro Frontier
Was there a Neanderthal Refugium below the Ebro Frontier? A new study throws doubt on a long-standing theory.

Broxmouth Hillfort
Broxmouth Hillfort is the named given to the remnants of an European Iron Age fortified settlements on the North Sea of Scotland in the UK.

A Miniature Pharos Lighthouse
The Abusir Tower is a 3rd century BC replica of the famous Pharos Lighthouse of Alexandria

Taposiris Magna - Port City of Ptolemaic Dynasties
Taposiris Magna is believed by some to be the burial place of Cleopatra and Marc Antongy

The Library at Alexandria
The Library at Alexandria was a Greco-Roman university, with nearly a million scrolls describing science and philosophy from all over the known world.

Anuradhapura: 1,500 Years in Sri Lanka
The ruins of Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka represent a 1500 year-long trade and religious center.

Stupas are immense brick-built religious structures found throughout south Asia beginning in the 3rd century BC

Book Review: Interpreting the English Village
Interpreting the English Village describes the results of the 10-year-long Shapwick landscape archaeology project.

Dendrochronology at Medieval Lübeck, Germany
Dendrochronology at Medieval Lübeck, Germany Beech tree rings. Photo credit: Astrid Geck Tree ring dating, called dendrochronology, is a fascinating

Pompeii Streets Photo Essay
Anyone who has been a reader of these pages for very long knows I have a thing about ancient roads. I can't really explain it, except to say that it interests

Decoding Neanderthals - A Video Review
Decoding Neanderthals is new video out from NOVA, featuring the latest research in Neanderthal archaeology, anthropology and genetics

Marine Isotope Stages - Or is it Oxygen Isotope Stages?
Marine isotope stages are the steps in a chronology of the world, built by paleoclimatologist to show how frequently our world has been covered in ice.

Ancient Computer - NOVA Video on Antikythera Mechanism
A review of PBS Nova's 2012 video on the Antikythera Mechanism.

Black Drink: Prehistoric Source of Caffeine
Black drink is a tea made by Native American Indians from the holly plant, not unlike our modern day teas of yerba mate and guayusa.

Oldest Pottery's Purpose: Fish for Dinner
Investigations on sherds from an 11,000-15,000 year old shell mound in Japan reveals that fish was dinner in the earliest pottery

Ancient Foods and Food History
You might be surprised how long ago some things in your kitchen were invented.

Azuki Bean History
Azuki beans are tasty red beans that appear in many east Asian dishes. But did you know where and when they were domesticated?

Cholula's Great Pyramid
One of the largest pyramid in the world is that of the Great Pyramid in Cholula, Mexico.

Roman Empire in the Netherlands
Nijmegen is the name of a modern town in the Netherlands, with a rich history including a blend of local Iron Age and Roman Empire cultures

Pipestone is the name of a type of raw material that was carved into all kinds of shapes by Native Americans beginning at least 3,000 years ago.

Toba Super-Eruption and the Human Bottleneck
The Mount Toba super-eruption was incredibly explosive, some 75,000 years ago--but did it create the human bottleneck in eastern Africa?

Damascus Steel and Nanotechnology
A discussion of the nanotechnology of Damascus steel, by scholars Madeleine Durand-Charre and Peter Paufler Paufler and

Secrets of the Dead: Caveman Cold Case
Caveman Cold Case, the latest in the PBS series Secrets of the Dead, features evidence for cannibalism at a Neanderthal cave site in Spain

The Domestication of Goats
Domestic goats (Capra hircus) were among the first domesticated animals.

History of Cotton
Cotton (Gossypium spp), is, according to the USDA, the single most important textile fiber in the world, and accounts for some 40% of all the fibers produced.

Great Zimbabwe
Great Zimbabwe is the best known archaeological site dated to the Zimbabwe culture of the late African Iron Age.

Crossroads at Palmyra on the Silk Road
Palmyra is the ancient name of the modern city of Tadmor, located at an oasis in the Syrian desert and once a crucial crossroads of the Silk Road

Mesopotamian Over-Kill? Desert Kites in Syria
Recent investigations in Syria suggest that Mesopotamian over-exploitationl was responsible for the extinction of several large-bodied herd animals between 4000-1000 BC

History of Bananas
The history of bananas is very old, in fact one of the oldest domesticated crops in the world; and research into its background has recently blossomed.

Ancient Road Systems
Ancient road systems are of fascination, because they are engineering feats which were built for a variety of reasons, from the mundane of crossing a wet place, to the imperial of keeping your cities under control.

The Three Sisters
The ancient farming style called Three Sisters involves planting maize, beans and squash together in the same field: and the benefits of doing that are the subject of many an article by crop scientists.

Flour History
Making flour from seeds and other plants has a very long human history indeed.

Journey of the Universe Collection: A Review
The Journey of the Universe collection is a ten-hour-long video collection of conversations by scientists and philosophers about ecology and the intersection of religion and science

The Ceramic Capital of China
Jingdezhen, a 1300 year old pottery production community, is known as the ceramic capital of China

Dave the Slave
Dave the Slave, also known as Dave the Potter, Dave of the Hive and David Drake, was an important ceramic artist of the 19th century.

The Geoglyphic Art of Chile's Atacama Desert
There are over 5,000 prehistoric geoglyphs in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, and like the Nazca lines of Peru, they are mysterious, beautiful and

The Royal Tombs of Aksum - A Photo Essay
This week's photo essay is The Royal Tombs of Aksum, and it is a new update of one of the very first photo essays I did here on The 17th-18th

Quote: Why Is Climate Change Insurmountable?
Global climate change is a reality, no matter what politicians try to tell you, and the issue we need to face now is how best to cope with the coming changes.

The Popol Vuh
The history and stories of the Popol Vuh, the ancient Mayan book of the creation.

The Stone Age
The Stone Age is called the Paleolithic (old stone) period by archaeologists, and it covers a vast amount of time. The Stone Age begins when our earliest

Piprahwa Stupa
Piprahwa stupa is one of several religious structures in India that received the cremated remains of the Buddha

Sites You Should Know: Pachacamac
Pachacamac is an important Incan and Wari site, located on the coast of Peru and occupied for over 1,000 years.

Deep Evolutionary Past of the Horse
A 700,000 year old toe from a horse has allowed researchers to construct a full genome and thus teach us more about horse history.

Sites You Should Know: Dikili Tash
Dikili Tash is a Neolithic site, located on mainland Greece, where 6,000-year-old wine and pottery making are in evidence.

Diffusion vs. Innovation, Revisited
The origins of agriculture in southwestern Asia are reexamined in a new article about the 12,000 year old archaeological site of Chogha Golan, Iran.

Secrets of the Dead: Ultimate Tut
Secrets of the Dead: Ultimate Tut answers a whole bunch of questions about Pharaoh Tutankhamun that I bet you never even knew to ask!

The Letters of Father d'Entrecolles
In the early 18th century, a French missionary describes ceramic production technology in the mass-production site of Jingdezhen, China

History of the Bottle Gourd
The bottle gourd has a 10,000 year old history in the Americas, and it was domesticated in Asia.

Bones of the Buddha: Secrets of the Dead
Bones of the Buddha is a video from PBS and National Geographic on the late 19th century discovery of a stupa, a religious structure containing some of the ashes of the 5th and most famous Buddha.

A Thousand Years of Temples
A photo essay on the temples at Pachacamac reveals 1,000 years of history on the Peruvian coast.

Time Team: The Team's Favorite Digs
The Time Team's new video collection, The Team's Favorite Digs is a selection of entertaining archaeological videos spanning the entire 20 years of the fabulously popular reality TV series.

Old Seoul City
Old Seoul is the oldest part of modern Seoul, South Korea, and it was built as the Joseon dynasty capital in the late 15th century AD.

Guinea Pig History
Guinea pigs are cute little pets for kids--and a terrific source of meat for Peruvians. Yum!

Eggplant History
Most of what we know about the domestication of eggplants comes from ancient historical records in China.

Chili Peppers and Southwestern Cuisine
When you think of the American southwest, you instantly think of chili peppers: chili rellenos and huevos rancheros, yum! But archaeologists have long been

A Guide to the Joseon Dynasty
The Joseon or Choson period in Korea was the last pre-modern society in the Korean peninsula, lasting 500 years.

Letters to Eung Tae
Eighteen letters written to a medieval Korean provide a detailed description of domestic life for an elite member of the Joseon Dynasty.

A Visit to Edzná
A photo essay of the archaeology and architecture of the classic Maya site of Edzná

The Ancient Game of Twenty Squares
The game of 20 Squares, a precursor to backgammon, is at least 4500 years old, in evidence by this beautiful example from Bronze Age Mesopotamia

Chutes and Ladders for Ancient Egyptians
The ancient board game of 58 Holes was invented in Egypt about 4200 years ago, and it is played today by children everywhere as Snakes and Ladders.

A Dragon Kiln in Carolina
The famous Edgefield District pottery works in South Carolina held a technological secret in the early 19th century: a Chinese style pottery kiln.

The Ancient Crop of Foxtail Millet
Foxtail millet is an ancient crop, first tended by hunter-gatherers in what is today northern China some 11,000 years ago.

An Ancient House on Stilts
Lake dwellings are ancient human residences built on stilts at the edges of lakes in many places throughout the world.

Pompeii in a Movie Theatre Near You
On September 25, 2013, movie theatres throughout the United States will be showing the first event of its kind: a filmed tour of the British Museum's Pompeii

When was Fire First Controlled?
When was fire first controlled and what did that do for us?

Andean Tower Burials: Chullpa
A chullpa is a stone tower used to house Andean burials, used for some 1500 years by many South American societies

Blackwater Draw, New Mexico
Thirteen thousand years ago, a small lake near Clovis, New Mexico, was populated with extinct forms of elephant, wolf, bison, and horse, and the people who

Cladh Hallan: Bronze Age Mummies in Scotland
Research has identified the practice of mummification as a burial technique in many places in the world, including Bronze Age Scotland.

Biskupin: Iron Age Fortress in Poland
The Iron Age site of Biskupin in Poland is one of the best known fortified settlements in the world.

Hatshepsut's Palace at Deir el-Bahri
Pharaoh Hatshepsut was a New Kingdom female pharaoh who ruled between about 1473-1458 BC. Hatshepsut's Temple at Deir el-Bahri Photo

Ancient Flutes and the Kulturpumpe Model
Two ancient flutes from a site in Germany may help explain the blossoming of technological innovation at the onset of the Upper Paleolithic

Undomesticated Animal Partners 3: Reindeer
Reindeer are one of the last animals domesticated by humans, and domesticated is a fairly loose term to use.

Cochineal Dyes
Cochineal dyes were first made in the highlands of Peru, over 2500 years ago.

Diepkloof Rock Shelter and Ostrich Eggshells
Diepkloof rock shelter is an important Middle Stone Age site, with over 400 engraved ostrich shell fragments dated ca 85,000 years old.

Ancient Ashkelon
Ashkelon is an ancient city on the Mediterranean coast, owned or operated by Egypt, Persia, Babylon, Greece and Rome, as well as everybody else in the neighborhood

A Year at Stonehenge - A Book Review
A Year at Stonehenge is a new book re-introducing people to the physical realities and changes of one of the most famous monuments in the world.

Documentary Filmmaking for Archaeologists: A Book Review
Documentary Filmmaking for Archaeologists is an introduction to the modern art and business of making video.

The Copper Mines of Khirbet Faynan
Khirbet Faynan is an important Bronze and Iron Age region in Jordan, famous for its copper deposits.

Undomesticated Animal Partners: Cats
Undomesticated animal partners are those which have decided to hang out with us, but may leave at any time.

Conserving Wood Artifacts from Oseberg
Wooden artifacts from the 9th century Oseberg Viking Boat Grave are the focus of a research study to identify a way to halt and repair the deterioration of old preservation techniques.

Spindle Whorls
Spindle whorls represent a technological advance in the ancient art of spinning wool into cloth.

A Walking Tour of Olympia - Original Location of the Olympics at Olympia
Photographer Aschwin Prein provides a walking tour of the ancient Greek classical site of Olympia, the original location of the Olympic Games. Excavations at the site were the direct impetus for the reinstitution of the games, 1700 years after the games were banned.

Lighting the Olympic Flame
Lighting the Olympic Flame: the Olympic Torch Relay begins at this altar in the Temple of Hera at Olympia. Page 10.

Excavations at Olympia, Greece
Excavations at Olympia, Greece: a photograph of the ruins at Olympia by Aschwin Prein. Page 2.

The Stadium at Olympia, Greece
The Stadium at Olympia, Greece: a photograph of the entry of the stadium at Olympia, by Aschwin Prein. Page 3.

The Temple of Hera at Olympia
The Temple of Hera at Olympia is the oldest monumental temple in Greece. Page 4.

The Temple of Zeus at Olympia
The Temple of Zeus at Olympia was built by the Greek architect Lidon. Page 5.

Workshop of Pheidias at Olympia
Workshop of Pheidias at Olympia: a photo of the ruins of the building where one of the seven wonders of the world was made: the Statue of Zeus. Page 6.

Greek Baths at Olympia
Greek Baths at Olympia: Olympia's swimming pool and bath complex, built during the 5th century BC. Page 7.

Palaestra at Olympia
Palaestra at Olympia: A photograph of the Palaestra at Olympia, built during the 3rd century BC. Page 8.

Villa of the Roman Emperor Nero at Olympia
Villa of the Roman Emperor Nero at Olympia: Eventually, the Romans moved into Olympia, and in the first century AD, the emperor Nero had a villa built at the site. Page 9.

Dorian Culture
The Dorians were an Iron Age ethnic group in classical Greece

Delos (Greece)
Delos is the name of an island in the Aegean Sea, which according to the Greek legends, is the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis.

Delphi (Greece)
The site of Delphi is the location of a classic Panhellenic sanctuary of Greece, first occupied in the early Archaic period.

- By Category
An index of categories in the

San Lorenzo - Olmec Civilization in Veracruz
The archaeological site of San Lorenzo is the royal center of the larger San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan Olmec period site located in the state of Veracruz, Mexico

Bonampak Murals Room 3 - Battle Aftermath and Bloodletting Rituals
The Bonampak murals from Room 3 depict the events after the successful battle at court and the royal family performing a bloodletting ritual.... Page 4.

Discovery of the Mural Paintings of Bonampak
Although known to the local Lacandon Maya people, Bonampak's mural paintings were first seen by non-Maya eyes in the early 20th century

The Pyramid of Acanceh - Photo Essay of Acanceh
Giant stucco masks decorated the facade of the pyramid of Acanceh, a Mayan site in the Yucatan peninsula. Page 4.

Acanceh - Palace of the Stuccoes - Photo Essay of Acanceh
The building known as the Palace of the Stuccoes in the Maya site of Acanceh, Yucatan, is decorated with stucco reliefs portraying Mayan deities and supernatural beings. Page 5.

Acanceh - Maya site in Yucatan
Acanceh, is a small Maya site in the Yucatan peninsula, near Merida. Page 6.

Gobekli Tepe - Background
Gobekli Tepe is a fascinating cultic center, apparently shared by several Pre-Pottery Neolithic groups over 11,000 years ago.

Gobekli Tepe compared to Other Pre-Pottery Neolithic Sites in Turkey and Syria
Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites. Archaeology. Page 2.

Architecture at Göbekli Tepe
The enclosures at Gobekli Tepe were built by hunter-gatherers, who assembled perhaps as many as 20 circular rooms out of mortared stone walls and enormous monolithic carved stone stelae. Page 3.

Animal Carvings at Gobekli Tepe
Throughout each of the enclosures are sculptured reliefs of animals, Page 4.

Interpreting Gobekli Tepe
Can scholars work out the meaning of an elaborate set of structures, 11,600 years after they were built? Page 5.

Bibliography for Göbekli Tepe
More reference material on Gobekli Tepe. Page 6.

Archaeology Dig in Progress - A Photo Essay
This photo essay illustrates the progress of how an archaeological site is excavated, from the first clearing to the laboratory work.

Fieldwork at Blue Creek by the Maya Research Program
A photo essay of the progression of an archaeological excavation at a Classic Maya period elite residence at the Blue Creek site in Belize. Page 2.

Traveling to Toucan House
Just because you're working at an archaeological dig doesn't mean you don't have a long commute. Page 3.

Archaeologist as Mechanic
Travel along unpaved and rough back roads requires a lot of patience, and a sprinkle of auto mechanics. Page 4.

Packing in the Equipment
Packing in equipment to the site is typical for many archaeological field expeditions. Page 5.

Getting Started - Clearing Vegetation off the Elite Residence
Fieldwork at a new archaeological site begins with the removal of vegetation. Page 6.

Revealing the Wall at Toucan House
Excavation at this elite residence is illustrated. Page 7.

Excavating Outside Toucan House
Excavation of the house exterior continues with trowels and brushes. Page 8.

Lunch Break at Blue Creek
Lunch Break at Blue Creek. Archaeology. Page 9.

Laboratory Work at the Maya Research Program
Much of the initial artifact processing during excavations is carried out on site. Page 10.

Final Phase of Construction at Toucan House
The final phase of construction--the last time anyone lived in this elite Maya residence at Blue Creek--is exposed in this photo from the 2011 excavations. Page 11.

Mapping the Elite Residence of Toucan House
Mapping excavations at Blue Creek is completed with the use of a total station and 3-d digital scanning. Page 12.

Penetrating the Floor of the Elite Residence
In this phase of excavation, the plaster floor of the elite residence at Blue Creek is penetrated. Page 13.

Burial Crypts Beneath Toucan House
Burials placed beneath house floors were identified at Toucan House. Page 14.

Profile of the Excavated Residential Structure
A profile photograph of the excavated building illustrates its construction methodology. Page 15.

Summing up the Excavation at Toucan House
Archaeologists learn a great deal from the excavation of sites, but they are finite resources that must be studied carefully. Page 16.

Bonampak Murals Room 1 - The Courtly Ceremony
The mural paintings of Room 1 portray a scene of courtly life, with an elaborated ceremony, centered around the king Chan Muwan and the royal family. Page 2.

Bonampak Paintings Room 2 - The Mural of the Battle
The Mural of the Battle, from room 2 at Bonampak, is probably the most famous example of Maya painting. The scene portrays in detail images of one-to-one combat, captive taking, and weaponry... Page 3.

Mesolithic Age Hunter-Gatherer of Central Europe
About 6,000 BC, the inhabitants of Europe were Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers, who lived in houses that looked more or less like the reconstructed house illustrated in the photograph. Page 2.

Neolithic Farmers of Central Europe - Linearbandkeramik
Neolithic farmers of Central Europe, called the Linearbandkeramik, arrived on the scene about 5500 BC, and faced some amount of hostility. Page 3.

Regional Survey in Archaeology - An Introduction to Regional Survey
Regional survey involves archaeologically inspecting large tracts of land for traces of past behavior on or near the ground surface.

Data Analysis in Regional Survey
Gary Feinman describes the analytical methods he and his colleagues use during the Shandong operations. Page 7.

Maple Sugaring - An Introduction to Maple Sugaring
Maple sugaring is obtaining sugar and syrup from maple trees, and its history has a bit of a controversy among archaeological circles.

How to Make Maple Syrup - Collecting the Sap
The first step in making maple syrup is collecting the sap. Page 2.

How to Make Maple Syrup - Reducing the Sap
Natural maple sap must be reduced 75% before its good on your pancakes. Page 3.

History of Maple Sugaring
The history of maple sugaring dates to at least the early decades of the 17th century. Page 4.

Maple Sugaring - An Archaeological Controversy
Archaeologists are divided as to whether Native Americans or European colonists were the first to tap into maple trees to process sugar and syrup. Page 5.

Maple Sugaring Bibliography - Bibliography of Maple Sugaring
A bibliography of references about maple sugaring, especially as documented in the archaeological record, and including the controversy about its origins. Page 6.

Palenque Walking Tour - Photo Gallery of the Maya Site of Palenque
Photo gallery and description of the main spots to see visiting the Classic Maya site of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico

The Temple of the Cross at Palenque - Palenque Walking Tour
The Temple of the Cross is one of the three main temples that formed Las Cruces Group. Page 10.

Temple of the Foliated Cross at Palenque - Palenque Walking Tour
The Temple of the Foliated Cross is one of the three main temples that formed Las Cruces Group. Page 11.

The Ball Court at Palenque - Palenque Walking Tour
Palenque, contrary to other Maya cities, counts with only one ball court located between the palace ad the North Group. Page 12.

The North Group at Palenque - Palenque Walking Tour
The North Group marks the northern limit of the ancient city of Palenque and it is constituted by a series of temples and small adoratories. Page 13.

The Temple of the Count at Palenque - Palenque Walking Tour
The Temple of the Count marks the west side of the North Group of buildings at Palenque. It received its name from the count of Waldeck, one of the explorers of Palenque, who lived in the temple for almost two years. Page 14.