Archaeology Sitemap - Page 18 2014-06-14

Ferdinand de Saussure [1857-1913]
Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure was interested in languages, written and spoken, and he believed that the basic rules of human languages are hard-wired into us, that the structure of language has rules that are for the most part unrecognized by the speaker.

Marshall H. Saville [1867-1935]
American archaeologist Marshall H. Saville was the first curator of the Mexican and Central American Archaeology at the American Museum of Natural History

Archibald Henry Sayce [1845-1933]
British philologist A. H. Sayce was an Orientalist of the old school, based at Oxford and primarily interested in ancient languages of Babylonia and Assryia.

Sambor Prei Kuk (Cambodia)
The Hindu temple complex of Sambor Prei Kuk was established in the early 6th century AD at the city of Isanapura.

Sandia Cave- What is Sandia Cave
The archaeological site of Sandia Cave, located in the American state of New Mexico, is one of those sites that archaeologists and politics have clashed so strenuously that we'll probably never really know what's going on with it.

Walter Edmund Roth [1861-1933]
Pioneer British ethnologist and physician W. E. Roth spent most of his life as an anthropologist studying aborigines in Queensland, Australia.

John Howland Rowe [b. 1918]
American archaeologist John Howland Rowe has spent much of his life studying South American archaeology, linguistics, ethnography, and history.

Marc Armand Ruffer [1859-1917]
British scientist Marc Armand Ruffer was the first truly modern paleopathologist, defining the study itself in 1910.

Clive Ruggles
Professor Clive Ruggles, currently at Leicester University, has arguably done more for the public face of archaeoastronomy than anybody in the world.

Runic Writing - What is Runic Writing
Runic writing is the name of the script used by the Scandinavian Vikings by the end of the 11th century AD, on monoliths and rock faces.

Late or Terminal Siberian Upper Paleolithic
The last gasp of the Siberian upper paleolithic period (ca 18,000-11,000 BP) is an important one to understanding the colonization of the American continents.

Sourcing in Archaeology - Where Did That Artifact Come From
Archaeological sourcing involves identifying the location or native habitat of a particular raw material (animal, plant, or mineral) and figuring out how it arrived in an archaeological site

Claudius James Rich [1787-1820]
Claudius James Rich was an agent of the British East India company in Baghdad when, like so many of the young intelligent men posted to such locations, he became interested in antiquities.

Rift Valley
The Rift Valley of eastern Africa and Asia is an enormous geological split in the crust of the earth.

Michael Rix
In 1955, British historian Michael Rix put a name and a definition to the study of surviving elements of the industrial revolution

Frank H. H. Roberts. Jr. [1897-1966]
American archaeologist Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr. was director of the massive American River Basin Surveys conducted by the Smithsonian Institution after World War II; and in at the identification of the Folsom site.

Keith Sevill Radcliffe Robinson
British archaeologist K.S.R. Robinson worked with Randall MacIver at his excavations at Khami, and then on his own at Great Zimbabwe and the Nyanga Hills of Zimbabwe in the late 1940s and 1950s.

Rose Cottage Cave - Middle Stone Age in South Africa
Rose Cottage is a Middle Paleolithic (Howiesons Poort) cave site located in the eastern Free State of South Africa.

Hormuzd Rassam [1826-1910]
Hormuzd Rassam, born in Mosul in what is now Iraq, was an Assyriologist who excavated at Nimrud and Nineveh

Henry Creswicke Rawlinson [1810-1895]
British archaeologist Henry Creswicke Rawlinson [1810-1895] is known primarily as a linguist of ancient languages, and is considered by some the father of cuneiform.

Red Bay (Canada)
At Red Bay, Labrador, Basque whalers from France and Spain launched whaling ships and processed whale meat and blubber between 1530 and 1600.

Paul Reinecke [1872-1958]
German archaeologist Paul Reinecke is best known for his chronology of the European Late Bronze Age, particularly the transition to Iron Age.

George Andrew Reisner [1867-1942]
American Egyptologist George Andrew Reisner excavated at Naga ed-Deir, Quft and Deir el-Ballas as well as at the Old Kingdom cemeteries at the Giza pyramids.

Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown [1881-1955]
British anthropologist A. R. Radcliffe-Brown is perhaps best known as one of the proponents of the notion of functionalism

Ramesseum (Egypt)
The Ramesseum is a massive temple built by the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses II during his New Kingdom reign (1279-1213 BC).

David Randall-MacIver [1873-1945]
British archaeologist David Randall-MacIver spent much of his latter career excavating in Zimbabwe (then known as Rhodesia)

Pungoteague Creek (Virginia, USA)
The Pungoteague Creek site is the name of a Colonial-period settlement on the eastern shore of the American state of Virginia.

Frederic Ward Putnam [1839-1915]
Frederic Ward Putnam was a nineteenth century American archaeologist at the Peabody Museum.

Pu'u Ali'i (USA)
The archaeological site of Pu'u Ali'i is located on the Kona coast of the island of Hawaii.

Qaryat al-Fau, Saudi Arabia
The ancient caravan site of Qaryat al-Fau is located at an oasis in central Saudia Arabia.

Qasr al-Khalifa - What is the Qasr al-Khalifa
The palace of the caliph at Samarra is one of the most famous of Islamic palaces, built for an Abbasid caliph in AD 836.

Quebrada de Santo Domingo, Peru
The archaeological site called Quebrada de Santo Domingo is along a very scenic 32 square kilometer long dry river valley off the Rio Moche in Peru.

Predmostí - Upper Paleolithic Site in the Czech Republic
Predmostí­ is an early modern human Upper Paleolithic site, located in the Moravian region of what is today the Czech Republic.

James Bennett Pritchard [1906-1997]
American archaeologist James B. Pritchard excavated in Israel, Canaan, Egypt, Assyria, and Babylon.

Plimouth Plantation, US
The Plimouth Plantation is the name given to the living history farm in the location of the archaeological site, remnants of a 17th century English colony.

Piltdown Man - 20th Century Scholarly Hoax
Piltdown is the name of a town in Sussex, and the location where an elaborate hoax was staged, which flummoxed the British paleontological community for some four decades.

Pinto Culture
The Pinto culture is the name archaeologists have given to the people who were living along the Colorado River during the Archaic period.

Pit Grave Culture
The Pit Grave Culture is the relatively unimaginative name given to a Bronze Age culture of the 4th-3rd millennia BC in eastern Europe.

A. H. L. Fox Pitt-Rivers [1827-1900]
Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt Rivers was an English archaeologist of the nineteenth century, who was tremendously influenced by Charles Darwin.

Pope Pius VI [1717-1775]
Pope Pius VI, born Giovanni Angelo Braschi, was interested in the new science of archaeology, financing the excavations of classical sites in Italy during the mid-18th century.

Francisco Pizarro [1471-1541]
Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro captured the Inca king Atahualpa in 1532.

Plantation Archaeology
Plantation archaeology is the study of plantation life, usually in the American southeast.

Peter Enclosure, US
The Peter Enclosure is a large Adena period archaeological site in Kentucky.

John Punnett Peters [1852-1921]
American archaeologist John Peters was a nineteenth century scholar who excavated at Nippur.

Sir William Flinders Petrie [1853-1942]
Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie was one of the pioneers of the science of archaeology.

Philip Phillips [1900-1994]
American archaeologist Philip Phillips was co-author (with G. R. Willey) of Method and Theory of Archaeology, one of the most important books ever published in American archaeology.

Philo of Alexandria [20 BC-ca 40 AD]
Philo Judeaus was a writer and philospher, living in the town of Alexandria at the beginning of the Christian era.

Piedmont Tradition - What is the Piedmont Tradition
The Piedmont Tradition is the name given to artifacts recovered from specific Late Archaic sites in the Piedmont Mountains of the eastern United States.

John Bryan Ward Perkins [1912-1981]
British archaeologist John Bryan Ward Perkins spent nearly twenty five years excavating in the Etruria region of Italy.

Isadore Perlman [1915-1991]
Isadore Perlman was a chemist at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories when he engineered the use of neutron activation to the identification of the provenience of ceramic sherds.

Jacques Boucher de Perthes [1788-1868]
French customs officer Jacques Boucher de Perthes had a hobby that got him into trouble--archaeology.

Andre Leroi-Gourhan [1911-1986]
French archaeologist Andre Leroi-Gourhan is best known for his work on paleolithic rock art; although he did excavations at the French paleolithic sites of Arcy-sur-Cure and Pincevent.

Bronislaw Malinowski [1884-1942]
The enormously influential Polish anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski's main contribution to archaeology is the concept of functionalism.

Sir John Hubert Marshall [1876-1958]
Sir John Hubert Marshall was a British archaeologist of the early twentieth century, who is probably best known for his work in India.

Monte Alban (Mexico)
Monte Alban was the capital city of the Zapotec civilization of central Mexico, located in the state of Oaxaca, and occupied between 500 BC and 700 AD.

Oscar Montelius [1843-1921]
Oscar Montelius was a Swedish antiquarian, whose primary contribution to the study of archaeology was the development of a typology for stone age period artifacts.

Lewis Henry Morgan [1818-1881]
The career of pioneer American anthropologist Lewis Henry Morgan had of tremendous impact on the beginning studies of archaeology in the Americas.

Gabriel de Mortillet [1821-1898]
French geologist Gabriel de Mortillet was one of several researchers at the cutting edge of the field of prehistory about the time of Darwin's Origin of the Species.

Michael E. Moseley
Michael E. Moseley is an American archaeologist whose 40+ year career in archaeology has been concentrated primarily on the archaeology of Peru.

William Foxwell Albright [1891-1971]
William Foxwell Albright was the long-time director of the American Schools of Oriental Research, and is widely considered the father of modern biblical archaeology.

John Aubrey [1626-1697]
British adventurer and scientist, John Aubrey wrote Monumenta Britannica, published in 1674, which described Stonehenge and Avebury in some detail.

Ignacio Bernal [1910-1992]
Mexican archaeologist Ignacio Bernal was an influential pioneer of the study of Mexico's prehistory.

Hiram Bingham [1875-1956]
American explorer and diplomat Hiram Bingham had an enormously varied life, including the discovery of Machu Picchu.

Frederick Jones Bliss [1859-1937]
British archaeologist Frederick J. Bliss was a student of Flinders Petrie, and conducted work first at Meydum at Egypt.

Jacques Jean-Marie de Morgan [1857-1924]
French civil engineer, geologist and archaeologist Jacques de Morgan was the director of Antiquities in Egypt during the later 19th century.

Franklin Fenenga [1917-1994]
American archaeologist Franklin Fenenga conducted archaeological research in California and the Great Plains and Missouri River basin.

Dorothy Annie Elizabeth Garrod [1892-1969]
British archaeologist Dorothy Garrod did most of her excavation work in the middle east, and is best known for her work at Gilbraltar, Western Judaea, Southern Kurdistan and Mount Carmel.

Jacquetta Hopkins Hawkes [1910-1996]
During her career, British archaeologist Jacquetta Hawkes firmly believed that archaeology was headed down the wrong path by over-emphasizing the pure science aspect.

Thor Heyerdahl [1914-2002]
Norwegian explorer and self-trained archaeologist, Thor Heyerdahl was a long time supporter of cross-oceanic diffusion theories, having tested them himself on numerous occasions.

Jesse D. Jennings [1909-1997]
Jesse Jennings was an American archaeologist, who spent most of his career in the American southwest and Great Basin, with particular emphasis on the Fremont culture.

Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey [1903-1972]
Born in Africa the son of English missionaries, Louis Leakey was, probably more than anyone else, the father of the paleontological research of human evolution in east Africa.

Mary Douglas Nicol Leakey [1913-1996]
British paleontologist Mary Leakey found the Zinjanthropus skull (later renamed Australopithecus), and in 1972 discovered the famous Laetoli footprints.

Field School at Ferry Farm
Field school excavations at Ferry Farm, Virginia (George Washington's Boyhood Home) will be held in May and June of 2004 this year.

Machu Picchu
A visit to Peru should not be undertaken unless you plan on visiting the fabulous fabled City of the Clouds, Inca Machu Picchu.

Monte Alban
The archaeological site of Monte Alban is the political capital of the earliest Zapotecan state

Teotihuacan: City of the Gods
Teotihuacan, the

Calico Hills (USA)
Calico Hills is an area of the Mojave Desert in California and the location of the attempts by paleoanthropologists Louis Leakey and Ruth Simpson to find evidence of early humans in the New World.

Can Llobateres (Spain)
Can Llobateres is a Middle Miocene site in Spain, where fossilized remains of the extinct ape Dryopithecus fontani were recovered and have been to between 9-10 million years ago.

Budakalász (Hungary)
The archaeological site of Budakalász is a Baden culture (Bell Beaker, 3500-3000 BC) occupation and cemetery

Building J at Monte Alban (Mexico) - Zapotec Astronomical Observatory Building J
The mysteriously-shaped Building J at the Zapotec site of Monte Albán in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, has been thought to have been built for astronomical and ritual purposes

Burials and Graves in Archaeology
Archaeological research into death includes mortuary behaviors, grave goods, cemetery plans, mortality, morbidity, and diet and health.

Byblos (Lebanon)
The archaeological site of Byblos was one of the most important capitals of the Phoenician civilization.

Cactus Hill - Preclovis site of Cactus Hill
Cactus Hill is a buried multicomponent site on the Nottaway River of Virginia, with archaic, Clovis and, below the Clovis and separated by sterile sand, an apparent Pre-Clovis occupation.

Cadiz (Spain)
The modern port city of Cadiz (originally called Gadir or Gardes) in the Andalucia region of Spain was a Phoenician colony of Tyre founded at least by the 9th century BC.

Cahokia - What is Cahokia
Cahokia is a large Mississippian (AD 1000-1600) agricultural settlement located on the American Bottom of the Mississippi River in Illinois.

Black Mesa (USA)
Black Mesa is the name given to a large upland area in the American southwestern state of Arizona, upon which hundreds of archaeological sites have been identified.

Bog Bodies - What are Bog Bodies
The term bog bodies is used to refer to human burials, some likely sacrificed, recovered from peat bogs of Denmark, Germany, Holland, Britain, and Ireland.

Boghazkoy - What is Boghazkoy
Boghazkoy is the site of a major Hittite capital called Hattusas, in what is now Turkey, some 100 kilometers from the Black Sea and 150 miles from Ankara.

Bourbon Excavations
In 1738, Charles of Bourbon, King of the Two Sicilies and founder of the House of Bourbon, hired antiquarian Marcello Venuti to work at the sites of Herculaneum and Pompeii.

Boylston Street Fish Weir - What is the Boylston Street Fish Weir
The Boylston Street Fish Weir is a Late Archaic fish trap located within the town of Boston, Massachusetts.

Boyne Valley (Ireland) - Brú na Bóinne Valley Definition
The Boyne Valley in Ireland, called 'Brugh na Bóinne'in Gaelic, is an important region in Europe.

James Henry Breasted [1865-1935]
The first American to get a PhD in Egyptology (1894, from the University of Berlin), James Henry Breasted was the founder of the Oriental Institute in Chicago.

Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell [1868-1926]
English archaeologist and antiquarian Gertrude Bell was a phenomenal force in Mesopotamian archaeology at a time when it was largely a man's game.

Bat Cave - What is Bat Cave
Bat Cave is an archaeological site consisting of a complex of rockshelters in New Mexico, in the American southwest, with early evidence for maize agriculture.

Behistun Inscription - What is the Behistun Inscription
The Behistun inscription is a

Avebury (United Kingdom)
Avebury is an ancient megalithic site, dated to the Late Neolithic period and located in in central south England.

Baker Cave (US)
Baker Cave is a rockshelter located in the Lower Pecos region of southwest Texas of the south central United States, with occupations dated between 9,000-6800 years before the present.

Tell Asmar - Mesopotamian City of Eshnunna Tell Asmar
Tell Asmar is an ancient mound located in the Diyala Plain of Iraq, with important Early Dynastic period deposits of the Mesopotamian civilization

Andronovo Culture
The Andronovo culture is the name given to an Old World sedentary pastoralist society of the Late Bronze Age.

Anglo-Saxon culture
The Anglo-Saxons were peoples who originated in northern Germany and Scandinavia, and who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD.

Antioch on the Orontes (Turkey)
Founded by Alexander the Great's general Seleucus around 300 BC, Antioch also was the seat of a Roman governor after 64 BC.

Antonine Wall (Great Britain)
The Antonine Wall marks the northern-most border of the Roman empire in Great Britain.

L'Arbreda Cave (Spain)
L'Arbreda Cave is a rockshelter in in the Catalonian region of Spain, with evidence of continuous, uninterrupted occupation of Neanderthal, and then abruptly by modern humans, around 40,000 BP.

Afar Triangle
The Afar Triangle is the name given to the region of Ethiopia, Africa, known for the identification of very old hominid remains, especially the Australopithecus afarensis.

Frank Raymond Allchin [b. 1923]
English archaeologist F. R. Allchin has spent his career studying the prehistory of India and Pakistan, occasionally with his wife Bridget.

Alexandria (Egypt)
The modern town of Alexandria, Egypt, was the capital city of the Ptolemaic dynasties of Egypt.

Altamira Cave - What is Altamira Cave
Altamira Cave is the Sistine Chapel of Paleolithic Art, or so it is called.

American Bottom (United States)
The American Bottom is the name given to the Mississippian culture homeland, a segment of the Mississippi River Valley in Illinois in the central United States

Anasazi Culture
The Anasazi is the name given to the prehistoric agricultural group who occupied the Colorado Plateau in the American southwest

The AIA Report
AIA Report, the electronic newsletter of the Archaeological Institute of America, owned and managed by Harrison (Nick) Eiteljorg, III and Susan C. Jones.

Charles Conrad Abbott [1843-1919]
American archaeologist and naturalist Charles C. Abbott was of the group of early archaeologists interested in determining the earliest human occupations of the New World.

Advisory Council on Historic Preservation
The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation is an independent political body of the United States government created under the National Historic Preservation Act, to advise the President and Congress on historic preservation issues.

Fred Wendorf [b. 1925]
American archaeologist Fred Wendorf has had an eclectic career, studying the desert climates of the American southwest and the Middle east.

Richard Wetherill
Richard Wetherill was the best known of a family of ranchers-explorers who lived in the Four Corners area of the American southwest during the late 19th century.

Robert Whallon
American archaeologist Robert Whallon is best known for his substantial publications on computer applications in archaeology, particularly quantitative analysis

Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler [1890-1976]
Sir Mortimer Wheeler had to have been the most influential public archaeologist of the middle twentieth century, as a result of his three popular television series on archaeology.

Christine D. White [b. 1951]
Canadian bioarchaeologist Christine White has published extensively on work on paleodiets and related physical anthropological studies in Mesoamerica

David Whitehouse
British archaeologist and museum director David Whitehouse is probably best known in archaeological circles for his research at Siraf.

Leslie A. White [1900-1975]
The American anthropologist Leslie White is most closely associated with the theory of cultural evolution

Timothy D. White [born 1950]
Tim D. White is an American paleontologist, who has concentrated his career in Africa.

Peter J. Whybrow [1942-2004]
British paleontologist Peter Whybrow was influential in investigations of early man in the middle east

Franz Wickhoff [1853-1909]
Austrian art historian Franz Wickhoff made archaeology news he published books and articles pointing out the importance and originality of Roman art

Theodor Wiegand [1864-1936]
German archaeologist Theodor Wiegand is perhaps best known for his excavations at Pergamum, and his innovative work with aerial photography in the late 1920s

Charles Wiener [1851-1919]
German-born diplomat Charles Wiener was sent by the French to Chile in 1882, where he became interested in the archaeology of the region.

Gordon Randolph Willey [1913-2002]
Americanist archaeologist Gordon R. Willey was truly a pioneer in the field; in fact it's really hard to know where to start.

Allan C. Wilson [1934-1991]
Native New Zealander Allan Wilson was a molecular biologist whose pioneering work in DNA studies have pretty much revolutionized the paleontological study of human origins.

Johann-Joachim Winckelmann [1717-1768]
18th century German archaeologist and art historian Johann-Joachim Winckelmann is best known among archaeologists for his support of the preservation of Pompeii

Howard Dalton Winters [1923-1994]
American archaeologist Howard Winters was probably most influential in the fleshing out of G.R. Willey's settlement patterns study.

Karl August Wittfogel [1896-1988]
German anthropologist Karl Wittfogel was a philosopher and critic of the Marxist movement of early 20th century Europe.

Hans Martin Wobst [b. 1943]
American archaeologist H. Martin Wobst is a theoretical archaologist, whose greatest contribution to the field is probably the investigation of the possible uses of styles

Milford Howell Wolpoff [b. 1942]
American paleontologist Milford Wolpoff is most closely associated with the Multiregional Hypothesis of human origins, arguing that Homo sapiens evolved from H. erectus not once but several times in many places around the world.

John Turtle Wood [ca 1820-1890]
British architect and engineer John Turtle Wood was sent by the British Museum to Ephesus, to search for the temple and eventually excavate it.

Charles Leonard Woolley [1880-1960]
Sir Leonard Woolley was a British archaeologist and an expert in Mesopotamian studies, who also acted as intelligence agent for the British during World War I.

Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow [1821-1902]
German archaeologist, biologist and doctor Rudolf Virchow was interested in many different things, among them cellular biology and archaeology.

Evon Zartman Vogt Jr. [1918-2004]
American archaeologist and anthropologist Evon Z. Vogt, Jr. is probably best known for his ethnographic work at Zinacantan in Chiapas state, Mexico.

Alan John Bayard Wace [1879-1957]
English archaeologist Alan J.B. Wace conducted archaeological work throughout the classical Mediterranean

Alfred Russel Wallace [1823-1913]
English naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace is probably most remembered as the scientist who wrote Charles Darwin about his own ideas on natural selection, forcing Darwin to publish On the Origin of Species.

Antonio Johnston Waring, Jr. [1915-1964]
American archaeologist Antonio Waring Jr. is probably most closely associated with the development of the trait list for the

Charles Warren [1840-1927]
Charles Warren was an English archaeologist who is undoubtedly famous (or infamous, I suppose), for having conducted clandestine excavations in Jerusalem

Patty Jo Watson [born 1932]
American archaeologist Patty Jo Watson is a true pioneer in 20th century archaeology.

Carl Watzinger [1877-1948]
German archaeologist Carl Watzinger is perhaps best known for this work at Jericho between 1907 and 1908.

Karl Weber [d. 1764]
Swiss engineer and architect Karl Weber produced remarkably detailed drawings of the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneam during the late 18th century.

Waldo Rudolph Wedel [1908-1996]
American archaeologist Waldo R. Wedel was a pioneer of Plains archaeology during the WPA days, and a practioner of the 'direct historical method'.

Franz Weidenreich [1873-1948]
German anatomist Franz Weidenreich is probably best known for his association with the Peking Man Homo erectus materials excavated from Zhoukoudien in the 1930s.

Calvin Bampfylde Wells [1908-1978]
British medical doctor Calvin Wells is considered by some the father of paleopathology.

Margaret E. Ashley Towle [1902-1985]
Margaret Towle was a pioneer ethnobotanist, who in 1961 published the classic book called The Ethnobotany of Precolumbian Peru, providing information on the plants used by cultures of the north coast.

Alfred Marston Tozzer [1876-1954]
Alfred Tozzer was an American archaeologist and anthropologist, passionately interested in the Maya civilization.

Arthur Dale Trendall [1909-1995]
New Zealander Arthur Dale Trendall was an art historian whose work on identifying the work of individual artists on Etruscan ceramic vessels earned him international prizes and a knighthood.

Erik Trinkaus
American archaeologist and paleontologist Erik Trinkaus is probably best known for his work on Neanderthals and archaic and modern Homo sapiens sites.

Edward Burnett Tylor [1832-1917]
British anthropologist E.B. Tylor was the quintessential cultural evolutionist.

Jules Sébastien César Dumont d'Urville [1790-1842]
French explorer Dumont d'Urville traveled widely through the world, and made visits to New Zealand, Indonesia, Australia, New Guinea and Antarctica during the early 19th century.

George Clapp Vaillant [1901-1945]
American archaeologist George C. Vaillant worked in central America, primarily on Aztec and Maya sites.

Henri Victor Vallois [1889-1981]
Henri V. Vallois was a French paleontologist who is known most for his work with Marcellin Boule at the Neandertal site of La Chapelle aux Saintes in the early decades of the 20th century.

Walter Willard Taylor [1913-1997]
American archaeologist Walter W Taylor was born in Chicago and studied at Yale.

Julio Cesar Tello [1880–1947]
Peruvian archaeologist Julio C. Tello is considered the father of modern archaeology in Peru, and is probably most associated with the Chavín culture.

Reginald Campbell Thompson [1876-1941]
British archaeologist and cuneiformist R. Campbell Thompson was an Assyriologist, excavating at Nineveh, Ur, and Carchemish among many other sites.

Ephraim Avigdor Speiser [1902–1965]
Polish-born Ephraim Speiser was an expert on Middle Eastern and Mesopotamian archaeology at the University of Pennsylvania, and was one of only a few scholars of the day that spoke ancient Hittite.

Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler [1880-1936]
German historian Oswald Spengler's 1926 book, The Decline of the West, discussed his suspicions that Western civilization expressed by Europe was in a steep, inevitable decline.

Ephraim George Squier [1821-1888]
American journalist and diplomat Ephraim Squier became interested in the prehistoric American earthworks known as mounds while working as a clerk in the Ohio House of Representatives.

James Leslie Starkey [1895-1938]
British archaeologist James Leslie Starkey is best known for his work at Lachish, where he excavated between 1932 and 1938, when he was robbed and killed on his way to the site.

John Lloyd Stephens [1805-1852]
American adventurer and author John Lloyd Stephens led a varied life, and is perhaps best known to archaeology for his travel to the exotic places of the world and his books about the people and the cultures he came across.

Julian Haynes Steward [1902-1972]
American anthropologist Julian Steward was a leader of the cultural ecology movement, who actively incorporated ecology and archaeology into his theories.

Matthew W. Stirling [1896-1975]
American archaeologist Matthew W. Stirling was associated with the Bureau of American Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution pretty much his entire professional career.

Christopher B. Stringer [b. 1947]
British paleoanthropologist Chris Stringer has taken a leading role in many of the earliest human origins debates.

William Duncan Strong [1899–1962]
Pioneer American archaeologist William Duncan Strong was educated at the University of California at Berkeley and was, for most of his career, associated with the Bureau of American Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution and as a faculty member at Columbia University.

William Stukeley [1687-1765]
British doctor and clergyman William Stukeley is most frequently associated with Stonehenge, because he was the first to consider the structure as potentially aligned with the solstice.

Mildred Mott Wedel [1912-1995]
American archaeologist Mildred Mott Wedel was a pioneer of ethnohistorical studies in the American midwest.

Deborah M. Pearsall [b. 1950]
American archaeologist Deborah M. Pearsall has dedicated much of her professional life to the study of paleoethnobotany, specifically the examination of opal phytoliths in archaeological contexts.

Tatiana Avenirovna Proskouriakoff [1909-1985]
Russian born Tatiana Proskouriakoff was a pioneer archaeologist, who combined her facility in ethnohistory, art, architecture and archaeology to produce a remarkable written documentation of the Maya civilization.

Linda Schele [1942-1998]
American art historian and epigrapher Linda Schele wasfirst and foremost an artist, but when she saw Palenque in 1970, she turned her remarkable talents towards recording Mesoamerican steles and hieroglyphs, most notably Maya stele.

Carlos de Siguenza y Gongora [1645-1700]
Don Carlos de Siguenza y Gongora was a Jesuit priest in Mexico City in the late 17th century, and an illustrious scholar of the New World.

Grafton Elliot Smith [1871-1937]
Australian-born British medical anatomist Sir Grafton Elliot Smith was a hyper-diffusionist; and a skilled and ground-breaking anatomist who worked on important paleontological studies including Piltdown and the Taung Baby.

Ralph Stefan Solecki [b. 1917]
American archaeologist Ralph Solecki is most frequently associated with the excavations at the Neanderthal site of Shanidar Cave.

Wilhelm Gerhard Solheim II [b. 1924]
American archaeologist Wilhelm Solheim II (Wilhelm I was a famous botanist in his own right) has spent his career studying southeast Asian archaeology.

Albert Clanton Spaulding [1914-1990]
American archaeologist Albert Spaulding was one of the first and staunchest users of statistics and quantitative methods in archaeology.

Robert Broom [1866-1951]
Robert Brooom was a Scots-born South African paleontologist, and a specialist in Australopithecines. His work included excavations and study at Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, and Kromdraai.

John Grahame Douglas Clark [1907-1995]
British archaeologist Grahame Clark was one of those rare individuals who know they want to be in archaeology at age 10, publishing professional papers for the Natural History Society while still a schoolboy at Marlborough College.

Edward Mott Davis [1918-1998]
The career of American archaeologist E. Mott Davis was a broad one, including archaeological work all over the midwest and at Stobi in Macedonia, where he pioneered the Izum flotation technique with Al B. Wesolowsky.

Frederica Annis Lopez de Leo de Laguna [1906-2004]
American ethnologist and archaeologist Frederica de Laguna was influential in the studies of the American northwest and Alaska.

Fray Diego Durán [ca. 1537-1588]
Fray Diego Durán was a Spanish clergyman and ethnographer of the Aztec people, who was brought to Mexico as a child, and grew up in the Aztec capital city of Texcoco

Mary W. Eubanks [b. 1947]
American paleoethnobotanist Mary Eubanks is located in the biology department at Duke University, where she has conducted some of the most useful studies of corn biology and the origins of agriculture in the Americas.

Alice Cunningham Fletcher [1838-1923]
Cuban-born daughter of American citizens, Alice Fletcher was a pioneer in the field of ethnology, and is primarily known for her work among the Omaha and Nez Perce of the American Great Plains.

Marija Alseikaitė Gimbutas [1921-1994]
Lithuanian born archaeologist Marija Gimbutas was a respected scholar in Indo-European studies of the Bronze and Neolithic periods.

Cynthia Irwin-Williams [1936-1990]
American archaeologist Cynthia Irwin-Williams was at Eastern New Mexico State University when she conducted important interdisciplinary archaeological research at Salmon Ruins.

Susan Kent [1952-2003]
American ethnoarchaeologist Susan Kent first established a considerable reputation working in the American Southwest, most importantly on irrigation techniques of the pueblo peoples.

Robert Koldewey - Who was the Archaeologist Robert Koldeway
Robert Johann Koldewey is probably known primarily as the excavator of Babylon.

Gustaf Kossinna [1858-1931]
German archaeologist and ethnohistorian Gustaf Kossinna is widely perceived as being a tool of the megalomaniac Adolf Hitler.

Augustus Le Plongeon [1825-1908]
While Augustus Le Plongeon might rightly be called more

Alexander Marshack [1918-2004]
American independent scholar Alexander Marshack began his professional life as a journalist, but in 1963, a chance introduction to Ice Age art led him into archaeology.

Barbara Mertz - Who is Barbara Mertz
American Egyptologist Barbara Mertz is best known for her numerous archaeologically-related novels, including a long-running series on the fictional Egyptologist family of Amelia Peabody and Radcliffe Emerson.

Ernst Wilhelm Middendorf [1830-1908]
Ernst W. Middendorf was a German medical doctor whose linguistic and travel reports in the late 19th century contained drawings and descriptions of the cultures of Bolivia and Peru.

Elizabeth Ann Morris [b. 1932]
Although Elizabeth Ann Morris was born to archaeologists Earl and Ann Morris in 1932, she took a while to follow in her parent's footsteps.

Jorge R. Acosta
Mexican archaeologist Jorge R. Acosta excavated at most of the greatest sites in Mexico

Otto Nikolaevich Bader [b. 1902]
German born archaeologist and paleontologist Otto Bader excavated the important paleolithic sites of Sungir and Kapova Cave.

Ruth Fulton Benedict [1887-1948]
American anthropologist Ruth Benedict's 1934 book Patterns of Culture remains a classic of comparative cultural anthropology used in classrooms today

Thomas Geoffrey Bibby [1917-2001]
English archaeologist T. Geoffrey Bibby was best known for his finally successful search for Dilmun

Richard Diehl - Contributor Biography of Richard Diehl
Archaeologist Richard Diehl is professor emeritus at the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, and is currently working on a popular book about Teotihuacan, travel, visiting his six grandchildren and learning how to cook, as well as contributing an occasional review here.

Gary Feinman and Linda Nicholas - Contributor Biographies
Contributor biographies of Gary Feinman and Linda Nicholas

Field Supervisor: Career Paths in Archaeology
The field supervisor or crew boss of an archaeological excavation is a vital role in the science. Is this the career path for you?

Field Technician: Career Paths in Archaeology
Before you do anything else in archaeology, you need to put in your time as a field technician. Step 1: get a job as a field tech.

GIS Specialist: Career Paths in Archaeology
Geographic Information Systems is now a career in many fields, and archaeology has not been slow in including GIS as a subdiscipline.

Graphics Artist: Career Paths in Archaeology
Graphics illustration is an important part of archaeological investigations and report writing.

Laboratory Supervisor: Career Paths in Archaeology
Many of the larger cultural resource firms have their own laboratories where they process and analyze a portion of the archaeological data they recover. These labs need a supervisor--could this be your new job?

Cultural Resource Lawyer - Career Paths in Archaeology
A cultural resource lawyer provides legal advice and services in connection with cultural resource related issues. Colleen McCarthy, who has practiced cultural resource law for many years, describes this archaeology career path.

Librarian: Career Paths in Archaeology
A tremendous number of cultural resource management reports are generated in each in the western world, so it is not surprising that there are a few archaeological librarians out and about. Is that you?

Principal Investigator: Career Paths in Archaeology
The archaeologist who heads up a team of workers on an archaeological investigation is called a Principal Investigator. Can this be your destiny?

College Professor: Career Paths in Archaeology
Care to sit in ivied halls and teach the next generation of Indiana Joneses? Then maybe you should think about a career as a college professor of archaeology.

Contributor Biography: Shannon Lee Dawdy
Shannon Lee Dawdy is Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the University of Chicago who has worked as an archaeologist and historical anthropologist in Louisiana for the last 12 years. Her contribution on why New Orleans should be rebuilt appears on these pages.

Contributor Biography - Charles Higham
University of Otago, New Zealand professor Charles Higham got his first taste of archaeological work in Southeast Asia in 1968, and he has conducted research there ever since. His first contribution to Archaeology at About is a summary of five years of excavation at the Bronze Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat, Thailand.

Contributor Biography: Thomas F. King
Archaeologist and writer Thomas F. King is an occasional contributor to the Archaeology at page.

David Underhill - Contributor Biography - David Underhill-Stocks
David Underhill (also Underhill-Stocks) was raised with a passion for history and spent much of his teenage years running specialist lectures on medieval history for schools and colleges.

Public Archaeologist: Career Paths in Archaeology
A public archaeologist Works with an archaeologist or archaeologists to provide news reports, web sites, public talks, and other publications on archaeological information for consumption by the public.

SHPO Archaeologist: Career Paths in Archaeology
An archaeologist who works for a State Historic Preservation Office identifies, evaluates, registers, interprets and protects historic properties, from significant buildings to shipwrecked vessels. The SHPO provides communities and preservation organizations with a variety of services, training and funding opportunities.

Computer Specialist: Career Paths in Archaeology
Are you a computer scientist with a yen for archaeology? Perhaps this job career path is for you.

Management: Career Paths in Archaeology
Feel the urge to manage something? Archaeological companies need directors of projects and this may be the direction you should go.

Editor: Career Paths in Archaeology
Are you a writer with an interest or background in archaeology? This career path may be for you.

Catal Hoyuk (Turkey)
Catal Hoyuk is an Early Neolithic site in Turkey (6300-5500 BC), and so far the oldest civilization on earth.

El Castillo (Spain, Mexico, and Belize)
The name El Castillo (

AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) Radiocarbon Dating
AMS radiocarbon dating is a form of radiocarbon dating that is more precise and requires less carbon than conventional radiocarbon methods.

L'Anse aux Meadows (Canada)
L'Anse aux Meadows is the name of an archaeological site on the coast of Labrador which is the only commonly accepted evidence for the landing of Norse marauders led by Leif Eiriksson (or Erikson)

Aquileia - Roman Empire Center of Aquileia
Aquileia is an important archaeological site in northern Italy, and it was one of the richest Roman towns during the imperial period.

Tell Asmar Sculpture Hoard (Iraq) - Mesopotamia Sculpture from Tell Asmar
The Tell Asmar sculpture hoard is a collection of 12 alabaster statues, discovered beneath the floor of the Square Temple at the Mesopotamian site of Tell Asmar (Iraq)

Capelinha - The Paleoindian site of Capelinha
The site of Capelinha is a Paleoindian site in the Ribeira do Iguape Valley of Sao Paulo state in Brazil, and it is a shell midden with six human burials.

Destination: Stonehenge, England
The best known megalithic site on the planet is Stonehenge, #5 in our top five megalithic sites to visit. Here are some reasons why.

Before You Go: Antietam Battlefield
The turning point of the American Civil War was the bloodbath of Antietam. There were 23,000 casualties; and the impact of such a toll on the American president was to discard the concept of settling with the upstart southern states and create the Emancipation Proclamation.

Dendrochronology - What is Dendrochronology?
Dendrochronology is the use of growth rings in trees for dating events in the past. This page describes how it's done, what scientists were involved in the research, and where it's been used.

Destination: Morbihan Coast, France
The 3000 Neolithic menhirs, dolmens, passage graves and stone rows near the town of Carnac in the Bretagne region of France are among the oldest, if not the oldest of the megalithic known in the European World. Yet, they are only one of numerous such sites on the Morbihan Coast of France. Therefore, we name Carnac and the Morbihan Coast as the #1 Megalithic Destination to visit.

Destination: Boyne Valley, Ireland
The Megalithic passage tombs of the Brú na Boinne (Boyne Valley) of Ireland (including Newgrange, Knowth, Dowth, and Four Knocks) together rate as #4 on our all-time greatest megalithic sites to visit.

Destination: Orkney Neolithic Heartland
On the Orkney Islands off the coast of Scotland can be found the Standing Stones of Stenness, the Ring of Brodgar and the Neolithic ruins of the Barnhouse Settlement and Skara Brae, make the Orkney Heartland our #2 spot for the top five megalithic sites in the world.

Antique Reproductions - What You Should Know Before You Buy
Antique reproductions are an ethical way to own a piece of the past. Here are some tips to use before buying a reproduction.

Graduate Schools - Advice for Prospective Students - Getting into Graduate School
To become a professional archaeologist--that is, a person who earns a living as an archaeologist--one needs a graduate degree. This series is an introduction to gaining the level of training you need to become the next Indiana Jones.

Before You Go: Choosing a Planned Archaeology Sites Travel Vacation
A planned itinerary tour of archaeology sites is a great way to spend your vacation learning about the past. But how do you choose among them to find a tour package that’s right for you? Here are some questions to ask your tour operator before you go.

Archaeology Around the World
Archaeology is practiced in all of the seven continents and most of the countries in the world. Archaeologists come from many of these countries as well. Here you'll find resources both to the cultural histories of the different places in the world, as well as the research institutions and archaeologists native to those places.

Archaeology 101, The Basics
The study of archaeology is a profession for an estimated 20,000 people in the world today. Do you want to become one of them? Here are resources on what education you need, what kinds of jobs there are, and what kinds of things archaeologists do.

Academic Viking Archaeological Projects - A List of Academic Projects on the Archaeology of the Viking Age
As I was building the Guide to the Viking Age, I realized how difficult it was for anybody to discover the Viking Age pages in archaeology that are produced by universities. This list of Viking Archaeological Projects should help.

Mesolithic Sites in Europe - European Mesolithic Sites
The Mesolithic period was a time of change, when hunter-gatherers began to exploit fish and other localized resources. Here is a listing of Mesolithic sites in Europe

Hot Topics: Archaeological Controversies
What are the controversial issues in archaeology today? Here's a list of great paper topics.

Large Museum Shops
Large museums--by which I mean national museums--are normally dedicated to a range of materials, of which archaeology is only a small part. As a result, their collections are also large and varied; and their museum gift shops the same. While each of these museums have gift catalogs in addition to their online shops, they also have a lot of the same materials in each museum.

Top Books on Rock Art (North America)
One of humanity's first artistic endeavors was painting or pecking or gouging into native rock. These books address the various kinds of rock art found around the world and throughout time, with emphasis on the North American continent.

Top Archaeology News Stories for 2005
From the identification of a new species of human to the cracking of the Inca writing system, 2005 has been one exciting year in archaeology.

Top Signs of Domestication in Animals
The mechanism of domestication is an evolutionary one, and so slow; the evidence for domestication of a particular animal may be difficult to ascertain. Here are some ways archaeologists use to determine if an animal has been domesticated.

Books about the Moche Civilization
A collection of the best recent books about the Moche Civilization

Archaeological Site Museum Shops
Many archaeological sites around the world have on-site museums, with gift shops that support the archaeological research. These shops have the potential to be the best source for authentic reproductions, because the museums often have specialist archaeologists on staff who can do quality control on the artifact reproductions.

Small Museum Archaeology Online Shops
Small museums are an excellent place to find authentic reproductions; money spent in the shop usually goes to support the museum collections, and the goods are often produced by local artisans.

Introductions to Archaeology
A collection of the best introductions to archaeology there are on the market today, all published within the past few years.

Ancient Cities - Archaeology
Some links to ancient cities and the origins of religion, from your guide

Resources for the Prospective Graduate Student - Archaeology
Resource pages on surviving graduate school from your Guide

Kitoi Culture
A description of the Kitoi culture: lake baikal region mesolithic period archaeology project plant crops culture definition

St. Catherine's Monastery, Egypt - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
St. Catherine's Monastery is a Byzantine church built at the foot of Mount Sinai, Egypt between 548 and 565 AD.

Clovis points recovered from the Gault site, Texas.
A collection of Clovis points from the Paleoindian site of Gault, Texas.

Clovis at the Gault Site
A photo gallery of photographs from the Gault site, a paleoindian site in Texas with a Clovis occupation, which includes photos of Clovis points from many different sites in North America.

Dogs - When and Where were Dogs Domesticated?
Recent study suggests that the entire population of domestic dogs today are descended from three females in China, around 15,000 years ago.

Animal Domestication: An Illustrated Guide to the History of Animals and Humans
A pictorial guide to where and when the animals of the world were domesticated.

Adobe Mud Brick Mosque in Komio, Mali
Mosque, Komio, Mali, 2000. Archaeology.

Computer Bank at Heathrow Terminal Archaeological On Site Office - Archaeology Fieldwork Illustrated
Computer Bank at Heathrow Terminal Archaeological On Site Office

Archaeological Fieldwork Illustrated: New Advances in Archaeology
A photo essay of how fieldwork in archaeology is conducted in the 21st century

Maya Site of Bonampak, Chiapas, Mexico
The Maya ruins called Bonampak are those of a classic period Maya (AD 250-900) site located in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. This photo illustrates the way the site looks today as you approach it from the road.

Monumental Carved Stone Relief
Monumental carved stone relief from the Northwest Palace at Nimrud, ancient Kalhu, dating to the time of the Assyrian kings Assurnasirpal II (883-859 BC).

Byzantine Basilica in Butrint, Albania
Byzantine Basilica in Butrint, Albania

Making a Living as a Field Technician
Florence Stockade, South Carolina

The Cascajal Block: Evidence of Early Olmec Writing
Side view of Cascajal block, Veracruz, Mexico.

A Photo Essay of India's Archaeological Ruins
A photo essay of interesting archaeological sites to visit in India

Entrance to Sterkfontein, South Africa
Entrance to Sterkfontein, South Africa

South Africa Archaeology Photographs
A photo essay of interesting archaeological sites to visit in South Africa.

The Tools of the Trade: Office Director
Before any archaeological studies are completed, the office manager or project director must contact the client, set up the work, develop a budget, and assign a Principal Investigator to conduct the project work.

Archaeology Equipment: The Tools of the Trade
A photo essay of the tools that archaeologists use during the course of an investigation, before, during and after the excavations.

Archaeology Equipment: The Tools of the Trade
A photo essay of the tools that archaeologists use during the course of an investigation, before, during and after the excavations.

Apaches and Buffalo Soldiers at Pine Springs Camp
Archaeological evidence of the Apache War--the conflict between US government forces and Native American tribes in the southern Plains--is found at Pine Springs Camp.

Buffalo Soldiers in Texas: Archaeology at Pine Springs Camp
Excavations at the Buffalo Soldiers camp called Pine Springs, in the Guadalupe Mountains of West Texas

The Upper City of Hattusha, Capital City of the Hittite Empire
A general overview of the city of Hattusha and an introduction to the capital city of the Hittite empire and its archaeology; photo by Nazli Evrim Serifoglu.

The Islamic Historian Abu'l Qasim - Islamic Lustreware
Abu'l Qasim was a historian and member of the guild of potters responsible for the manufacture of Islamic lusterwares in the 13th and 14th centuries.

Sipán, Peru: Elite Burials and Ancient Rituals at the Moche Capital
New discoveries at the Moche site of Sipán, Peru include a new royal tomb, which may be related to the Moche Sacrifice Ceremony of the Warrior Narrative. This photo gallery illustrates the new excavations and how they may relate to Moche ceremonialism.

Sipán, Peru: Elite Burials and Ancient Rituals at the Moche Capital
New discoveries at the Moche site of Sipán, Peru include a new royal tomb, which may be related to the Moche Sacrifice Ceremony of the Warrior Narrative. This photo gallery illustrates the new excavations and how they may relate to Moche ceremonialism.

Faience - The World's First High Tech Ceramic
Ancient faience is a completely manufactured material created (one assumes) to imitate the bright colors and gloss of hard-to-get gems and used in jewelry throughout Egypt and the Near East beginning about 5500 years ago.

Stallings Island - What is Stallngs Island
Stallings Island is the type site of the Stallings culture, a Late Archaic culture of the Middle Savannah River Valley of South Carolina and Georgia in the American Southeast, dated between 5000 and 3000 years ago.

Kennewick Man: An Introduction
An introduction to the Kennewick Man case,

Dating Techniques in Archaeology
Archaeological Methods of Dating

Women in Archaeology
Biographies of Women in Archaeological Science

Chris's Collection of Archaeology Quotes
Archaeology Quotes from the Working Professional

A Second Course of Archaeological Quotes
More Quotes of the Day from Archaeology at About

Get Lost Lessons for Archaeology Quote of the Day
A daily word of wisdom from the past

Archaeology Quote of the Day
A daily word of wisdom from the past

Vathypetro - Minoan Settlement of Vathypetro
Vathypetro is the name of a small Minoan settlement located about 10 kilometers south of the palace at Knossos on the island of Crete.

Goats - History of the Domestication of Capra hircus
Beginning about 10,500-10,800 years ago, Neolithic farmers in the Near East began keeping small herds of goats for their milk, meat, dung, as well as for materials for clothing and building: hair, bone, and sinew.

Heuneburg - German Hillfort called Heuneburg - Heuneburg Germany
Heuneburg is the name of an early Iron Age (Hallstatt period) urban center, one of the oldest centers north of the Alps.

Guide to the European Iron Age
The European Iron Age is that period in Europe when the production of iron created a burgeoning growth of urban dwellings.

What I Like (or Don't Like) about the Time Team Programs
A place for users to comment on the Time Team programs, either the original Time Team or the new Time Team America

How to Choose a Graduate School
How does anyone choose a graduate school?

Molodova I - Middle and Upper Paleolithic Mammoth Bone Hut in Ukraine
Moldova I is a Middle and Upper Paleolithic site located within the Dniester river valley of Ukraine, and it holds evidence of the oldest Mammoth Bone Hut yet discovered.

Fourknocks (Ireland)
Fourknocks is a Megalithic passage tomb in Brugh na Bóinne or Boyne Valley or Ireland

Axumite Civilization
The Axumite civilization is a Coptic pre-Christian state in Ethiopia, from about AD 100-800.

Toltec Civilization
The Toltec Civilization was one of three great empires of the Basin of Mexico, after the fall of Teotihuacan and before the rise of the Aztecs.

Totonac Culture
The Totanac Culture was a rival city state to the Aztecs, who had ruled most of what is now Veracruz in Mexico.

Burzahom (India)
The site of Burzahom is a Neolithic settlement and cemetery in the Kashmir state of India, occupied between about 3000-1500 BC.

The Bushmen is a collective term for a modern cultural group in subsaharan Africa, primarily the Kalahari Desert.

Sterkfontein - Early hominid site in South Africa
The ancient early man site of Sterkfontein is a cave in a dolomite hill of the Blaaubank River Valley, about 10 kilometers northwest of Krugersdorp, South Africa.

Australopithecus - Guide, Description and Bibliography
Australopithecus is one of several species of hominins who may or may not be Homo sapiens direct ancestor.

Taung (South Africa)
The Taung site is a limestone quarry located in the Transvaal region of South Africa.

Tekkalakota (India)
Tekkalakota is a Neolithic period site in Bellary district, India, where archaeologists found the foundations of circular huts and a small cemetery

Ban Lum Khao - Bronze Age Cemetery in Thailand - Ban Lum Khao
Ban Lum Khao is a Neolithic to Iron Age cemetery in the Mun River valley of northeastern Thailand. Although it is only 20 km from similarly dated Ban Non Wat, excavations at Ban Lum Khao do not exhibit the same sharp social differentiations seen at Ban Non Wat

Bagor (India)
The archaeological site of Bagor is a Late Mesolithic (pre-Harappa) archaeological site in the Bhilwara District of the Rajasthan region of western India.

Ras Mkumbuu (Tanzania)
The archaeological site of Ras Mkumbuu was a 10th century trading port on the east coast of Africa with a substantial Muslim occupation.

Seasonality - Planning for Seasonal Changes
To an archaeologist, seasonality means identifying the time when cultural or natural activities or events occur, and using that information to better understand human behaviors.

The study of paleobotany involves the investigation of plants and plants pieces in the past.

Palynology - What is Palynology
Archaeological palynology is the study of pollen, the virtually indestructible, microscopic, but easily identifiable plant parts in archaeological sites.

Egtved Girl - Who was the Egtved Girl
Egtved is an extremely well-preserved burial of a Bronze age woman (ca. 1370 BC) located in south Jutland, Denmark.

Erlitou - What and Where is Erlitou
Erlitou is a very large Bronze Age (Shang or Xia Dynasty) site located 9 kilometers southwest of Yanshi City in Henan Province of China.

Sea Peoples
Sometime in the late 13th or early 12th centuries BC a loose confederation of people from the Mediterranean Sea caused great havoc throughout the region: they were called the Sea Peoples.

Doumenzhen (China)
Doumenzhen was a capital of the Chou (or Zhou) Dynasty, China (1050-256 BC).

Cayonu Tepesi - Pre-Pottery Neolithic Site of Cayonu Tepesi
Cayonu (Turkey) is an Early Neolithic site (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) in the upper Tigris valley of southeastern Turkey

Lost World: A Book Review
In Lost World, journalist Tom Koppel describes his experiences with archaeologists who are tracing possible pre-clovis coastal occupations of the north American coastline.

The New World Figurine Project
The New World Figurine Project is the brainchild of Terry Stocker, who in the mid-1980s began to collect articles--new and classic--on ceramic figurines of North, Central and South America.

Reading Inca History
Reading Inca History by Catherine Julien takes an unusual run at addressing the issue of the historical Inca, examining the reports from 16th and 17th Spanish narratives with an eye toward finding the hidden similarities in the texts, to ascertain their reliability and squeeze out what may just be a representation of the Inca way of life.

Finding the Walls of Troy
In a book entitled Finding the Walls of Troy, Susan Heuck Allen describes the relationship between Heinrich Schliemann, who is broadly credited with the discovery of Troy, and Frank Calvert, who actually did find Troy, as symbiotic, nearly parasitic on both sides.

Elena and the Coin
A charming and informative story for elementary school children, Elena and the Coin is about archaeology and Tucson, Arizona's past, written by Laura Orabone with watercolors by Elizabeth Buckman.

Ileret Footprints - Ancient Homo Erectus Footprints from Ileret, Kenya
The Ileret footprints were made in the mud by our hominid ancestor Homo erectus more than 1.5 million years ago.

Jacqueline Pirenne [1918-1990]
French archaeologist Jacqueline Pirenne spent much of her career excavating in South Arabia, especially in Yemen and Ethiopia.

Prague-Korchak Culture
The Prague-Korchak culture is a fifth through seventh century AD cultural group located in southern Poland, western Ukraine and north-eastern Slovakia.

Processual Archaeology - What is Processual Archaeology
Processual Archaeology is the study of process, that is to say, investigations of the way humans do things, and the way things decay.

Przeczyce (Poland)
The archaeological site of Przeczyce is located in the lower Silesia region of Poland, and dates to the Bronze Age.

Przeworsk Culture
The Przeworsk Culture is considered by some archaeologists as one of the original cultures which led to the Slavic spread, between 2nd century BC and the 4th century AD.

Pseudo-archaeology is one of the burdens the romance of archaeology has dealt the profession.

Pylos, Greece
Pylos is a Mycenaean capital and palace, the traditional home of Nestor, located near the modern city of Pylos and the village of Khorsa.

Paleoindian - What is Paleoindian
The term paleoindian generally refers to the first inhabitants of the America continents--maybe.

Paleopathology is the study of diseases in ancient humans or other lifeforms.

Passport in Time
The Passport in Time project is a public archaeology program run by the United States Forest Service.

Paul Mason Site (Canada)
The archaeological site called both Paul Mason and Kitselas, is an early Native American village site located in northern British Columbia.

Phalaborwa - African Iron Age site of Phalaborwa
The archaeological complex of Phalaborwa consists of a series of iron and copper mining sites dated the early parts of the second millennium AD.

Phung Nguyen Culture
The Bronze Age people of the Phung Nguyen culture of Vietnam were wet rice farmers, who lived in sedentary villages on the Red River valley.

Paleolithic Notation
Paleolithic notation is the term used by archaeologists for deliberate markings made by our ancestors to count objects or remember events in a sequence.

Numic Speakers
Numic speakers are ancestral Ute, Paiute and Shoshone, thought to have moved into the Great Basin of the United States from California about AD 1000.

New Archaeology
The 'new archaeology' movement of the mid-twentieth century changed the direction of the field, at least in the Americas.

Nri Kingdom - What is the Nri Kingdom
The Nri kingdom (also called Igbo) was a cultural group in Nigeria during the 10th century AD.

Jebel Thanais I - Neolithic Site of Jebel Thanais I
Jebel Thanais I is a small Late Neolithic site in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

Firuzabad (Iran)
Firuzabad is a modern city in southern Iran, about 200 kilometers south of Shiraz in Fars province.

Fishbourne (United Kingdom)
Fishbourne is the name of a palace dated to the Roman empire, and built in Sussex, England, during the 1st century AD. The site, now open to the public, boasts Britain's largest collection of Roman mosaics still in their original setting in the floor of the palace.

Flotation Method in Archaeology
Archaeological flotation involves using water to process soil or feature fill to recover tiny artifacts.

Windmill Hill (United Kingdom)
Windmill Hill is a Neolithic causewayed enclosure, located near the far more famous site of Avebury in Wiltshire, England.

Woodhenge (UK)
Woodhenge is an archaeological site discovered in Avebury, England, with a few kilometers of Stonehenge.

Recuay Culture
he Recuay Culture is one of several fairly advanced pre-inca societies of the first millennium AD in Peru.

Red Tower (Israel)
The Red Tower, Palestine, also known as al-Burj al Ahmar, is a small castle built during the crusades in the central Sharon Plain of Palestine.

Regensburg (Germany)
The modern city of Regensburg, Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers in Bavaria, has the largest Iron Age Roman fortification in the region.

Rougiers - Medieval Walled Village of Rougiers
The medieval rural walled hilltop village near Rougiers, France was occupied in the 12th century, and then deserted.

Rudabánya (Hungary)
The paleontological site of Rudabánya, Hungary has been dated to the Miocene epoch of some 9-10 million years ago.

Rujm el Hiri (Israel)
The archaeological site of Rujm el Hiri, Israel is a curious Chalcolithic or Early Bronze age structure which researchers believe is an astronomical observatory.

Wasserburg (Germany)
Wasserburg is one of the best preserved urnfield settlement sites in Europe, located in Federseemoor, in the Baden-Wurtemberg region of southwestern Germany.

Wheeled Vehicles
The invention of the wheel to assist transportation was made in Uruk, Mesopotamia during the fourth millennium BC.

Dong Son Culture
The Dong Son culture is a Bronze age culture including all of southeast Asia and into the Indo-Malaya Archipelago from about 1000-1 BC.

al Rafiqa (Syria)
The archaeological site of al-Rafiqa is an Abbasid site in Syria

Gao - An archaeological description of the Songhai city of Gao
The west African kingdom of Gao (or Kawkaw) was established by the 8th century AD, and involved in active trade throughout northern Africa; it's major city became the capital of the Songhai empire in 15th century.

Gault Site (Texas, US)
The Gault site is stratified multicomponent site with a meter-thick Late Prehistoric and Archaic midden overlying a hard packed Paleo9ndian component, located in central Texas.

Geophysical Survey - A definition
Geophysical survey can refer to any systematic collection of geophysical data for spatial studies.

Gesher Benot Ya'aqov - Lower Paleolithic Site in Israel
Gesher Benot Yaaqov is a Lower Paleolithic site located in the northern Jordan valley of Israel.

Gondar (Ethiopia)
The city of Gondar, Ethiopia, dated to the 17th century AD, was part of the Abyssian empire

Unconquered Lacandon Maya - Joel W. Palka Book Review
Joel W. Palka’s book, Unconquered Lacandon Maya, discusses the current and historical conditions of the various groups of people collectively called the Lacandon.

Eastern Agricultural Complex
The Eastern Agricultural Complex refers to the whole range of plants that were selectively tended by Native Americans in eastern North American and the American midwest before corn and beans reached there

Economic Archaeology - What is Economic Anthropology
A subdiscipline of archaeology or maybe just a byproduct, economic archaeology is the study of how people control their economic resources, most particularly but not entirely, their food supply.

Eel Point - Paleocoastal Site in the Channel Islands of Eel Point
Eel Point is an archaeological site located on the central western shore of San Clemente Island, a Channel Island located off the California coast.

Egnatia Way
The Egnatia Way (or Via Egnatia) was a major Roman thoroughfare, built in the second century BC as a military road connecting the southern Adriatic coast to the northern Aegean sea.

Elam (Iran)
Elam was the name of ancient Near Eastern kingdom in what is now southwestern Iran, beginning about 3100-3000 BC.

Epidauros (Greece)
Epidauros is the name of a small city and Greek sanctuary dedicated to Asklepios located on an Mediterranean Sea inlet.

Ertebolle-Ellerbeck Culture - What is the Ertebolle-Ellerbeck Culture
The Ertebolle-Ellerbeck culture is the name given to the Late Mesolithic/Early Neolithic communities of northern Europe.

La Mojarra (Mexico)
La Mojarra is an archaeological site in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, occupied from the late Formative period until at least the early Postclassic (ca. 300 BC-AD 1000).

Mawangdui - The Tomb of Lady Dai in China
Mawangdui is the name of a Han dynasty [206 BC-AD 24] archaeological site situated in China in a suburb of the modern town of Changsha, Hunan Province.

Megiddo - What is Megiddo
The archaeological site of Megiddo, known as Tell el-Mutesellim, has at least thirty urban settlements within its layers, the earliest about 3500 BC.

Mojiaoshan (China)
The archaeological site of Mojiaoshan is part of a Liangzhu complex site at Yuhang in Zhejiang Province, China.

My Son (Vietnam)
The World Heritage archaeological site of My Son was a Cham dynasty capital, between the 4th and 12th centuries AD, near Da Nang, Vietnam.

Kastri Group
The Kastri Group is the name given by Aegean scholars to a cultural group of the Early Cycladic period in the Greek islands and Crete

Khuzhir-Nuge - What and where is Khuzhir-Nuge
Khuzhir-Nuge XIV is a Bronze Age cemetery site in the Cis-Baikal region of Siberia, Russia.

Knossos - The Minoan Settlement of Knossos
The location of Knossos, reported by Homer to be the site of the palace of the legendary King Minos, Daedalus, and the Labyrinth, is on the island of Crete.