Archaeology Sitemap - Page 12 2014-03-10
The History of Ivory
Ivory is one of those beautiful substances that ancient people were quick to recognize, use, and shepherd.
Border Cave and Cultural Continuity in the Later Stone Age
Findings at Border Cave in South Africa extends the history of hunter-gatherers in South Africa to more than 40,000 years ago.
Dilmun: Trading with Mesopotamia
Dilmun was an important trade center between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley some 4,000 years ago.
Date Palm History
Date palms are terrifically useful resources in the arid subtropical regions of the world, and that is probably why they were domesticated so long ago.
Chinchorro Mummies and the Environment
Chinchorro mummies may have been the result of unstable climatic events, say scholars.
Distinguishing Wild from Domestic Pigs
Distinguishing wild from domestic pigs in archaeology is not a simple matter, as scholars propose a variety of methods.
Mississippian Hawk Bells
Hawk bells are of interest to people who study the Mississippian culture because they were brought in trade by the Spanish explorers in the 16th century.
Archaeology in High School?
Caleb G writes: Two years from now I will be in college and I was hoping to get a major in history. Once I have completed college, how would I find a job
Minos' Palace at Knossos
Theseus fighting the Minotaur, Ariadne and her ball of string, Daedalus the architect and doomed Icarus of the wax wings; how many of us dream Minoan dreams
Archaeology Dating Methods: A Short Course
Modern methods of archaeological dating are described in a six-day online short course.
Columbus, Silver, and Failure
The first European town in the New World was established by Christopher Columbus after his second voyage across the Atlantic, in 1494. Samples of galena, a
The Archaeological Imagination: A Book Review
Michael Shanks' The Archaeological Imagination is an experiment in broadening the definition of an archaeologist.
The Mississippians were a group of loosely connected chiefdoms who shared about one-third of what is today the United States between about 1000-1500 AD.
Meeting the Denisovans
A complete DNA sequence of the Denisovan hominid remains from Siberia leads some surprising information to human evolution.
Art of the Azilian: 14,000 year old Amber Elk Figurine
An elk cow sculpted in amber 14,000 years ago represents the cultural change required for people to survive the end of the last Ice Age.
Although American archaeology doesn't have a Pompeii, where a volcanic calamity preserved ancient ruins in a spectacular way, there are a couple of examples
The De Soto Chronicles
The De Soto Chronicles refers to three personal narratives and a literary masterpiece, describing the 1538-1544 Hernando de Soto expedition to North America.
A Walking Tour of Comalcalco
Comalcalco is a Maya archaeological site in the Mexican state of Tabasco, with an unusual architectural feature.
Garcilaso de la Vega (the Inca)
The Inca, Garcilaso de la Vega, was the first Spanish American writer of note, historian of the Inca civilization
Underwater Village of Atlit-Yam
Atlit-Yam is annine thousand year old underwater archaeological site, located off the coast of Israel
Archaeology of Natural Disasters
Natural disasters such as floods, eruptions, and earthquakes, have affected past cultures significantly. Here's a sample of what archaeological studies have
In Sir Walter Scott's book The Talisman, he recreated the scene of October 1192, when Richard Lionheart of England and Saladin the Saracen met to end the
The Human Family Tree on National Geographic
National Geographic's Human Family Tree is a 90 minute special (2 hours with commercials) on the current results of the ongoing Genographic Project, airing on
The Maya Plaza: A Photo Essay
The best known archaeological sites in North America to the public are probably the temples of the classic Maya civilization (~AD 250-900). Uxmal, Bonampak,
The Venus of Laussel
The Venus of Laussel is a sculpture recovered from a 25,000-year-old cave in France, that has created numbers of interpretations as to its meaning.
More on the Iceman
A few additional details of the last days of Otzi the Iceman appeared in the academic press over the last few months.
Pinnacle Point is an important Middle Stone Age site, located on the southern coast of South Africa
Photo Essay of Moundville
Moundville is one of the largest capitals of the Mississippian culture, located in the Black Warrior river valley of Alabama, in the southeastern United States.
Radiocarbon Calibration News
Japan's Suigetsu Lake holds the potential to sharpen and refine radiocarbon calibration dates to the feasible limits of the technique.
Megamiddens of South Africa
Mussel shell heaps amassed over 1200 years and located on the coasts of South Africa are the focus of much hotly-debated archaeological study
Neolithic Canoes of Bercy
The Neolithic site of Bercy is known best for its ancient canoes, found on the banks of the Seine river in Paris, France.
A Plant Eating Ancestor: Australopithecus bahrelghazali
koro-toro, australopithecus, stable isotope analysis, archaeology, paleontology
Turning Lead into Gold: the Alchemy of Lustreware
The decorative ceramic style known as lustreware is a shiny metallic visual effect that flickers back and forth when light is played on it. Small cup.
Ancient Marvels: A NOVA Video Collection
Ancient Marvels is the name of a collection of six videos from the PBS science program NOVA, exploring ancient construction methods, and the methods archaeologists use to discover how they were built.
Nostalgia for the Light - Video Review
Nostalgia for the Light is an award-winning documentary from Patricio Guzman and Icarus Films, on the awe-inspiring Atacama Desert of Chile.
A guide to ancient pigments describes the archaeology, history and chemistry that goes into making the ancient world a little more colorful.
500,000 Year Old Spearpoints at Kathu Pan
Kathu Pan, an archaeological site in South Africa, has revealed evidence that people have been making spearheads for half a millennium
Swahili Coast Town of Songo Mnara
During the Medieval period, Songo Mnara was an important trading town for those international trade experts along the Swahili Coast.
Human Ancestors You Should Know: Toumaď
Toumai is possibly an ancient human ancestor, who lived some 7 million years ago.
Wild Emmer Wheat
The cracking of the breadwheat genome represents the beginning of more information concerning the domestication processes of wheat (Triticum spp). Emmer is the progenitor of nearly all modern wheats.
Kilwa Chronicle: Oral History of the Swahili Culture
The Kilwa Chronicle consists of two written versions of the oral history of the founding dynasty of the sultans at Kilwa Kisiwani, largest of the communities of the Swahili Culture
Hvalsey Farm and Church
The Norse farmstead on Greenland called Hvalsey, was the site of the last documented event of the colony: a wedding
Ancient Art of Cheese-Making
A new study provides evidence of making cheese back to 7500 years ago.
Maya 2012 FAQ
The Maya 2012 phenomenon, as it is called by many people around the world, is not going to go away any time soon, so I thought I'd take an opportunity to talk
The medieval towns along the eastern coast of Africa called the Swahili culture, were a mix of stone, coral and thatch structures.
Solstice, Stonehenge and the Maya
The Winter Solstice passed at Stonehenge again, despite rumors of an apocalypse which was never, I'm afraid, foretold by any Maya.
A fabulous feast is an important part of any celebration, and we humans have been conducting them for some 12,000 years.
Hilazon Tachtit is a 12,000 year old burial site in what is today Israel, where scholars believe a shaman was buried.
Walking in the Trees
A recent study of a Ugandan society reveals that we humans are still capable of climbing trees without support systems.
Paviland Cave and the "Red Lady"
Paviland Cave, or Goat's Hole Cave, was excavated nearly 200 years ago--and pretty much completely misunderstood.
The Human Use of Lead Ore
Lead ores have found their way into our human lives for at least the past 10,000 years or so.
Vermillion is the bright orange color derived from cinnabar, and it has been used as a pigment for some 9,000 years.
Sites You Should Know: Ohalo II
Ohalo II in Israel is a 22,000 year old archaeological site, a hunter-gatherer community with stunning artifact preservation.
The Art of Regional Survey in Archaeology
There is more to archaeological fieldwork than the big dig. Intensive excavation at a single siteâ€”whether that site is a tomb, temple, house or
28,000 Year Old Australian Cave Paintings: Photo Essay
The vividly colored cave paintings of Nawarla Gabarnmang, Arnhem Land, Australia, were begun at least 28,000 years ago,
Sureyya's Journey Part 9: In the Outback
Surreya Kose is an archaeologist, working in the outback of Australia. Sureyya's Journey describes how she reinvented herself from a information technologist to the sturdy, sunburned and rugged individual she is today.
The History of Metals: Copper
The History of Metals: Copper
28,000 Year Old Bone and Ivory Art from Siberia
28,000 year old bone and ivory artifacts from the Yana Rhinoceros Horn Site were featured in a recent article in Antiquity, and some images are seen in this photo essay.
Chichimec Capital of Tenayuca: Photo Essay
Tenayuca was the capital city of the Chichimec people, one of the tribes eventually absorbed into the Aztec nation.
Chinampa Traditional Farming System
Chinampa system agriculture is a traditional method of creating very fruitful agricutural land from wetlands.
China's Terracotta Warriors: Secrets of the Dead Video Review
The DVD China's Terracotta Warriors, from the PBS/NatGeo series Secrets of the Dead, is a close investigation of the amazing, 2200 year old sculptures and the society which produced them.
Poverty Point Site Architecture
Poverty Point is a 3,500 year old site located in northeastern Louisiana, with an elaborate configuration that has recently undergone investigation.
Neanderthal Refugium and the Ebro Frontier
Was there a Neanderthal Refugium below the Ebro Frontier? A new study throws doubt on a long-standing theory.
Broxmouth Hillfort is the named given to the remnants of an European Iron Age fortified settlements on the North Sea of Scotland in the UK.
A Miniature Pharos Lighthouse
The Abusir Tower is a 3rd century BC replica of the famous Pharos Lighthouse of Alexandria
Taposiris Magna - Port City of Ptolemaic Dynasties
Taposiris Magna is believed by some to be the burial place of Cleopatra and Marc Antongy
The Library at Alexandria
The Library at Alexandria was a Greco-Roman university, with nearly a million scrolls describing science and philosophy from all over the known world.
Anuradhapura: 1,500 Years in Sri Lanka
The ruins of Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka represent a 1500 year-long trade and religious center.
Stupas are immense brick-built religious structures found throughout south Asia beginning in the 3rd century BC
Book Review: Interpreting the English Village
Interpreting the English Village describes the results of the 10-year-long Shapwick landscape archaeology project.
Dendrochronology at Medieval Lübeck, Germany
Dendrochronology at Medieval Lübeck, Germany Beech tree rings. Photo credit: Astrid Geck Tree ring dating, called dendrochronology, is a fascinating
Pompeii Streets Photo Essay
Anyone who has been a reader of these pages for very long knows I have a thing about ancient roads. I can't really explain it, except to say that it interests
Decoding Neanderthals - A Video Review
Decoding Neanderthals is new video out from NOVA, featuring the latest research in Neanderthal archaeology, anthropology and genetics
Marine Isotope Stages - Or is it Oxygen Isotope Stages?
Marine isotope stages are the steps in a chronology of the world, built by paleoclimatologist to show how frequently our world has been covered in ice.
Ancient Computer - NOVA Video on Antikythera Mechanism
A review of PBS Nova's 2012 video on the Antikythera Mechanism.
Black Drink: Prehistoric Source of Caffeine
Black drink is a tea made by Native American Indians from the holly plant, not unlike our modern day teas of yerba mate and guayusa.
Oldest Pottery's Purpose: Fish for Dinner
Investigations on sherds from an 11,000-15,000 year old shell mound in Japan reveals that fish was dinner in the earliest pottery
Ancient Foods and Food History
You might be surprised how long ago some things in your kitchen were invented.
Azuki Bean History
Azuki beans are tasty red beans that appear in many east Asian dishes. But did you know where and when they were domesticated?
Cholula's Great Pyramid
One of the largest pyramid in the world is that of the Great Pyramid in Cholula, Mexico.
Roman Empire in the Netherlands
Nijmegen is the name of a modern town in the Netherlands, with a rich history including a blend of local Iron Age and Roman Empire cultures
Pipestone is the name of a type of raw material that was carved into all kinds of shapes by Native Americans beginning at least 3,000 years ago.
Toba Super-Eruption and the Human Bottleneck
The Mount Toba super-eruption was incredibly explosive, some 75,000 years ago--but did it create the human bottleneck in eastern Africa?
Damascus Steel and Nanotechnology
A discussion of the nanotechnology of Damascus steel, by scholars Madeleine Durand-Charre and Peter Paufler Paufler and
Domesticating the Sago Palm
The sago palm, a tree indigenous to New Guinea, was domesticated about 4500 years ago, according to a new study.
Secrets of the Dead: Caveman Cold Case
Caveman Cold Case, the latest in the PBS series Secrets of the Dead, features evidence for cannibalism at a Neanderthal cave site in Spain
The Domestication of Goats
Domestic goats (Capra hircus) were among the first domesticated animals.
History of Cotton
Cotton (Gossypium spp), is, according to the USDA, the single most important textile fiber in the world, and accounts for some 40% of all the fibers produced.
Great Zimbabwe is the best known archaeological site dated to the Zimbabwe culture of the late African Iron Age.
Crossroads at Palmyra on the Silk Road
Palmyra is the ancient name of the modern city of Tadmor, located at an oasis in the Syrian desert and once a crucial crossroads of the Silk Road
Mesopotamian Over-Kill? Desert Kites in Syria
Recent investigations in Syria suggest that Mesopotamian over-exploitationl was responsible for the extinction of several large-bodied herd animals between 4000-1000 BC
History of Bananas
The history of bananas is very old, in fact one of the oldest domesticated crops in the world; and research into its background has recently blossomed.
Ancient Road Systems
Ancient road systems are of fascination, because they are engineering feats which were built for a variety of reasons, from the mundane of crossing a wet place, to the imperial of keeping your cities under control.
The Three Sisters
The ancient farming style called Three Sisters involves planting maize, beans and squash together in the same field: and the benefits of doing that are the subject of many an article by crop scientists.
Making flour from seeds and other plants has a very long human history indeed.
Journey of the Universe Collection: A Review
The Journey of the Universe collection is a ten-hour-long video collection of conversations by scientists and philosophers about ecology and the intersection of religion and science
The Ceramic Capital of China
Jingdezhen, a 1300 year old pottery production community, is known as the ceramic capital of China
Dave the Slave
Dave the Slave, also known as Dave the Potter, Dave of the Hive and David Drake, was an important ceramic artist of the 19th century.
The Geoglyphic Art of Chile's Atacama Desert
There are over 5,000 prehistoric geoglyphs in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, and like the Nazca lines of Peru, they are mysterious, beautiful and
The Royal Tombs of Aksum - A Photo Essay
This week's photo essay is The Royal Tombs of Aksum, and it is a new update of one of the very first photo essays I did here on About.com. The 17th-18th
Quote: Why Is Climate Change Insurmountable?
Global climate change is a reality, no matter what politicians try to tell you, and the issue we need to face now is how best to cope with the coming changes.
The Popol Vuh
The history and stories of the Popol Vuh, the ancient Mayan book of the creation.
The Stone Age
The Stone Age is called the Paleolithic (old stone) period by archaeologists, and it covers a vast amount of time. The Stone Age begins when our earliest
Piprahwa stupa is one of several religious structures in India that received the cremated remains of the Buddha
Sites You Should Know: Pachacamac
Pachacamac is an important Incan and Wari site, located on the coast of Peru and occupied for over 1,000 years.
Deep Evolutionary Past of the Horse
A 700,000 year old toe from a horse has allowed researchers to construct a full genome and thus teach us more about horse history.
Sites You Should Know: Dikili Tash
Dikili Tash is a Neolithic site, located on mainland Greece, where 6,000-year-old wine and pottery making are in evidence.
Diffusion vs. Innovation, Revisited
The origins of agriculture in southwestern Asia are reexamined in a new article about the 12,000 year old archaeological site of Chogha Golan, Iran.
Secrets of the Dead: Ultimate Tut
Secrets of the Dead: Ultimate Tut answers a whole bunch of questions about Pharaoh Tutankhamun that I bet you never even knew to ask!
The Letters of Father d'Entrecolles
In the early 18th century, a French missionary describes ceramic production technology in the mass-production site of Jingdezhen, China
History of the Bottle Gourd
The bottle gourd has a 10,000 year old history in the Americas, and it was domesticated in Asia.
Bones of the Buddha: Secrets of the Dead
Bones of the Buddha is a video from PBS and National Geographic on the late 19th century discovery of a stupa, a religious structure containing some of the ashes of the 5th and most famous Buddha.
A Thousand Years of Temples
A photo essay on the temples at Pachacamac reveals 1,000 years of history on the Peruvian coast.
Time Team: The Team's Favorite Digs
The Time Team's new video collection, The Team's Favorite Digs is a selection of entertaining archaeological videos spanning the entire 20 years of the fabulously popular reality TV series.
Old Seoul City
Old Seoul is the oldest part of modern Seoul, South Korea, and it was built as the Joseon dynasty capital in the late 15th century AD.
Guinea Pig History
Guinea pigs are cute little pets for kids--and a terrific source of meat for Peruvians. Yum!
Most of what we know about the domestication of eggplants comes from ancient historical records in China.
Chili Peppers and Southwestern Cuisine
When you think of the American southwest, you instantly think of chili peppers: chili rellenos and huevos rancheros, yum! But archaeologists have long been
Joseon Royal Tombs
During the Joseon dynasty of medieval Korea, a specific burial custom led to the excellent preservation of human and cultural remains, including the famous Korean mummies
A Guide to the Joseon Dynasty
The Joseon or Choson period in Korea was the last pre-modern society in the Korean peninsula, lasting 500 years.
Letters to Eung Tae
Eighteen letters written to a medieval Korean provide a detailed description of domestic life for an elite member of the Joseon Dynasty.
A Visit to Edzná
A photo essay of the archaeology and architecture of the classic Maya site of Edzná
The Ancient Game of Twenty Squares
The game of 20 Squares, a precursor to backgammon, is at least 4500 years old, in evidence by this beautiful example from Bronze Age Mesopotamia
Chutes and Ladders for Ancient Egyptians
The ancient board game of 58 Holes was invented in Egypt about 4200 years ago, and it is played today by children everywhere as Snakes and Ladders.
A Dragon Kiln in Carolina
The famous Edgefield District pottery works in South Carolina held a technological secret in the early 19th century: a Chinese style pottery kiln.
Domestic Pigs and Hunter-Gatherers
How domestic pigs found their way into Europe has always been a bit of a puzzle: new research in Germany takes another step in solving that.
The Ancient Crop of Foxtail Millet
Foxtail millet is an ancient crop, first tended by hunter-gatherers in what is today northern China some 11,000 years ago.
An Ancient House on Stilts
Lake dwellings are ancient human residences built on stilts at the edges of lakes in many places throughout the world.
Pompeii in a Movie Theatre Near You
On September 25, 2013, movie theatres throughout the United States will be showing the first event of its kind: a filmed tour of the British Museum's Pompeii
When was Fire First Controlled?
When was fire first controlled and what did that do for us?
Andean Tower Burials: Chullpa
A chullpa is a stone tower used to house Andean burials, used for some 1500 years by many South American societies
Blackwater Draw, New Mexico
Thirteen thousand years ago, a small lake near Clovis, New Mexico, was populated with extinct forms of elephant, wolf, bison, and horse, and the people who
Cladh Hallan: Bronze Age Mummies in Scotland
Research has identified the practice of mummification as a burial technique in many places in the world, including Bronze Age Scotland.
Biskupin: Iron Age Fortress in Poland
The Iron Age site of Biskupin in Poland is one of the best known fortified settlements in the world.
Hatshepsut's Palace at Deir el-Bahri
Pharaoh Hatshepsut was a New Kingdom female pharaoh who ruled between about 1473-1458 BC. Hatshepsut's Temple at Deir el-Bahri Photo
Ancient Flutes and the Kulturpumpe Model
Two ancient flutes from a site in Germany may help explain the blossoming of technological innovation at the onset of the Upper Paleolithic
Undomesticated Animal Partners 3: Reindeer
Reindeer are one of the last animals domesticated by humans, and domesticated is a fairly loose term to use.
Cochineal dyes were first made in the highlands of Peru, over 2500 years ago.
Diepkloof Rock Shelter and Ostrich Eggshells
Diepkloof rock shelter is an important Middle Stone Age site, with over 400 engraved ostrich shell fragments dated ca 85,000 years old.
Ashkelon is an ancient city on the Mediterranean coast, owned or operated by Egypt, Persia, Babylon, Greece and Rome, as well as everybody else in the neighborhood
A Year at Stonehenge - A Book Review
A Year at Stonehenge is a new book re-introducing people to the physical realities and changes of one of the most famous monuments in the world.
Undomesticated Animal Partners 2: Honey Bees
The relationship between humans and honey bees has been a difficult, but very long standing one, with the oldest hives discovered to 3,000 years ago.
Documentary Filmmaking for Archaeologists: A Book Review
Documentary Filmmaking for Archaeologists is an introduction to the modern art and business of making video.
The Copper Mines of Khirbet Faynan
Khirbet Faynan is an important Bronze and Iron Age region in Jordan, famous for its copper deposits.
Undomesticated Animal Partners: Cats
Undomesticated animal partners are those which have decided to hang out with us, but may leave at any time.
Conserving Wood Artifacts from Oseberg
Wooden artifacts from the 9th century Oseberg Viking Boat Grave are the focus of a research study to identify a way to halt and repair the deterioration of old preservation techniques.
Spindle whorls represent a technological advance in the ancient art of spinning wool into cloth.
A Walking Tour of Olympia - Original Location of the Olympics at Olympia
Photographer Aschwin Prein provides a walking tour of the ancient Greek classical site of Olympia, the original location of the Olympic Games. Excavations at the site were the direct impetus for the reinstitution of the games, 1700 years after the games were banned.
Lighting the Olympic Flame
Lighting the Olympic Flame: the Olympic Torch Relay begins at this altar in the Temple of Hera at Olympia. Page 10.
Excavations at Olympia, Greece
Excavations at Olympia, Greece: a photograph of the ruins at Olympia by Aschwin Prein. Page 2.
The Stadium at Olympia, Greece
The Stadium at Olympia, Greece: a photograph of the entry of the stadium at Olympia, by Aschwin Prein. Page 3.
The Temple of Hera at Olympia
The Temple of Hera at Olympia is the oldest monumental temple in Greece. Page 4.
The Temple of Zeus at Olympia
The Temple of Zeus at Olympia was built by the Greek architect Lidon. Page 5.
Workshop of Pheidias at Olympia
Workshop of Pheidias at Olympia: a photo of the ruins of the building where one of the seven wonders of the world was made: the Statue of Zeus. Page 6.
Greek Baths at Olympia
Greek Baths at Olympia: Olympia's swimming pool and bath complex, built during the 5th century BC. Page 7.
Palaestra at Olympia
Palaestra at Olympia: A photograph of the Palaestra at Olympia, built during the 3rd century BC. Page 8.
Villa of the Roman Emperor Nero at Olympia
Villa of the Roman Emperor Nero at Olympia: Eventually, the Romans moved into Olympia, and in the first century AD, the emperor Nero had a villa built at the site. Page 9.
The Dorians were an Iron Age ethnic group in classical Greece
Delos is the name of an island in the Aegean Sea, which according to the Greek legends, is the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis.
The site of Delphi is the location of a classic Panhellenic sanctuary of Greece, first occupied in the early Archaic period.
- By Category
An index of categories in the
San Lorenzo - Olmec Civilization in Veracruz
The archaeological site of San Lorenzo is the royal center of the larger San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan Olmec period site located in the state of Veracruz, Mexico
Bonampak Murals Room 3 - Battle Aftermath and Bloodletting Rituals
The Bonampak murals from Room 3 depict the events after the successful battle at court and the royal family performing a bloodletting ritual.... Page 4.
Discovery of the Mural Paintings of Bonampak
Although known to the local Lacandon Maya people, Bonampak's mural paintings were first seen by non-Maya eyes in the early 20th century
The Pyramid of Acanceh - Photo Essay of Acanceh
Giant stucco masks decorated the facade of the pyramid of Acanceh, a Mayan site in the Yucatan peninsula. Page 4.
Acanceh - Palace of the Stuccoes - Photo Essay of Acanceh
The building known as the Palace of the Stuccoes in the Maya site of Acanceh, Yucatan, is decorated with stucco reliefs portraying Mayan deities and supernatural beings. Page 5.
Acanceh - Maya site in Yucatan
Acanceh, is a small Maya site in the Yucatan peninsula, near Merida. Page 6.
Gobekli Tepe - Background
Gobekli Tepe is a fascinating cultic center, apparently shared by several Pre-Pottery Neolithic groups over 11,000 years ago.
Gobekli Tepe compared to Other Pre-Pottery Neolithic Sites in Turkey and Syria
Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites. Archaeology. Page 2.
Architecture at Göbekli Tepe
The enclosures at Gobekli Tepe were built by hunter-gatherers, who assembled perhaps as many as 20 circular rooms out of mortared stone walls and enormous monolithic carved stone stelae. Page 3.
Animal Carvings at Gobekli Tepe
Throughout each of the enclosures are sculptured reliefs of animals, Page 4.
Interpreting Gobekli Tepe
Can scholars work out the meaning of an elaborate set of structures, 11,600 years after they were built? Page 5.
Bibliography for Göbekli Tepe
More reference material on Gobekli Tepe. Page 6.
Archaeology Dig in Progress - A Photo Essay
This photo essay illustrates the progress of how an archaeological site is excavated, from the first clearing to the laboratory work.
Fieldwork at Blue Creek by the Maya Research Program
A photo essay of the progression of an archaeological excavation at a Classic Maya period elite residence at the Blue Creek site in Belize. Page 2.
Traveling to Toucan House
Just because you're working at an archaeological dig doesn't mean you don't have a long commute. Page 3.
Archaeologist as Mechanic
Travel along unpaved and rough back roads requires a lot of patience, and a sprinkle of auto mechanics. Page 4.
Packing in the Equipment
Packing in equipment to the site is typical for many archaeological field expeditions. Page 5.
Getting Started - Clearing Vegetation off the Elite Residence
Fieldwork at a new archaeological site begins with the removal of vegetation. Page 6.
Revealing the Wall at Toucan House
Excavation at this elite residence is illustrated. Page 7.
Excavating Outside Toucan House
Excavation of the house exterior continues with trowels and brushes. Page 8.
Lunch Break at Blue Creek
Lunch Break at Blue Creek. Archaeology. Page 9.
Laboratory Work at the Maya Research Program
Much of the initial artifact processing during excavations is carried out on site. Page 10.
Final Phase of Construction at Toucan House
The final phase of construction--the last time anyone lived in this elite Maya residence at Blue Creek--is exposed in this photo from the 2011 excavations. Page 11.
Mapping the Elite Residence of Toucan House
Mapping excavations at Blue Creek is completed with the use of a total station and 3-d digital scanning. Page 12.
Penetrating the Floor of the Elite Residence
In this phase of excavation, the plaster floor of the elite residence at Blue Creek is penetrated. Page 13.
Burial Crypts Beneath Toucan House
Burials placed beneath house floors were identified at Toucan House. Page 14.
Profile of the Excavated Residential Structure
A profile photograph of the excavated building illustrates its construction methodology. Page 15.
Summing up the Excavation at Toucan House
Archaeologists learn a great deal from the excavation of sites, but they are finite resources that must be studied carefully. Page 16.
Bonampak Murals Room 1 - The Courtly Ceremony
The mural paintings of Room 1 portray a scene of courtly life, with an elaborated ceremony, centered around the king Chan Muwan and the royal family. Page 2.
Bonampak Paintings Room 2 - The Mural of the Battle
The Mural of the Battle, from room 2 at Bonampak, is probably the most famous example of Maya painting. The scene portrays in detail images of one-to-one combat, captive taking, and weaponry... Page 3.
Mesolithic Age Hunter-Gatherer of Central Europe
About 6,000 BC, the inhabitants of Europe were Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers, who lived in houses that looked more or less like the reconstructed house illustrated in the photograph. Page 2.
Neolithic Farmers of Central Europe - Linearbandkeramik
Neolithic farmers of Central Europe, called the Linearbandkeramik, arrived on the scene about 5500 BC, and faced some amount of hostility. Page 3.
Regional Survey in Archaeology - An Introduction to Regional Survey
Regional survey involves archaeologically inspecting large tracts of land for traces of past behavior on or near the ground surface.
Data Analysis in Regional Survey
Gary Feinman describes the analytical methods he and his colleagues use during the Shandong operations. Page 7.
Maple Sugaring - An Introduction to Maple Sugaring
Maple sugaring is obtaining sugar and syrup from maple trees, and its history has a bit of a controversy among archaeological circles.
How to Make Maple Syrup - Collecting the Sap
The first step in making maple syrup is collecting the sap. Page 2.
How to Make Maple Syrup - Reducing the Sap
Natural maple sap must be reduced 75% before its good on your pancakes. Page 3.
History of Maple Sugaring
The history of maple sugaring dates to at least the early decades of the 17th century. Page 4.
Maple Sugaring - An Archaeological Controversy
Archaeologists are divided as to whether Native Americans or European colonists were the first to tap into maple trees to process sugar and syrup. Page 5.
Maple Sugaring Bibliography - Bibliography of Maple Sugaring
A bibliography of references about maple sugaring, especially as documented in the archaeological record, and including the controversy about its origins. Page 6.
Palenque Walking Tour - Photo Gallery of the Maya Site of Palenque
Photo gallery and description of the main spots to see visiting the Classic Maya site of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico
The Temple of the Cross at Palenque - Palenque Walking Tour
The Temple of the Cross is one of the three main temples that formed Las Cruces Group. Page 10.
Temple of the Foliated Cross at Palenque - Palenque Walking Tour
The Temple of the Foliated Cross is one of the three main temples that formed Las Cruces Group. Page 11.
The Ball Court at Palenque - Palenque Walking Tour
Palenque, contrary to other Maya cities, counts with only one ball court located between the palace ad the North Group. Page 12.
The North Group at Palenque - Palenque Walking Tour
The North Group marks the northern limit of the ancient city of Palenque and it is constituted by a series of temples and small adoratories. Page 13.
The Temple of the Count at Palenque - Palenque Walking Tour
The Temple of the Count marks the west side of the North Group of buildings at Palenque. It received its name from the count of Waldeck, one of the explorers of Palenque, who lived in the temple for almost two years. Page 14.
Group IV at Palenque - Palenque Walking Tour
Group IV is one of the many elite residential compounds located around the site core of Palenque. Page 2.
Templo de la Calavera at Palenque - Palenque Walking Tour - Temple of the Skull
The Templo de la Calavera is one of the Temples that along with the Temple XIII and the Temple of the Inscriptions marks the south side of the main plaza of Palenque. Page 3.
Temple XIII and Tomb of the Red Queen at Palenque - Palenque Walking Tour
Temple XIII of Palenque is one of the temples that close the south side of the main plaza and where in 1994 was discovered the second most important tomb of Palenque, the Tomb of the Red Queen. Page 4.
The Temple of the Inscriptions - Palenque Walking Tour
Temple of the Inscriptions is probably the most famous monument of Palenque. Here, in 1952, was discovered the tomb of Pakal the Great, ruler of Palenque. Page 5.
The Palace at Palanque - Palenque Walking Tour
The Palace of Palenque was the royal residence of several rulers who governed the city. Page 6.
The Main Plaza Aqueduct - Walking Tour of Palenque
The aqueduct of the main plaza of Palenque is one of many infrastructures of this type located all over the ancient city. Page 7.
Las Cruces Group at Palenque - Palenque Walking Tour
Las Cruces Group is one of the most famous and elegant group of temples of the site. It was constructed by order of one of pakal's son, Kan Bhalum. Page 8.
Temple of the Sun at Palenque - Palenque Walking Tour
The Temple of the Sun is one of the three main temples that formed Las Cruces Group. Page 9.
Mayapan Walking Tour - A Walking Tour of the Maya City of Mayapan
Mayapan is a famous Maya archaeological site in the Yucatan Peninsula. the ancient city developed in the Late Postclassic period after the decline of Chichen Itza
Temple of the Painted Niches - Mayapan Walking Tour
The Temple of the Painted Niches is the first stop for any visitor at Mayapan. Page 2.
Kukulcan Castle - El Castillo del Kukulkan - Mayapan Walking Tour
Mayapan Walking tour, photo gallery of Mayapan, El Castillo de Kukulkan at Mayapan. Page 3.
Hall of the Frescoes - Mayapan Walking Tour
The Hall of the Frescoes at the Maya site of Mayapan is not to be missed. Page 4.
The Observatory at Mayapan - - Mayapan Walking Tour
The Observatory is one of the most imposing building at the Maya site of Mayapan. Page 5.
A Photo Essay of the Maya Site of Acanceh, Yucatan
Maya site of Acanceh in the Yucatan Peninsula whose main building is decorated by giant stucco masks
Architectural Motifs at Acanceh, Yucatan - Photo Essay of Acanceh
Acanceh's talud-tablero architecture motif is typical of central Mexico. Page 2.
Explorations at the Maya site of Acanceh, Yucatan - Photo Essay of Acanceh
The Maya site of Acanceh, in the Yucatan peninsula was explored at the beginning of the 20th century by the famous scholars Teobert maler and Eduard Seler. Page 3.
The Terracotta Soldiers - Archaeology of China in Pictures
Archaeology of China in Pictures: The Terracotta Soldiers. Page 2.
Blombos Cave - Behavioral Modernity at Blombos Cave
Blombos Cave is an important archaeological site on the south coast of South Africa, where the beginnings of human behavioral modernity occurred some 75,000 years ago.
Pressure Flaking and Blombos Cave
What exactly is pressure flaking, and why is it a big step forward in lithic technology? Page 2.
Evidence for Pressure Flaking at Blombos Cave
Evidence for Pressure Flaking at Blombos Cave. Page 3.
Blombos Cave and Human Modernity Bibliography
A brief bibliography of sources for this photo essay on Blombos Cave and the new evidence for pressure flaking. Page 4.
Genetic and Linguistic Data about Human Migrations
Nuclear DNA research on Africans provides us information about the origins and migration patterns of all of us, reported in a slide show.
Human Migration Map - How We Left Africa
The evolution of modern Homo sapiens took place someplace in east Africa, about 200,000 years ago. We stayed in Africa for some 100,000 to 150,000 years, before venturing out into the world. Page 2.
The People Who Stayed - The San Bushmen
The people who today hold the most diverse genetic structure in the world are the San bushmen of South Africa. Page 3.
Hohle Fels Figurines - Ivory Figurines from Hohle Fels
The Hohle Fels figurines are a set of mammoth ivory figurines carved by humans and buried in the Hohle Fels cave of southwestern Germany at separate times between 30,000 and 35,000 years ago. This image is of a horse head (or possibly another animal)
A Water Bird Figurine from Hohle Fels - Ivory Figurines from Hohle Fels
This mammoth ivory figurine is of a waterbird of some sort. Its pieces were recovered in 2001 and 2002 near the bottom of the Aurignacian sequence. Page 2.
Venus Figurine from Hohle Fels - Ivory Figurines from Hohle Fels
The Venus figurine from Hohle Fels is dated to the earliest Aurignacian level at the site, perhaps as old as 40,000 years ago. Page 3.
Microphotographs of the Venus of Hohle Fels - Ivory Figurines from Hohle Fels
This detailed view of the Venus of Hohle Fels includes microphotographs of the delicate incisions cut into the ivory, giving the figurine clothing and shape. Page 4.
Qesem Cave and the Levant
Qesem Cave is a cave in which researchers believe has been discovered evidence of early modern humans, perhaps 300,000 years ago
Were the occupants of Qesem Cave early modern humans or Neanderthals? Page 2.
Early Modern Behavior at Qesem Cave
Qesem cave's inhabitants made blades and shaped blades, one of the characteristics that researchers call
Bibliography for Qesem Cave
A list of references for further study of the archaeological materials of Qesem Cave. Page 4.
Middle Stone Age and Late Stone Age Projectile Points
Collections from other MSA/LSA sites, including other Howiesons Poort tradition sites, have bone points in their assemblages which are believed to represent arrow points as well. Page 3.
Evolution of Bipedalism - Ileret Footprints
Bipedalism--walking on two feet--is a hominid adaptation which is first seen in the fossil record six million years ago. Page 3.
Roman Mosaic: Date Palm Tree, Synagogue of Hammam Lif
Roman mosaic of date palm tree, from the Brooklyn Museum's planned exhibition of Roman mosaics from a Jewish synagogue in Tunisia in the latter days of the Roman empire. Page 3.
Time Team America - Resources for Time Team America
The very first program for Time Team America is on Fort Raleigh, the first English colony located in the Americas.
Roanoke Island Colony - Resources for Roanoke Island Colony
A collection of resources for the Roanoke Island Colony, prepared for the Time Team America program. Page 2.
The Topper Site and Time Team America
On July 15th, 2009, Time Team America visits one of the most controversial sites in North America: the Topper site, which is believed by its excavator to contain a 20,000-50,000 year old preclovis site. Page 3.
New Philadelphia and Time Team America
The Time Team visits New Philadelphia, Illinois, the town founded by African American entrepreneur who bought himself and his family out of slavery in the 1830s. Page 4.
On July 31,2009, Time Team America visits the Range Creek region of Utah's Great Basin to see some virtually untouched archaeological sites belonging to the Fremont Culture. Page 5.
On August 5th, 2009, PBS will air a program in the Time Team America series on Fort James, a fort built during the Plains Indian Wars to help protect European American settlers. Page 6.
Emperor Qin's Terracotta Army
This photo essay is intended as a walking tour of the museum display for the Qin Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum in Lintong of Shaanxi Province, China. The terracotta army of over 7,000 soldiers was constructed for the tomb of the Qin Dynasty emperor of China who united China in 221 BC, Emperor Shihuangdi.
Shihuangdi's Terracotta Army: Unexcavated Log Cover
A walking tour of the terracotta army of the Qin Dynasty emperor of China who united China in 221 BC, Emperor Shihuangdi. Page 10.
Shihuangdi's Terracotta Army Infantry Rank and File
Pits discovered at Shihuangdi's tomb were excavated by his workers, and built a brick floor and a series of rammed earth partitions and tunnels to support the enormous weight. Page 2.
Shihuangdi's Terracotta Army: The Charioteers of Shihuangdi
Pit 2 was closed for reconstruction purposes in 2007: it is smaller than the first pit, but contains chariots, cavalry and horses. Page 3.
Shihuangdi's Terracotta Army: Bravely Decorated Soldiers
The soldiers in Shi Huangdi's tomb vary in height by rank: the higher rank the person illustrated, the taller his statue. Page 4.
Shihuangdi's Terracotta Army: Seasoned Warrior
Each of the soldier's faces in the terracotta army is that of an individual. Page 5.
Shihuangdi's Terracotta Army: Young Lieutenant
A brash lieutenant in Shihuangdi's terracotta army shows the range of individuality seen in the soldiers' carved faces. Page 6.
Shihuangdi's Terracotta Army: Quiet Dignity
The quiet dignity of a terracotta soldier is seen in this photograph from Pit 2. Page 7.
Shihuangdi's Terracotta Army: Chariot-Less Driver
Excavators estimate that Emperor Shihuangdi's tomb held 130 wooden chariots, although remnants of only 21 have been found to date. Page 8.
Shihuangdi's Terracotta Army: Unexcavated Chamber
Despite over 40 years of archaeological investigations, much of Emperor Shihuangdi's terracotta army remains unexcavated. Page 9.
Glass - An Illustrated History
Glass is a transparent hard substance created by the application of enormous amounts of heat to sand or quartz. Nature's glass is made by volcanic action, superheating and creating the substance called obsidian.
The Earliest Glass Material Manufacture
The first manufactured glass material in prehistory was made in Mesopotamia and Egypt about 3500 BC. Page 2.
Natron and Glass Making
Natron was used almost exclusively as a flux for the production of glass in the Mediterranean between the 5th century BC and the 9th century AD. Page 3.
Molded or cast glass vessels were first made by the Late Bronze Age of Mesopotamia and Egypt, about 1500 BC. Page 4.
Opaque Glasses at the Venetian Lagoon
The beginning of the truly commercial artisanship of glass making was in Roman Italy, arising from the combined talents of Levantine and Roman workers in workshops such as Aquileia. However, the Levantine coast continued to be at the forefront of glass innovation for the next seven hundred years. Page 7.
Blown Glass and the Levantine Coast
The blown glass technique--whereby glass vessels are created by humans blowing air into heated glass--was invented on the Levantine coast, probably in the Phoenician city of Sidon. Page 5.
Roman Glass Making
The coastal Levantine glassmakers set up workshops in the roman towns of Aquileia and Campania and worked together with Roman artisans to perfect the technique, including such equipment as iron blow pipes and sophisticated horizontal kilns. Page 6.
Indus Seals - Indus Valley Seals - Seals of the Indus Civilization
Recent investigation of seals from the ancient Indus Civilization suggest that the glyphs represent a full, as-yet-deciphered language.
House of the Faun at Pompeii - Floor Plan
The floor plan of the House of the Faun is comparable in size and shape to eastern Hellenistic palaces of the same era such as Delos. Page 2.
Entryway Mosaic - House of the Faun at Pompeii
At the entryway of the House of the Faun is a welcome mat made of a mosaic of tiles, calling Hail to you! in Latin. Page 3.
Tuscan Atrium and Dancing Faun - House of the Faun at Pompeii
The House of the Faun is called that because visible through the main doorway was a bronze statue of a dancing faun. Page 4.
Reconstructed Little Peristyle and Tuscan Atrium, House of the Faun at Pompeii
North of the dancing faun is a mosaic floor followed by the peristyle at the center of the house. Page 5.
Little Peristyle and Tuscan Atrium ca. 1900
This ca. 1900 photograph of the Little Peristyle and Tuscan Atrium illustrates how much damage the house has suffered in the last century of being exposed to the elements. Page 6.
The Alexander Mosaic - The House of the Faun at Pompeii's Alexander Mosaic
The famous Alexander Mosaic, believed to represent an important battle of Alexander the Great, was original in the floor of the House of the Faun. Page 7.
Detail, Alexander Mosaic, House of the Faun at Pompeii
The Alexander Mosaic is made in the roman artstyle called
Large Peristyle, House of the Faun at Pompeii
The Large Peristyle in the House of the Faun may well served as a large garden or even a field where plants or animals were kept. Page 9.
Streets of Pompeii - Pompeii Streets
The streets of Pompeii are fascinating examples of Roman construction.
Tourists in the Streets of Pompeii
These tourists demonstrate the functionality of the Pompeii streets, crossing above the streets themselves. Page 2.
Wide Street in Pompeii - A Fork in the Road
A few of the streets were wide enough for two-way traffic; and some of them had stepping stones midway. Page 3.
Archway, Street and Vesuvius in Pompeii
This street scene has a lovely brick archway framing, ominously enough, Mt. Vesuvius. Page 4.
One-Way Streets in Pompeii
Many streets in Pompeii were not wide enough for two-way traffic; and it is possible that a web of one-way streets controlled traffic through the city. Page 5.
Very Narrow Streets of Pompeii
Some streets in Pompeii can't possibly have held any but pedestrian traffic. Notice they still needed a trough to let water flow down, but the detail in the elevated side walk is entrancing. Page 6.
Water Castle at Pompeii
The tall ribbed construction at the left side of this picture is a water tower, or castellum aquae, that collected, stored and dispersed rainwater. Page 7.
Water Fountain at Pompeii
Public fountains were an important part of the street scene in Pompeii. Page 8.
End of the Excavations at Pompeii
It's probably fanciful of me, but I surmise that the street here is relatively unreconstructed. Page 9.
Benjamin Franklin's Mastodon Tooth: Artifact Spotlight
A tooth from the ancient extinct elephant known as a mastodon was recovered from beneath the floor of a building that at one time belonged to Benjamin Franklin. This artifact undoubtedly belonged to Franklin, and it represents Franklin's role in the scientific understanding of the process of evolution. A podcast tour, contributed by Patrice L. Jeppson the historical archaeology consultant to the Benjamin Franklin Tercentenary Consortium.
Ancient Mastodons and the Enlightenment
A tooth from the ancient extinct elephant known as a mastodon was recovered from beneath the floor of a building that at one time belonged to Benjamin Franklin. This artifact undoubtedly belonged to Franklin, and it represents Franklin's role in the scientific understanding of the process of evolution. A podcast tour, contributed by Patrice L. Jeppson the historical archaeology consultant to the Benjamin Franklin Tercentenary Consortium. Page 2.
Ancient Elephants and 18th Century Rationalists
A tooth from the ancient extinct elephant known as a mastodon was recovered from beneath the floor of a building that at one time belonged to Benjamin Franklin. This artifact undoubtedly belonged to Franklin, and it represents Franklin's role in the scientific understanding of the process of evolution. A podcast tour, contributed by Patrice L. Jeppson the historical archaeology consultant to the Benjamin Franklin Tercentenary Consortium. Page 3.
The Great Chain of Being
A tooth from the ancient extinct elephant known as a mastodon was recovered from beneath the floor of a building that at one time belonged to Benjamin Franklin. This artifact undoubtedly belonged to Franklin, and it represents Franklin's role in the scientific understanding of the process of evolution. A podcast tour, contributed by Patrice L. Jeppson the historical archaeology consultant to the Benjamin Franklin Tercentenary Consortium. Page 4.
Natural History and American Independence
A tooth from the ancient extinct elephant known as a mastodon was recovered from beneath the floor of a building that at one time belonged to Benjamin Franklin. This artifact undoubtedly belonged to Franklin, and it represents Franklin's role in the scientific understanding of the process of evolution. A podcast tour, contributed by Patrice L. Jeppson the historical archaeology consultant to the Benjamin Franklin Tercentenary Consortium. Page 5.
Benjamin Franklin's 300th Birthday
A tooth from the ancient extinct elephant known as a mastodon was recovered from beneath the floor of a building that at one time belonged to Benjamin Franklin. This artifact undoubtedly belonged to Franklin, and it represents Franklin's role in the scientific understanding of the process of evolution. A podcast tour, contributed by Patrice L. Jeppson the historical archaeology consultant to the Benjamin Franklin Tercentenary Consortium. Page 6.
The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project
The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project began working on the machine in 2005, by focusing on gaining improved images of the fragments. Page 3.
Bibliography of the Antikythera Mechanism
A bibliographic listing of the main resources for the Antikythera Mechanism. Page 8.
Olmec Language - Undeciphered Olmec Language
The earliest North American undeciphered script is on the Cascajal block, a large carved block of serpentine, discovered in a quarry in Veracruz, Mexico. It is believed to have been made by members of the Olmec civilization, circa 900 BC. Page 2.
House of the Faun at Pompeii - Walking Tour
The House of the Faun is among the most visited of the domestic ruins at Pompeii, famous for its mosaics and its bronze statue of a dancing faun.
Alexander the Great's Lost Tomb
Alexander the Great spent six months in Egypt in the year 332 BC, but he was there long enough to make himself a pharaoh and establish an Egyptian dynasty. Was he buried there, at least once? Page 7.
Mystery of the Screaming Man
Unknown Man E, excavated from the royal cache of burials at the Deir el Bahri oasis, is the stuff of nightmares. How did this screaming mummy come to be mummified in so odd a manner? Page 8.
Herod's Lost Tomb
Herod the Great was a controversial figure--a Jewish governor raised to a king by the Roman overlords. He was a fabulous architect, who slaughtered his own children and wife because he didn't trust them. Page 9.
Ardi - A Partially Complete 4.4 Million Year Old Ancestress
ARA-VP-6/500, nicknamed Ardi, is a partial hominid skeleton of Ardipithecus ramidus, recovered form the Lower Aramis member of the Central Awash Complex. Page 2.
Ardi's femur and pelvis offered a close look at the stride of Ardipithecus ramidus, and it again came as a surprise. Page 6.
Drawing from Chiik Nahb Complex at Calakmul
Images in the murals in the building in Chiik Nahb include groups of men, women and a child engaged in cooking or carrying goods with a tumpline, or selling pottery. Page 7.
Headdress of Queen Puabi
Puabi was the name of a woman buried in one of the richest of the tombs excavated by Woolley at the Royal Cemetery. Her headress is legendary. Page 2.
Bull-Headed Lyre from the Royal Cemetery at Ur
The bull-headed lyre discovered at the Royal Cemetery of Ur likely belonged to a musician, buried with one of the retainers in an elite burial. Page 3.
Retainers and Courtiers of the Royal Cemetery
The exact role of the retainers buried with the elites in the Royal Cemetery at Ur has been long debated. Excavator C. Leonard Woolley was of the opinion that they were willing sacrifices; but later scholars disagree. Page 6.
Bibliography of the Royal Cemetery at Ur
A few of the most recent publications on Leonard C. Woolley's excavations at the Royal Cemetery at Ur. Page 8.
Great Pit of Death at Ur
Although ten of the Royal Tombs at Ur contained the remains of a central or primary individual, interred with one or more additional skeletons; six of them were what Woolley called
Top Ten Archaeology News Stories of the Decade
During the first decade of the 21st century, archaeological discoveries overturned some old understandings of the process of evolution, a new ancient civilization was discovered in Peru, and the looting of a museum in Iraq
The Cascajal Block
The Cascajal block is a slab of serpentine that has the potential to make wide-ranging changes to our understanding of the spread of Mesoamerican culture. Page 2.
Ardipithecus Ramidus - Reporting of Ardipithecus Ramidus
Ardipithecus surely is one of the most important archaeological discoveries of the century, but since the century is only ten years old, the top ten of the first decade will have to do for the mean time. Page 6.
Flores Man - Possible New Species
In 2004, researchers reported the discovery of what very well may be a new species of human, in a small cave in Indonesia. Page 3.
Caral Supe Civilization
Beginning in 2001, researchers along the Pacific coast of Peru reported on excavations at Caral Supe (aka Norte Chico), a set of archaeological sites that proved to be astonishingly complex. Page 4.
Middle Stone Age Complexity
Archaeological investigations into sites on the coast of Africa and the Levant, from South Africa to the Mediterranean, have led to some startling evolutionary evidence about the first rise of
Otzi the Iceman
The intensive investigations of this fellow lost in the Alps about 5,000 years ago have gone far to reveal living conditions for the Alpine Neolithic. Page 7.
Mitochondrial DNA and Populating the World
Mitochondrial DNA studies over the past decade have supported the contention that all people on the planet are descended from a single Homo sapiens founder population, based in Africa. Page 8.
PreClovis and Peopling the Americas
Significant strides in understanding the mechanics of populating the American continents have been made during the first decade of the 21st century. Page 9.
Linearbandkeramik and the Spread of Agriculture
The study of the LBK has revealed much about the origins and spread of the techniques of agriculture. Page 10.
National Geographic Expedition Week - Archaeology Viewers Guide of National Geographic Expedition Week
The National Geographic Society is one of the oldest continuously publishing journals in the world. Founded in 1888, the society has as its main goals
Unlocking the Great Pyramid - National Geographic's Expedition Week
During the reign of Cheops (2589-2566 BC), his architect Hemiunu planned and built the Great Pyramid. How was that done? Architect Jean-Pierre Houdin has a theory... Page 2.
Direct from the Moon
The Kaguya lunar orbiter was launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency on September 14, 2007, and Direct from the Moon promises to provide a wealth of new images of our closest satellite. Page 3.
Shipwreck - Captain Kidd and the Quedah Merchant
Captain Kidd was a privateer, unwittingly turned pirate when he took off with the multinational cargo ship Quedah Merchant. Shipwreck! is about the investigation of the wreck of the Quedah Merchant, scuttled off the coast of Catalina Island in 1599. Page 4.
The Real George Washington - National Geographic Expedition Week
George Washington was truly a founding father of the United States--but there's a lot historians and archaeologists can tell us about this complex man that we've never learned before. Page 5.
Lost Cities of the Amazon
In the 16th century, Spanish conquistadors got lost and traveled down the length of the Amazon. When they returned to Spain, they reported lost cities and huge populations--and they were completely disbelieved. Archaeological evidence has revealed that they were not just telling stories. Page 6.
Gaming Board Inscribed for Amenhotep III - Egyptian Game of Senet
Gaming Board Inscribed for Amenhotep III with Separate Sliding Drawer and Set of Thirteen Gaming Pieces. Page 3.
Amulet Representing the Ba-Bird
Amulet Representing the Ba-Bird. Archaeology. Page 4.
Inca Trail - Photo Essay of the Ancient Road System called the Inca Trail
The Inca trail system was an essential part of the success of the Inca Empire, which included an estimated 40,000 kilometers of road way
Road Construction on the Inca Trail
Since wheeled vehicles were unknown to the Inca, the surfaces of the Inca Road did not need to be smooth and flat. Some of the roadways were paved with stone, but most were natural dirt pathways between 1-4 meters in width. Page 2.
Inca Shrines on the Inca Road - Inca Shrines
One feature commonly found on the Inca road are shrines--carved rock features in many places along the road where people could worship, rest, and enjoy the view. Page 3.
Tunnels on the Inca Trail
Tunnels were excavated in some places along the trail to allow for passage of people and animals. Page 4.
Bridges on the Inca Trail
Bridges on the Inca Road were built of a very wide variety of methods, including pontoon rafts, wood beams or stone slabs. Page 5.
Fountains and Water Control on the Inca Road
Because the Inca road crosses so many different kinds of terrain, water and water control was an important part of the construction and planning. Page 6.
Qollqa - Storage on the Inca Trail - Qollqa
Inca storage houses or silos alled qollqa or colca in Quechua can be found in many places along the Inca road. Page 7.
Tampu - Inca Roadside Lodgings called Tampu
Along the Inka Trail system were dotted tampu (or tambu), roadside lodgings at a day's walk apart, approximately one every 20 kilometers of the roadway. Page 8.
A Walking Tour of Machu Picchu, Peru
The residential palace of the Inca king Pachacuti has drawn tourists from all over the world because of its lovely impossible location at the edge of the world. Gina Carey was at Machu Picchu during the Summer of 2004, and shares her photographs with us.
Interior Hallway and Rooms
The residential palace of the Inca king Pachacuti has drawn tourists from all over the world because of its lovely impossible location at the edge of the world. Gina Carey was at Machu Picchu during the Summer of 2004, and shares her photographs with us. Page 6.
Unreconstructed Room Block at Machu Picchu
The residential palace of the Inca king Pachacuti has drawn tourists from all over the world because of its lovely impossible location at the edge of the world. Gina Carey was at Machu Picchu during the Summer of 2004, and shares her photographs with us. Page 7.
Llamas on a Terrace at Machu Picchu
The residential palace of the Inca king Pachacuti has drawn tourists from all over the world because of its lovely impossible location at the edge of the world. Gina Carey was at Machu Picchu during the Summer of 2004, and shares her photographs with us. Page 8.
Temple of the Moon, Huayna Picchu
The residential palace of the Inca king Pachacuti has drawn tourists from all over the world because of its lovely impossible location at the edge of the world. Gina Carey was at Machu Picchu during the Summer of 2004, and shares her photographs with us. Page 9.
Megamiddens in the Later Stone Age of South Africa
The megamiddens of South Africa are enormous heaps of mussel shells, deposited between 3000 and 2000 years ago, along the shore line of the Western Cape province of South Africa, north and west of Cape Town
What Are Mega-Middens?
A megamidden is a shell midden--a trash heap made up primarily of the shells of mussels--with an extremely large volume. Page 2.
The Later Stone Age and Megamiddens
The people who built the huge mounds of shell lived during the Later Stone Age in South Africa, between about 6,500 and 4,400 years ago. Page 3.
Black Mussels - Choromytilus meridionalis
Black mussels were the main resource found inside megamiddens. Page 4.
How Were Megamiddens Created?
Archaeologists believe the main purpose of the megamiddens was, of course, shellfish processing, and probably drying of meat for later use. Page 5.
Experimental Archaeology and Megamiddens
How long does it take for a megamidden to be built, and what was the intent of builders? Page 6.
Rock Art and Megamiddens
Rock art is known from Elands Bay and Steenbokfontein caves in South Africa, both with megamidden period occupations. Page 7.
Living on the Coast of South Africa
The megamiddens of South Africa are enormous heaps of mussel shells, deposited between 3000 and 2000 years ago, along the shore line of the Western Cape province of South Africa, north and west of Cape Town, Page 8.
Bibliographic Sources for Megamiddens
Bibliographic sources for the megamiddens of South Africa. Page 9.
Reconfiguring the Lower Paleolithic - Dikika Research Project
The Dikika Research Project findings will force archaeologists to reconfigure the Lower Paleolithic. Page 2.
Fossil Bone Cut Marks at Dikika
The fossil bones recovered from DIK-55 represent fairly large-bodied animals, one probably goat-sized, the other cow-sized, and they exhibit what appear to be cut marks from butchering. Page 3.
Cut Marks and the Lower Paleolithic - What do Cut Marks Mean?
If these cut marks truly represent the marks left by the defleshing of meat off animals, then we need to rethink both the timing of the Lower Paleolithic period, and the . Page 4.
Howiesons Poort and Stillbay - Middle Stone Age Howiesons Poort and StillBay
The most advanced industries of the Middle Stone Age are those of the Howiesons Poort and Stillbay industries of southern Africa
Pigs - The Domestication History of Sus scrofa
Pigs (Sus scrofa) were domesticated in the Fertile Crescent about 11,000 years ago, but that's not the only place humans changed wild animals into a nicely behaved, edible food crop.
Quipu - Ancient Writing System of the Incas Quipu
The quipu (also spelled khipu or quipo) is the only known precolumbian information system in South America.
Pedra Furada (Brazil)
The archaeological site of Pedra Furada, Brazil, is a stratified rockshelter with a very early (and hence contested) date, a Paleoindian occupation, and some ancient cave art dated between 5000 and 11000 years BP.
Maya Lowlands - The Northern Maya Civilization or the Maya Lowlands
The Maya Lowlands are where the classic Maya civilization first arose, located in the northern part of Central America.