Archaeology Sitemap - Page 2 2016-09-26

The Substructure of the Feathered Conch Shells at Teotihuacán
Beneath the Quetzal Butterfly Palace is the remains of an older building, called the Substructure of the Feathered Conch Shells at Teotihuacán. Page 35.

Jaguar Blowing Conch-Shell Trumpet
This mural of a jaguar blowing a conch-shell trumpet is one of the murals in the museum. Page 37.

Museo de los Murales Teotihuacanos Beatriz de la Fuente
The Museo de los Murales Teotihuacanos Beatriz de la Fuente is a museum containing preserved remnants of the murals from Teotihuacan and the collection of artworks inside the museum should not be missed. Page 36.

Entrance to the Palace of Quetzalpapalotl at Teotihuacán
The Palace of Quetzalpapalotl at Teotihuacán (also called the Palace of the Quetzal Butterfly) is actually not a palace, but the remnants of three separate structures. Page 33.

Patio of the Palace of Quetzalpapalotl at Teotihuacán
Diehl feels that the Palace of Quetzalpapalotl at Teotihuacán might be best called

The Retail Stalls outside the Visitor's Center, Teotihuacán
The retail stalls outside the Visitor's Center at Teotihuacán echo the previous function of the Great Compound, where a public market once stood. Page 5.

Rio San Juan, Teotihuacán
The Rio San Juan in Teotihuacan is an unassuming little stream that represents what Diehl calls an audacious engineering feat by the Teotihuacanos. Page 13.

Street of the Dead at Teotihuacán
The Street of the Dead at Teotihuacán is the main artery connecting the Ciudadela with the Pyramid of the Moon. The series of connected plazas was named the Street of the Dead by the Aztecs, who discovered many burials in the street when they were looking for treasure. Page 12.

Teotihuacán, from the Pyramid of the Moon to the Pyramid of the Sun
Archaeologist Richard A. Diehl takes us on a walking tour of the ancient city of Teotihuacan, the ruins of which lie 30 miles away from the modern city of Mexico City.

Tepantitla Mural at Teotihuacan
This mural is from the Tepantitla apartment compound at Teotihuacan, and it illustrates some long ago lost tale. Page 40.

Tetitla Courtyard Altar
Many of the apartment compounds at Teotihuacan had courtyard shrines--small altars in the middle of the compound's plaza. Here's an example from the Tetitla compound. Page 42.

Tetitla Mural Fragment
This Mural Fragment is a small piece of a much larger mural that was looted from Tetitla. Known as the

Tetitla Mural Replica Photograph
The Tetitla Mural is a full-wall replica of one from the apartment compound known as Tetitla, and it illustrates the Owl with an Attitude from Teotihuacan. Page 38.

Tetitla Apartment Compound at Teotihuacán
There are over 2,000 apartment compounds--multiple dwellings of everyday Teotihuacanos--in Teotihuacan, the vast majority of which are unexcavated. The Tetitla Apartment Compound is one of the handful that have been partly excavated. Page 41.

Visitors Center and Restaurant at Teotihuacán
The Visitors Center and Restaurant at Teotihuacán provide a needed oasis where the traveler can get supplies for the day's tour through the ruins, and rest up and enjoy the food and view afterward. Page 6.

A Ramble Around Teotihuacán by Richard A. Diehl
Archaeologist Richard A. Diehl takes us on a guided tour to the ancient Mesoamerican archaeological site of Teotihuacán

A Ramble Around Teotihuacán by Richard A. Diehl
Archaeologist Richard A. Diehl takes us on a guided tour to the ancient Mesoamerican archaeological site of Teotihuacán

A Ramble Around Teotihuacán by Richard A. Diehl
Archaeologist Richard A. Diehl takes us on a guided tour to the ancient Mesoamerican archaeological site of Teotihuacán

A Ramble Around Teotihuacán by Richard A. Diehl
Archaeologist Richard A. Diehl takes us on a guided tour to the ancient Mesoamerican archaeological site of Teotihuacán

Lustreware Illustrated - Islamic Lustreware Origins and Technique
Lustreware is difficult to adequately describe, and even excellent photographs do not approach the visual thrill of the light playing across its surface. But here's a try. Page 2.

Tang Dynasty Influences - Lustreware Origins and Techniques
The origins of any craft are myriad, and lustreware is no exception. Strong associations between Islamic lustrewares and Chinese ceramics have long been recognized by art historians. Page 3.

Aztec Steam Bath at Teotihuacán
This

Sun Pyramid at Teotihuacán as reconstructed by Leopoldo Batres
The Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacán was rebuilt from its ruins in the first decade of the 20th century by Leopoldo Batres--who got some things wrong, but many things right. Page 19.

Internal Buttresses now on the Outside of the Sun Pyramid at Teotihuacán
One of the mistakes Leopoldo Batres made was to strip off the facade of the Pyramid of the Sun, exposing these internal buttresses. Page 21.

Large Storage Jar, Teotihuacán
This large storage jar is an example of the many objects in the museum. Diehl explains that some of these jars might have served for storing pulque, a mildly alcoholic drink from the agave plant, and favored still in Mexico today. Page 16.

Model of the Ancient City of Teotihuacán under Glass
A model of the ancient city of Teotihuacán is found inside the museum, which also includes a gift shop, book store and restrooms. Page 15.

Model of the Citadel at Teotihuacán, Teotihuacán Site Museum
Archaeologist Richard Diehl describes the working heart of Teotihuacan, the Great Compound and Ciudadela, and the Feathered Serpent Pyramid. Page 7.

Entrance to a Modern Tunnel at Teotihuacán
Two doorways lead into the interior of the Sun Pyramid at Teotihuacan; one leads to a modern tunnel excavated by archaeologists; the other to an artificial cave built by the Teotihuacanos. Page 23.

The "Moon Man Stone" at Teotihuacán
The

Moon Pyramid Steps at Teotihuacán
The steps of the Pyramid of the Moon at Teotihuacán show light and dark rock--the light rocks are the restoration by archaeologists, the dark are original stonework. If you decide to climb the staircase, please use the chain balustrade on the right. Page 31.

Moon Pyramid at Teotihuacán
The Pyramid of the Moon at Teotihuacán. Page 32.

Entrance to the Museo del Sitio at Teotihuacán
The Museo Manuel Gamio is the name of the site museum at Teotihuacán, and it contains a variety of objects and information gathered from the excavations at the site. Page 14.

Partially Restored Temple Platform Facing the Moon Plaza at Teotihuacán
This temple platform facing the Moon Plaza at Teotihuacán has been partially restored by archaeologists. Page 29.

Potsherds Litter the Ground at Teotihuacán
More evidence of long-ago activity is the mass of broken crockery which litters the ground everywhere in Teotihuacán. Page 28.

Fully Restored Temple Platform Exteriors, Moon Plaza
These temple platforms in the Moon Plaza have been fully restored to their original shapes. Page 30.

Original Stucco and Paint, Mound in the Moon Pyramid Plaza, Teotihuacán
On this mound located in the plaza of the Pyramid of the Moon can be seen some of the original lime plaster and red paint which decorated the buildings at Teotihuacan. Page 25.

The Sun Pyramid, Teotihuacán
The Sun Pyramid at Teotihuacán is the signature monument of the site and an icon for Mexico itself. It was named by the Aztecs; we don't know what the Teotihuacanos called it. Page 18.

Old Floors Superimposed On One Another, Teotihuacán
This hole in the ground reveals evidence of building and rebuilding, a stack of old floors superimposed on one another at Teotihuacán. Page 26.

Overview of Teotihuacán
Advice for visitors to Teotihuacán: take more than one day and wear comfortable, sturdy shoes. Page 2.

The Boundaries Of Ancient Teotihuacán
What should you see if you can only spend one day in Teotihuacan? The museum, the pyramids of the Sun and Moon, and the Palace of the Quetzal Butterfly--but don't miss the museums! Page 3.

Road cut through the U-shaped Platform, Teotihuacán
This road was cut right through a U-shaped platform in Teotihuacán, to allow Leopoldo Batre to build a railroad line to ship out the excess dirt he removed from the Sun Pyramid during his excavations. Page 20.

Unexcavated Mound at Teotihuacán
This unexcavated mound at Teotihuacán is one of thousands of buildings left unexcavated at Teotihuacan. This one probably represents a staged platform. Page 24.

Wall Exposed by a Trail North of the Sun Pyramid, Teotihuacán
The rubble in the middle of this old trail is the remainder of a wall, evidence of vast unexcavated parts of Teotihuacan. Page 27.

The Islamic Historian Abu'l Qasim - Islamic Lustreware
Abu'l Qasim was a historian and member of the guild of potters responsible for the manufacture of Islamic lusterwares in the 13th and 14th centuries.

Moche Civilization Archaeological Sites
Archaeological sites belonging to the Moche are located in a narrow strip on Peru's coast.

Writing a Research Paper in Archaeology
Finding a topic, researching it and writing a paper is something all students must do. Why not write about archaeology?

Mayan Myths - The Top Popular Misconceptions about the Maya
Were the Maya peaceful people whose leaders lived in large empty palaces studying astronomy and mathematics, who disappeared for mysterious unknown reasons? Read what the evidence shows about the most popular misconceptions about the Maya

Coricancha: Inca Temple of the Sun in Cusco
The Coricancha or

Kostenki 14 - Human Skeleton at Markina Gora
Archaeology. Page 2.

History of the Inca Empire
The Inca were the largest pre-hispanic empire of South America when it was 'discovered' by the Spanish conquistadors in the 16th century AD.

Inca Empire Timeline and King List
The rulers of the Inca Empire were known known as the 'capac', and there are 12 known leaders of the Inca Empire, led by the founder Manco Capac. Page 2.

Economy, Architecture and Religion of the Inca
Important facts about the economy, architecture and religion of the inca empire. Page 3.

Bibliography for the Study of the Inca Empire
A brief bibliography of recent articles and books on the Inca empire. Page 4.

Liang Bua Cave, Indonesia: Archaeological Site of Flores
Liang Bua Cave is the site where the possible new hominin species called Flores Man was found. Here's a description of the site and findings to date.

Levallois Technique - Paleolithic Stone Tool Working
Levallois is the name archaeologists have given to a distinctive flint knapping technique, which makes up part of the ancient Acheulean and Mousterian artifact assemblages.

Llangors Crannog (Wales) - Medieval Man-Made Island of Llangorse Crannog
The archaeological site of Llangors Crannóg is located near Llangors Lake, within the Brecon Beacons National Park in Powys, Wales.

Lucy (AL 288) - Australopithecus Skeleton from Ethiopia
Lucy is the nearly complete skeleton of an Australopithecus afarensis, found in 1974 at AL 288, a site in the Afar Triangle of Ethiopia.

Economics and Agriculture of the Mayan Civilization
The Mayan civilization had an extensive economic system based on trade and agriculture. Here are some details of that system.

Jade Use and Importance in Precolumbian America
Jade was probably the most precious stone for ancient Mesoamerican people, and Olmec, Maya and Aztec lapidary artisans became masters in carving it...

The Kostenki Archaeological Sites
Kostenki is 40,000-year-old site on the Don River in Russia, with significant evidence for the presence of early humans--and neanderthals--in Europe.

Social Science Fiction - Anthropology in Science Fiction
Social science fiction is the name Ursula leGuin gave to the kind of science fiction that absorbs and discusses anthropology and the study of human kind. Needless to say, this is one of my favorite kinds of scifi.

Social Science Fiction: Wilhelm and Haden-Elgin
A discussion of science fiction writers Kate Wilhelm and Suzette Haden-Elgin. Page 2.

How to Sharpen Your Trowel
An archaeologist's best friend is her trowel. Here's how to maintain a nice working edge to keep it handy for all your uses.

Funan State
Funan is the name for a southeast Asian civilization which was given to it by two Chinese travelers, who in AD 250 visited a country ruled by a king in a palace with a walled settlement.

La Ferrassie Cave: Neanderthal and Early Modern Human Site in the Dordogne Valley
La Ferrassie Cave is a Neanderthal and Early Modern Human rockshelter located near the modern town of Les Eyzies in the Dordogne Valley of France.

Grotte des Pigeons: Middle and Upper Paleolithic Rockshelter in Morocco
The Grottes des Pigeons is a rockshelter located in eastern Morocco, and it includes the earliest example of symbolic art--perforated beads--known yet to humans.

Gatecliff Shelter - Archaic Rockshelter in Monitor Valley
Gatecliff Shelter is the name of an archaeological site in Mill Canyon of the Toquima Range, Monitor Valley of Nevada, in the southwestern US.

Hittites and the Hittite Empire
The Hittite empire ruled much of Anatolia--roughly what today is Turkey--between about 1340-1200 BC.

Huaca del Sol (Peru)
The Huaca del Sol is an enormous adobe brick Moche civilization pyramid, built in at least eight different stages between AD 0-600.

Heat Treatment - Evidence of Enhanced Stone Tool Making
Heat treatment in stone tool making (or flint knapping) refers to the controlled use of fire on raw lithic material to improve its flaking quality.

How Can I Get My Artifact Identified?
Artifact identification - finding someone to give you information about an artifact that you found or inherited - may be as simple as finding your nearest archaeologist.

History of Alcohol - Timeline
A timeline of the history of alcohol, when it was first developed and how it expanded into one of the most important social elements of modern culture.

Diepkloof Rock Shelter - Middle Stone Age in South Africa
Diepkloof Rock Shelter is a Middle Stone Age site in South Africa, where important evidence concerning early modern human behaviors dates between 100,000 and 85,000 years ago.

Howiesons Poort at Diepkloof Cave
Technological changes defining Middle Stone Age complexes at Diepkloof Cave, and sources for further reading. Page 2.

Bibliographic References for La Ferrassie Cave
Archaeology. Page 2.

European Paleolithic Dogs - Domestic Dogs from Europe?
Part of figuring out when and where dogs became our best friend and companion, comes from a group of burials known as European Paleolithic Dogs.

Archaeological Sites of the Medieval and Renaissance Periods
The archaeological sites from the Medieval and Renaissance period often include documentary resources as evidence along with structural and archaeological materials.

African Iron Age
The history of metal working in subsaharan Africa is different than pretty much else in the world, in that there is no distinct Bronze or Copper age. The use of iron was the first really important metal to these cultures, arriving about the same time as agriculture.

Archaeology Glossary Entries from Chachapoyas Culture to Chwezi Culture
Dictionary entries in archaeology beginning with Ch, from Chachapoyas Culture to Chwezi Culture

Spain - Archaeological Sites
Information about important archaeological sites in Spain.

Syria Archaeology - Archaeology of Syria
Syria Archaeology - Archaeological sites, culture history and pages of interesting information about Syria and Syrian archaeology

Welsh Culture History and Archaeology
Welsh Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Wales.

Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt is one of the planet's oldest and most intriguing. Archaeological investigations into the lives of the pharaohs of the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms, as well as the Ptolemaic kings, have enhanced much of the written record.

Ancient Writing
Ancient writing began about 5,000 years ago, as far as we can tell. The earliest books of ancient writing include the Bible, the Koran, the Popul Wuj, the Egyptian book of the dead, and other pieces of written information.

Recording an Archaeology Podcast, Down Farm, Cranborne Chase - Archaeological Fieldwork Illustrated
Recording an Archaeology Podcast, Down Farm, Cranborne Chase. Page 9.

Resistivity and Seismic Surveying at an Archaeological Site - Archaeological Fieldwork Illustrated
Remote sensing is another area of great growth in archaeological research. Remote sensing, also called geophysical prospection, is any of several methods of seeing what is beneath the surface of the ground, without actually disturbing the ground. Page 7.

10th Century Abbasid Lustreware Vessel - Islamic Lustreware Origins and Techniques
10th Century Abbasid Lustreware Vessel. Page 10.

9th Century Abbasid Lustreware Ceramics
This piece of pottery is from the... Page 9.

Chemical Processes Underlying Lustreware - Islamic Lustreware Origins and Techniques
Chemical analysis of Islamic lustres in the collections of the Ashmolean Museum was completed by a team led by Trinitat Pradell under the supervision of archaeologist M.S. Tite. Page 7.

Islamic Saminid Period Plate - Late 9th-Early 10th C
Islamic Saminid Period Plate - Late 9th-Early 10th C. Page 8.

Lustreware Bowl, Fatimid Dynasty, 11th Century Egypt - Islamic Lustreware Origins and Techniques
A photo essay on the origins and study of the decorative ceramic technique known as Islamic lustreware. Page 11.

Lustreware History - Islamic Lustreware Origins and Techniques
The earliest lustres were most likely made in Iraq during the reign of Harun al Rashid (AD 766-809). The history of lustres suggests that until Abu'l Qasim published his book about 1300, the technique was a closely-guarded secret of one family or guild of potters. Page 4.

Lustreware Invention Process - Islamic Lustreware Origins and Techniques
The invention of the lusterware process was a long one, and it probably began in the 8th century, when a handful of potters in Basra in what is now Iraq began experimenting with new techniques. Page 5.

Making Lustreware - Islamic Lustreware Origins and Techniques
To make a classic lusterware pot, the potter began with a vessel of Samarra body, and then glazed it with an alkaline glaze enhanced with particles of tin oxide and lead. Theae glazed vessels were then fired. Page 6.

Raqqa Bowl with Peacock Decoration 13th Century - Islamic Lustreware Origins and Techniques
A photo essay on the origins and study of the decorative ceramic technique known as Islamic lustreware. Page 12.

Water Control Systems at Tikal
This photo essay illustrates and describes the intricate Maya water system at Tikal, built in the 6th century BC to overcome the lack of potable water.

Discovery of the Hydraulic System at Tikal
Although the earthworks were known and mapped, the purpose of the Maya water system was not recognized by archaeologists until the 21st century.

Reservoirs at Tikal
The Maya system used immense water reservoirs, created out of existing arroyos which were excavated and dammed.

The Temple Reservoir
The Temple Reservoir at Tikal was the smallest tank, but its location near the most important structures in the city center made it special.

Palace Dam and Reservoir
The Palace Dam, built perhaps as early as the 4th century BC created one of the largest reservoirs, called the Palace Reservoir

The Corriental Reservoir and Canal
The Corriental reservoir was located at the edge of a marshland, and it was one of the largest tanks in Tikal, encompassing nearly 1.5 million gallons.

The System's Effectiveness
The Maya hydraulic system at Tikal maintained a growing city for over 1,000 years, enabling the center to maintain in the face of climate change.

Further Reading on Water Control Systems at Tikal
Recent bibliographic research into the Maya hydraulic research at Tikal, Guatemala

Axum's Obelisks: The Royal Tombs of Axum: A Visit by Stuart Munro-Hay
Axum's Obelisks. Archaeology. Page 10.

Excavating Axum: The Royal Tombs of Axum: A Visit by Stuart Munro-Hay
Excavating Axum. Archaeology. Page 11.

Imagine a Small Hole... The Royal Tombs of Axum: A Visit by Stuart Munro-Hay
The Royal Tombs of Axum: A Visit by Stuart Munro-Hay

The Tools of the Trade - Principal Investigator
After all the analysis is complete, the project archaeologist or Principal Investigator must write a complete report on the course and findings of the investigations. Page 22.

The Tools of the Trade: Background Research
Historical and topographic maps of the region, published town and county histories, aerial photographs, and soils maps as well as any previous archaeological research are useful during the prefield background check. Page 2.

The Tools of the Trade: Bucket Auger
The bucket auger is an essential piece of archaeological field equipment in river plain situations. Page 8.

The Tools of the Trade: Calipers and Cotton Gloves
Measurements of tiny artifacts are taken after they have been cleaned. When necessary, cotton gloves are used to reduce cross-contamination of artifacts. Page 16.

The Tools of the Trade: Drying Rack
When artifacts are recovered in the field and brought back to the laboratory for analysis, they must be cleaned and placed in a drying rack such as this one. Page 15.

The Tools of the Trade: Dust Pan
A dust pan, exactly like the one you have around your house, is also useful for removing piles of excavated soil neatly and cleanly from excavation units. Page 10.

The Tools of the Trade: Library Archives
After the final report is written, often a year or two after the final excavation is completed, the report is filed in a state repository, ready for the next archaeologist to begin his or her research. Page 23.

The Tools of the Trade: The Marshalltown Trowel
One important piece of equipment that each archaeologist carries is his or her trowel. Page 5.

The Tools of the Trade: Metric Scale
Every artifact coming out of the field must be carefully analyzed. Page 17.

The Tools of the Trade: Office Director
Before any archaeological studies are completed, the office manager or project director must contact the client, set up the work, develop a budget, and assign a Principal Investigator to conduct the project work.

The Tools of the Trade: Shaker Screens
Soils are placed in the screened box of a shaker screen and the archaeologist shakes the screen back and forth, allowing the dirt to pass through and artifacts larger than 1/4 inch to be retained. Page 12.

The Tools of the Trade: Shaker Screen
As earth is excavated from an excavation unit, it is brought to a shaker screen, where it is processed through a 1/4 inch mesh screen. Page 11.

Digital Survey at Cliffs End Farm, Ramsgate - Archaeological Fieldwork Illustrated
Digital Survey at Cliffs End Farm, Ramsgate. Page 5.

Fieldwalking: Using GPS before fieldwalking to mark out the area to be investigated
Fieldwalking: Using GPS before fieldwalking to mark out the area to be investigated. Page 6.

Google Earth Map of Tiwanaku - Archaeological Fieldwork Illustrated
Google Earth Map of Tiwanaku. Archaeology. Page 3.

Hand Held GPS Unit Used During Archaeological Survey - Archaeology Fieldwork Illustrated
Hand Held GPS Unit Used During Archaeological Survey. Page 4.

Computer Bank at Heathrow Terminal Archaeological On Site Office - Archaeology Fieldwork Illustrated
Computer Bank at Heathrow Terminal Archaeological On Site Office

Public Archaeology Table, Peralta Hacienda Historical Park - Archaeological Fieldwork Illustrated
In this photo, archaeologists working at Peralta Hacienda Historical Park have prepared a table of information for interested visitors. Photo courtesy David Cohen, coordinator of the archaeological public outreach program at the University of California, Berkeley. Page 8.

Site Record Database - Archaeological Fieldwork Illustrated
Site Record Database, State of Iowa. Page 2.

Gold Coins of Aksum: King Ezanas - The Royal Tombs of Axum: A Visit by Stuart Munro-Hay
Gold Coins of Aksum: King Ezanas. Page 6.

Gold Coins of Axum: King Aphilas - The Royal Tombs of Axum: A Visit by Stuart Munro-Hay
Gold Coins of Axum: King Aphilas. Page 7.

Gold Coins of Axum: King Kaleb - The Royal Tombs of Axum: A Visit by Stuart Munro-Hay
Gold Coins of Axum: King Kaleb. Archaeology. Page 8.

Axumite Architecture at Gondar - The Royal Tombs of Axum: A Visit by Stuart Munro-Hay
The Royal Tombs of Axum: A Visit by Stuart Munro-Hay. Page 2.

King Zoskales of Aksum - The Royal Tombs of Aksum - A Visit by Stuart Munro-Hay
King Zoskales of Aksum - The Royal Tombs of Aksum - A Visit by Stuart Munro-Hay. Page 4.

Monumental Architecture - The Royal Tombs of Aksum: A Visit by Stuart Munro-Hay
Monumental Architecture. Archaeology. Page 9.

Something Exceptional in Ethiopia: The Royal Tombs of Axum: A Visit by Stuart Munro-Hay
Something Exceptional in Ethiopia: The Royal Tombs of Aksum: A Visit by Stuart Munro-Hay. Page 3.

Islamic Lustreware - Origins and Techniques
A photo essay on the origins and study of the decorative ceramic technique known as Islamic lusterware

The Tools of the Trade: Labeling Kit
Every artifact collected from an archaeological site must be catalogued; that is, a detailed list of all the artifacts recovered is stored with the artifacts themselves for the use of future researchers. Page 18.

The Tools of the Trade: Artifact Repository
After the site analysis has been completed and the site report finished, all artifacts recovered from an archaeological site must be stored for future research. Page 20.

The Tools of the Trade: Coal Scoop
The shape of a coal scoop is very useful for working in square holes. Page 9.

The Tools of the Trade: Computer
Information about artifacts and sites collected during excavations is placed into computer databases to assist researchers with understanding the archaeology of a region. Page 21.

Archaeology Equipment: The Tools of the Trade
This pile of screens, shovels, and other equipment is cleaned and ready for the field. Page 3.

The Tools of the Trade: Graduated Screens
Size-grading of chert debitage can provide information about what kinds of stone-tool making processes took place at a site; as well as information about alluvial processes on a site deposit. Page 19.

The Tools of the Trade: A Plains Trowel
Many archaeologists like this kind of Marshalltown trowel, called a Plains trowel. Page 6.

The Tools of the Trade: Shovels
Both flat-ended and round-ended shovels come in remarkably useful in certain excavation situations. Page 7.

The Tools of the Trade: The Total Station Transit
A Total Station transit helps an archaeologist make an accurate map of an archaeological site. Page 4.

Archaeology Equipment: The Tools of the Trade
In the flotation method of artifact recovery, soil samples are placed in metal baskets in a flotation device such as this and exposed to gentle streams of water. Page 14.

The Tools of the Trade: Water Screening Device
In special circumstances, in feature fill situations or other places where the recovery of small items is needed, water screening is an alternative process. Page 13.

Lifestyles of a Reindeer Herder - National Geographic Waking the Baby Mammoth
The documentary film Waking the Baby Mammoth contains a fascinating glimpse into life in a Nenets reindeer herding family. In this set of photos, the nomads set up camp.

Reindeer Herd and Nenets Herders - Waking the Baby Mammoth
Reindeer were domesticated only about three thousand years ago, by people who were ancestors of Nenets or a group very much like them

The Nenets Set up a Chum - Waking the Baby Mammoth
The Nenets and other pastoralists of the Eurasian arctic move frequently, and their houses must be easily moved and sealed tight against the weather.

Yuri Khudi's Home Chum, Yamal Peninsula, Siberia
The Nenets chum is built for easy transport and construction, with tent poles covered with animal skins.

Chum Interior - Researches Toast Lyuba's Discovery
In this interior shot of Yuri Khudi's chum, the researchers toast Lyuba's discovery.

Sledge and Reindeer, Nenets Encampment, Yamal Peninsula Siberia
This photograph shows a closeup of the sledges used by the Nenets nomadic reindeer herders.

A Walking Tour of Machu Picchu, Peru
The residential palace of the Inca king Pachacuti has drawn tourists from all over the world because of its lovely impossible location at the edge of the world. Gina Carey was at Machu Picchu during the Summer of 2004, and shares her photographs with us.

The Edge of the World
The residential palace of the Inca king Pachacuti has drawn tourists from all over the world because of its lovely impossible location at the edge of the world. Gina Carey was at Machu Picchu during the Summer of 2004, and shares her photographs with us.

A Forest of Clouds
The residential palace of the Inca king Pachacuti has drawn tourists from all over the world because of its lovely impossible location at the edge of the world. Gina Carey was at Machu Picchu during the Summer of 2004, and shares her photographs with us.

Terraces and Diplomacy
The residential palace of the Inca king Pachacuti has drawn tourists from all over the world because of its lovely impossible location at the edge of the world. Gina Carey was at Machu Picchu during the Summer of 2004, and shares her photographs with us.

Inca Architecture at Machu Picchu
The residential palace of the Inca king Pachacuti has drawn tourists from all over the world because of its lovely impossible location at the edge of the world. Gina Carey was at Machu Picchu during the Summer of 2004, and shares her photographs with us.

A Walking Tour of Machu Picchu, Peru
The residential palace of the Inca king Pachacuti has drawn tourists from all over the world because of its lovely impossible location at the edge of the world. Gina Carey was at Machu Picchu during the Summer of 2004, and shares her photographs with us.

Interior Hallway and Rooms
The residential palace of the Inca king Pachacuti has drawn tourists from all over the world because of its lovely impossible location at the edge of the world. Gina Carey was at Machu Picchu during the Summer of 2004, and shares her photographs with us.

Unreconstructed Room Block at Machu Picchu
The residential palace of the Inca king Pachacuti has drawn tourists from all over the world because of its lovely impossible location at the edge of the world. Gina Carey was at Machu Picchu during the Summer of 2004, and shares her photographs with us.

Llamas on a Terrace at Machu Picchu
The residential palace of the Inca king Pachacuti has drawn tourists from all over the world because of its lovely impossible location at the edge of the world. Gina Carey was at Machu Picchu during the Summer of 2004, and shares her photographs with us.

Temple of the Moon, Huayna Picchu
The residential palace of the Inca king Pachacuti has drawn tourists from all over the world because of its lovely impossible location at the edge of the world. Gina Carey was at Machu Picchu during the Summer of 2004, and shares her photographs with us.

A Few Sources on the Processes of Flax Fiber Production
A handful of recent scholarly resources on the ancient art of getting usable fiber out of flax stems.

Neolithic Methods of Spinning Flax Fibers
Evidence for spinning flax fibers is both in the recovery of spinning tools such as whorls, and in the fineness of the produced threads.

Processing Flax for Linen Production: Retting the Flax
An important first step to getting to flax fibers is removing the outer bark of the stems, unnecessary if you're interested in seed oil.

Harvesting, Removing and Threshing for Flax Oil
The earliest evidence for flax cultivation at the Neolithic alpine sites is from harvested sheaves and seed deposits in ceramic pots.

Late Neolithic Use of Flax: Adaptation and Adoption
The 2000 year long process of changing the flax plant to produce more fibers is indicated in the contents of Neolithic archaeological sites.

Flax-Making Neolithic Villages in Central Europe
Evidence for Neolithic flax fiber processing comes from the archaeological remnants of villages in the Lake Constance region of central Europe.

Dressing the Flax: Breaking, Scutching and Heckling
Breaking, scutching and heckling flax are all terms currently in use today for the long process of cleaning the woody parts from the precious fibers.

Discovering the History of Neolithic Flax Fiber Processing
A photo essay describing the ancient processes that allowed Neolithic Europeans to modify the flax plant for its fibers, rather than its oil.

Moai on a Hillside, Easter Island
Moai on a Hillside, Easter Island. Page 7.

Moai on the Coast at Sunset, Easter Island
Moai on the Coast at Sunset, Easter Island. Page 8.

Three Moai on the Coast, Easter Island
Three Moai on the Coast, Easter Island. Page 12.

Archaeological Fieldwork Illustrated: New Advances in Archaeology
A photo essay of how fieldwork in archaeology is conducted in the 21st century

The Eight Founder Crops and the Origins of Agriculture
Eight founder crops made up the core of the origins of agriculture on our plant--but recent scientific research has shown it wasn't that straightforward.

Archaeological Excavations at the Gault Clovis site, Texas, by Texas A&M University. This is a large Clovis quarry and campsite.
Archaeological Excavations, Gault Clovis site, Texas, Page 3.

Texas A&M University student excavating Clovis artifacts at the Gault site, Texas.
Texas A&M University student excavating Clovis artifacts at the Gault site, Texas. Page 2.

Clovis points from various sites in North America
Clovis points from various sites in North America. Page 4.

Ahu Te Pito Kura - The World's Navel, Easter Island
Ahu Te Pito Kura - The World's Navel, Easter Island. Page 16.

Five Moai on Pedestals, Easter Island
Five Moai on Pedestals, Easter Island. Page 4.

Moai Head in Rubble, Easter Island
Moai Head in Rubble, Easter Island. Page 5.

Moai Heads on a Hillside, Easter Island
Moai Heads on a Hillside, Easter Island. Page 6.

Moai in a Meadow, Easter Island
Moai in a Meadow, Easter Island. Archaeology. Page 2.

Moai on the Path, Easter Island
Moai on the Path, Easter Island. Archaeology. Page 9.

One and Fifteen Moai, Easter Island
One and Fifteen Moai, Easter Island. Page 10.

Rano Raraku Quarry at Easter Island
Rano Raraku Quarry at Easter Island. Page 15.

Recycled Moai, Easter Island
Recycled Moai, Easter Island. Archaeology. Page 11.

Seven Moai of Ahu Akivi, Easter Island
Seven Moai of Ahu Akivi, Easter Island. Page 13.

Seven Moai with Pukao, Easter Island
Seven Moai with Pukao, Easter Island. Page 14.

Upland Moai, Easter Island
Upland Moai, Easter Island. Archaeology. Page 3.

Archaeology Equipment: The Tools of the Trade
A photo essay of the tools that archaeologists use during the course of an investigation, before, during and after the excavations.

Archaeology Equipment: The Tools of the Trade
A photo essay of the tools that archaeologists use during the course of an investigation, before, during and after the excavations.

Regional Survey in Archaeology - An Introduction to Regional Survey
Regional survey involves archaeologically inspecting large tracts of land for traces of past behavior on or near the ground surface.

Bibliography of Regional Analysis
A bibliography of essential reading for the study of regional survey.

Implementing Regional Survey
Different regional surveys allow archaeologists to focus on different aspects of a society or region, providing a tailored data base.

Conducting Regional Survey in China
Archaeologist Gary Feinman discusses how he decided to conduct regional survey in Shandong province in China.

Gary Feinman on Getting Started in Regional Survey
Chicago Field Museum archaeologist Gary Feinman describes how he began his regional survey investigations in the Oaxaca Valley of Mexico, and went on to participate in what is today the largest contiguous regional survey in the world.

Regional Survey in Shandong Province
Archaeologist Gary Feinman discusses his decision to work in Shandong province.

Regional Survey Field Methods
Archaeologist Gary Feinman describes how he and his colleagues conduct regional survey.

Data Analysis in Regional Survey
Gary Feinman describes the analytical methods he and his colleagues use during the Shandong operations.

Bibliography of Regional Survey
A bibliography of essential reading for the study of regional survey.

Bibliography for Further Easter Island Research
Recent scholarly research on the studies of Easter Island's moai.

Making the Moai of Easter Island
Making moai--the haunting statues of Easter Island--involved carving a range of volcanic and sea-made materials, and then moving them into place

Crafting a Grouping of Moai
Many Easter Island moai were erected onto platforms built of a combination of sea and land resources.

The Statue Road Network on Easter Island
The Easter Island statues were moved from their quarry along a network of roads built specifically for that purpose.

The Main Quarry at Easter Island: Rano Raruku
Each moai was carved out individually from the volcanic tuff, and but not fully completed until they were moved to their final places.

The Perfect Hat to Go With Your Moai
Some Easter Island moai wear red hats, made of scoria from the Puna Pau cinder cone.

Aachen Cathedral (Germany) - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
Aachen Cathedral was first built in 805 AD, at the behest of Charlemagne. Page 19.

Basilica of Aquileia, Italy - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
The basilica of Aquileia was built in the 3rd century AD, destroyed by Attila the Hun in the 5th century, and rebuilt by the Pope in 1031. Page 18.

Beit Alpha, Israel - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
Beit Alpha, Israel - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World. Page 20.

Hagia Sophia, Turkey - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
The magnificent Hagia Sophia was built by the Byzantine emperor Justinian between the years AD 532 and 537, and achieved its final form in 563 AD. Page 17.

St. Paul's Cathedral, London, England - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
St. Paul's Cathedral, designed by architect Christopher Wren and built between 1675 and 1710, is the fourth church on this site overlooking London. Page 16.

St. Peter's Basilica, Rome - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
The ancient basilica of Old St. Peter's in what is today Vatican City was one of the earliest churches built by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine during the early Christian period in the 4th century AD. Page 15.

Moai with Coral Inlaid Eyes on Coast, Easter Island
Moai with Shell Eyes on Coast, Easter Island

Easter Island Statues - Images of the Moai of Rapa Nui
A tour of some of the thousands of moai on Easter Island in their natural habitat

Easter Island Statues - Images of the Moai of Rapa Nui
A tour of some of the thousands of moai on Easter Island in their natural habitat

Temple of Deir el-Bahri
Pharaoh Hatshepsut's fabulous temple called Deir el-Bahri is one of the loveliest temples from the New Kingdom, Egypt. Page 21.

Basilique de St-Denis, France - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
The Basilique de St-Denis is the most recent structure of several churches built on the top of a Gallo-Roman cemetery where the early Christian martyr Saint Denis [died AD 250] is said to have been buried. Page 4.

Canterbury Cathedral, England - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
The Canterbury Cathedral is probably among the most famous church edifices in the world, partly because of its famous archbishops including St. Augustine, Thomas Cranmer, and Thomas Becket, the last of which was murdered in it in 1170 AD. Page 3.

Church of St. Mary of Vllaherna, Albania - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
The Church of St. Mary of Vllaherna in Berat Albania is an Orthodox church, perched high on the side of a hill and inside the third century fortress of Berat. Page 11.

Doura Europos, Syria
Dura-Europos is the name of a Greek colony on the Euphrates River near the modern town of Salhiyé in Syria, and the site of the earliest known Jewish diaspora synagogue. Page 2.

Kushinagar Ruins, India - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
The main temple of the city of Kushinagar, India is called Mahaparinirvan Mandir; adjacent to it are the ruins of the original Buddhist monastery, and it is the place where, according to tradition, Gautama Buddha attained Mahaparinirvana, release from reincarnation, about 400 BC or so. Page 6.

Mosaic from Hamman-Lif Synagogue, Tunisia - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
This mosaic is from the 2nd-5th century AD synagogue at the town of Hamman-Lif, a suburb of Carthage, Tunisia. Page 9.

Qorikancha, Cuzco, Peru
The Qorikancha (also called Intiwasa or Sun Temple) was said to have been built by the first Inca emperor; but at the least it was enlarged in 1438 by Pachacuti, who also built Machu Picchu. Built atop it today is the Santo Domingo (St. Dominic) Convent and Church, but the smooth basalt foundations are still extant. Page 10.

Selimiye Mosque, Edirne Turkey - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
The Ottoman capital of Edirne, Turkey is famous for its architecture, including the Selimiye Mosque, built in 1575 by Mimar Sinan, one of the most famous architects of the Ottoman empire. Page 7.

St. Alban's Abbey, Hertfordshire, England - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
The site of St. Albans Abbey in Hertfordshire, England, has one of those ancient complicated histories you run into in the Old World. Page 12.

St. Catherine's Monastery, Egypt - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
St. Catherine's Monastery is a Byzantine church built at the foot of Mount Sinai, Egypt between 548 and 565 AD.

Fresco in St. Priscilla's Catacombs, Rome - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
One of the frescoes in St. Priscilla's Catacombs illustrates a woman presiding over the Eucharist (not a thing that the Christian church of a few centuries later would consider even possible), while another has been interpreted by some scholars as a representation of St. Peter. Page 14.

The Blue Mosque of Istanbul - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
The Blue Mosque of Istanbul is one of several structures in the ancient city of Constantinople. Page 8.

Tirana Mosque of Et'hem Bey, Albania - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
The Tirana Mosque of Et'hem Bey, Albania was built between 1794 and 1821. It was closed under communist rule and then reopened in 1991. Page 5.

Triumphal Cross, St. Jacobi Cathedral, Lubeck - Archaeology and the Great Churches of the World
The Triumphal Cross and Screen at St. Jacobi Cathedral in Lübeck, Germany, was constructed at the time of the building's construction, in the 15th century AD. Page 13.

How to Move a Moai
How the moai were moved from the Rano Raraku quarry has been a subject of intense interest to scholars for decades: but now we know. They walked.

Making Your Moai See (and be Seen)
The carved and inlaid eyes of the moai made of shell and coral were not put in place until the statue was set in its proper location.

Decorating Your Moai
At least a few of the moai had elaborate carvings on their backs and shoulders; and there well may have been more examples which have since eroded away.

Climate Change: The Archaeological Evidence
Archaeologists study the entire range of human life on this planet, and there have been plenty of times when we had to learn to cope--or not--with climate change. These are the lessons we need to be learning.

Climate Change: The Archaeological Evidence
Archaeologists study the entire range of human life on this planet, and there have been plenty of times when we had to learn to cope--or not--with climate change. These are the lessons we need to be learning.

Broomcorn Millet - History of Domestication
Broomcorn or broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), while today considered a weed seed only suitable for bird feed, was one of the earliest domesticated crops in an important staple in China and the world.

Bibliographic References for Broomcorn Millet
References on the science of broomcorn millet domestication. Page 2.

Sweet Potato - Domestication and Spread of the Sweet Potato
The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was first domesticated in South or Central America, and from there spread around the world. Go yams!

La Chapelle-aux-Saints, Neanderthal Site in France
La Chapelle-aux-Saints is a rockshelter located in southern France, where a skeleton of a aged Neanderthal was recovered over a century ago.

Carthage - Phoenician and Roman Colony in Tunisia
Carthage was a Phoenician colony located in what is now the country of Tunisia about 15 kilometers from the capital city of Tunis.

What and Where is Chang'an in China?
Chang'an is the name of one of the most important ancient capital cities of China.

Top Characteristics of Ancient Civilizations
Simple human societies of the past developed into more and more complex societies, for a variety of reasons and characterized by a variety of traits.

Coprolite - What is a Coprolite
Coprolite is the name given to fossil feces, preserved human excrement discovered in an archaeological context.

Wheat Domestication - History and Origins of Floury Grains
Wheat was one of the very first crops domesticated by our ancestors, some 10,000 years ago in southeastern Turkey.

Recent Studies in Wheat Domestication
Recent scholarly studies on the domestication of wheat. Page 2.

Chaco Canyon - Architectural Heart of the Anasazi
Chaco Canyon is one of the best known archaeological regions in North America: architectural beauty matched to the arid and forbidding landscape.

Coca (Cocaine) History, Domestication, and Use
Coca, from whence natural cocaine comes, has been used in South America for thousands of years, for various medicinal and spiritual purposes.

Evidence for Date Palm Domestication
Textual references, archaeological sites and bibliographic sources for the domestication of the date palm. Page 2.

Date Palm - Phoenix dactylifera L. - History and Domestication
The date palm was likely domesticated first in Mesopotamia, perhaps as long ago as 7,000 years.

Dave the Potter - Enslaved African-American Ceramic Artist
Dave the Potter was an important American ceramist, who worked in the Edgefield potteries of South Carolina, first as a slave, then as a free man.

Pit Firing Ceramics: A Book Review
Pit Firing Ceramics is a 2013 book by Dawn Whitehand, exploring the various methods and philosophies of the modern use of an ancient pottery making technique.

Coca Domestication: Evidence of Prehistoric Cocaine Use
Some details about the known archaeological evidence for the ancient use of coca leaves in the Andean mountains. Page 2.

Dorset Culture - Late Paleo-Eskimo Society
Between about 800 BC and 1200 AD, the Dorset culture were enormously adaptive hunters and gatherers, who faced dire environmental change with aplomb.

Paleo-Eskimos - Colonizing Arctic America
Paleo-Eskimo is the collective name for the supremely adaptable cultures who colonized the American Arctic beginning about 5,000 years ago.

Abydos - What and Where is Abydos
Abydos is an Early Dynastic city and necropolis in Egypt, built ca 3150 BC by Seti I and sacred to Osiris.

Angkor Wat: Temple of the Khmer Empire
Angkor Wat is a temple complex in the capital city of the Khmer Empire in Cambodia.

Spondylus: The Precolumbian Use of the Thorny Oyster
Spondylus is a warm water mollusc, and during the European Neolithic and much of South American prehistory, they had special cultural significance.

Aztec Origins and the Founding of Tenochtitlan
This page describes the mythical and archaeological origins of the Aztec people, and the founding of their capital city of Tenochtitan

Arctic Culture - Guideline to the Prehistory of Arctic Culture
The Arctic culture guideline describes the ancient cultures of the North American Arctic, from the first human settlement until European colonization

Semi-Subterranean Winter Houses - Prehistoric Arctic Housing
Arctic semi-subterranean housing was an important survival aspect of living in a cold and dangerous climate--and ongoing inter-tribal conflicts.

Recent Research into Paleo-Eskimos
Recent scholarly research on the early and late Paleoeskimo cultures of the American Arctic regions, from Alaska to Greenland. Page 2.

What Happened to the Dorset Culture?
Recent research about the Dorset hunter-gatherers of the American arctic region in Canada and Greenland. Page 2.

The Little Ice Age - How Human Cultures Respond to Climate Change
The Little Ice Age was the last painful climate change, suffered by the planet during the Middle Ages. Here are four stories about how we coped.

The Little Ice Age and Polynya
Polynyas were of immense help to arctic people surviving the shift to a colder climate during the Medieval Little Ice Age. Page 2.

Neolithic Use of Spondylus in Central Europe
Although South America is where much of the prehistoric use of Spondylus is studied, there is a variety of the mollusc native to the Mediterranean Sea. Page 2.

Top Signs of Domestication in Animals
The mechanism of domestication is an evolutionary one, and very slow; archaeological evidence for domestication of a particular animal is subtle.

Seriation - Scientific Dating Before Radiocarbon
Seriation is the first scientific dating method, invented by archaeologists in the 19th century long before radiocarbon, and still practiced today.

Why Seriation Works - How Styles Change Over Time
Seriation works because object styles change over time--just like modern day fads in clothing, automobiles, and cell phones

Seriation: A Step by Step Discussion of the Dating Technique
Seriation, also called sequence dating, was one of the first methods of scientific relative archaeological dating, invented by the archaeologist Sir William Flinders Petrie in 1899. Here's how it works.

Seriation Step 2: Graph the Data
In this step, we use Microsoft Excel to draw us a bar graph of the data from Step 1.

Seriation, Step 3 - Assemble Your Battleship Curves
Breaking apart your data representations shows a clearer picture of seriation.

Seriation Step 4 - Arranging the Data
In the final step to seriation analysis, arrange the paper strips so that battle ship curves appear; and then draw your conclusions.

Clovis points recovered from the Gault site, Texas.
A collection of Clovis points from the Paleoindian site of Gault, Texas.

Clovis at the Gault Site
A photo gallery of photographs from the Gault site, a paleoindian site in Texas with a Clovis occupation, which includes photos of Clovis points from many different sites in North America.

Career Paths in Archaeology
There are several ways to choose archaeology as a career, in addition to teaching classes at a university. Other options can be found working at a cultural resource management firm, historical society or government agency; and then there are a whole slew of specialists who work in archaeology. Here are a few of your career choices.

Books on Egyptology
A collection of books reviewed by your guide on Egypt and Egyptology.

Anthropology and Ethnology
The basis of modern archaeology is the study of human cultures, and archaeologists have been using modern culture studies to understand how their sites were formed since the 1960s.

Lamanai, Maya ruins of Belize
Lamanai (

Great Churches of the World: A Survey
A photo essay survey of some of the great churches of the world, including synagogues, mosques, temples and shrines.

Great Churches of the World: A Survey
A photo essay survey of some of the great churches of the world, including synagogues, mosques, temples and shrines.

Dead Sea Scrolls
The Dead Sea Scrolls are some 900 fragmented and complete documents recovered from eleven caves located off the western shore of the Dead Sea in Israel.

Electronic Books and Alternative Media in Archaeology
As the Internet continues to develop, exciting new resources for learning about archaeology are being created. taking advantage of the new formats and structures. Here is a selection of web-designed texts and alternate format learning tools.

Reference Books in Archaeology
This category of books includes reference works for all of us archaeo-nuts, including encyclopedias and overviews, biographies and histories of archaeology, and travel references.

Books on the Study of Archaeology
This group of new books includes texts that are directed towards gaining a broad understanding of archaeology, such as introductory texts and books for children, books that examine issues across a planet-wide range of societies, and theoretical books building underpinnings for all archaeological research.

Ptolemaic Egypt
The last great ancient period in Egypt was the Ptolemaic period, starting with Alexander the Great's conquering of Egypt in the third century BC up through the famous Cleopatra VII, who ended her life with an asp.

Bronze Age Archaeology
The invention of metallurgy marks the onset of the Bronze Age in Europe, the Middle East and the Far East.

Curation and Preservation of Artifacts
Some artifacts deteriorate rapidly after excavation; here are some techniques to help keep their unique quality.

Khmer Empire - The Angkor Civilization
The Khmer Empire is the name of an important civilization located in southeast Asia, with its heyday between AD 800 and AD 1300. From a capital city at Angkor Wat, this civilization's leaders controlled much of what is today Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and Thailand.

Back of Tyrian Shekel – Eagle on Ship's Prow
Back of Tyrian Shekel – Eagle on Ship's Prow. Page 7.

Community Rule - Dead Sea Scrolls 4Q260-366
Parchment, Hebrew language. Written 1st century B.C.E. – 1st century C.E. Also known as The Manual of Discipline, it contains rules ordering the communal life of the Dead Sea sect. The rules of life deal with the manner of joining the group, the relations between members, their way of life and their beliefs. The large number of surviving fragments of this scroll indicate its importance to the sect. Page 3.

Cooking Vessels and Jar found at Qumran
Cooking Vessels and Jar found at Qumran. Page 9.

Dates and Pits found in Qumran Caves
Dates and Pits found in Qumran Caves. Page 10.

Jars and Cup found at the Qumran Site
Jars and Cup found at the Qumran Site. Page 8.

Leather Sandals Found in the Qumran Caves
Leather Sandals Found in the Qumran Caves. Page 12.

Map of the Dead Sea Scroll Caves and Qumran
A map of the location of the Dead Sea Scroll Caves and the site of Khirbet Qumran. Page 2.

Ropes and Cables found at Wadi Murabba'at
Ropes and Cables found at Wadi Murabba'at. Page 14.

Front of Tyrian Shekel, Laureate head of Melqarth/Heracles
Front of Tyrian Shekel, Laureate head of Melqarth/Heracles. Page 6.

Wooden Comb found at Wadi Murabba'at
Wooden Comb found at Wadi Murabba'at. Page 13.

Calendrical Document - Dead Sea Scrolls Document 4Q325
This document provides a record of the Sabbaths, first days of the months, and the festivals of the Dead Sea sect by priestly division and according to the solar calendar. The Dead Sea sect used a solar calendar of 364 days in the year thus the sectarian calendars were six years long rather than one. This lunar model was victorious in the calendar wars of the period and is still the form used by normative Judaism to this very day. Page 5.

Pseudo-Ezekiel - Dead Sea Scroll Manuscript 4Q386
Parchment, Hebrew language Written 2nd century B.C.E. This manuscript is the best preserved copy of a previously unknown composition. A non-biblical vision about future events in Egypt relating to the people of Israel is revealed to Ezekiel. This text is open to much interpretation as the events and figures revealed are enigmatic. Page 4.

Top 5 Chaco Canyon Sites You Don't Want to Miss
Chaco Canyon is one of North America's most interesting archaeological sites. When you go, and you must!, here are five sites you shouldn't miss.

New Seven Wonders: The Pyramids at Giza
New Seven Wonders: Pyramids at Giza

New Seven Wonders: The Roman Colosseum (Italy)
New Seven Wonders: The Roman Colosseum (Italy). Page 2.

Carved Bone Female Figurine (style Lalinde/Gönnersdorf) from Wilczyce, Poland
Carved Bone Female Figurine (style Lalinde/Gönnersdorf) from Wilczyce, Poland. Page 6.

Chipped Stone Female Figurines (style Lalinde/Gönnersdorf) from Wilczyce, Poland
Chipped Stone Female Figurines (style Lalinde/Gönnersdorf) from Wilczyce, Poland. Page 7.

Female figurines from Wilczyce, Poland
Female figurines from Wilczyce, Poland. 1-8, flint, 9, ivory, 10, bone. Drawing Ewa Guminska (from Fiedorczuk et al. 2007. Page 2.

The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Archaeological Site of Qumran
A photo essay on the Dead Sea Scrolls and the archaeological site of Qumran, where they were discovered, with photographs provided by the Israeli Antiquities Authority for an exhibition at the Pacific Science Center called Discovering the Dead Sea Scrolls.

The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Archaeological Site of Qumran
A photo essay on the Dead Sea Scrolls and the archaeological site of Qumran, where they were discovered, with photographs provided by the Israeli Antiquities Authority for an exhibition at the Pacific Science Center called Discovering the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Caracol, Maya Ruins of Belize
The site of Caracol (the snail) is a large Classic-period Maya site located on the Vaca Plateau of central Belize in the Cayo district. Page 3.

A Photo Tour of Belize Archaeological Ruins - Maya Sites of Belize
Photographs and information about a few of the archaeology ruins of the beautiful country of Belize.

Top 10 Things to Know About the Aztecs
Short list of the main facts and aspects of Aztec culture

Ankgor Civilization The Khmer Empire in Southeast Asia
The Angkor Civilization (or Khmer Civilization) is the name given to an important civilization of southeast Asia, including all of Cambodia and southeastern Thailand and northern Vietnam

Inuit Wayfinding and GPS Technologies
An ethnographic study reported in Current Anthropology describes an amalgam of past and present technologies and discusses what is lost and gained when traditional methods of mapping become affected by the adoption of new technologies.

Pharaoh Hatshepsut's Deir el-Bahri Temple in Egypt
Hatshepsut's Deir el-Bahri (also spelled Deir el-Bahari) is one of the most beautiful temples in Egypt, built by the architects of Queen Hatshepsut.

Ostrich Egg Shells
Ostrich eggs have been consumed by human beings, and their shells have been repurposed as canteens and made into beads, for at least 100,000 years.

Archaeological sites and studies of the Angkor Civilization
Archaeological sites and recent reports on the magnificent Angkor civilization in Southeast Asia. Page 2.

Rumiqolqa - Primary Source of Incan Masonry
Rumiqolqa is the name of a principle quarry used by Inca stonemasons to mine some of the beautiful stonework of the temples and palaces in Cusco.

Identifying Post-Marital Residence Archaeologically
Post-marital residence patterns are an important part of understanding the social organization of a community. Archaeological studies can help identify them.

Beads and Jars from Ostrich Eggs
Sources and other information about ostrich egg shells. Page 2.

Machu Picchu - Inca Royal Estate and Ceremonial Center
Machu Picchu lies on a cloud-draped ridge between the two mountain tops, part of the estate of the Inca king Pachacuti, one of the glories of the ancient past of South America.

Monte Alban - Capital City of the Zapotec Civilization
Monte Alban was the capital city of the Zapotec Civilization, sited 1400 meters above sea level in the Valley of Oaxaca of central Mexico. T

The Ahmose Tempest Stele
The Ahmose Tempest Stele is a huge block of ancient Egyptian calcite that may, or may not, be a retelling of the effects of the Santorini eruption.

Agave or Maguey - Plant of Ancient Mesoamerica
Agave Americana (also called maguey) is an plant used throughout Mesoamerica as fiber for clothing and textiles and to produce alcoholic beverages.

The Tophet at Carthage: Ritual Cemetery of Punic Phoenicians
The Tophet of Carthage is one of eleven known Punic cemeteries that includes the cremated urn burials of very young children and animals.

The History of Plazas, Patios and Open Spaces
Plazas, opens spaces in communities that allow the people to come together, are nearly as old as the first cities, at least 9400 years ago.

The Plague of Athens
The Plague of Athens occurred at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War in Greece, and the lethal combination of war and disease are widely blamed for the end of the great Classical Greek civilization.

Bibliographic Sources for the Plague of Athens
Recent scholarly articles on the Plague of Athens. Page 2.

Treblinka: Hitler's Killing Machine (a review)
The 2014 video from the Smithsonian Channel called

Archaeological Research on Plazas
Recent research on the history of plazas, patios and other open spaces. Page 2.

The Gushi Kingdom - Archaeology of the Subeixi Culture in Turpan
The Gushi Kingdom, known in the archaeological literature as Subeixi culture, were the Eurasian nomads who first settled the arid desert of the Turpan Basin.

Lifestyles of the Subeixi
The Subeixi were accomplished pastoralists and farmers, as well as craftsworkers in metal, pottery and wood. Page 2.

Sources and Further Reading on the Gushi Kingdom
A collection of recent scientific sources in English on the Gushi Kingdom, or Subeixi culture of the Turpan basin, China. Page 3.