Archaeology Sitemap - Page 3 2016-09-26

Ludlow Coal Massacre
In April 1914, the Colorado National Guard opened fire on a tent city of striking minors and their families, killing 25 people. The outcome of the Ludlow Coal Massacre led to the reformation of labor practices in the country; and so the site is #1 on our list of battle sites to visit.

Adobe Mud Brick Mosque in Komio, Mali
Mosque, Komio, Mali, 2000. Archaeology.

New Seven Wonders Chichén Itzá - Mexico
New Seven Wonders Chichén Itzá - Mexico. Page 6.

The New Seven Wonders: Machu Picchu (Peru)
The New Seven Wonders: Machu Picchu (Peru). Page 4.

New Seven Wonders: Petra - Jordan
New Seven Wonders: Petra (Jordan). Page 5.

Stonehenge - England - Left off the New Seven Wonders
Stonehenge - Left off the New Seven Wonders. Page 8.

The New Seven Wonders: The Great Wall of China
The New Seven Wonders: The Great Wall of China. Page 7.

The New Seven Wonders: Taj Mahal (India)
The New Seven Wonders: Taj Mahal (India). Page 3.

Angkor Wat - Omitted from the New Seven Wonders
Angkor Wat was left out of the new Seven Wonders, something reader Jan S. cannot understand. Page 9.

Arctic Architecture - Paleo-Eskimo and Neo-Eskimo Houses
Architecture of the ancient Paleo-Eskimo and Neo-Eskimo communities in the polar region of America reflected both the environment and social demands.

The Many Subfields of Archaeology
Archaeology has many subfields--including both ways of thinking about archaeology and ways of studying archaeology

The Many Subfields of Archaeology
Archaeology has many subfields--including both ways of thinking about archaeology and ways of studying archaeology

Ancient Star Watching - Prehistoric Observatories to Watch the Skies
People began building stone monuments to track the movements the sun, moon and stars at least 10,000 years ago, and probably a lot longer. Here are my favorite...

Inca Empire Archaeological Sites
Inca archaeological sites come in all sizes and shapes: perfectly understandable for an empire that rose to include one million square kilometers at the height of its power in the 15th century AD.

House of the Faun at Pompeii - Walking Tour
The House of the Faun is among the most visited of the domestic ruins at Pompeii, famous for its mosaics and its bronze statue of a dancing faun.

House of the Faun at Pompeii - Floor Plan
The floor plan of the House of the Faun is comparable in size and shape to eastern Hellenistic palaces of the same era such as Delos.

Entryway Mosaic - House of the Faun at Pompeii
At the entryway of the House of the Faun is a welcome mat made of a mosaic of tiles, calling Hail to you! in Latin.

Tuscan Atrium and Dancing Faun - House of the Faun at Pompeii
The House of the Faun is called that because visible through the main doorway was a bronze statue of a dancing faun.

Reconstructed Little Peristyle and Tuscan Atrium, House of the Faun at Pompeii
North of the dancing faun is a mosaic floor followed by the peristyle at the center of the house.

Little Peristyle and Tuscan Atrium ca. 1900
This ca. 1900 photograph of the Little Peristyle and Tuscan Atrium illustrates how much damage the house has suffered in the last century of being exposed to the elements.

The Alexander Mosaic - The House of the Faun at Pompeii's Alexander Mosaic
The famous Alexander Mosaic, believed to represent an important battle of Alexander the Great, was original in the floor of the House of the Faun.

Detail, Alexander Mosaic, House of the Faun at Pompeii
The Alexander Mosaic is made in the roman artstyle called

Large Peristyle, House of the Faun at Pompeii
The Large Peristyle in the House of the Faun may well served as a large garden or even a field where plants or animals were kept.

Sources for the House of the Faun
Sources used to write this photo essay on the House of the Faun at Pompeii

A Walking Tour of Olympia in Greece
Photographer Aschwin Prein provides a walking tour of the ancient Greek classical site of Olympia, the original location of the Olympic Games. Excavations at the site were the direct impetus for the reinstitution of the games, 1700 years after the games were banned.

Lighting the Olympic Flame
Lighting the Olympic Flame: the Olympic Torch Relay begins at this altar in the Temple of Hera at Olympia.

Excavations at Olympia, Greece
Excavations at Olympia, Greece: a photograph of the ruins at Olympia by Aschwin Prein

The Stadium at Olympia, Greece
The Stadium at Olympia, Greece: a photograph of the entry of the stadium at Olympia, by Aschwin Prein.

The Temple of Hera at Olympia
The Temple of Hera at Olympia is the oldest monumental temple in Greece.

Greek Baths at Olympia
Greek Baths at Olympia: Olympia's swimming pool and bath complex, built during the 5th century BC.

Palaestra at Olympia
Palaestra at Olympia: A photograph of the Palaestra at Olympia, built during the 3rd century BC

Villa of the Roman Emperor Nero at Olympia
Villa of the Roman Emperor Nero at Olympia: Eventually, the Romans moved into Olympia, and in the first century AD, the emperor Nero had a villa built at the site.

Workshop of Pheidias at Olympia
Workshop of Pheidias at Olympia: a photo of the ruins of the building where one of the seven wonders of the world was made: the Statue of Zeus.

The Temple of Zeus at Olympia
The Temple of Zeus at Olympia was built by the Greek architect Lidon

The Life of a Field Technician - New Places, New People, New Languages
The life of a field technician is tough, but never dull. Page 5.

Can I Work in Foreign Countries? The Life of a Field Technician
Will I be able to travel to foreign countries as I work as a field technician? Page 4.

Adobe Mud Brick Coumound, Sirigu, Ghana
Adobe Mud Brick Coumound, Sirigu, Ghana. Page 3.

Adobe Mud Brick Ginna House in Ogol Ley, Sanga, Mali
Adobe Mud Brick Ginna House in Ogol Ley, Sanga, Mali, photo taken in 1999 by James Morris. Page 2.

Sacred Pool and Chamber at Hattusha, Capital City of the Hittite Empire
Adjacent to the sacred pools at Hattusha are underground chambers, of unknown use, possibly for storage or religious reasons. Page 7.

Hieroglyph Chamber: Hattusha, Capital City of the Hittite Empire
The Hieroglyph Chamber is located near the southern Citadel. The reliefs carved into the walls represent Hittite deities and rulers of Hattusha. Page 8.

Demon Carving at Yazilikaya: Hattusha, Capital City of the Hittite Empire
Yazilikaya is a rock sanctuary located just outside the city walls of Hattusha, and it is known world wide for its numerous carved rock reliefs. Page 13.

Yazilikaya: Rock Shrine of the Ancient Hittite Civilization: Hattusha, Capital City of the Hittite Empire
Yazilikaya (the House of the Weather God) is a rock sanctuary located up against a rock outcrop outside of the HIttite city of Hattusha. Page 12.

The Upper City of Hattusha, Capital City of the Hittite Empire
A general overview of the city of Hattusha and an introduction to the capital city of the Hittite empire and its archaeology

The Lion Gate at Hattusha: City of the Hittites
The southwestern gate of the upper city of Hattusha was guarded by a pair of stone lions standing at the base of a parabola arch and guard towers. Page 3.

Lion Water Basin at Hattusha, Capital City of the Hittite Empire
On the road from the palace at Buyukkale, right in front of the Great Temple's northern gate, is this five-meter long water basin. Page 5.

The Great Temple of Hattusha, Capital City of the Hittite Empire
The Great Temple at Hattusha was built during the reign of Hattusili III, during the height of the Hittite Empire. Page 4.

Underground Chamber at Hattusha, Capital City of the Hittite Empire
One of eight subterranean chambers or 'posterns' lying underneath the old city of Hattusha, and among the oldest structures in the Hittite capital. Page 10.

The Lower City of Hattusha, Capital City of the Hittite Empire
The lower city of the Hittite Empire capital of Hattusha is the oldest part of the city, built in the early 18th century BC by the Hatti civilization. Page 2.

The Palace of Buyukkale: Hattusha, Capital City of the Hittite Empire
The Palace or Fortress of Buyukkale contains the ruins at least two structures, the earliest from the pre-Hittite period, a later Hittite temple above. Page 11.

Relief Carving, Yazilikaya: Hattusha, Capital City of the Hittite Empire
This rock relief at Yazilikaya shows a carving of the Hittite king Tudhaliya IV being embraced by his personal god Sarruma. Page 14.

Cultic Pool at Hattusha, Capital City of the Hittite Empire
At least two cultic water basins, one decorated with crouching lion relief, the other undecorated, were part of the religious practices at Hattusha. Page 6.

Underground Passage at Hattusha, Capital City of the Hittite Empire
A triangular stone passage is one of several subterranean passages which travel beneath the lower city of the Hittite capital of Hattusha. Page 9.

Yazilikaya Relief Carving: Hattusha, Capital City of the Hittite Empire
This carving at the rock shrine of Yazilikaya illustrates two female gods, with long pleated skirts, curly-toed shoes, earrings and high headdresses. Page 15.

The New Seven Wonders of the World
A quick photo tour of the new seven wonders of the world--plus some extras that readers say should be in there, too.

Hattusha, Capital of the Hittite Empire: A Photo Essay
A photo essay of the ruins of Hattusha, the capital city of the great Hittite empire that ruled what is now Turkey from 1650 to 1200 BC.

Hattusha, Capital of the Hittite Empire: A Photo Essay
A photo essay of the ruins of Hattusha, the capital city of the great Hittite empire that ruled what is now Turkey from 1650 to 1200 BC.

Mawangdui and Silk Textiles
Lady Dai's Han Dynasty tomb contained over 200 silk manuscripts in wonderful condition.

Traveling the Silk Road - A Photo Essay
A photo essay on the archaeological sites and cities of the ancient Silk Road, in celebration of an exhibit at the American Museum of Natural History.

Camel Caravan on the Silk Road
The massive network of trails called the Silk Road included 4,600 miles (7,400 kilometers) across deserts and mountains; these roads were largely traveled by one method: camel caravan

Camel Caravan at the Traveling the Silk Road Exhibit
The Traveling the Silk Road exhibits opens with a life-size camel models decked out to head out on their trip across Asia.

Samarkand Fruit Stand
The Silk Road was studded with markets and oases, stocked with goods from points all along the Silk Road.

Turfan Night Market on the Silk Road
Turfan is an ancient oasis on the Silk Road, located in China. The American Museum of Natural History exhibit includes a reproduction of a market in this city.

Traveling by Dhow on the Silk Road
Some of the materials along the Silk Road traveled by boats, including dhows, a style of Arab sailing ships.

Arab Dhow at the American Museum of Natural History
The AMNH exhibit entitled

Astrolabes and the Silk Road
Astrolabes were a useful instrument for navigation along the Silk Road, particularly in vast regions or on oceans.

Working Astrolabe at the AMNH
A working model of an astrolabe makes up part of the exhibit

Oc Eo and the Silk Road
The Funan culture site of Oc Eo was discovered by the Wu Dynasty Chinese in the 3rd century AD.

Chang'An at the Eastern End of the Silk Road
Chang'an is a Han, Sui and Tang Dynasty capital city, considered the eastern end of the Silk Road.

Ancient Sustainable Cities - Past Successes in the Urban Green Movement
About thirty ancient communities learned the trick on how to sustain the enormous challenges of feeding and sustaining people in an urban environment.

Khmer Empire - Southeastern Civilization of Angkor Wat
The Khmer Empire is the name of a large and complex civilization which ruled a major chunk of Southeast Asia for five hundred years between 800 and 1300 AD.

10 Unknown Ancient Empires
Everyone knows of some ancient civilizations, either from World History classes in school, from books or films, or from television specials on the Discovery Channel, the BBC or Public Broadcasting. Ancient Rome, Ancient Greece, Ancient Egypt, all of these are covered again and again in our books, magazines, and television shows. But there are so many interesting, less well-known civilizations! Here's an admittedly biased selection of some of them and why they are not to be forgotten.

Archaeology Around the World
Archaeology is practiced in all of the seven continents and most of the countries in the world. Archaeologists come from many of these countries as well. Here you'll find resources both to the cultural histories of the different places in the world, as well as the research institutions and archaeologists native to those places.

Early Bonito Phase Chacoan Great Houses
Construction on the earliest Great Houses in the Chaco Canyon began in the 9th century AD, and they include the best-beloved and largest: Pueblo Bonito.

Guide to Chacoan Great Houses - Resources and Websites
If you're planning a visit to Chaco Canyon, use this guide to read up and get a preview of the variations to look for in the Chacoan Great Houses.

Late Classic  Bonito Phase Great Houses
The last Great Houses built in Chaco Canyon were in the 12th century AD.

Early Classic Bonito Phase Great Houses
Early Late Classic houses built in the 11th century AD include the second and third largest Great Houses, Chetro Ketl and Pueblo del Arroyo.

Nara (Heijo-kyo) - The First International City in Japan
The beauty and integrity of Nara's 8th century architecture is the result of cautious highway construction policies that take history seriously.

History of Archaeology - Is the Bible Fact or Fiction?
The history of archaeology took a huge step forward when scholars attempted to tie the stories reported in ancient history to archaeological ruins.

The Atlatl: 17,000 Year Old Hunting Technology
The atlatl is a sophisticated combination hunting tool or weapon, formed out of a short dart with a point socketed into a longer shaft.

Prehistoric Stone Tools Categories and Terms
This glossary of stone tool types includes both ground and chipped stone tools, as well as general terms used to reference stone tools.

What Is History? - A Collection of Definitions
Drop in on a collection of quotes from historians--some professional, some decidedly not--trying their hand at defining the dark art of history.

Toltec Empire - Semi-Mythical Legend of the Aztecs
The Toltecs were a semi-mythical legend told by the Aztecs about their ancient ancestors, who had an ideal civilization and invented art and science.

Quetzalcoatl - Pan-Mesoamerican Feathered Serpent God
The Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, the Feathered Serpent, is one of the most famous pre-Columbian deities, worshiped by many different Mesoamerican cultures.

The Tongan State - Prehistoric Polity in Oceania
The Tongan State was a powerful political and economic force controlling over 170 islands in the Polynesian Islands between 1200 and 1850 AD.

Garum Fish Sauce - How the Romans Got Their MSG
Garum was a madly popular Roman fish sauce with a very potent (and readily identifiable) modern-sounding ingredient: MSG.

Aztlan, The Mythical Homeland of the Aztec-Mexica
Aztlan is the mythical homeland from which the Aztec/Mexica migrated to the Valley of Mexico in the 13th century.

Archaeology Glossary: A Terms
Archaeological glossary entries from A-Group culture through Aztec civilization.

Damascus Steel - Ancient Sword Making Techniques
The production method of Damascus steel, the legendary steel blade of the Islamic civilization, has been cracked with modern methods of alchemy.

Lapita Culture - Founding Civilization of Polynesia
The Lapita culture is the name archaeologists have given to the group of people who settled parts of Oceania some 3,000 years ago.

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) - The History of Domestication
Recent evidence suggests that barley (Hordeum vulgare) was domesticated at least twice, once in the Fertile Crescent, and once in central Asia.

Archaeological Short Courses
Many other opportunities to study archaeology or archaeological related fields abound; here's a sampling of short courses planned for this year.

Frequently Asked Questions about Archaeology Education
Have a question about going to college, selecting a college, finding funding or studying archaeology before you get to college? Check here for these and other questions.

Education - Preparing for a Career in Archaeology
To become a working archaeologist, you need an education, beginning with a solid high school education, a Bachelor's degree, a Master's degree, and in some cases a PhD, depending on what you want your career to be. Here's how to get yourself on the path to an archaeology career.

Archaeology FAQ: How do I get to be an Archaeologist?
What kind of job can I get in archaeology? Does it pay well? What is a typical day like? An FAQ for aspiring archaeologists.

Specific Rock Art Sites
One of the first webpages on the Internet was one dedicated to the site of Lascaux, and it is still one of the most beautiful. There are many other websites dedicated to presenting information about this most delicate of art; here are some of the best.

Recent Books on the Study of Rock Art
Rock art, also called petroglyphs and pictographs or rock painting, has been the impetus for a number of really great, really beautiful books. Here's a great sample of the latest.

Cave Paintings and Rock Art
Cave paintings and other forms of rock art are the very first nonportable art in the world, pecked and painted and scratched and smudged onto the walls of caves and on outcropped rock surfaces.

Ochre - The Oldest Known Natural Pigment in the World
The natural yellow-red-brown pigment known as ochre was humankind's first paint pot, used by our hominid ancestors nearly 300,000 years ago.

Saffron - History and Domestication of Crocus sativus
The spice saffron is used for its aroma and flavor, and the ludicrously expensive spice has many other uses throughout its four thousand year history.

Maya Blue - Distinctive Color Used by Maya Artists
Maya Blue is what scholars call a pigment used by the different Maya polities to decorate pots, sculpture and murals.

Recent Studies on the Ancient Pigment Maya Blue
Recent research on the Maya blue pigment as it related to the people and civilization of the ancient Maya people in Mesoamerica. Page 2.

Archaeology Glossary: R Terms
A guide to the obscure terminology of archaeology for the letter R, from Race and Racism to Runic Writing.

Hilazon Tachtit (Israel) - Natufian Shamanism?
Hilazon Tachtit is a cave in Israel, where a possible shaman was buried, and a feast held in her honor, some 12,000 years ago.

Archaeology Glossary: H Terms
Archaeological terms defined from Hadar Formation through Hyksos.

The Archaeology of the Mesolithic Period
The Mesolithic period is traditionally that time period in the Old World between the last glaciation (ca. 10,000 years BP) and the beginning of the Neolithic (ca. 3000 years BP). During this period, humans hunted and fished, began to learn how to domesticate crops, developed ritual behaviors and began to live in settlements. The Mesolithic is comparable to the Archaic period in the America continents, and those kinds of sites and information are collected here as well.

Archaeology Terms from Aegean Cultures to Altamira Cave
Dictionary entries in archaeology beginning with Ae, Af, Ag, Ah, Ai, Aj, Ak, and Al, from Aegean Cultures to Altamira Cave.

Recent Scientific Research on Cattle Domestication
Lactase persistence and cattle; recent scientific articles written on the history of cattle domestication. Page 2.

Cattle (Bos spp) - The History of Cow Domestication
The history of the relationship between humans and cattle is a long and varied one, with at least two and perhaps three domestication events.

Behistun Inscription - Message to the Persian Empire
The Behistun inscription is a

The Palace of Minos at Knossos in Ancient Crete
The Palace of Minos is a Minoan palace of extraordinary size and beauty, begun during the prepalatial period of the Minoan civilization.

Artifacts and Reconstruction at Minos Palace at Knossos
Ritual objects, fabulous frescos and walls built with reflective gypsum are some of the remarkable characteristics of the Palace of Minos. Page 2.

Glossary Entries between Pecos Pueblo and Petroglyphs
Dictionary entries for words used in archaeology between with Pe through Pg.

Recent Research on Mesopotamian Clay Tokens
Recent research on Mesopotamian clay tokens, and their role in the development of the ancient Sumerian language of cuneiform. Page 2.

Clay Tokens: Neolithic Seeds of Mesopotamian Writing
The first steps in the Mesopotamian writing system were clay tokens not that different from the ones we play board games with, but 10,000 years ago.

Neolithic Revolution
The Neolithic period is when humans first learned to tend plants and animals and eventually domesticate crops and animals. This page links to resources about the Neolithic period.

Domestications of Animals and Plants
Domestication means altering the behaviors, size and genetics of animals and plants. This page includes information about the history of plant and animal domestication.

Peak Sanctuary - What is a Minoan Peak Sanctuary
A peak sanctuary is a type of shrine, a cult or ritual space associated with the Minoan cultures of the Bronze Age Aegean.

The Persian Empire: Cyrus the Great's Immense Expansion
At its height about 500 BC, the Persian empire was the largest empire in the world, including Asia as far as the Indus River, Greece, and North Africa.

Aztec Triple Alliance - Founding the Aztec Empire
The Triple Alliance was a military and political pact formed by three city-states of the Valley of Mexico, forming what was to become the Aztec Empire.

Coatepec - The Sacred Mountain of the Aztecs
Coatepec, or Snake Mountain, is one of the most sacred places of Aztec mythology and religion and the birthplace of the Aztec patron god Huitzilopochtli.

Aztec Creation Myth - The Legend of the Fifth Sun
In the 16th century, the Aztecs believed their world had been created and destroyed in violence four times before, and had reason to expect it again.

The Aztec Capital City of Tenochtitlan at Mexico City
The Aztec capital city called Tenochtitlan was located a marsh in the middle of a lake surrounded by mountains--a place now called Mexico City.

Beginner's Guide to the Persian Achaemenid Dynasty
The Achaemenids were the ruling dynasty of Cyrus the Great over the Persian empire, from 550 to 330 BC, when it was conquered by Alexander the Great.

Hunter Gatherers - People Who Live on the Land
Hunter gatherers is the name anthropologists have given to people who rely on a combined living of hunting game and gathering wild plants.

Pochteca - Elite Long Distance Traders of Mesoamerica
Aztec traveling merchants, the Pochteca, were the economic basis of Aztec society and a secretive and deeply mistrusted guild of elite traders.

Ice Free Corridor - Clovis Pathway into Americas
Since at least the 1930s, the Ice Free Corridor hypothesis has been an accepted human colonization route for the American continents.

Glossary Entries between Plains Archaic and Poverty Point
Dictionary entries for words used in archaeology between with Pl through Po.

White Horses, Thoroughbreds and Przewalski's Horse
Scholarly studies focused on Przewalski's horse, thoroughbreds and white horses have told us about quite a bit (pun!) about horse domestication. Page 2.

Horse History - Domestication of Equus caballus
The history of the domesticated horse (Equus caballus) is complex, the results of the spread of this marvelous creature throughout the world.

Bibliographic Sources for Horse Domestication
Recent scholarly articles on horse domestication. Page 3.

Archaeology Dictionary and Encyclopedia - Glossary of Archaeology Terms
Learn archaeology one word at a time. More than a list of 500+ words and definitions - these are mini-lessons in archaeology. Explore definitions, illustrations, and overviews of a variety of cultures, civilizations, and sites. Or take a side trip into biographies, more than 350 brief biographical sketches of archaeologists of the past and present.

Archaeological Dating: Stratigraphy and Seriation
A short course on the various dating methods used in archaeological science over the centuries. Part 1: Relative Dating, Stratigraphy and Seriation

Archaeological Dating: Roman Coins and Tree Rings
A short course on the various dating methods used in archaeological science over the centuries. Part II: Chronological Markers and Dendrochronology. Page 2.

Archaeological Dating: The Radiocarbon Revolution
A short course on the various dating methods used in archaeological science over the centuries. Part III: The Radiocarbon Revolution. Page 3.

Thermoluminescence, Fission Track and Other Dating
A plethora of new archaeological dating techniques have been developed since the radiocarbon revolution of the 1940s. Page 4.

A Few Cautionary Notes about Archaeological Dating
A short course on the various dating methods used in archaeological science over the centuries. Part V: A Few Cautionary Notes. Page 5.

Arrowheads: Widespread Myths and Little Known Facts
Arrowheads are often the subject of a number of myths, legends and misconceptions; here is a description of the top myths and the top unknown facts.

Arrowheads: Top Little Known Facts About Projectile Points
Yes, there are many myths and legends about arrowheads: but there are also facts about the projectile point that are unknown to the general public. Page 2.

Chicken Domestication in America: The Latest Info
Bibliographic sources on the domestication history of the chicken. Page 2.

Domestication History of Chickens (Gallus domesticus)
The history of chickens and when they were domesticated is something of a puzzle, but most likely it was about 8,000 years ago in Thailand.

Early Stone Age
The Lower Paleolithic period, roughly between 1.5 million and 250,000 years ago, is when our hominin ancestors Homo erectus and Australopithecus lived on the earth.

Middle Stone Age
The Middle Paleolithic period, between about 250,000 and 45,000 years ago, saw the rise of the hominids, and several competing hominid types--Homo erectus, Homo sapiens and Neanderthals--sharing the earth.

The Stone Age
The Stone Age begins in Africa with the first anatomically modern humans, perhaps as early as 200,000 years ago; and the first Stone Age sites outside of Africa begins in the middle east about 100,000 years ago; these are followed (fairly arbitrarily) by the Upper Paleolithic of about 40,000 years ago.

Death on the Nile: Coffee Table Book, Egyptian Mummies
Death on the Nile is a luxuriously illustrated coffee table book, covering the ancient techniques of building coffins for ancient Egyptian mummies.

Cotton Domestication HIstory in the Americas
American cotton was later than the Old World, but likely domesticated twice, once in North America and once in South America. Page 2.

Tlaloc - The Aztec God of Rain and Fertility
The Aztec rain god, Tlaloc, was one of the most important in the Aztec pantheon, and distantly related to rain gods of other Mesoamerican cultures.

Shihuangdi's Terracotta Army: The Charioteers of Shihuangdi
Pit 2 was closed for reconstruction purposes in 2007: it is smaller than the first pit, but contains chariots, cavalry and horses.

Shihuangdi's Terracotta Army Infantry Rank and File
Pits discovered at Shihuangdi's tomb were excavated by his workers, and built a brick floor and a series of rammed earth partitions and tunnels to support the enormous weight.

Emperor Qin's Terracotta Soldiers: How They Were Made
This photo essay illustrates some of the lesser-known aspects of Emperor Qin Shihuangdi's army made of terracotta, discovered by researchers since 1974.

Shihuangdi's Terracotta Army: Bravely Decorated Soldiers
The soldiers in Shi Huangdi's tomb vary in height by rank: the higher rank the person illustrated, the taller his statue.

Shihuangdi's Terracotta Army: Seasoned Warrior
Each of the soldier's faces in the terracotta army is that of an individual.

Emperor Qin's Tomb -- Not Just Terracotta Soldiers
The exquisite terracotta army of the first Qin Dynasty ruler Shihuangdi represents the emperor’s ability to control his newly unified kingdom.

Where are the Best Term Paper Topic Ideas? Archaeology!
The hardest thing a student does is pick a research paper topic. Archaeology, two million years of human behavior, is an excellent starting place.

Bactrian Camel - History and Domestication
The bactrian camel has two humps, and it is adapted to cold deserts in the vast stepped plains of Mongolia and China. Page 2.

Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius)
The dromedary or one-hump camel, is the famous ship of the desert, the key to an international overland trade route centered in the Arabian peninsula.

Archaeology Glossary Entries from B-Group to Battlefield Archaeology
Dictionary entries in archaeology beginning with B and Ba, from B-Group Culture to Battlefield Archaeology.

How to Conduct Background Research for an Archaeology Project
Background research is a vital step in any research project: fortunately, there are plenty of ways to find out what scientists have already learned.

What Does the Archaeological Dating "cal BP" mean?
The radiocarbon dating designation of

The Domestication History of Cotton (Gossypium)
Cotton was domesticated four times, independently in India, Arabia, Mesoamerica and South America; and everywhere among the earliest non-food crops.

The History of How Dogs Were Domesticated
When and where the partnership of dog and humans first occurred is currently under considerable debate.

How Did Modern Dog Breeds Arise?
Just exactly when dogs were first domesticated is still a mystery, but there is considerable evidence showing that proliferation of breeds is recent. Page 2.

A.D. (or AD) - How Christianity Underlies our Calendars
The initials A.D. are an abbreviation for the Latin phrase

The Koster Site - 9,000 Years on the Illinois River
Archaeological investigations into the Koster site in Illinois revealed a deeply buried series of human settlements, some nearly 9,000 years old

Maya or Mayan - What is the most accepted term
Even if on the web the two terms

Barley Beer - Brew from Mesopotamia, Europe--and China?
Barley beer was an alcoholic brew invented in Mesopotamia but made population by Iron Age Celts throughout central Europe

Glossary Entries between Shamanism and SIte Formation Processes
Dictionary entries in archaeology beginning with Sh and Si, from Shamanism to Site Formation Processes.

Neanderthals - Sites and Debates
Neanderthals were a type of early hominid that lived on the planet earth between about 200,000 to 30,000 years ago. In some places, Neanderthals co-existed with modern humans for about 10,000 years in some places, and the two species may have interbred.

Excavation History at El Sidrón
The Neanderthal site at El Sidron was discovered in 1994, and relevant scholarly research has included a wide range of studies, from cutmarks to aDNA research. Page 2.

El Sidron - Evidence for Neanderthal Cannibalism
El Sidron is an archaeological site in the Asturias region of northern Spain where the remains of at least 12 Neanderthals have been recovered.

Broad Spectrum Revolution - Giving Up the Paleo Diet
The Broad Spectrum Revolution (or BSR) refers to a radical shift in subsistence from hunting to gathering, beginning at least 15,000 years ago.

Ancient Daily Life
Archaeological studies of how people learned to control their daily lives: diet and subsistence, housing, tools, fishing and agriculture, writing and sailing, cities and farmsteads.

Inventions - Human Inventions Throughout Prehistory - Inventions
Technological innovations are what human beings are best at. Here is a collection of information about human inventions such as writing, pottery, and the wheel.

Seasonality - The Archaeology of Changing Seasons
Archaeological seasonality involves identifying the time when cultural or natural activities or events occur, to better understand human behavior.

Foods of the Ancient Past - Diet and Subsistence
How did people make a living in the past? Here are some studies about ancient foods, both grown and harvested.

Secrets of the Dead: Teotihuacan's Lost Kings, A Review
The Secrets of the Dead video called Teotihuacan's Lost Kings describe and contextualizes the discovery of tunnels beneath the temples

The Study of Shell Middens in Archaeology
What's for dinner? Archaeological studies of shell middens throughout time, including an extensive review of the published literature.

Midden - An Archaeological Garbage Dump
A midden is the archaeological term for a trash heap,an archaeological treasure of food stuff and other organic material, broken crockery and tools.

What Kinds of Feasts Do Archaeologists Recognize?
Bibliographic references on the anthropology and archaeology of feasting. Page 2.

Feasting - Archaeology and History of Celebrating Food
Feasting is the practice of sitting down and eating together on a ritual basis: and an important class of activity in past and present societies.

Olive History - Archaeology of Olive Domestication
Olive history is complicated by the fact that the olive was domesticated at least nine times, the earliest beginning at least 8000 years ago.

Dust Veil of AD 536 - Widespread Environmental Disaster
The dust veil of AD 536 was a period of a year to 18 months when the world experienced some kind of calamity, based on historic and tree ring records.

Ragnarok, the Vikings and the Dust Veil of 536
The causes of the Dust Veil of 536 have not as yet been definitively identified--but there are lots of suggestions for possible sources. Page 2.

Teotihuacan (Mexico, Mexico)
The great prehispanic city of Teotihuacan, some 40 miles from today's Mexico City, ruled much of what is now the country between 150 BC and AD 600.

Mexican Archaeological Sites
Archaeological sites in Mexico, including sites from Maya, Aztec, Toltec, Olmec, and other ancient cultures.

Taposiris Magna - Port City of Ptolemaic Egypt
Taposiris Magna or

Chichen Itza - Chac or Witz Masks
The use of Chaac masks--now known as Witz masks--are representative of the Puuc cultural aspects at Chichen Itza. Page 2.

Great Ball Court, Chichen Itza, Mexico
A Walking Tour of Chichen Itza - Ancient Maya Ruins of Mexico. Page 11.

Perfectly Puuc - Puuc Style Architecture at Chichen Itza
Chichen Itza - Perfectly Puuc - Puuc House at Chichen Itza - A Walking Tour of Chichen Itza - Ancient Maya Ruins of Mexico

Sweat Bath Interior, Chichen Itza, Mexico
A sweat bath at Chichen Itza is a Toltec addition, where an interior room was used as a sort of sauna. Page 13.

The Market (Mercado) at Chichen Itza
El Mercado (the Market) at Chichen Itza was a large open (unpartitioned) gallery space with a patio. Page 8.

Caracol (The Observatory), Chichen Itza, Mexico
Caracol or the Observatory at Chichen Itza may have been used as an observation chamber to watch the movements of the planet Venus. Page 12.

Colonnade at the Temple of the Warriors at Chichen Itza
Colonnade at the Temple of the Warriors are Ancient Maya Ruins of Mexico. Page 14.

El Castillo (Kukulcan or the Castle), Chichen Itza, Mexico
A close up of the ballustrade at El Castillo. Page 17.

El Castillo (Kukulcan or the Castle), Chichen Itza, Mexico
El Castillo (Kukulcan or the Castle) at Chichen Itza is visited by a slew of people at the equinoxes, because of the effects on its ballustrade. Page 16.

The High Priest's Grave (Osario or Ossuary) at Chichen Itza
The High Priest's Grave (Osario or Ossuary) at Chichen Itza is a temple with a communal graveyard beneath its foundations. Page 5.

Jaguar Throne, Chichen Itza, Mexico
Jaguar Throne is one of several such objects that were at Chichen Itza but are now in museums of the world. Page 15.

La Iglesia (the Church) at Chichen Itza, Mexico
The building known as La Iglesia (The Church) is a combination of Puuc and Chenes architecture. Page 4.

Sacred Cenote (Well of the Sacrifices), Chichen Itza, Mexico Chichen Itza
The Well of the Sacrifices at Chichen Itza also contained crucial evidence for the making of Maya blue, a pigment created by the Maya. Page 20.

Sacred Well (Cenote) at Chichen Itza, Mexico
The Sacred Cenote at Chichen Itza is a karst pool, used by the Maya residents for religious purposes, including human sacrifice. Page 19.

Temple of the Bearded Man at Chichen Itza, Mexico
The interpretations of the Temple of the Bearded Man at Chichen Itza have been reassessed by scholars since the days of Augustus Le Plongeon. Page 9.

Temple of the Jaguars, Chichen Itza
Temple of the Jaguars at Chichen Itza was interpreted by Le Plongeon in a most peculiar way. Page 10.

Temple of the Warriors, Chichen Itza
The Temple of the Warriors is the only known Late Classic Maya building sufficient big enough for large gatherings of people. Page 7.

The Nunnery Annex at Chichen Itza, Mexico
The Nunnery Annex, when seen from a distance is a simulacrum of a Witz or Chac mask. Page 18.

Totally Toltec - Toltec Architectural Styles at Chichen Itza
Toltec architecture at Chichen Itza is exemplified by the temple known as El Castillo. Page 3.

Wall of Skulls (Tzompantli), Chichen Itza, Mexico
The Wall of Skulls is an unsubtle reminder of the presence of human sacrifice in Chichen Itza. Page 6.

A Walking Tour of the Maya Capital of Chichen Itza
A walking tour of the Maya civilization site of Chichen Itza, looking at the evidence for both Toltec and Puuc architecture

A Walking Tour of the Maya Capital of Chichen Itza
A walking tour of the Maya civilization site of Chichen Itza, looking at the evidence for both Toltec and Puuc architecture

Bent Pyramid Insight In Egyptian Architectural History
The 4,500 year old Bent Pyramid in Egypt is one of the best ways that modern architects can learn about how to build a stable, long-lasting structure.

The Bent Pyramid Complex in Egypt's Dahshur Plateau
The Bent Pyramid was not just a big tomb--it was part of a complex of residential, administrative and religious structures in the Dahshur plateau. Page 2.

- By Category
An index of categories in the

Human Behaviors
Anthropology has been an essential part of archaeology in the Americas, and it can be argued that, since it is the study of humans and culture, it is an integral part of all of modern archaeology.

History of Agriculture and the Origins of Farming
The traditional history of farming begins some 12,000 years ago, in the hilly flanks of the Zagros Mountains of southwest Asia

The Roots of Modern Medicine
All modern medicine is based on the experimentation of millennia tied up with rituals and magic. Despite our advances, we can still learn a great deal from the medicine of the ancient past.

The Plant History of the Marvelous Soybean
Soybeans were probably domesticated between 6000-9000 years ago, probably somewhere in China, and today they are served up in myriad tasty ways.

Archaeology 101
Archaeology for beginners: what archaeology is, how we know what we know, and how we interpret what we learn to make a coherent story.

Not all--as a matter of fact none--of the working archaeologists in the world are Indiana Jones. But that doesn't make them any less interesting. Here are links to all kinds of information about archaeologists and their profession.

Human Origins
Homo sapiens has a long history of occupation on this planet, between 100,000 years and 500,000 years. These links are to the processes of evolution, including our direct and distant ancestors.

Ethics and the Archaeologist
Ethics is a crucial part of archaeological study, in terms of what we study, in terms of how we get what we study, and in terms of what we tell other people about what we study.

Explorers and Early Travels
Resources on the history and archaeology of explorers into unknown realms,

Methods of Archaeological Science
How do they do that? In the 150 years that archaeology has been a science, numerous excavation and laboratory methods have been developed to help determine just went on in the past.

Science Fair Projects in Archaeology
Are you a middle school student with a science fair project looming? Here are some ideas to use archaeology to wow them at the fair.

Ancient Houses - How We Lived in the Past
Building a home outside of a cave or rockshelter is one of the oldest inventions of humans. This is a collection of detailed descriptions of different ancient houses built by our human ancestors over the past 30,000 years.

Articulations: Chats with Professional Archaeologists
For nine weeks during 2001, I was lucky enough to convince some of our leading scientists to spend some time chatting with a little band of hardy souls let by Pat Garrow, now retired from TRC Garrow Associates. While the chat room is generally quiet these days, the chats were a lively way to get to know some of archaeology's most interesting researchers--and the transcripts show it.

Contributors - Biographies of Contributors
Some of the best work you'll find at the Archaeology at website was contributed by archaeologists working in the field. Here are some of their biographies.

Discussion Groups of Human Evolution
Dying for a good argument on evolution? Have some serious questions to ask or just want to listen in on some very interesting discussions? Here are places to go to do just that.

Archaeologist Directories
Looking for a specialist to talk to? Here you will find lists of archaeologists and related scientists, by discipline and subfield of interest.

Religious Scholars of Archaeology
The connection between archaeology and religion is a strong one, not the least because many of its earliest practioners were religious scholars.

Archaeology by Country
Archaeological investigations have taught us much about the history and prehistory of the world. This page includes information about your corner of the world, and elsewhere.

Inca Road System - 25,000 Miles Connecting an Empire
The Inca road system included some 25,000 miles of roads, bridges, tunnels and causeways: it was an essential part of the success of the Inca Empire.

Skraelings - Viking Name for Inuit Owners of Greenland
When the Vikings reached Greenland and the North American coastline, they called the less-than-welcoming inhabitants of those places

Babylon (Iraq) - Glorious Ancient Mesopotamian Capital
For over one thousand years, Babylon was an important Mediterranean city, enormous and glittering, with marvelous architecture and powerful kings.

Babylon as a Seat of Evil - Propaganda from the Bible?
The reputation of Babylon as a very naughty place was established by the book of Revelation in the New Testament: and a bit of Christian propaganda. Page 2.

Knotty Problems: Why the Quipu Must Hold Inca Records
By the 16th century, the Inca empire ruled much of South America, and they did it all without a written language. Did the quipu keep their records?

The Chaco Road System - Southwestern America's Ancient Roads
The Chaco Road likely had both economic and religious significance to its ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) builders, residents of Chaco Canyon between about 1000 and 1125 AD.

Turkey (Meleagris gallapavo) Domestication History
The turkey (Meleagris gallapavo) was definitely domesticated in the New World, but the history of turkey domestication is somewhat problematic.

When Was the Turpan Karez Built?
The questions of who brought the qanat technology to the Turpan oasis--and how and when the massive karez system was implemented--are still open to debate.

Determining the Construction Date of Any Qanat
Recent investigations in dating techniques on qanats in Spain have the potential to resolve the dates of the Turfan oasis questions. Page 2.

Elmina - Medieval Trading Center on West African Coast
Elmina is an African port on the Gold Coast of Ghana, where a thriving market town which added slavery to its trade goods in the 16th century.

The Domestication of Maize - History of American Corn
Maize, the proper name for what Americans call

Some Recent Studies of Maize Domestication
Recent research in the studies of maize are focused on identifying the history and spread of American corn throughout the Americas. Page 2.

Out of Africa Hypothesis - Did All Humans Evolve in Africa?
The Out of Africa or African Replacement Hypothesis argues that every living human being is descended from a small group in Africa.

Bibliography for Out of Africa - Scholarly Work on Human Evolution
Although there still remains some debate in the paleontological community, most scholars agree that humans evolved in Africa before seeing the world. Page 2.

The Origins and History of Wine Making
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes; and may have been invented nearly 9,000 years ago in China; and not, as you might think, a European invention.

Bibliography of Wine: Recent scholarly sources on the history of wine making
European. Archaeology. Page 2.

Timeline of the Viking Age
A Viking Timeline, showing the major events of the Viking Age as they colonized, or attempted to colonize, Europe and North America.

Early Medieval Practice of Viking Raids
Viking raids were a characteristic of the Scandinavian early medieval pirates called the Vikings, particularly during the first 50 years of the Viking Age (~793-850)

Pre-Clovis - Founding Population of the Americas
Pre-Clovis is the name archaeologists have given to the oldest and now fairly well-established human occupations of the Americas.

Chatelperronian Transition to Upper Paleolithic
The Chatelperronian period ca 40,000-33,000 years ago, is usually associated with Neanderthals, and bears evidence of some kind of interaction with African newcomers to Europe.

Animal Domestication Histories
Animals were domesticated at different times in different places in the world.

Laussel Venus - Upper Paleolithic Goddess with a Horn
The Venus of Laussel is a bas-relief of a woman holding a crescent-shaped object that has been interpreted at least four different ways.

Vinland Sagas - Viking Colonization of North America
The Vinland sagas are four medieval manuscripts that describe the legends of the Viking colonizers of the North American continent.

Chaac - Ancient Maya God of Rain, Lightning and Storms
Chaac was the Mayan god of rain, storms, water and lightning. Masks of the god's face called Chaac Masks are carved on many Maya temples.

The Quipu's History - South American Writing Technology
Archaeologists and historians have been shoving the history of the khipu Inca recording tool back into pre-Inca times, at least the 8th century AD.

Khipu History from Inca to the Modern Era
Perhaps surprisingly, the history of the Inca khipu did not end with the arrival of the Spanish: instead the khipu became a tool of the common people. Page 2.

Glossary Entries between Taima Taima and Textiles
Dictionary entries in archaeology beginning with Ta, Tb, Tc, Td and Te, from Taima Taima to Textiles.

Terra Amata - Neanderthal Life on the French Riviera
Terra Amata is an Acheulean paleolithic site located on the Mediterranean coast of southern France near the modern town of Nice.

Spindle Whorls - Ancient Tool for Weavers
Spindle whorls are artifacts found world wide, and they represent a technological leap forward in the process of making textiles.

The History of Spindle Whorls and Making Cloth
Recent studies on the history of spindle whorls and spinning. Page 2.

What is the Study of Taphonomy?
The study of taphonomy in general is interested in how animals and plants become part of the fossil record.

The Creative Explosion
The so-called

Behavioral Modernity - What is Behavioral Modernity
What do scientists mean when they refer to behavioral modernity? There are several classes of behavior that humans took up in the 100,000 years after we had evolved physically.

Ancient Shell Beads from Ancient Homo Sapiens Sites
Personal ornamentation, indicated by the presence of decorated non-utilitarian objects, is a clear indication of symbolic thinking

Shell Beads from Still Bay and Howiesons Poort Early Modern Human Sites
Perforated shells interpreted as personal ornamentation have been recovered from several sites in South Africa, attributed to Still Bay/Howiesons Poort of the African Middle Stone Age.

Shell Beads from Aterian Early Modern Human Sites
Two sites associated with early modern humans in North Africa, and the stone tool industry called Aterian, have produced shell beads, evidence of behavioral modernity at about 90,000 years ago.

Shell Beads from Levantine Mousterian Early Modern Human Sites
The oldest shell beads yet discovered are from the Mousterian in the Levant region. They are associated with early modern humans and found at two sites in modern Israel.

Shell Beads and Behavioral Modernity
The transition to human behavioral modernity took many hundreds of thousands of years. One of the key pieces of evidence for the blossoming of human intelligence and creativity is shell beads. This photo essay examines the human transition, and the role that shell beads played in that transition.

Collected Shell Species by Early Modern Humans
This page details some information about the kinds and habitats of different species of gastropod used by early modern humans as personal items of adornment.

Bibliography for the Beringian Standstill Hypothesis
Recent research on the Beringian Standstill Hypothesis, and its connection to the peopling of the American continents. Page 2.

Beringian Standstill Hypothesis of the First Americans
The Beringian Standstill Hypothesis argues that the earliest American colonists were stranded on a now-submerged land mass near the Bering Strait.

History of the Domestication of Sunflowers
Sunflowers (Helianthus spp.) are native to the American continents; prehistoric use of sunflowers included ornamental and ceremonial use, as well as for food and flavoring.

Star Carr - Mesolithic Settlement in the UK
The Mesolithic site of Star Carr, located in Yorkshire, contains remnants of the earliest house in the United Kingdom, built about 10,700 years ago.

The Sphinx on the Giza Plateau in Egypt
The ancient Egyptian sculpture called The Sphinx is located on the Giza plateau, and was probably carved at the request of the 4th dynasty Old Kingdom pharaoh Khafre.

Who Were the Semitic Tribes?
The term Semitic tribes (or Semites) refers to several groups of nomads and camel pastoralists who spoke related Semitic languages and included Arabs, Aramaeans, Jews, Carthaginians, Ethiopians, Abyssinians, and Phoenicians.

A Photo Essay of the Ritual Ceremonies of the Moche
A photo gallery of recent discoveries at a royal burial at the Moche site of Sipan, Peru, tied to Moche Sacrifice Ceremony of the Warrior Narrative.

A Photo Essay of the Ritual Ceremonies of the Moche
A photo gallery of recent discoveries at a royal burial at the Moche site of Sipan, Peru, tied to Moche Sacrifice Ceremony of the Warrior Narrative.

Hominid - Why Are Scholars No Longer Using that Term?
Hominid is the word used by paleontologists to refer to humans and our immediate ancestors: but a growing majority are using the word hominin instead.

Qafzeh Cave - Evidence for Middle Paleolithic Burials
Qafzeh Cave is a rockshelter in Israel, which holds evidence of some of the earliest known human burials, approximately 90,000 years ago.

What Is Public or Community Archaeology?
Public archaeology is the presentation of archaeological data to the public--but it is fraught with ethical considerations that make it a difficult and problematic study.

The Royal Road of the Achaemenids in Darius' Empire
The Royal Road was a major intercontinental thoroughfare built by the Achaemenid king Darius the Great (521-485 BC), to allow access to their conquered cities.

Processes of Farming in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic
The Pre-Pottery Neolithic (abbreviated PPN) is the name given to the people who domesticated the earliest plants and lived in farming communities in the Levant and Near East.

What is Prehistoric Archaeology?
Prehistoric archaeology (as compared to historic archaeology) refers to the archaeological remains of cultures that are primarily pre-urban.

Poverty Point in Mississippi River Trench
Poverty Point is a large, C-shaped, 3500-year-old earthwork located on the Maçon Ridge in the Mississippi River trench in northeast Louisiana.

Paleontology: Describing the Purpose of Fossilized Life
Paleontology is the study of the fossil forms of all life, animals and plants. Here is a collection of definitions.

Pacific Coast Migration Model Into the Americas
The Pacific Coast Migration Model is a theory concerning the original colonization of the Americas that proposes that people entering the continents followed the Pacific coastline

L'Aménagement at Nawarla Gabarnmang
Researchers at Nawarla Gabarnmang believe that the aboriginal painters of the site also sculpted some of the pillars and ceiling, purposefully modifying their living space.

Chronology at Nawarla Gabarnmang
While the paintings themselves have not as yet been direct-dated, a piece of the painted roof fell, and is associated with a radiocarbon date of at least 28,000 years ago.

Rediscovering Nawarla Gabarnmang
Nawarla Gabarnmang is currently being excavated. Discovered in 2007, what little results have been produced so far provide an exciting glimpse into future findings.

Sources for Nawarla Gabarnmang
A list of current publications on the work at Nawarla Gabarnmang.

Nawarla Gabarnmang - Cave Paintings in Arnhem Land
Nawarla Gabarnmang is a gloriously painted rockshelter in Arnhem Land, Australia, with vivid images of animals and humans, painted at least 28,000 years ago.

Timeline of the Middle Paleolithic in Human Evolution
The Middle Paleolithic period (ca 200,000 to 45,000 years ago or so) is the period during which Archaic humans including Homo sapiens neanderthalensis appeared and flourished all over the world.

Molodova I - Paleolithic Mammoth Bone Hut in Ukraine
Moldova I is a Middle and Upper Paleolithic site located within the Dniester river valley of Ukraine, and it holds evidence of the oldest Mammoth Bone Hut yet discovered.

Mezhirich - Paleolithic Ukraine Mammoth Bone Settlement
Mezhirich, sometimes spelled Mezhyrich, is a mammoth bone settlement dated to the Gravettian period of the Upper Paleolithic (ca 14,000-15,000 years ago), and it is one of the best preserved sites of its type excavated to date.

The Role of the Plaza in Maya Festivals
During the Classic period (~AD 250-900 AD) , the Maya rulers practiced rituals to appease the gods, repeat historical events, and prepare for the future. But not all ceremonies were secret rituals; in fact, many were public rituals, theatrical performances and dances played in public arenas to unite communities and express political power relationships.

What is Metallurgy in Archaeology?
Metallurgy, when used by archaeologists, is the study of the ancient processes of producing objects made of metal, including quarrying, mine construction, and smelting. Copper and gold-working were clearly part of ancient daily life for some civilizations.

Bibliography of Megafaunal Extinctions
Recent scholarly research about mass mammal extinctions in the Ice Age. Page 2.

What Caused Megafauna Extinctions?
At the end of the last ice age (ca 15,000-10,000 years ago), 85 percent of the large mammals (called megafauna) went extinct.

Collapse of Angkor and The End of the Khmer Empire
The end of the Khmer Empire (or Angkor civilization) came about as a direct result of the civilization's inability to adapt to an extended drought brought about by climate change.

Angkor Civilization Timeline and Khmer Empire Kings
The Angkor civilization was an important state level society in southeast Asia between the 9th and 15th centuries AD.

The Northern Lowlands Region of the Maya Civilization
The Maya Lowlands are where the classic Maya civilization first arose, located in the northern part of Central America.

The Kennewick Man and Caucasoids
For many people, the central issue of Kennewick Man is what 'race' he belongs to. The problem is, anthropologists don't really have a good idea on what 'race' really means.

Mabila - Battle between De Soto and Chief Tascalusa
Mabila is the name of an as-yet undiscovered Mississippian town, at which a great battle between the Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto and the Mississippian warrior Tascalusa occurred.

Assyrian Library of Ashurbanipal
The Library of Ashurbanipal is a collection of clay tablets written during the Mesopotamian king Ashurbanipal's reign between about 668-627 BC.

The Study of Stone in Archaeology or Lithics
Archaeologists use the (slightly ungrammatical) term 'lithics' to refer to artifacts made of stone.

What is the Kelp Highway Hypothesis?
The Kelp Highway Hypothesis is a theory concerning the original colonization of the American continents.

Hillforts: Ancient Fortresses in Iron Age Europe
Hill forts are fortified settlements, built as a form of protection against an armed enemy, a type of village all too well known in human's violent past.

Bones of the Buddha - Excavating the Piprahwa Stupa
The Bones of the Buddha is an hour long video describing the archaeological and historical search for one of Buddha's burial places.

Aztec Sacrifice - The Meaning of Ritual Human Killings
The Aztecs, or more properly the Mexica, practiced several different types of ritual sacrifice to secure the benevolence of the gods.

Archaeological Evidence of Aztec Human Sacrifice
Archaeological evidence from the Aztec capital cities of Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco support the rumors that human sacrifice was a frequent occurrence. Page 2.

Tlaltecuhtli - The Monstrous Aztec Goddess of the Earth
Tlaltecuhtli was the Aztec Earth Goddess, a terrifying being whose monstrous body was turned into the earth after a battle with Quetzalcoatl

Archaeology Glossary: F Terms
Archaeological glossary entries from Failaka, Kuwait through Fuzesabony culture.

What are the Hilly Flanks in Agriculture?
Hilly Flanks is a geographic term describing a specific set of environmental conditions, and in archaeology it refers to a theory about the origins of agriculture

Archaeology: How Ancient Relic Hunting Became Science
What we today think of as the science of archaeology has its roots in religion and treasure hunting, born out of centuries of curiosity about the past.

Bactrian Camels - When and Where were Bactrian Camels Domesticated?
The Bactrian camel originated in Asia, and was domesticated at least 2600 years ago. Page 11.

Cattle, When and Where were Cattle Domesticated?
There are several wild forms of cattle, leading researchers to believe that there likely was two and perhaps three separate domestication events. Page 2.

Chickens: When and Where were Chickens Domesticated?
Evidence for chicken domestication suggests that it may have been domesticated several times over the course of several centuries, but beginning by at least 8,000 years ago. Page 8.

Dogs - When and Where were Dogs Domesticated?
Recent study suggests that the entire population of domestic dogs today are descended from three females in China, around 15,000 years ago.

Dromedaries - When and Where were Dromedary Camels Domesticated?
One hump camels (called dromedaries) were domesticated between about 3,000 and 2500 BC. Page 10.

Pigs - When and Where were Pigs Domesticated?
Pigs were first domesticated at least about 9,000 years ago, in central Asia. Page 9.

Goats - When and Where were Goats Domesticated?
Goats were first domesticated between about 11,000 and 10,000 years ago in central Asia. Page 3.

Horse Domestication - When and Where were Horses Domesticated?
Horses were domesticated by 5,600 years ago, based on evidence from a site in what is now Kazakhstan. Page 7.

Reindeer - When and Where were Reindeer Domesticated?
Reindeer (also called caribou) were one of the last animals domesticated: by the people of the Eurasian arctic and subarctic about 1,000 BC. Page 5.

Cats - When and Where were Cats Domesticated?
Archaeology. Page 6.

Silk Worms - Where and When were Silk Worms Domesticated?
Silk worms were first domesticated in China, probably during the Longshan period (3500-2000 BC). Page 4.

Donkeys - When and where were donkeys domesticated?
Donkeys were first domesticated in northeast Africa, about 6,000 years ago. Page 12.

What is the Flint Knapping Process?
Flint knapping is the process by which stone tools are made

Geoglyphs - Ancient Art of the Landscape
Geoglyphs are works of art that were made from moving or arranging stones or earth on a landscape.

Underwater and Maritime Archaeology Graduate Schools
Programs that provide advanced training in underwater, marine, and maritime archaeology.

Folsom Culture: Ancient Bison Hunters in North American
Folsom is the name given to early Paleoindian hunter-gatherers of the North American continent, ca. 9,000-10,500 years ago.

Feudalism - Worldwide Political and Social System
Feudalism is a system of political organization, in which society is sharply divided into classes, exemplified by but not unique to medieval Europe.

Exchange Systems – Trade Networks And Archaeology
Exchange systems are the cultural bones of most societies. How we as people exchange goods and services determines much about how our societies work. Archaeological evidence of exchange systems is at once difficult to find and difficult to interpret: but we must try.

Ethnoarchaeology - Cultural Anthropology & Archaeology
Ethnoarchaeology is the use of anthropological data from living groups as a somewhat fuzzy analogy for understanding of past human behaviors.

Buried in Denmark, the Egtved Girl Was Not From Scandinavia
Strontium analysis of the Egtved Girl's remains reveals that she was not from Denmark, but may have arrived there from the Black Forest Region of Germany. Page 2.

Maple Sugaring - The Archaeology of Tapping Trees
Tapping sugar and syrup from maple trees is an American phenomenon, but whether it was a Native American or European invention is a controversy.

How to Make Maple Syrup - Collecting the Sap
The first step in making maple syrup is collecting the sap

How to Make Maple Syrup - Reducing the Sap
Natural maple sap must be reduced 75% before its good on your pancakes.

History of Maple Sugaring
The history of maple sugaring dates to at least the early decades of the 17th century.

Maple Sugaring - An Archaeological Controversy
Archaeologists are divided as to whether Native Americans or European colonists were the first to tap into maple trees to process sugar and syrup.

Maple Sugaring Bibliography - Bibliography of Maple Sugaring
A bibliography of references about maple sugaring, especially as documented in the archaeological record, and including the controversy about its origins.

Prehistoric Europe - Lower Paleolithic to Mesolithic
A brief summary of the major prehistory points, from Homo erectus to Rome.

Prehistoric Europe - From First Farmers to Rome - Prehistoric Europe
An introduction to the prehistory of Europe, from the first farming communities to the Roman Empire, from an archaeological standpoint. Page 2.

Recent Cosmic Impacts on Earth and Global Myths
In this essay, contributor Thomas F. King describes the work of archaeologist Bruce Masse, who uses the nascent subfield of geomythology to trace world reactions to a postulated comet crash ca 2800 BC.

Archaeological Traces of Holocene Impacts - Recent Cosmic Impacts on Earth
How does one go about identifying traces of cosmic impacts in ancient mythologies? Thomas F. King describes a recent article by Bruce Masse. Page 2.

Global Flood Mythologies - Recent Cosmic Impacts on Earth
The historical documents of many of our modern societies contain myths pertaining to a great flood. Could this have resulted from a cataclysmic event? Page 3.

Plotting Mythic Events - The Burckle Crater - Recent Cosmic Impacts on Earth
The Burckle crater is a recently discovered impact crater from a meteorite discovered off Madagascar. Can this event have been the origin of the multitude of disaster myths around the globe? Page 4.

Clovis - Early Hunting Groups of the Americas
Clovis refers to mobile big game hunters who roamed the Americas hunting elephants and bison for a very brief time 12,000 years ago.

Chavin Culture - Widespread Cult Tradition in Peru
The Chavin culture is what archaeologists have called the evidence of a widespread religious cult in Peru, and dated from about 400-200 BC

Dolni Vestonice - Czech Republic Upper Paleolithic Site
The Gravettian site of Dolní Vĕstonice is located near the modern town of Brno in the region of Moravia in the eastern part of what is now the Czech Republic.

The History of the Domestication of Chocolate
Theobroma spp is the official name of several varieties of tropical trees that are native to the northern Amazon region of South America and were cultivated and domesticated in central America to produce the wonderful elixir of the gods, chocolate.

Cuzco: Religious and Political Heart of the Inca Empire
The modern day city of Cuzco in the Andes Mountains of Peru was founded, according to legend, by Manco Capac, the founder of the Incan Civilization.

What is Cognitive Archaeology?
Cognitive archaeology is a theoretical underpinning of archaeological research that is interested in the material expression of human ways of thinking about things.

How Do Archaeologists Count Backward Using BP?
Archaeologists use the term 'BP' to mean 'years before humans began to screw up the atmosphere by testing nuclear devices'.