Archaeology Sitemap - Page 12 2013-12-09
Thule Tradition and Climate Change
To learn about how to adapt to climate change, we can visit the Thule tradition, a cold-adapted culture that had more than its fair share of dealing with inclement weather.
The Temples of Malta - A Photo Essay
Several weeks ago, I had the opportunity to watch a video on the Malta Temples, 6,000-year-old ancient temples located on the islands of Malta and Gozo, out in
Papyrus is the oldest writing paper we know of, made from the pithy interior of its stem.
Climate Change and the Collapse of Angkor
The Khmer Empire collapsed in 1431, for a number of reasons: but the biggest one was an inability to adapt to climate change.
Hibabiya Recovered from Photographs
The early Islamic village of Hibabiya was identified by aerial photography back in the 1920s, and researchers are repiecing its history together from the photographs.
The ancient Egyptians are renowned for many scientific advances, including medicine, as seen in two ancient manuscripts from the Middle Kingdom
E-Groups are arrangements of buildings on Maya archaeological sites that are, at least in part, solar observatories for tracking the passing of time.
When Did Early Modern Humans Get to Europe?
New research at Kent's Cavern and Grotta del Cavallo have added to recent controversy concerning the innovative capabilities of Neanderthals.
Nabta Playa and the Predynastic of Egypt
The Nabta Playa-Kiseiba region in southern Egypt is where pottery, astronomy and plant and animal domestications were among the innovations developed by the ancestors of the pyramid builders.
Human Sacrifice at Royal Cemetery of Ur
A recent investigation into the deaths of the servants in a Mesopotamian royal cemetery coincides with a reopening of Penn Museum's exhibition.
The Neolithic Lake Dwelling of La Draga
La Draga is an early Neolithic lake dwelling, where about 100 people lived on the shores of Lake Byoles in Catalonia about 7,000 years ago.
Salt Production in Prehistory
Salt is an everyday condiment with a bad reputation, and a past that suggests that the expression
The Aurignacian at Franchthi Cave
New research in the lowest levels of Franchthi cave has shoved back the earliest dates of the Upper Paleolithic occupations in Greece
Dating Upper Paleolithic Cave Paintings
Dating Upper Paleolithic cave paintings is a tricky business, as was identified with the dating of Chauvet and Cosquer caves
Sites to Know: Nazlet Khater
Nazlet Khater is a site in Egypt, quite important for understanding the movement of early modern humans out of Africa and into Eurasia.
Göbekli Tepe: Houses, Shrines or Both?
Is Gobekli Tepe really just a cultic center, or are we seeing the trees and missing the forest?
Montanissell Cave - Bronze Age Catalonia
Deep within Montanissell Mountain in Catalonia, Spain, a group of eight people were buried some 3200 years ago, giving researchers insight into Middle Bronze Age customs.
Manioc among the Maya
Manioc is an important root drop, domesticated in South America some 8,000 years ago; recently, a field where it was planted was discovered at the Maya site of Ceren, El Salvador
Xaltocan was an independent polity first before falling to the Aztec empire in 1428. Its history makes for great scholarly insights into the changes wrought by the Aztecs
Saffron is ludicrously expensive, and has been used as a spice, pigment and painkiller for some 4,000 years.
Roads of the Khmer Empire
The Khmer Empire, or Angkor Civilization, of the 13th century AD had a vast road system that offered comfort and supplies to travelers to the capital city of Angkor Wat.
Winter Solstice at Stonehenge
Winter solstice is a time when most of the great religions of the world celebrate the middle of winter, and hope that the spring may come. Photographers generally document the sunrise on the solstice at Stonhenge, and this year is no different.
Mapungubwe - Iron Age Capital in Africa
Mapungubwe, important Iron Age capital in South Africa
Recumbent Stone Circles
Recumbent stone circles are a subset of megalithic monuments, known only from parts of Scotland and Ireland.
Great Zimbabwe's Rulers
Great Zimbabwe, an African Iron Age capital dated between the 13th-16th centuries AD, is the subject of some ongoing debate considering where the rulers lived.
Ideologies in Archaeology - A Review
Ideologies in Archaeology is a new book on the philosophy of archaeology, from University of Arizona Press
History of Olive Oil
The history of olive oil production takes us back 4,500 years, at least.
Tobacco and the Maya
Scientific analysis of the microscopic leftover contents of a 1300-year-old ceramic vessel confirms that it was used to carry tobacco snuff for its Mayan owners.
Panama's Golden Chiefdoms
National Geographic features excavations at the chiefdom level site of El Cano in central Panama, where thousands of gold artifacts attest to the power of these 10th century AD chiefs
European Paleodogs and Domestication
The discovery of a canid skull with wolf and dog characteristics in a collection from a cave in Siberia adds more to the dog domestication story.
Mongooses in Iberia
Mongooses are small mammals with voracious appetites for smaller mammals and birds. They arrived in the Iberian peninsula along with the Islamic civilization in the 8th century AD....
Broomcorn Millet and the Origins of Farming
Broomcorn millet is just one of several domesticated crops that have a lag time between domestication and full-blown farming.culture
Maple sugaring is a sweet treat practiced in eastern North America in the early spring. But was it invented by Native Americans or Europeans? Here's the scoop.
Sites You Should Know: Shillourokambos
The archaeological site of Shillourokambos on Cyprus holds 10,000 year old evidence of animal management and the processes of domestication
Fish Traps and Archaeology
Fish traps, or fish weirs, are structures built to catch fish--and archaeologists tell us they were invented at least 6,000 years ago
Faience is the first 'high tech ceramic', and its manufacturing process will convince you of that, even if it was created over 5,000 years ago.
Upper Paleolithic Site of Abri Pataud
The Upper Paleolithic cave site of Abri Pataud contains evidence of human occupation dated between 20,000 and 40,000 years ago.
Camelids of South America: Llama and Alpaca
Llamas and alpacas are two South American domesticates which together made living in the high altitudes of the Andes mountains possible 6,000 years ago.
The Original Jerky
One original form of what we now call jerky, comes from the Andes Mountains of Peru in South America
The Middle Stone Age site of Bolomor Cave is located in the beautiful Valencia region of Spain.
Chenopodium is a plant with some 250 different species, several of which were domesticated in many different places in the world, including North America.
Early Houses in the Azraq Basin of Jordan
Archaeological investigations have uncovered the remains of two 20,000 year old hut structures, at a site in the Azraq basin of Jordan.
Mammoth Bone Settlements
Mammoth bone settlements are Paleolithic homes, built of extinct elephant bones by humans at least as long ago as 40,000 years. Or so it seems.
Steppe Societies - Revisiting the Andronovo Culture
Steppe societies is what archaeologists use to refer to the broad sweep of horse-back riding nomads who owned a large hunk of Asia during the Late Bronze Age.
Yanghai Tombs of the Turpan Basin
the Yanghai Tombs, located in the desert of the Turpan Basin of western China, preserved plants, wood, clothing and mummies of the people buried there some 2500 years ago.
The Wild History of Beans
Beans are among the most important foods on earth, and given our needs to find plants that adapt well to climate change, they may just be what we need in the future.
Huaca Prieta is a monumentally large temple located on the arid coast of Peru, and built beginning between 7500 and 6500 years ago...
Jerf el Ahmar
Jerf el Ahmar is 10,000-year-old village in Syria, where wild barley was consumed, and used as building material, on the Euphrates River in Syria.
Areni-1: a jug of wine, a pair of shoes?
Areni-1 is a site in Armenia, where early versions of footwear and wine, wine production, have been identified between 5000 and 3000 BC.
The Harbor at Ostia Antica
Ostia Antica is a Roman harbor, located only 15 miles away from the city of Rome. Built by the Emperor Claudius in the first century A.D., Ostia is still remarkably preserved, and well worth a visit if you're in Italy.
Abu Hureyra is an important prepottery Neolithic site located in Syria. Its importance is based on evidence of the transition from hunting to agriculture, beginning 13,000 years ago.
Re-Sculpting Our Planet: Megafaunal extinctions
megafaunal extinctions, along with climate change and the movement of human populations, re-sculpted our planet beginning about 50,000 years ago.
Genetic Basis of Dog Breeds
A new genetic-based study shows that our modern breeds have little to do with our original domestication, some 15,000 years ago.
Old Smyrna and Homer
Old Smyrna, an ancient town in what is today Turkey, is one of seven possible birth cities for the ancient Greek poet, Homer.
Whatever Happened to Amelia Earhart? The Archaeological Evidence
Pioneer aviator Amelia Earhart and her co-pilot Fred Noonan disappeared somewhere over the Pacific Ocean in July of 1937, and people have been looking for her
Debt Slavery and Colonial Plantations in the Yucatán
Hacienda Tabi is an archaeological sites and a colonial plantation, located in the Puuc region of Yucatán Peninsula. Archaeology there provides insight into debt slavery in the 18th and 19th centuries
Classic Maya Astronomical Mural
A new article in Science this week reveals information concerning the archaeoastronomical skills of the Classic Period Maya
Time Team: Unearthing the Roman Invasion
a new DVD box set of 12 episodes from the madly popular British reality TV series Time Team provides the viewer and entertaining and educational introduction to the archaeology of the Roman invasion of what is today the United Kingdom
The (Revised) History of Rice
scientific research into the domestication history of rice has made terrific inroads into how rice became one of our most widely used staple crops.
Bering Strait and Climate Control
new computer models of oceanic currents through the Bering Strait seem to suggest that it has the potential to strongly affect the global climate
Will Durant and Geological Consent
a quotation found off the Internet in 1998 and attributed toWill Durant is finally corrected.
The History of Wheeled Vehicles
Wheeled vehicles are the history of the invention of the wheel, at least at its most useful. They are about 5500 years old, and nobody knows who invented them first
The Moche Site of Huaca Colorada
Huaca Colorada is a Moche archaeological site in Peru, where archaeologist who discovered evidence for the manufacturer of copper tools at the Temple, for the practice of ceremonies held there
Where Did the First Farmers of Sweden Come From?
DNA analysis of 5000 year old burials from southern Sweden allow researchers to shed light on an old problem: from whence came the farmers of Europe?
Exchange Systems and Trade Networks
Exchange systems describe the way consumers and producers of goods, ideas and services meet together. Archaeologists and anthropologists have studied exchange systems 150 years or more
Ancient Roadside Inns
The date of the first roadside inn is unknown, but they start at least 2500 years ago in Mesopotamia. This article describes archaeological ruins of roadside inns along the Inca Trail, the Roman Road, and the Silk Road
Horses from the Western Steppes
According to new genetic research, horses were first domesticated in the western steppe region of Eurasia.
Reassessing Abri Castanet
New excavations at the site of Abri Castanet have identified its artwork as among the oldest in the world, similar in age to the amazing Chauvet cave.
Ancient Sports Arenas - Mesoamerican Ballcourts
Archaeological evidence of ancient sports in the Americas include the ballcourt, a structure built to play ball beginning ca. 1400 BC
Photo Essay from Abri Castanet
A photo essay of recently discovered images from the 35,000 year old Abri Castanet rockshelter.
Adzes, Isotopes and the LBK
A recent study examines evidence of social stratification of the First Farmers of Europe.
New Dates on European Paleolithic Art
New dates on a series of Paleolithic cave painting sites begs the question of Neanderthal artistry.
Toba Super Eruption
A super eruption of the Toba volcano occurred some 74,000 years ago in Indonesia. But did it change the course of human history?
New Evidence for the Pacific Coastal Migration Theory
New evidence supporting the entry of humans into the New World along the Pacific coast is reported.
Shieling and the Viking Colony Failures
Shieling as a practice of moving cattle from winter to summer pasturages may have mitigated--but ultimately not solved--the problems of environmental degradation for the Viking colonies on Greenland.
The Oldest Pottery in the World
New dates from Xianrendong Cave push the invention of pottery back to 20,000 years ago.
History of Invention: A Top Ten List
A list of ten top innovations in human history should include writing, don't you think?
West African Adobe Architecture in Danger
The traditional ephemeral architecture in the countries of West Africa known as Butabu is built of perishable fired mud brick or adobes. Ginna House, Ogol
Ancient Herbal Wines of Egypt and Palestine: A Photo Essay
Patrick McGovern at the University of Pennsylvania has been studying the origins of wine making for a very long time. Recently, his work with the excavators of
Art of the Islamic Civilization: Lustreware Pottery
One of the many inventions of the great Islamic civilization was lustreware, a metallic pottery decoration technique. When the lustreware technique is done
Research Paper Topics: A Library
Research paper topics are something we all need at some point. Fortunately, archaeology can deliver.
A Visit to Tula de Hidalgo
A photo essay of Tula de Hidalgo, thought to have been Tollan, the capital of the Toltec Empire.
The Dian Kingdom
The Dian Kingdom was a Bronze Age polity in Yunnan province of China, when the Han Dynasty conquered it in 109 BC, according to the Shiji.
Traveling to America, More than 15,000 Years Ago
Comprehensive investigation of genetic data from Native Americas lends support to multiple waves of migrations into the Americas.
Clovis, Western Stemmed and Paisley Caves
Western Stemmed Points found at Paisley Caves in Oregon lead researchers to confirm the pre-Clovis migration into the New World.
Dust Veil of AD 536
The dust veil of AD 536 was the natural effect of a volcanic eruption or a cometary impact that devastated parts of the northern hemisphere.
The History of Ivory
Ivory is one of those beautiful substances that ancient people were quick to recognize, use, and shepherd.
Border Cave and Cultural Continuity in the Later Stone Age
Findings at Border Cave in South Africa extends the history of hunter-gatherers in South Africa to more than 40,000 years ago.
Dilmun: Trading with Mesopotamia
Dilmun was an important trade center between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley some 4,000 years ago.
Date Palm History
Date palms are terrifically useful resources in the arid subtropical regions of the world, and that is probably why they were domesticated so long ago.
Chinchorro Mummies and the Environment
Chinchorro mummies may have been the result of unstable climatic events, say scholars.
Distinguishing Wild from Domestic Pigs
Distinguishing wild from domestic pigs in archaeology is not a simple matter, as scholars propose a variety of methods.
1540 Battle at Mabila, Alabama
The site of Mabila in Alabama is where the conquistador Hernando de Soto and Chief Tascalusa met in a mighty battle. We just don't know where it is.
Mississippian Hawk Bells
Hawk bells are of interest to people who study the Mississippian culture because they were brought in trade by the Spanish explorers in the 16th century.
Archaeology in High School?
Caleb G writes: Two years from now I will be in college and I was hoping to get a major in history. Once I have completed college, how would I find a job
Minos' Palace at Knossos
Theseus fighting the Minotaur, Ariadne and her ball of string, Daedalus the architect and doomed Icarus of the wax wings; how many of us dream Minoan dreams
Archaeology Dating Methods: A Short Course
Modern methods of archaeological dating are described in a six-day online short course.
Columbus, Silver, and Failure
The first European town in the New World was established by Christopher Columbus after his second voyage across the Atlantic, in 1494. Samples of galena, a
The Archaeological Imagination: A Book Review
Michael Shanks' The Archaeological Imagination is an experiment in broadening the definition of an archaeologist.
The Mississippians were a group of loosely connected chiefdoms who shared about one-third of what is today the United States between about 1000-1500 AD.
Meeting the Denisovans
A complete DNA sequence of the Denisovan hominid remains from Siberia leads some surprising information to human evolution.
Art of the Azilian: 14,000 year old Amber Elk Figurine
An elk cow sculpted in amber 14,000 years ago represents the cultural change required for people to survive the end of the last Ice Age.
Although American archaeology doesn't have a Pompeii, where a volcanic calamity preserved ancient ruins in a spectacular way, there are a couple of examples
The Coosa Polity
The Coosa polity was a thriving social system in the U.S. states of Georgia, Tennessee and Alabama when Hernando de Soto dropped in for a visit.
The De Soto Chronicles
The De Soto Chronicles refers to three personal narratives and a literary masterpiece, describing the 1538-1544 Hernando de Soto expedition to North America.
A Walking Tour of Comalcalco
Comalcalco is a Maya archaeological site in the Mexican state of Tabasco, with an unusual architectural feature.
Garcilaso de la Vega (the Inca)
The Inca, Garcilaso de la Vega, was the first Spanish American writer of note, historian of the Inca civilization
Underwater Village of Atlit-Yam
Atlit-Yam is annine thousand year old underwater archaeological site, located off the coast of Israel
Archaeology of Natural Disasters
Natural disasters such as floods, eruptions, and earthquakes, have affected past cultures significantly. Here's a sample of what archaeological studies have
In Sir Walter Scott's book The Talisman, he recreated the scene of October 1192, when Richard Lionheart of England and Saladin the Saracen met to end the
The Human Family Tree on National Geographic
National Geographic's Human Family Tree is a 90 minute special (2 hours with commercials) on the current results of the ongoing Genographic Project, airing on
The Maya Plaza: A Photo Essay
The best known archaeological sites in North America to the public are probably the temples of the classic Maya civilization (~AD 250-900). Uxmal, Bonampak,
The Venus of Laussel
The Venus of Laussel is a sculpture recovered from a 25,000-year-old cave in France, that has created numbers of interpretations as to its meaning.
More on the Iceman
A few additional details of the last days of Otzi the Iceman appeared in the academic press over the last few months.
Pinnacle Point is an important Middle Stone Age site, located on the southern coast of South Africa
Photo Essay of Moundville
Moundville is one of the largest capitals of the Mississippian culture, located in the Black Warrior river valley of Alabama, in the southeastern United States.
Radiocarbon Calibration News
Japan's Suigetsu Lake holds the potential to sharpen and refine radiocarbon calibration dates to the feasible limits of the technique.
Megamiddens of South Africa
Mussel shell heaps amassed over 1200 years and located on the coasts of South Africa are the focus of much hotly-debated archaeological study
Neolithic Canoes of Bercy
The Neolithic site of Bercy is known best for its ancient canoes, found on the banks of the Seine river in Paris, France.
Motul de San José: A Book Review
Motul de San Jose is a Maya center located in the Peten region of Florida, and subject of a new book from the University Press of Florida
A Plant Eating Ancestor: Australopithecus bahrelghazali
koro-toro, australopithecus, stable isotope analysis, archaeology, paleontology
Turning Lead into Gold: the Alchemy of Lustreware
The decorative ceramic style known as lustreware is a shiny metallic visual effect that flickers back and forth when light is played on it. Small cup.
Ancient Marvels: A NOVA Video Collection
Ancient Marvels is the name of a collection of six videos from the PBS science program NOVA, exploring ancient construction methods, and the methods archaeologists use to discover how they were built.
Nostalgia for the Light - Video Review
Nostalgia for the Light is an award-winning documentary from Patricio Guzman and Icarus Films, on the awe-inspiring Atacama Desert of Chile.
A guide to ancient pigments describes the archaeology, history and chemistry that goes into making the ancient world a little more colorful.
500,000 Year Old Spearpoints at Kathu Pan
Kathu Pan, an archaeological site in South Africa, has revealed evidence that people have been making spearheads for half a millennium
Swahili Coast Town of Songo Mnara
During the Medieval period, Songo Mnara was an important trading town for those international trade experts along the Swahili Coast.
Human Ancestors You Should Know: Toumaï
Toumai is possibly an ancient human ancestor, who lived some 7 million years ago.
Wild Emmer Wheat
The cracking of the breadwheat genome represents the beginning of more information concerning the domestication processes of wheat (Triticum spp). Emmer is the progenitor of nearly all modern wheats.
Kilwa Chronicle: Oral History of the Swahili Culture
The Kilwa Chronicle consists of two written versions of the oral history of the founding dynasty of the sultans at Kilwa Kisiwani, largest of the communities of the Swahili Culture
Hvalsey Farm and Church
The Norse farmstead on Greenland called Hvalsey, was the site of the last documented event of the colony: a wedding
Ancient Art of Cheese-Making
A new study provides evidence of making cheese back to 7500 years ago.
Maya 2012 FAQ
The Maya 2012 phenomenon, as it is called by many people around the world, is not going to go away any time soon, so I thought I'd take an opportunity to talk
The medieval towns along the eastern coast of Africa called the Swahili culture, were a mix of stone, coral and thatch structures.
Solstice, Stonehenge and the Maya
The Winter Solstice passed at Stonehenge again, despite rumors of an apocalypse which was never, I'm afraid, foretold by any Maya.
A fabulous feast is an important part of any celebration, and we humans have been conducting them for some 12,000 years.
Hilazon Tachtit is a 12,000 year old burial site in what is today Israel, where scholars believe a shaman was buried.
Walking in the Trees
A recent study of a Ugandan society reveals that we humans are still capable of climbing trees without support systems.
Paviland Cave and the "Red Lady"
Paviland Cave, or Goat's Hole Cave, was excavated nearly 200 years ago--and pretty much completely misunderstood.
The Human Use of Lead Ore
Lead ores have found their way into our human lives for at least the past 10,000 years or so.
Vermillion is the bright orange color derived from cinnabar, and it has been used as a pigment for some 9,000 years.
Sites You Should Know: Ohalo II
Ohalo II in Israel is a 22,000 year old archaeological site, a hunter-gatherer community with stunning artifact preservation.
The Art of Regional Survey in Archaeology
There is more to archaeological fieldwork than the big dig. Intensive excavation at a single siteâ€”whether that site is a tomb, temple, house or
28,000 Year Old Australian Cave Paintings: Photo Essay
The vividly colored cave paintings of Nawarla Gabarnmang, Arnhem Land, Australia, were begun at least 28,000 years ago,
Sureyya's Journey Part 9: In the Outback
Surreya Kose is an archaeologist, working in the outback of Australia. Sureyya's Journey describes how she reinvented herself from a information technologist to the sturdy, sunburned and rugged individual she is today.
Mystery of Easter Island - Video Review
In the Mystery of Easter Island, researchers Terry Hunt and Carl Lipo show how the megalithic monuments called moai might have walked to their destinations.
The History of Metals: Copper
The History of Metals: Copper
28,000 Year Old Bone and Ivory Art from Siberia
28,000 year old bone and ivory artifacts from the Yana Rhinoceros Horn Site were featured in a recent article in Antiquity, and some images are seen in this photo essay.
Chichimec Capital of Tenayuca: Photo Essay
Tenayuca was the capital city of the Chichimec people, one of the tribes eventually absorbed into the Aztec nation.
Chinampa Traditional Farming System
Chinampa system agriculture is a traditional method of creating very fruitful agricutural land from wetlands.
China's Terracotta Warriors: Secrets of the Dead Video Review
The DVD China's Terracotta Warriors, from the PBS/NatGeo series Secrets of the Dead, is a close investigation of the amazing, 2200 year old sculptures and the society which produced them.
Poverty Point Site Architecture
Poverty Point is a 3,500 year old site located in northeastern Louisiana, with an elaborate configuration that has recently undergone investigation.
Neanderthal Refugium and the Ebro Frontier
Was there a Neanderthal Refugium below the Ebro Frontier? A new study throws doubt on a long-standing theory.
Alexandria, Egypt was built by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and the capital of the Ptolemaic dynasties which ended with Cleopatra.
Broxmouth Hillfort is the named given to the remnants of an European Iron Age fortified settlements on the North Sea of Scotland in the UK.
A Miniature Pharos Lighthouse
The Abusir Tower is a 3rd century BC replica of the famous Pharos Lighthouse of Alexandria
Taposiris Magna - Port City of Ptolemaic Dynasties
Taposiris Magna is believed by some to be the burial place of Cleopatra and Marc Antongy
The Library at Alexandria
The Library at Alexandria was a Greco-Roman university, with nearly a million scrolls describing science and philosophy from all over the known world.
Anuradhapura: 1,500 Years in Sri Lanka
The ruins of Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka represent a 1500 year-long trade and religious center.
Stupas are immense brick-built religious structures found throughout south Asia beginning in the 3rd century BC
Book Review: Interpreting the English Village
Interpreting the English Village describes the results of the 10-year-long Shapwick landscape archaeology project.
Dendrochronology at Medieval Lübeck, Germany
Dendrochronology at Medieval Lübeck, Germany Beech tree rings. Photo credit: Astrid Geck Tree ring dating, called dendrochronology, is a fascinating
Pompeii Streets Photo Essay
Anyone who has been a reader of these pages for very long knows I have a thing about ancient roads. I can't really explain it, except to say that it interests
Decoding Neanderthals - A Video Review
Decoding Neanderthals is new video out from NOVA, featuring the latest research in Neanderthal archaeology, anthropology and genetics
Marine Isotope Stages - Or is it Oxygen Isotope Stages?
Marine isotope stages are the steps in a chronology of the world, built by paleoclimatologist to show how frequently our world has been covered in ice.
Ancient Computer - NOVA Video on Antikythera Mechanism
A review of PBS Nova's 2012 video on the Antikythera Mechanism.
Black Drink: Prehistoric Source of Caffeine
Black drink is a tea made by Native American Indians from the holly plant, not unlike our modern day teas of yerba mate and guayusa.
Oldest Pottery's Purpose: Fish for Dinner
Investigations on sherds from an 11,000-15,000 year old shell mound in Japan reveals that fish was dinner in the earliest pottery
Ancient Foods and Food History
You might be surprised how long ago some things in your kitchen were invented.
Azuki Bean History
Azuki beans are tasty red beans that appear in many east Asian dishes. But did you know where and when they were domesticated?
Cholula's Great Pyramid
One of the largest pyramid in the world is that of the Great Pyramid in Cholula, Mexico.
Roman Empire in the Netherlands
Nijmegen is the name of a modern town in the Netherlands, with a rich history including a blend of local Iron Age and Roman Empire cultures
Pipestone is the name of a type of raw material that was carved into all kinds of shapes by Native Americans beginning at least 3,000 years ago.
Toba Super-Eruption and the Human Bottleneck
The Mount Toba super-eruption was incredibly explosive, some 75,000 years ago--but did it create the human bottleneck in eastern Africa?
Ceibal and the Mesoamerican E-Group
Excavations at the Maya site of Ceibal in Guatemala have identified the earliest E-Group in the lowland Maya area.
Damascus Steel and Nanotechnology
A discussion of the nanotechnology of Damascus steel, by scholars Madeleine Durand-Charre and Peter Paufler Paufler and
Domesticating the Sago Palm
The sago palm, a tree indigenous to New Guinea, was domesticated about 4500 years ago, according to a new study.
Secrets of the Dead: Caveman Cold Case
Caveman Cold Case, the latest in the PBS series Secrets of the Dead, features evidence for cannibalism at a Neanderthal cave site in Spain
The Domestication of Goats
Domestic goats (Capra hircus) were among the first domesticated animals.
History of Cotton
Cotton (Gossypium spp), is, according to the USDA, the single most important textile fiber in the world, and accounts for some 40% of all the fibers produced.
Great Zimbabwe is the best known archaeological site dated to the Zimbabwe culture of the late African Iron Age.
Crossroads at Palmyra on the Silk Road
Palmyra is the ancient name of the modern city of Tadmor, located at an oasis in the Syrian desert and once a crucial crossroads of the Silk Road
Mesopotamian Over-Kill? Desert Kites in Syria
Recent investigations in Syria suggest that Mesopotamian over-exploitationl was responsible for the extinction of several large-bodied herd animals between 4000-1000 BC
History of Bananas
The history of bananas is very old, in fact one of the oldest domesticated crops in the world; and research into its background has recently blossomed.
Ancient Road Systems
Ancient road systems are of fascination, because they are engineering feats which were built for a variety of reasons, from the mundane of crossing a wet place, to the imperial of keeping your cities under control.
The Three Sisters
The ancient farming style called Three Sisters involves planting maize, beans and squash together in the same field: and the benefits of doing that are the subject of many an article by crop scientists.
Making flour from seeds and other plants has a very long human history indeed.
Journey of the Universe Collection: A Review
The Journey of the Universe collection is a ten-hour-long video collection of conversations by scientists and philosophers about ecology and the intersection of religion and science
Early Urban Center of Heuneburg
The early Iron Age occupation of Heuneburg, Germany, has been recognized as one of the earliest and largest urban settlements north of the Alps in Europe.
The Ceramic Capital of China
Jingdezhen, a 1300 year old pottery production community, is known as the ceramic capital of China
Dave the Slave
Dave the Slave, also known as Dave the Potter, Dave of the Hive and David Drake, was an important ceramic artist of the 19th century.
The Geoglyphic Art of Chile's Atacama Desert
There are over 5,000 prehistoric geoglyphs in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, and like the Nazca lines of Peru, they are mysterious, beautiful and
The Royal Tombs of Aksum - A Photo Essay
This week's photo essay is The Royal Tombs of Aksum, and it is a new update of one of the very first photo essays I did here on About.com. The 17th-18th
Quote: Why Is Climate Change Insurmountable?
Global climate change is a reality, no matter what politicians try to tell you, and the issue we need to face now is how best to cope with the coming changes.
The Popol Vuh
The history and stories of the Popol Vuh, the ancient Mayan book of the creation.
The Stone Age
The Stone Age is called the Paleolithic (old stone) period by archaeologists, and it covers a vast amount of time. The Stone Age begins when our earliest
Piprahwa stupa is one of several religious structures in India that received the cremated remains of the Buddha
Sites You Should Know: Pachacamac
Pachacamac is an important Incan and Wari site, located on the coast of Peru and occupied for over 1,000 years.
Deep Evolutionary Past of the Horse
A 700,000 year old toe from a horse has allowed researchers to construct a full genome and thus teach us more about horse history.
Sites You Should Know: Dikili Tash
Dikili Tash is a Neolithic site, located on mainland Greece, where 6,000-year-old wine and pottery making are in evidence.
Diffusion vs. Innovation, Revisited
The origins of agriculture in southwestern Asia are reexamined in a new article about the 12,000 year old archaeological site of Chogha Golan, Iran.
Secrets of the Dead: Ultimate Tut
Secrets of the Dead: Ultimate Tut answers a whole bunch of questions about Pharaoh Tutankhamun that I bet you never even knew to ask!
The Letters of Father d'Entrecolles
In the early 18th century, a French missionary describes ceramic production technology in the mass-production site of Jingdezhen, China
History of the Bottle Gourd
The bottle gourd has a 10,000 year old history in the Americas, and it was domesticated in Asia.
Bones of the Buddha: Secrets of the Dead
Bones of the Buddha is a video from PBS and National Geographic on the late 19th century discovery of a stupa, a religious structure containing some of the ashes of the 5th and most famous Buddha.
A Thousand Years of Temples
A photo essay on the temples at Pachacamac reveals 1,000 years of history on the Peruvian coast.
Time Team: The Team's Favorite Digs
The Time Team's new video collection, The Team's Favorite Digs is a selection of entertaining archaeological videos spanning the entire 20 years of the fabulously popular reality TV series.
Travels in Elysium: A Book Review
Travels in Elysium is a novel set in Greece, which takes a new spin on interpreting the old myth of Atlantis
Old Seoul City
Old Seoul is the oldest part of modern Seoul, South Korea, and it was built as the Joseon dynasty capital in the late 15th century AD.
Guinea Pig History
Guinea pigs are cute little pets for kids--and a terrific source of meat for Peruvians. Yum!
Most of what we know about the domestication of eggplants comes from ancient historical records in China.
Chili Peppers and Southwestern Cuisine
When you think of the American southwest, you instantly think of chili peppers: chili rellenos and huevos rancheros, yum! But archaeologists have long been
Joseon Royal Tombs
During the Joseon dynasty of medieval Korea, a specific burial custom led to the excellent preservation of human and cultural remains, including the famous Korean mummies
A Guide to the Joseon Dynasty
The Joseon or Choson period in Korea was the last pre-modern society in the Korean peninsula, lasting 500 years.
Letters to Eung Tae
Eighteen letters written to a medieval Korean provide a detailed description of domestic life for an elite member of the Joseon Dynasty.
A Visit to Edzná
A photo essay of the archaeology and architecture of the classic Maya site of Edzná
The Ancient Game of Twenty Squares
The game of 20 Squares, a precursor to backgammon, is at least 4500 years old, in evidence by this beautiful example from Bronze Age Mesopotamia
Chutes and Ladders for Ancient Egyptians
The ancient board game of 58 Holes was invented in Egypt about 4200 years ago, and it is played today by children everywhere as Snakes and Ladders.
A Dragon Kiln in Carolina
The famous Edgefield District pottery works in South Carolina held a technological secret in the early 19th century: a Chinese style pottery kiln.
Domestic Pigs and Hunter-Gatherers
How domestic pigs found their way into Europe has always been a bit of a puzzle: new research in Germany takes another step in solving that.
The Ancient Crop of Foxtail Millet
Foxtail millet is an ancient crop, first tended by hunter-gatherers in what is today northern China some 11,000 years ago.
An Ancient House on Stilts
Lake dwellings are ancient human residences built on stilts at the edges of lakes in many places throughout the world.
Pompeii in a Movie Theatre Near You
On September 25, 2013, movie theatres throughout the United States will be showing the first event of its kind: a filmed tour of the British Museum's Pompeii
When was Fire First Controlled?
When was fire first controlled and what did that do for us?
Andean Tower Burials: Chullpa
A chullpa is a stone tower used to house Andean burials, used for some 1500 years by many South American societies
Blackwater Draw, New Mexico
Thirteen thousand years ago, a small lake near Clovis, New Mexico, was populated with extinct forms of elephant, wolf, bison, and horse, and the people who
Cladh Hallan: Bronze Age Mummies in Scotland
Research has identified the practice of mummification as a burial technique in many places in the world, including Bronze Age Scotland.
Biskupin: Iron Age Fortress in Poland
The Iron Age site of Biskupin in Poland is one of the best known fortified settlements in the world.
Hatshepsut's Palace at Deir el-Bahri
Pharaoh Hatshepsut was a New Kingdom female pharaoh who ruled between about 1473-1458 BC. Hatshepsut's Temple at Deir el-Bahri Photo
Ancient Flutes and the Kulturpumpe Model
Two ancient flutes from a site in Germany may help explain the blossoming of technological innovation at the onset of the Upper Paleolithic
Q'enqo - Incan Astronomy
Q'enqo is the name of an astronomical observatory built by the Inca in the mid-1400s.
Undomesticated Animal Partners 3: Reindeer
Reindeer are one of the last animals domesticated by humans, and domesticated is a fairly loose term to use.
Science Communication Flaws and Strategies
Science magazine's October 4, 2013 issue includes a collection of articles on the current state of communicating science.
Cochineal dyes were first made in the highlands of Peru, over 2500 years ago.
Diepkloof Rock Shelter and Ostrich Eggshells
Diepkloof rock shelter is an important Middle Stone Age site, with over 400 engraved ostrich shell fragments dated ca 85,000 years old.
Ashkelon is an ancient city on the Mediterranean coast, owned or operated by Egypt, Persia, Babylon, Greece and Rome, as well as everybody else in the neighborhood
A Year at Stonehenge - A Book Review
A Year at Stonehenge is a new book re-introducing people to the physical realities and changes of one of the most famous monuments in the world.
Undomesticated Animal Partners 2: Honey Bees
The relationship between humans and honey bees has been a difficult, but very long standing one, with the oldest hives discovered to 3,000 years ago.
Documentary Filmmaking for Archaeologists: A Book Review
Documentary Filmmaking for Archaeologists is an introduction to the modern art and business of making video.
The Copper Mines of Khirbet Faynan
Khirbet Faynan is an important Bronze and Iron Age region in Jordan, famous for its copper deposits.
Undomesticated Animal Partners: Cats
Undomesticated animal partners are those which have decided to hang out with us, but may leave at any time.
Sacsayhuaman - Megalithic Inca Site
Sacsayhuaman is an important religious center and ENORMOUSLY HUGE archaeological site associated with the Inca Empire.
Conserving Wood Artifacts from Oseberg
Wooden artifacts from the 9th century Oseberg Viking Boat Grave are the focus of a research study to identify a way to halt and repair the deterioration of old preservation techniques.
Spondylus is the name of a bivalve, which was of ritual importance to prehistoric people in both the American and European continents.
Spindle whorls represent a technological advance in the ancient art of spinning wool into cloth.
Ideologies and Archaeology - A Book Review
Ideologies and Archaeology looks at the ways that archaeologists infer and implant notions of ideology into the world they study.
The Mystery of Easter Island - Video Review
The Mystery of Easter Island is the latest and best of the videos on Rapa Nui, in which the famous moai are made to walk across the landscape.
Bones of the Buddha - Secrets of the Dead
The Bones of the Buddha is an hour long video describing the archaeological and historical search for one of Buddha's burial places.
Floods, Famine, and Emperors
Archaeologist Brian Fagan proposes what most archaeologists will recognize as an old chestnut: climate change is seen as a--if not the--major determinant of cultural change. This revolutionary book points to the enormous amount of data being gathered on the climatic phenomena known collectively as ENSO--the El Niño Southern Oscillation.
The Archaeological Imagination - A Review of Michael Shanks Book
The Archaeological Imagination is a stimulating, not to say downright provoking book from archaeological Michael Shanks.
Interpreting the English Village - Book Review
Interpreting the English Village is a study in landscape archaeology, bringing to life the history and prehistory of the town of Shapwick, Somerset County, England.
Travels in Elysium - A Review by Sharon Kaye
Travels in Elysium is a new novel by William Azuski, from Iridescent Publishing, offering a new interpretation of what Plato had in mind when he invented the Atlantis myth.
A Year at Stonehenge - A Book Review
The new photo collection A Year at Stonehenge offers a detailed look at the peculiar pieces of what we think of as a very familiar monument.
Motul de San José: A Book Review
The 2012 edited book, Motul de San Jose, is a thorough and thoughtful text using a variety of archaeological techniques to reveal the history of an ancient Maya town.
The Human Family Tree - A DVD Review
The Human Family Tree is a 90 minute long video in DVD format,
Time Team America - Fort Raleigh - Video Review
The American version of the remarkably successful British reality television program Time Team visits Roanoke Island in the state of North Carolina, in an attempt to help archaeologists discover the lost 16th century colony of Sir Walter Raleigh.
Nostalgia for the Light - A Film Review
The film Nostalgia for the Light is a stunning documentary of the gorgeous history, past and present of the Atacama Desert of Chile
Ancient Marvels - Video Collection on Ancient Monumental Engineering
Ancient Marvels: PBS Explorer Collection is a boxed set of six videos from the archives of the PBS program NOVA, between the years 2000 and 2010. Each video features an international group of scholars, historians, archaeologists, and engineers, who work together to try to determine the ancient construction methods.
China's Terracotta Warriors: Secrets of the Dead Video Review
The fascinating, complex research on China's Terracotta Warriors is presented in this 2011 Secrets of the Dead special, from PBS
Time Team: The Team's Favorite Digs - Video Review
The 2013 compilation of videos from nearly 20 years of the British reality TV series the Time Team is just a hoot, as this review argues.
Decoding Neanderthals - Video Review of the Latest from NOVA
Decoding Neanderthals is a summary of recent research into the broader understanding of the abilities of Neanderthals, their history and the living legacy of them walking around today.
Sureyya in the Field - An Archaeologist in the Outback
In Part 9 of our continuing series, archaeologist Sureyya Kose has successfully changed her career from IT specialist to archaeologist. In this photo essay, she describes her most recent work, conducting archaeological survey and other projects in Western Australia's Pilbara Desert and at Pod Hradem Cave in the Czech Republic.
Mosquitoes and Toxic Caterpillars???
Sureyya describes the joys of conducting survey in the Australian outback. Page 2.
Survival Skills in the Pilbara
The Pilbara is a harsh landscape, but one not without awesome beauty and lessons to learn, as Sureyya Kose describes it. Page 3.
Excavating Pod Hradem Cave, Czech Republic
Sureyya describes her work at the Neanderthal occupation site called Pod Hradem Cave, in the Czech Republic. Page 4.
Sureyya the Geoarchaeologist - Specialising in Geophysics
Sureyya finally finds an area in the wide study of archaeology to pursue: geoarchaeology, the combination of archaeological studies and geology, geography and geophysics. Page 5.
Secrets of the Dead: Caveman Cold Case - Video Review
The episode of Secrets of the Dead called Caveman Cold Case is an excellent discussion of two Neanderthal cave sites and what archaeologists have learned about our not-so-distant cousins.
Diego De Landa, Spanish Bishop and Inquisitor of Early Colonial yucatan
Spanish fray, and later bishop of Yucatan, Diego de Landa is famous for his fervor in destroying Maya codices, as well as for the detailed description of Maya society on the eve of the conquest recorded in his book, Relación de las Cosas de Yucatan (Relation on the Incidents of Yucatan).
DeLanda in Yucatan, Izamal (1549)
De Landa arrived in Yucatan in 1549 and was in charged of the chirch and convent of Izamal. Page 2.
Book Burning at Mani, Yucatan 1561
At Mani, the infamous burning of Maya codices and other sacred objects believed by the Spaniard to be the work the devil was ordered by Diego de Landa. Page 3.
Diego de Landa's Relación de las Cosas de Yucatan (1566)
The Relación de las Cosas de Yucatan was written by Diego de Landa in 1566, in Spain while waiting to be judged for his conduct against the Maya of Yucatan. Page 4.
De Landa's Alphabet
De Landaâ€™s alphabet contained in his RelaciÃ³n de las Cosas de Yucatan represented a fundamental step in the decipherment of Mayan writing system. Page 5.
Tenayuca - Capital City of the Chichimecs
This photo essay introduces you to the little known 15th century late Post-Classic Aztec/Chichimec capital city of Tenayuca, located just a few miles north of Mexico City and open to the public.
Bibliographic Sources for Tenayuca
A collection of bibliographic sources for the Chichimec capital city of Tenayuca, Mexico. Page 10.
Environmental Setting and Geography of Tenayuca
Tenayuca's main pyramid is located in the middle of San Barolo Tenayuca, a few miles north of Mexico City. Page 2.
Foundation and Historic Development of Tenayuca
Tenayuca was likely founded as early as the Epiclassic period (600-800 AD), but it reached its heyday beginning in the 13th century. Page 3.
Tenayuca Conquered - Aztec and Spanish Conquests
Tenayuca was conquered twice: once by the Aztec empire, and once, about a hundred years later, by the Spanish. Page 4.
Architectural Features of Tenayuca
Early archaeological studies identified the basic construction methodology of the Chichimec founders of the city of Tenayuca. Page 5.
The Main Pyramid at Tenayuca
The Main Pyramid of Tenayuca is similar in construction to the Aztec Templo Mayor in Mexico City. Page 6.
Sculptural Art at Tenayuca
Sculptural art represented at Tenayuca includes references to the Aztec calendar and fire serpents. Page 7.
Coatepantli at Tenayuca
Tzompantli Altar at Tenayuca
The Altar of the Skull Rack at Tenayuca hid a burial pit. Page 9.
Pyramid of Cholula - Photo Essay
The Pyramid of Cholula is the largest pyramid ever constructed in the Americas, and of the largest in the world. This photo essay describes the pyramid, its history and the archaeological investigations within and around it.
Historical Origins and Development - The Pyramid of Cholula
Cholula's pyramid was begun during the preclassic period, and its construction phases extend from the preclassic period of the first century AD to the Spanish colonial period of the 16th century. Page 2.
History of the Archaeological Excavations - Pyramid of Cholula
Archaeological investigations of the Great Pyramid of Cholula were first undertaken by Adolph Bandelier, but the the architect Ignacio Marquina conducted the first extensive excavations. Page 3.
Mural of the Drinkers - Pyramid of Cholula
The vivid mural of the drinkers was uncovered during the excavations by the Proyecto Cholula. Page 4.
Old Tunnels and New Discoveries - Pyramid of Cholula
The miles of tunnels which have been excavated into the Pyramid of Cholula have helped identify previous construction phases at the site: and it is new techniques that allow a virtual reconstruction to assist in our understanding. Page 5.
Later Phases - Pyramid of Cholula
Archaeologists have determined that the Cholula pyramid was expanded over a period of centuries to a colossal height of 65 meters (213 feet). Page 6.
Bibliographic Sources - Pyramid of Cholula
A list of the bibliographic sources on the Pyramid of Cholula. Page 7.
Time Team: Unearthing the Roman Invasion - Review of the DVD Boxed Set
the new DVD collection of a selection of time team episodes covering the occupation of what is today the United Kingdom by the Roman Empire is downright delightful.
Pompeii from the British Museum - Movie Review
The Master Plan: Himmler's Scholars and the Holocaust - a Book Review
Heather Pringle's book, the Master Plan, highlights one truly unspeakable evil of the Third Reichâ€”-not the lunatics running the asylum, but the scholars and artists who supported and worked for its success. The book is extremely well-researched, with over 130 pages of notes, bibliographic references and index.
A Walking Tour of Olympia - Original Location of the Olympics at Olympia
Photographer Aschwin Prein provides a walking tour of the ancient Greek classical site of Olympia, the original location of the Olympic Games. Excavations at the site were the direct impetus for the reinstitution of the games, 1700 years after the games were banned.
Lighting the Olympic Flame
Lighting the Olympic Flame: the Olympic Torch Relay begins at this altar in the Temple of Hera at Olympia. Page 10.
Excavations at Olympia, Greece
Excavations at Olympia, Greece: a photograph of the ruins at Olympia by Aschwin Prein. Page 2.
The Stadium at Olympia, Greece
The Stadium at Olympia, Greece: a photograph of the entry of the stadium at Olympia, by Aschwin Prein. Page 3.
The Temple of Hera at Olympia
The Temple of Hera at Olympia is the oldest monumental temple in Greece. Page 4.
The Temple of Zeus at Olympia
The Temple of Zeus at Olympia was built by the Greek architect Lidon. Page 5.
Workshop of Pheidias at Olympia
Workshop of Pheidias at Olympia: a photo of the ruins of the building where one of the seven wonders of the world was made: the Statue of Zeus. Page 6.
Greek Baths at Olympia
Greek Baths at Olympia: Olympia's swimming pool and bath complex, built during the 5th century BC. Page 7.
Palaestra at Olympia
Palaestra at Olympia: A photograph of the Palaestra at Olympia, built during the 3rd century BC. Page 8.
Villa of the Roman Emperor Nero at Olympia
Villa of the Roman Emperor Nero at Olympia: Eventually, the Romans moved into Olympia, and in the first century AD, the emperor Nero had a villa built at the site. Page 9.
Khipu - The South American Communication System called Khipu
Khipuâ€”also spelled quipu or quipoâ€”are the ancient communication system of South America. Page 4.
Indus Script - Undeciphered Indus Script
Indus script is mostly found on sealsâ€”small rectangular objects that were probably not used to seal objects, but whose appearance is similar to that of those used in the Mediterranean. Page 5.
Ancient Computer - Recent Investigations of the Antikythera Mechanism
The 2012 video from PBS called Ancient Computer describes the results of the recent studies of the Antikythera Mechanism, a 2100 year old astronomical computing mechanism perhaps developed by Archimedes
Bob Ballard at Gallipoli
Although I haven't seen this videoâ€”it wasn't included with the National Geographic Expedition Week press kitâ€”according what they did send, Bob Ballard, surely the most popular underwater archaeologist ever, visits the waters off the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey, in search of World War I shipwrecks. Page 6.
Documentary Filmmaking for Archaeologists - A Review
The 2013 book from Left Coast Press called Documentary Filmmaking for Archaeologists is a terrific help for people with a great idea for a video.
Monte Alban - Building J
Building J is probably the most famous construction of Monte AlbÃ¡n. ï»¿. Page 7.
Pipestone - Metamorphic Raw Material for Sacred and Elite Artifacts
Pipestone is the general term for several related forms of metamorphic rock, used for at least the past 2,000 years by Native American groups in North America for the construction of sacred and elite artifacts.
To identify where each
Hopewell Platform Pipes
Hopewell platform pipes were studied by researchers, who found that connecting specific artifacts to raw sources did not match current archaeological interpretations. Page 3.
Cahokia Style Figurines
Emerson's research team discovered support for the notion that all pipestone does not come from Pipestone National Monument, but instead came from numerous sources. Page 4.
Catlinite and Calumets
The most famous type of pipestone is called catlinite, after artist and ethrnographer George Catlin. Page 5.
Hands and Feet of Australopithecus sediba
The hands and feet of Australopithecus sediba are similar to. Page 6.
History and In-Fill of Malapa Cave - Context of Australopithecus sediba
Malapa Cave formed from the two fractures over 2.5 billion years ago: Australopithecus sediba represents part of the in-fill. Page 3.
Context of Australopithecus sediba - Malapa Cave
An examination of the archaeological context of Australopithecus sediba. Page 2.
Australopithecus sediba: A look at the physical evidence
A photo essay on the physical attributes of Australopithecus sediba
Crania of Australopithecus sediba
A closer look at the crania of Australopithecus sediba. Page 4.
Pelvis of Australopithecus sediba
A closer examination of the pelvis of Australopithecus sediba. Page 5.
Tula de Hidalgo - Toltec Capital City
Tula de Hidalgo is an enormous, dispersed archaeological site and likely the capital of the Toltec Empire during the Late Postclassic Period in Mexico
Tula Grande - City Center of Tula de Hidalgo
The main piece of the site of Tula de Hidalgo is Tula Grande, where the largest monumental structures are located. Page 2.
Living at Tula de Hidalgo
Tula de Hidalgo wasn't just monuments and elites: nearly 60,000 people lived within the urban neighborhood during its heyday. Page 3.
Bibliography for Tula de Hidalgo
A brief bibliography for further study. Page 4.
Nawarla Gabarnmang - Photo Essay of Ancient Cave Paintings in Arnhem Land, Australia
Nawarla Gabarnmang is a gloriously painted rockshelter in Arnhem Land, Australia, with vivid images of animals and humans, painted at least 28,000 years ago.
L'Aménagement at Nawarla Gabarnmang
Researchers at Nawarla Gabarnmang believe that the aboriginal painters of the site also sculpted some of the pillars and ceiling, purposefully modifying their living space. Page 2.
Chronology at Nawarla Gabarnmang
While the paintings themselves have not as yet been direct-dated, a piece of the painted roof fell, and is associated with a radiocarbon date of at least 28,000 years ago. Page 3.
Rediscovering Nawarla Gabarnmang
Nawarla Gabarnmang is currently being excavated. Discovered in 2007, what little results have been produced so far provide an exciting glimpse into future findings. Page 4.
Sources for Nawarla Gabarnmang
A list of current publications on the work at Nawarla Gabarnmang. Page 5.
Early Monumental Architecture in Maya Ceibal
Archaeological research at the Maya site of Ceibal have identified the remains of what appears to be the earliest E-Group in the Maya Lowlands.
What is an E-Group?
An e-group is a type of monumental architecture, a group of similar structures set in the same pattern over centuries and millennia of what people trace as the Maya civilization. Page 2.
Dating the E-Group at Ceibal
Ceibal's e-group complex is believed to have been built during the early Middle Preclassic period in Mesoamerica. Page 3.
The Implications of an Early E-Group at Ceibal
The importance of the Middle Preclassic e-group complex at Ceibal dervies from what it says about the Maya interaction with its neighbors, and how information may be transmitted and shared from group to group. Page 4.
Small Acropolis at Edzna
The Small Acropolis is where some of the earliest monuments of Edzna have been found. Page 7.
Temple of the Masks
The Temple of the Masks is dedicated to the sun god, K'inich Ajaw. Page 8.
A list of the references used to construct this photo essay. Page 9.
Introduction to Edzna
The site of Edzna reached its heyday during the Classic Period, and its unique five-platform structures make it well worth the visit.
The Overall Layout of Edzna
The settlement plan of Ednza includes the central plaza surrounded by several important buildings, all connected by carefully engineered hydraulic canals. Page 2.
The Great Acropolis - Edzna's Central Buildings
The Great Acropolis is the largest building at Edzna, and it includes several buildings on the top, each of them pretty massive themselves. Page 3.
Temple of the Five Floors at Edzna
The Temple of the Five Floors at Edzna is the most famous building, with five stacked platforms topped with a roof-combed temple giving it a distinctive flavor. Page 4.
This page describes the Great House (Nohoch Na), on the west side of the Great Plaza at Edzna, and the Platform of the Knives. Page 5.
The Ball Court
Like many precolumbian cities in North America, Ednza had ballcourts, where losing a game might mean losing your life. Page 6.
Worked Bone at the Yana Rhinoceros Horn Site
The Yana Rhinoceros Horn Site is an important site: at 28,000 years of age, it is located north of the Arctic Circle, not terribly far from the jumping off point from Russia to the Alaska. A recent article in Antiquity describes an astonishing range of well-preserved ivory and bone artifacts, illustrated in this photo essay.
100,000 Year Old Paint Pots at Blombos Cave
Blombos Cave is an important key to understand the beginnings of early modern behaviors: the latest discoveries there of tool kits for making pigment are detailed in this photo essay.
Working with Pigments at Blombos Cave
Ochre, or iron oxide, is found throughout the world and was worked by many prehistoric people in many regions. The tool kits found at Blombos are typical of ones expected in many locations. Page 2.
Ochre Pigment Tool Kits at Blombos Cave
Ochre Pigment Tool Kits at Blombos Cave. Page 3.
Pigment Recipes from the Middle Stone Age
The toolkits at Blombos Cave were assembled from local materials and. Page 4.
Abri Castanet Photo Essay
The Early Aurignacian site of Abri Castanet contains some of the oldest examples of art in the world. This photo essay examines a few of the images and reports on what archaeologists have interpreted the images to mean.
Cave Art for the Public
The cave art paintings on the ceiling of the Castanet rockshelter were intended for viewing by everyday people--unlike many other ancient art galleries. Page 2.
Sexual Imagery at Abri Castanet
At Abri Castanet were discovered several examples of stylized images of female genitalia, a very early form of art noted world wide. Page 3.
Anneaux at Abri Castanet
Over 30 anneaux, raised rings found in many Upper Paleolithic Cave sites in Europe, have been identified on the ceiling fall from Abri Castanet. Page 4.
Animal Representations at Abri Castanet
Animals are often discovered as part of the paintings in Upper Paleolithic caves, and Abri Castanet is no different. Page 5.
Beads and Personal Ornaments from Yana RHS
Over 1,500 beads were recovered from the site, numbers of which were laid out in a linear arrangement suggesting they had been strung. Page 2.
Perforated Plaques and Ivory Shafts from Yana RHS
Decorated objects from the Upper Paleolithic site of Yana RHS include needles, awls, ivory shafts, plaques and decorated hair bands. Page 3.
Small Ivory Box from Yana RHS
This small ivory box was one of three recovered from Yana RHS. Page 4.
Large Ivory Box
This container created from mammoth ivory some 28,000 years ago shows a variety of working techniques. Page 5.
Locomotion and Ardipithecus
Although at 4.4 million years old, the Ardipithecus ramidus is not old enough to be the common chimpanzee/human ancestorâ€”but its body shape and stature is substantially different from its perceived descendant, Australopithecus. Page 8.
A Dragon Kiln in Carolina - Chinese Pottery Technology in the Antebellum American South
An innovative manufacturing technique in the early decades of the 19th century in the pre-Civil War south of the young United States was developed based on Chinese technology over 1200 years earlier.
Manufacturing Innovation at the Edgefield Pottery District
The Edgefield Pottery District was a center for innovation and mass production, working in west central South Carolina beginning in the early decades of the 19th century. Page 2.
Elongated Chinese Pottery Kilns
Chinese style kilns were used to mass produce ceramic pottery by the. Page 3.