Archaeology Sitemap - Page 4 2016-09-26

What is Biblical Archaeology?
Traditionally, biblical archaeology is the name given to the study of the archaeological aspects of the history of the Jewish and Christian churches as provided in the Judeo-Christian bible.

Archaeology Glossary Entries from A-Group to Adze
Dictionary entries in archaeology beginning with A, Ab, Ac, and Ad, from A-Group Culture to Adze.

Walking Tours and Photo Essays
Sometimes pictures are better than words. These image-rich pages include walking tours of archaeological sites and museum collections, and photographic essays on issues in archaeology such as restoration of archaeological sites and explorations of meetings.

Abu Hureyra - Agriculture in the Euphrates Valley
Abu Hureyra is the ruins of an ancient settlement, located on the south side of the Euphrates valley of northern Syria, where the earliest evidence of cultivated plants has been identified, some 11,000 radiocarbon years before the present.

Baltic Amber - 5,000 Years of International Trade
Baltic amber is a fossilized tree resin which formed about 60 million years ago and was actively traded beginning in the Mesolithic period of Europe.

Recent Research in Amber - Baltic and Otherwise
Baltic amber was the main furnishing used by tsarist Russia in constructing the fabulous Amber Room, built for Peter the Great in the 18th century. Page 2.

Bagor Archaeological Site of India
The archaeological site of Bagor is a Late Mesolithic (pre-Harappa) archaeological site in the Bhilwara District of the Rajasthan region of western India.

History of the Human Domestication of the Banana
It takes the latest archaeological research techniques to figure out how long the banana has been a staple crop of humans--and it turns out to be one of our oldest domesticated plants.

Banana Domestication and Dispersal
Summary of the recent scholarly investigations into banana history of exploitation and domestication by humans... Page 2.

The Effects of the Enlightenment on Archaeology
The Enlightenment of 18th century Europe had a profound effect on people interested in nature and philosophy, and promoting the study of archaeology.

Tell Asmar Sculpture Hoard of Iraqi Gods and Goddesses
The 12 statues of Mesopotamian gods and goddesses known as Asmar sculpture hoard were buried at Tell Asmar in Iraq about 5,000 years ago.

Franchthi Cave on the Mediterranean Sea
First occupied during the Upper Paleolithic sometime between 35,000 and 30,000 years ago, Franchthi Cave was the site of human occupation, pretty much consistently up until about the final Neolithic Period about 3000 BC.

Rujm el-Hiri (Golan Heights) - Ancient Observatory
The 5,000 year old megalithic building in the Golan Heights called Rujm el-Hiri was apparently intended for star-watching in Israel.

Inca Garcilaso de la Vega - Spanish American Chronicler
The Inca Garcilaso de la Vega was an important literary figure in Spain: and the first Spanish American writer, whose historical works brought romantic life to the colonization of South and North America.

Bibliography for Inca Garcilaso de la Vega
Bibliographical sources on the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega. Page 2.

Archway, Street and Vesuvius in Pompeii
This street scene has a lovely brick archway framing, ominously enough, Mt. Vesuvius.

Very Narrow Streets of Pompeii
Some streets in Pompeii can't possibly have held any but pedestrian traffic. Notice they still needed a trough to let water flow down, but the detail in the elevated side walk is entrancing.

Water Fountain at Pompeii
Public fountains were an important part of the street scene in Pompeii.

End of the Excavations at Pompeii
It's probably fanciful of me, but I surmise that the street here is relatively unreconstructed.

More Information on Pompeii Streets
Sources for the archaeology of Pompeii Streets.

One-Way Streets in Pompeii
Many streets in Pompeii were not wide enough for two-way traffic; and it is possible that a web of one-way streets controlled traffic through the city.

Water Castle at Pompeii
The tall ribbed construction at the left side of this picture is a water tower, or castellum aquae, that collected, stored and dispersed rainwater.

The Streets of Pompeii - Photos of the Roman City
The streets of Pompeii are fascinating examples of Roman construction.

Tourists in the Streets of Pompeii
These tourists demonstrate the functionality of the Pompeii streets, crossing above the streets themselves.

Wide Street in Pompeii - A Fork in the Road
A few of the streets were wide enough for two-way traffic; and some of them had stepping stones midway.

Minoan Script - Undeciphered Minoan Script Linear A
Linear A is the undeciphered written language of the Minoans, used between about 1800 and 1400 BC.

Khipu - The South American Communication System called Khipu
Khipu--also spelled quipu or quipo--are the ancient communication system of South America, expressed in knotted string

Indus Script - Undeciphered Indus Script
Indus script is mostly found on seals---small rectangular objects that were probably not used to seal objects

Olmec Language - Undeciphered Olmec Language
The earliest North American undeciphered script is on the Cascajal block, a large carved block of serpentine, discovered in a quarry in Veracruz, Mexico.

Undeciphered Scripts - Forgotten Ancient Languages
Will we ever be able to read these ancient hieroglyphs, signs, knots and carvings, painted and impressed into objects and on walls?

What is Monte Verde in Chile?
Monte Verde is Southern Chile's addition to the problem of when was the earliest settlement of the American continent.

Early Byzantine Architectural Improvements
Byzantine architectural improvements in Constantinople included several stunning beautiful churches. Page 2.

Creating Contantinople
The city of Byzantion was turned into the capital city of Constantinople by the concerted efforts of several Byzantine emperors, starting with Constantine the Great.

Kuelap (Peru): Chachapoya Ceremonial Center
Kuelap was a Chachapoya ceremonial center between 9th-15th centuries AD, and it included the largest prehistoric stone building in South America.

Recent Archaeological Studies of Chachapoya Kuelap
Recent research indicates that Kuelap's residents practiced trepanation, surgically cutting into people's skulls, living and dead. Page 2.

Engaruka Irrigation System - Iron Age Water Control in Eastern Africa
The people who settled the African Iron Age site of Engaruka in 1400 successfully adapted their agricultural techniques when the climate changed to a more arid situation.

Bibliography for the Engaruka Irrigation System
Archaeology. Page 2.

Huitzilopochtli - Aztec God of Sun, War and Sacrifice
Huitzilopochtli was the Mexica god of the sun, war and sacrifice, and the founding patron god of the Aztec Empire

L'Anse aux Meadows - The Vikings in North America
Archaeological excavations in Newfoundland, Canada, reveal evidence of a failed Viking colony on the Atlantic shore of the American continent.

Bibliography of l'Anse aux Meadows
Bibliographical references on the l'Anse aux Meadows. Page 2.

Aztec Sites
Archaeological sites of the Aztec civilization are scattered throughout Mesoamerica. Here are a few of the ones you should know of.

Tlaxcallan - Mesoamerican Stronghold Against the Aztecs
The city state of Tlaxcallan held out against the Aztecs for centuries: did they take political advantage of the arrival of the Spanish to beat them?

Understanding Tlaxcallan Support for Hernan Cortes
Ethnohistoric and archaeological evidence seems to support the government of pre-hispanic Tlaxcala as that approaching a republic. Page 2.

What Is the Rosetta Stone? - Key to Ancient Egypt
The Rosetta stone is a block of dark granite found in Egypt in 1799, that literally transformed modern understanding of 3,000 years of Egyptian history.

Flores Man - Competing Theories about Homo floresiensis
Scholars have three competing arguments about what Homo floresiensis represents and fits in to our understanding of how evolution works on our planet.

The History of the Invention of Pottery
Recent archaeological evidence shows that the oldest ceramics in the world so far were discovered in mainland China, and dated to 20,000 years ago.

The Invention of High Fired Porcelains
Porcelains and other high-fired ceramics were also an invention from China, and exported to the rest of the world via international trade networks. Page 2.

Egtved Girl - Bronze Age Elite Burial in Denmark
Egtved is an extremely well-preserved burial of a young Bronze Age woman, buried 3,400 years ago in south Jutland, Denmark.

Aztec Civilization
The Aztec civilization ruled pretty much all of central America before the Spanish arrived, and had a culture infused with fatalism and ceremony. Here are some recent studies of this fascinating culture.

E-Group - Mesoamerican Architecture for Ancient Star Watching
An E-Group is a specific arrangement of buildings found on over 70 Maya archaeological sites, with a myriad of purposes including astronomy, ritual and politics

Snow Houses - Innovative Architecture of Eskimo People
Snow houses were temporary residences and winter villages built by arctic peoples at least as long ago as 800 BC: although we can't really be sure.

Laetoli - 3.5 Million Year Old Hominin Footprints
Laetoli is the name of an archaeological site in Tanzania, where three Australopithecus left their footprints, 3.6 million years ago.

Preserving the Laetoli Footprints
The preservation of the oldest hominin footprints on the planet is a matter of some concern to people around the world--and a extensive technique is in place. Page 2.

What Is a Hominin? - A Reassessment of Our Ancient Family Tree
Learn more about the Homininae subfamily, including Hominini (humans and their ancestors), Panini (chimps), and Gorillini (gorillas).

Bipedal Locomotion - A Defining Trait of Human Beings
Bipedal locomotion, or walking on two legs in an upright position, is a characteristic of humans and our immediate ancestors, developed some 4.4 million years ago.

B.C. (or BC) - Counting and Numbering Pre-Roman Time
The term B.C. is used by nearly everyone in the United States to mean dates in the Julian Calendar before the birth of Christ, or at least before the date once thought to be that of Christ's birth (the year 0).

The Viking World: A Review
The 4th edition of James Graham-Campbell's classic work The Viking World, is a new size and well-suited to the beginning student and casual interest reader.

The Tomb of Eung Tae - Joseon Dynasty Royal Tomb
The tomb of an elite member of the Joseon Dynasty who died in the 16th century contained 18 well-preserved documents detailing life in medieval Korea.

Early Hominid Ancestors
The world history of the human race began about 2 million years ago with our earliest hominid ancestors, Australopithecus, Homo habilis, and erectus.

Ancient Water Control - Combining Science, Engineering and Art
For our ancestors, controlling water was essential, whether getting drinking water into cities, irrigating farms, or reducing the damage of flooding.

Ancient Water Control - Combining Science, Engineering and Art
For our ancestors, controlling water was essential, whether getting drinking water into cities, irrigating farms, or reducing the damage of flooding.

Scholar Resources for Clamshell Use at Trinil
Recently published scholarly resources on the Trinil Homo erectus site and other related resources used in this photo essay.

Evidence for Shellfish Consumption at Trinil
The evidence for Homo erectus consumption of freshwater clam shells comes from the purposeful and thought-out technique used to open the clams.

Using Clam Shells as Tools at Trinil
A clamshell recovered from the site was found to have been purposely modified to make a tool--perhaps as a butchering knife.

500,000 Year Old Graphic Engravings at Trinil
The exterior of one of the clams at the Trinil Homo erectus site was carved with geometric designs, a graphic art some 300,000 years older than Blombos.

Characteristics of the Faunal Collection at Trinil
The assemblage of shells and artifacts from the Homo erectus site of Trinil on Java should be considered in context: how did the artifacts get there?

500,000 Year Old Graphic Homo erectus Art at Trinil
A photo essay on investigations of collections from the Homo erectus site of Trinil, Java, Indonesia, which uncovered the earliest evidence of art yet.

Flores Man: News Reports, Articles and Information about Homo floresiensis
A compilation of the recent news stories and controversies concerning the hominin species called the Hobbit, or Homo floresiensis

Ancient Pigments - Natural Colors Through the Ages
For at least 80,000 years, people have been making paints from natural pigments. Here you'll find stories of some of these vivid colors.

Saint-Cesaire - Middle and Upper Paleolithic Neanderthal site in France
The archaeological site of Saint-Cesaire has Middle and Upper Paleolithic occupations that are associated with Neanderthals.

Winter Solstice 2013: A New Visitor Centre
Two children stand in the midst of the new virtual stones exhibit at Stonehenge on December 11, 2013.

Winter Solstice 2012
Winter Solstice 2012 did not bring the end of the world, despite rumors to the contrary.

Summer Solstice at Stonehenge 2013
Matt Cardy's photos at the summer solstice in 013 included this quiet one from just after sunrise.

Yak Domestication - The History and Archaeology of Bos grunniens
The yak is a kind of cow that is well adapted to living in very high altitudes, and cold and dry climates--and they probably led people to join them up there.

Uppsala Map: 1550 Aztec-Spanish Map of Mexico City
The Uppsala Map of Mexico City was drawn about 1550, some 30 years after the Spanish conquest, by indigenous students of a famous Spanish cartographer.

Tenochtitlan's Map Making Community
Recent scholarly investigations into the Uppsala Map, a city plan of the Aztec Mexico City/Tenochtitlan, painted in 1550 during the Spanish occupation. Page 2.

Quebrada Jaguay - Terminal Pleistocene Archaeology in Peru
Quebrada Jaguay is a fishing village on the coast of southern Peru, which holds evidence for the earliest occupations in South America.

Newt Kash Hollow - Archaic and Woodland Archaeology
Newt Kash is an important archaeological site in Kentucky, with evidence for women's ritual activities during the Archaic and early Woodland periods.

Scientific Evidence for Yak Domestication
Evidence for when the yak was domesticated is not certain: mTdna, archaeology and Chinese Han Dynasty records are in sharp conflict. Page 2.

Tipis - Ancient Home of American Plains People
A tipi is an efficient, adaptable form of residence, used by North American nomadic groups for at least 500 years, similar to central Asian yurts.

Reindeer Skin Tipis
A form of tipi was also used by arctic people, as temporary housing on fishing or hunting trips, created by poles and reindeer hide and weighed down by boulders. Page 2.

The Evolution of Stone Tools - Grahame Clark's Lithic Modes
In 1969, archaeologist Grahame Clark defined a workable system for understanding the evolution of stone tools that is the basis for much of lithic studies today.

Secrets of the Dead: The Lost Gardens of Babylon
Secrets of the Dead: the Lost Gardens of Babylon from public television discusses the somewhat controversial theories from Stephanie Dalley about the whereabouts of the missing Ancient Wonder of the World

Proto-Cuneiform - Earliest Form of Writing on our Planet
Proto-cuneiform is the transitional written language of Uruk period accounting in Mesopotamia, between Neolithic clay tokens and literary cuneiform.

Evolving into Cuneiform
Recent scholarly research on the evolution of the proto-cuneiform language of ancient Mesopotamia. Page 2.

Whale Bone Houses - Thule Culture Ceremonial Structures
Whale bone houses are typically elite residences or ceremonial buildings, constructed by medieval arctic peoples, most frequently Thule whale hunters.

The Pucuncho Basin - First Settlers of Andean Mountains
At 14,500 feet above sea level, the Pucuncha Basin is one of the first high-altitude regions in South America to be occupied by humans.

Lumbini - Archaeology and History of the Buddha's Birthplace
Lumbini is the name of the modern town where the historical Buddha was born, and currently it holds evidence of the earliest Buddhist shrine known.

Goyet Cave (Belgium) - Evidence for Early Dog Domestication
Goyet Cave is a large cave complex, which held evidence for 30,000 year old dog domestication.

Sources for Ancient Sustainable Cities
Scholarly research on the ancient art of building sustainable cities. Page 2.

Building a Sustainable City - The Ancient History of Urban Green Spaces
The art to creating sustainable cities is one that humans have spent 10,000 years on: and modern urban planners might do well to listen to the archaeological and historical record of the failures and successes of our past.

Recent Archaeological Studies of Joseon Tombs
Archaeological studies of the well-preserved Joseon Dynasty tombs have illuminated much about the costumes of medieval Korea, even more about their health. Page 2.

Joseon Royal Tombs - Elite Burials of Medieval Korea
Joseon royal tombs include well-preserved bodies, clothing and documents, giving insight into medieval health and society.

Q'enqo - Astronomical Observatory of Inca Kings in Cusco
Q'enqo was an important shrine and astronomical observatory for the Inca Empire, built by the Inca emperor Pachacuti in the 15th century AD.

Library Cave at Dunhuang - Buddhist Scholarly Cache
When discovered in 1900, the Library of Manuscripts contained more than 40,000 Chinese and Tibetan manuscripts dated between the 4th and 10th centuries AD.

Anuradhapura's Hinterland
The central core of Anuradhapura was supported by vast regions of low-density urban residential and agricultural buildings. Page 2.

Guide to the Denisovans - A Newly Identified Hominid Species
The Denisovans are a recently discovered human species, who lived (at least) in what is today Siberia and colonized the southeast Asian islands and China.

Swahili Chronology - Timeline of the Medieval Traders on the Swahili Coast
The medieval Swahili Coast trading communities had their beginnings in the 6th-8th centuries AD.

Swahili Towns - Medieval Trading Communities of the East African Coast
Swahili towns were made mostly of wattle and daub houses, but the houses built by religious and secular leaders, as well as the elites involved in the international trade network, were made of stone.

Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka) - Archaeology of the Buddhist Capital City
Anuradhapura is the name of both the ancient and modern capital cities of the island country of Sri Lanka: the ancient capital existed for 1500 years prior to its destruction in AD 1071.

Piprahwa Stupa - Buddhist Religious Structure in India
The Piprahwa Stupa is a religious structure, first built in the 5th century BC to hold the cremated remains of the fifth and most famous of Buddhas, Guatema Siddhartha

Old Seoul City - Hanyang Capital of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea
The 14th century section of Seoul, South Korea contains the reconstructed Gyeongbok and Changdoek palaces, elite residences of the Joseon leaders.

Sources for Anuradhapura
Bibliographic references on the ancient Buddhist capital city of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. Page 3.

Denisovan DNA and Modern Tibetans
Genetic studies of the Denisovans are the best information we have on the history and fate of this long-missing ancestor of ours. Page 2.

The Grey Friars Project - Searching for Richard III
A summary of the scientific evidence supporting the identification of a 500-year-old skeleton as Richard III, the controversial king of England.

Isotopes and Richard III
Isotope analysis and other recent scholarly research into the recovery and identification of the medieval king Richard III. Page 2.

Gardar - Viking Estate in the Eastern Settlement of Greenland
Gardar is the name of a Viking elite residence on Greenland, built at the end of the 10th century for the daughter of Erik the Red.

How and Why Guinea Pigs Were Domesticated
Guinea pigs are small rodents domesticated about seven thousand years ago in South American Andes mountains primarily for food, and brought to Europe as pets in the 16th century.

Guide to the Upper Paleolithic
The Upper Paleolithic period saw great changes in the world as Homo sapiens became the only hominid running around on our planet.

Archaeological Evidence for Domesticating Potatoes
The plain old Idaho baking potato is only one of literally thousands of varieties of the original potato, first domesticated in South America

Palenque Royal Tomb and Temple Inscriptions
The Temple of the Inscriptions at Palenque includes the funerary chamber of the great Maya ruler Pakal, is one of the most important discoveries of Pre-Columbian archaeology of all times.

King Site in Georgia - Evidence of Mississippian Polities and Spanish Explorers
The King site is the modern name of what archaeologists believe was the Mississippian village of Piachi, part of the Tuscaluza Polity visited by the Spanish expedition into North America by Hernando de Soto

Kilwa Chronicle - Oral Traditions of the Swahili Culture
The Kilwa Chronicle is a pair of documents written in the early 16th century which describe the Shirazi dynasty of the Swahili Culture.

Guinea Pig Research
Bibliographic references on the domestication of the guinea pig, known as the cuy in its native South America. Page 2.

What Have Archaeologists Learned About Otzi the Iceman
The Iceman is the name of a 5,300-year-old human body discovered high in the Swiss/Italian Alps in 1991.

Islamic Civilization: Timeline and Definition
The Islamic Civilization is in reality a mosaic of wide variety of cultures, from North Africa to the western periphery of the Pacific Ocean, and from Central Asia to sub-Saharan Africa.

Iulia Felix - Roman Shipwreck in the Adriatic Sea
The Roman corbita Iulia Felix was shipwrecked in the Adriatic Sea in the 2nd or 3rd century AD; its archaeology has revealed much about the Roman glass industry

Jericho - The Archaeological Ruin in Palestine
Jericho (also called Tell es-Sultan) is the name of tell situated on an ancient lake bed plain in what is known as the West Bank, in the territory belonging to Palestine.

Mississippian Culture - Native American Farmers
The Mississippian culture is what archaeologists call the precolumbian horticulturalists and mound builders, who were spread across the American midwest and southeast, between about AD 1000-1550.

Bibliography of Mississippian Culture
Archaeology. Page 2.

Moundville - Regional Polity of the Mississippian Civilization
Moundville was a regional polity of the Mississippian civilization, located on the Black Warrior River in the southeastern part of the American state of Alabama.

Slash and Burn - Agricultural Method
Slash and burn--also known as swidden or shifting agriculture--is a form of growing crops that involves the rotation of several plots of land.

Was Otzi the Iceman Murdered?
What killed Otzi the Iceman? Was it murder, an accident, or was he purposefully buried high in the Italian Alps 5,300 years ago? Page 2.

Bibliography of Otzi the Iceman
Bibliography of Otzi the Iceman: the most important scientific articles on the lost gentleman of the Italian alps. Page 3.

Archaeological Investigations of the Iulia Felix
Recent scholarly research about the Roman corbita shipwreck Iulia Felix. Page 2.

Tell Brak - Mesopotamian Capital in Syria
Tell Brak is a Mesopotamian archaeological site located in northeastern Syria, on one of the ancient major Mesopotamian routes from the Tigris river valley.

Chankillo - Prehistoric Astronomical Observatory in Peru at 300 BC
Chankillo (also spelled Chanquillo) is a ceremonial center and solar observatory located in the Casma-Sechin river valley of arid coastal Peru.

Anthropology of Social Organization
The study of social organization in anthropology looks at the way people organize themselves, in order to live together in some sort of reasonable manner.

Ubaidian Culture - Ubaid Roots of Mesopotamia
The Ubaidian or Ubaid culture was a widespread shared set of traits and behaviors that predated the urban flowering of Mesopotamia.

The Olmec Site of La Venta
The ancient city of La Venta was a major regional center of the Olmec civilization, despite being located in a wetland environment.

Recent Scholarly Research on Ubaid Culture
Recent scholarly studies on the Ubaid, the earliest recognized cultures that would become the urban Mesopotamian societies. Page 2.

Bibliography for Social Organization
Bibliography of scholarly articles on social organization. Page 2.

Archaeological Studies at Chankillo
Recent archaeological studies on the ancient observatory of Chankillo, Peru. Page 2.

Hofstadir - Icelandic Viking Residence, Shrine and Hall
Hofstadir is an elite Viking residence in Iceland, where oral history suggests a pagan temple was located; archaeology suggests otherwise.

Ngandong Asian Homo Erectus, Indonesia
The Ngandong hominids were ancient skeletal remains of human ancestors found in Indonesia.

Natufian Hunter-Gatherers Culture (Levant Region)
The Natufian culture is the name given to the sedentary hunter-gatherers living in the Levant region of the near east between about 12,500 and 10,200 years ago.

Obsidian - Volcanic Glass Prized for Stone Tool Making
The volcanic glass called obsidian was highly prized in prehistory where ever it was found, because of its beauty and workability.

Oseberg - Viking Ship Burial in Norway
The Oseberg is a Viking boat-grave which was excavated in Norway in 1904, the elite grave of two adult women, who died about 1200 years ago.

Persian Garden - Cyrus the Great's Garden of Eden
The Persian garden at Pasargadae is one of the earliest known gardens in the world, and is thought to be the model for the Biblical Garden of Eden.

Hawk Bell - From European Falconry to American Trade Good
Hawk bells were copper or bronze objects that were used in Medieval falconry in Europe, and also as a trade good for the conquistadors of the Americas.

Hohokam: Farmers of the Sonoran Desert
The people that archaeologists call the Hohokam culture were master farmers, who built an extensive irrigation system and successfully farmed the Sonoran desert for some 1,000 years.

Hohokam Culture and Economics: Settlements, Ball Courts and Trade
The economic system of the Hohokam people was built on farming the Sonoran desert, using a complex system of irrigation canals using water from the Gila and Salt rivers. Page 2.

Bibliography on the Hohokam Culture
Bibliography on the pueblo culture of the American southwest known as Hohokam. Page 3.

Donkeys - History of Domestication
The modern donkey (Equus asinus) was bred from the wild African ass (E. africanus spp) in northeastern Africa during the predynastic period of Egypt, about 6,000 years ago.

Goats - History of the Domestication of Capra hircus
Beginning about 10,500 years ago, Neolithic people started keeping goats, for their milk, meat, dung, wool... but maybe not their sweet natures.

History of Silk Making and Silkworms
The use of the silk worm species Bombyx to produce cloth was invented at least as early as the Longshan period (3500-2000 BC), and perhaps earlier.

Bibliography for Silkworms
Recent scholarly research on the science of silkworms. Page 2.

Archaic Period - Ancient American Hunter-Gatherers
The Archaic period is the name given to generalized hunter-gatherer societies in the North American continent from approximately 8000 to 2000 years BP.

Ath Cliath - Ancient Viking Longphort in Dublin, Ireland
Áth Cliath is the name of a Viking longphort established at least as early as 841 AD at what was to become Dublin, Ireland.

Quotations from Archaeologists and About Archaeology
A collection of pithy quotes from archaeologists or others about the science of archaeology or the mysteries of history and the past and how truly strange a study it is. Page 2.

Quotations from Archaeologists and About the Ancient Past
A collection of pithy quotes from archaeologists or others about the science of archaeology or the mysteries of history and the past and how truly strange a study it is. Page 3.

Koonalda Cave - Pleistocene Cave Art in Australia
Koonalda Cave is a karst limestone cave in the middle south of the continent of Australia, in the dry and desolate area called the Nullarbor Plain.

Kilwa Kisiwani: Medieval Trade Center of Eastern Africa
On a small island off the coast of Tanzania lies the site of Kilwa Kisiwani, also called Kilwa, the most important of about thirty-five trading sites on the Indian Ocean during the 11th through 16th centuries AD.

Linearbandkeramik Culture - The First Farmers of Europe
The Linearbandkeramik Culture (LBK) is the name given by German archaeologist F. Klopfleisch in 1884 to the first true farming communities in central Europe.

Last Glacial Maximum - The End of the Ice Age
The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) refers to that period in earth's history when the glaciers were at their thickest and the sea levels at their lowest.

History of the Moundbuilder Myth
The moundbuilder myth was created by new European settlers of the North American continent who did not want to believe somebody else lived there first.

Longphort - Viking Stronghold Built from a War Ship
A longphort (plural longphuirt) is the name of a permanent stronghold constructed by the Vikings on the shores of Ireland.

Archaeology Quotations - Quote Collection about the Past
A quote collection from archaeologists and others about the science of archaeology, the mysteries of history, and the truly strange study of the past.

The Geoglyphic Art of Chile's Atacama Desert
There are over 5,000 prehistoric geoglyphs in the Atacama Desert, and like the Nazca lines, they are mysterious, beautiful and awe-inspiring. Although we can't know the entire reason they were built, researcher Luis Briones believes they are part sign post and part story-telling along a transportation network in an ancient form of combined religious and commercial travel.

No Vikings in Wisconsin? Prank at Spencer Lake Mounds
Although rumors of an ancient horse skeleton buried in a Native American burial mound have persisted among amateur archaeologists for decades, the real story behind the Spencer Lake Mound is very funny indeed.

Vikings in Wisconsin? James B Griffin Exposes the Prank
Despite the fraud around the Spencer Lake Mounds, persistent rumors about suppressed evidence for Vikings in Wisconsin still are found. Page 2.

Physical Characteristics of Flores Man
The physical attributes of the human remains known as Flores Man had similarities to several other hominids on our planet, but its variability makes it hard to categorize.

Megalithic Monuments - Types and Locations
Megalithic structures are immense collections of stone, earth and wood, some of which were built during the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods of Europe.

How to Choose a Field School - Archaeological Field Schools
What is it that makes a memorable field school experience? Here are some tips on how to find one that fits your needs.

Hrisbru - Viking Age Chiefly Residence on Iceland
Hrisbru is the name of a chiefly residence dated to the Viking period and located in the Mosfell valley of Iceland.

Ancient Civilizations - What Archaeology Has Learned
Ancient civilizations are the basis of the world as we know it today, built on the ruins of 10,000 years of advanced cultures such as the Greek, Roman, Mesopotamia, Mayan, Indus, Egyptian, and others that we know primarily through archaeology and some written records.

Careers in Archaeology
A collection of resources for the jobseeker in archaeology, including some tips on what kind of training it's best to get, where to look for that job, and how to stay alive in the competitive worlds of academic, agency, and cultural resource management archaeology.

European Culture History
European Culture History and Archaeology About>Homework Help>Archaeology> World Atlas> Europe

Persian Empire
The Persian empire was established by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC, conquered and changed by Alexander the Great in 330 BC, and finally overthrown by the rise of the Islamic civilization in 537 AD.

Ceramic artifact analysis, pots making vessels throwing ceramics pottery figurines

Megalithic Site Studies
Archaeology of Megalithic Monuments,

United States of America Culture History and Archaeology
United States of America Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the United States of America.

Western Europe - Archaeology of Western Europe
Archaeological sites, ancient history, and cultures of Western Europe.

Asian Culture History and Archaeology
Culture history and archaeology of the Asian continent, including most of the countries and cultures in Asia.

Clovis First / Pre-Clovis Debate
Debates concerning when the new world was first populated, heated and otherwise, abound in the archaeological literature. Here's where you'll find those papers on the web, and the sites that archaeologists are arguing bout.

Italy - Culture History and Archaeology - Archaeology of Italy
Italy culture and history, including Italian archaeological sites and other information related to the ancient past of the modern country of Italy.

United Kingdom Culture History and Archaeology
United Kingdom Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the United Kingdom

Churches and Archaeology
The archaeological and anthropological investigations of houses of worship--churches, synagogues, shrines, temples, meeting places, mosques, and monasteries.

Guide to Graduate Schools in Archaeology
From your guide to Archaeology, a listing of the colleges and universities in the world that provide students with graduate degrees in archaeology, searchable by keywords, location, and name.

Maya Researchers
Biographical sketches of some of the scientists who have investigated the archaeological ruins of the Maya.

Turkey Archaeology - Archaeology of Turkey
Turkish Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Turkey.

Viking Archaeological Sites
The archaeological sites of the Vikings or Norsemen are found all over northern Europe. Here are descriptions of several of the most important.

Megalithic Monuments
What you need to know about specific megalithic monument sites around the world.

Background Research and Literature Review
The first step in any archaeological investigation is finding out what there already is known about a particular area or culture group. Here's how to do that.

Fieldwork Techniques
Survey, remote sensing, and excavation are examples of the kinds of fieldwork that is accomplished by archaeologists.

Laboratory Analyses
Probably the fasting growing area of archaeological study is that of laboratory analysis, where even the tiniest artifact can provide information of great importance.

Mexico Culture History and Archaeology - Archaeology of Mexico
Mexico Culture History and Archaeology - Mexican culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Mexico.

Books on the Ancient Maya World
Several good books on Maya archaeology have been published in recent years. Here's a selection.

Controversies in Archaeology
It seems like many of the stories that make it into the press are the controversies that surround new findings. Unfortunately, many of these stories have incorrect or misleading information. Here's the real lowdown on the various archaeological reports you may have heard about.

Blogs, Podcasts & Videos - Sources for Archaeology News
Archaeology News - Sources for Archaeology News, including many different sources for archaeology news, such as archaeology news blogs, newsletters, magazines, and discussion lists.

History of Agriculture - The First Farmers and the History of Agriculture
The history of agriculture is written in archaeological sites throughout the world. The first farming communities in the world practiced part-time agriculture, in gardens or patches, with varying levels of dependence on grown crops or tending animals.

Museum Exhibits: A virtual sampling of what you can find,

Culture History of Africa
African Culture History and Archaeology - Cultural history and archaeology from Africa

Oceania Culture History and Archaeology
Australia and New Zealand archaeology, including sites, universities, timelines and other useful information about the land down under

Archaeology in Cinema, Books, and Television
The most fun way to learn about good, and bad, archaeology is to delve into the entertainment industry. Hundreds of movies and books have been produced on archaeology in one way or another. Here's a sample.

Pre-Human History
Before our immediate human ancestors the hominins evolved on the planet, before about 1.5 million years ago, were their ancestors, with more human characteristics than we sometimes feel comfortable with.

South American Culture History and Archaeology
South American culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of South America.

3D Art History - Computer Simulations of Ancient Buildings
Sophisticated software is now available to allow the construction (or rather reconstruction) of ancient buildings based on archaeological ruins and educated guesses. Still a bit controversial, these buildings are at the very least interesting to wander through.

Ancient Art and Artists
Like today, not everything from the past has a purely functional use; some beautiful artworks have come down to us from the ages.

Ancient Maps - Archaeology and Ancient Maps
A collection of ancient maps used by our ancestors to plat and understand their world.

Artifact Reproductions
Artifacts are something collected the world over; and everybody understandings the pull of owning a little piece of ancient history. Owning an authentic artifact is not ethical, as it almost certainly represents the results of the illicit destruction of an archaeological site. But owning a reproduction! Well, that's a different story.

Bone, Ivory, and Shell
Bone and ivory, tools decoration objects bone working technology

Archaeological Studies of Glass
The invention of glass was, in retrospect, pretty strange. The ancient cultures of Rome and Egypt had glass-making techniques that were quite different. Here are a few links to information on ancient glass and glass-making.

Archaeology Digs 2016
Archaeology digs are conducted by universities, museums, and historical societies year-round all over the planet. Whether you want to join a dig, or just find out what's being dug right now, this is the page for you.

Preserving Culture - Protecting our Cultural Heritage
Throughout the world, increasing populations and development are leading to the destruction of many archaeological sites. Archaeologists have taken the lead to protect these sites, by supporting the creation of protection laws and conducting archaeological research in advance of site destruction.

Archaeological Sites of the American Southwest
Archaeological sites in the American southwest, including Utah, Nevada, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona.

Archaeological Sites in the United Kingdom and Ireland
A collection of webpages dedicated to archaeological sites in Wales, England, Scotland, Ireland and Northern Ireland.

Stories from the Field of Archaeology
Learning how to excavate is a tricky business and harder than it looks. The subtleties of ancient dirt discolorations are often lost on the novice; and learning how to properly use a shovel, believe it or not, is a treat. Here are some stories about work in the field and how to get that experience.

German Culture History and Archaeology
German Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Germany.

Graduate School in Archaeology - Getting into Graduate School - The Series
Should you go to graduate school in archaeology? How do you pick a school? What's the application process like? These are questions that only somebody who has been through the process can tell you; and fortunately, several former graduate students are willing to share their stories.

American Plains and Midwest Culture History and Archaeology
American Plains and Midwest Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the middle portion of the United States.

Ireland and Northern Ireland Culture History and Archaeology
Ireland and Northern Ireland Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

Italian Archaeological Sites
Archaeological sites, ongoing excavations, regional surveys and other pages dedicated to the material culture of Italy.

Turkish Archaeological Sites - Archaeological Sites in Turkey
What you need to know about the archaeological resources in modern day Turkey, including the most important archaeological sites.

The Bible and Ancient Writing of the Near East - Writings of the Bible
The Judeo-Christian bible is a collection of writings in Aramaic and Hebrew, recovered from numerous sources.

Computers and Quantitative Methods
Computers and statistical methods have altered archaeology immeasurably in the last few decades. Here's how.

Scientific Dating of Archaeological Sites and Artifacts
How old is it? Over the 150 years of the discipline of scientific archaeology, researchers have used many different ways to determine how old an artifact or archaeological site is. Here's a selection of these techniques.

French Culture History and Archaeology
French Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of France.

GIS and Spatial Analysis
One of the hottest topics in archaeology today, GIS (Geographic Information Systems) promises to become a highly useful tool.

Interpretation, Synthesis and Write Up
The most important step in archaeology is interpretation, putting together the bits of data and results of the excavations, background research, and lab analysis to make a coherent whole story.

Underwater Archaeology - Marine and Maritime
Underwater archaeology includes archaeological investigations into ships and sailing, as well as the study of seacoasts and other archaeological sites. Archaeology conducted in water has special problems and issues, including the hazards of diving, mapping of underwater sites, and preservation of materials recovered from sites located in lakes, rivers, oceans, ponds, and riverbeds.

Ancient Writing of Europe - European Ancient Writings
Some ancient European documents have been found dating well into the Medieval period, from the Vikings and the Anglo Saxons. Here's a sample.

Ancient Egypt: Old Kingdom
The first great flowering of the ancient Egyptian civilization was called the Old Kingdom, including the third through sixth dynasties, pharaohs such as Djoser, Snefru, Chops, Cheprehn, Pepy I and II, and important pyramids on the Giza Plateau.

Remote Sensing Applications
Remote sensing applications, using airplanes or satellite images, or geochemical or geoelectric techniques to examine below-ground resources without excavation, are one of the fastest growing methods of archaeological research.

Alternative Archaeology
One controversial type of information about archaeological sites and cultures is called alternative archaeology, or pseudo-archaeology, which includes stories that non-archaeologists tell about archaeological sites that come from their imagination or from religious or historical books rather than scientific inquiry.

Archaeology Blogs
Blogs or weblogs are places where people maintain a personal or news reporting web page; here are some of the best English-language archaeology blogs covering news and commentary around the world.

Archaeology Glossary: B Terms
Archaeological glossary entries from B-Group Culture through Byzantium, Turkey.

Cambodian Culture History and Archaeology
Cambodian Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Cambodia.

Chinese Culture - History and Archaeology of Chinese Culture
Chinese Culture History and Archaeology - Ancient Chinese culture history, archaeological sites, Chinese archaeologists, and other information related to the past of China.

Archaeology in Fiction, Stories and Novels
Another way archaeology is inflicted upon the general public's consciousness is through short stories and novels. Many authors have used archaeologists as heroes, as villains, and as gormless fools who clutter up the landscape. Here's a selection of my favorites.

India Culture History and Archaeology
India Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of India.

Indigenous People's Rights
Archaeological studies have increasingly become the focus of interest by the indigenous peoples we study. More and more, archaeologists are attempting to negotiate between information sources and permissions, obtaining data while respecting the rights of the studied community. Here are a few resources and examples of this situation.

Iraq Culture History and Archaeology
Iraq Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Iraq.

Japanese Culture History and Archaeology
Japanese Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Japan.

Popular Science Articles
An indepth look at breaking news articles in the world of archaeology, including new discoveries and current events, written for the popular science audience.

South African Culture History and Archaeology
South African Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of South Africa.

Archaeology Tours - Vacations and Archaeology Tours
Find an archaeology tour, visit a great archaeological destination, or go on a dig in some exotic corner of the world.

Australia Archaeology, by State
Australia Archaeology, by State - Archaeological sites, cultural resources and researchers for each of the states of Australia.

Canadian Culture History and Archaeology
Canadian cultural history, archaeological sites, and other related resources about the past of Canada.

Eastern Europe - Archaeology of Eastern Europe
The archaeological sites and cultures of eastern Europe

Guatemalan Culture History and Archaeology
Guatemala Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Guatemala.

Russian Culture History and Archaeology
Russian Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Russia.

Chile Culture History and Archaeology
Chilean Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Chile.

Early Modern Humans (Homo sapiens)
Homo sapiens first appeared in our world's history about 150,000 years ago, in Africa.

How to Get an Archaeology Education
If you've decided to become an archaeologist, you will need a reasonable education in the science of archaeology. These resources show you what to expect, what to consider when selecting a university to attend.

Peru Culture History and Archaeology
Peru Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Peru.

Pottery Vessels
Using fired clay to store things is an old tradition; the first vessels were produced nearly 15,000 years ago. Here are a selection of websites on pottery in its most familiar form.

Jobs and Employment - Archaeology Jobs
Finding an archaeology job shouldn't be as difficult as it sometimes seems; here's a page of resources that will help you find that job, whether as a field technician, a laboratory technician, a project archaeologist, or a college professor.

Resources for the Teacher
Teaching archaeology can be accomplished in a classroom that's dedicated to fifth grade English, 10th grade math, or college-age geology. Here are some resources for those adventurous few who dare to teach.

Cultural Resource Management
Resources for contract archaeology, crm studies, development preservation

Field and Laboratory Equipment
,A collection of links to places which sell tools and equipment, specifically for the laboratory and field needs of the professional archaeologist.

Mesopotamia was the great civilization based on the many cultures sited on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers of the near east, including Assyria, Sumer, Akkad, Babylonia, beginning about 3500 BC.

Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece included the best of art and politics of humankind: some of the finest sculpture in the world, and the roots of the world's democracies.

Historical Archaeology
Resources and links to sites with written documentation,

Agriculture and Pastoralism
Resources of farming and herding,

Metallurgy and the use of metals in archaeology
Metallurgy and the study of metals in archaeology, including analysis of the metals and metal processing of silver, gold, bronze, iron, and tin.

Military Sites and Battle Studies
Forts, battles, and weaponry from across the ages and the world,

Mississippian and Hopewell Archaeology
Archaeological sites and studies of the southeastern cult of late prehistoric North America, including Hopewell, Mississippian, Caddoan and other middle North American societies.

Moche Civilization
Information about the art, archaeology and culture history of the ancient Moche culture of the Peruvian coast.

Biographies of Archaeologists and Related Scientists
Archaeologists come from all walks of life and make all kinds of career choices. These are mini-biographies of some of the famous archaeologists and not-so-famous archaeologists throughout history who have contributed significantly to the profession.

Puzzles and Quizzes in Archaeology
Are you a whiz at archaeology trivia, or love a good crossword puzzle? Then here's a collection just for you: a collection of games, puzzles, and trivia quizzes on archaeological topics.

Archaeological Quotations
Archaeological quotes of the week, from scientists and researchers in the field and associated scientists and thinkers from around the world, commenting on the past and how we can use it to understand the present and imagine the future.

Latin American Culture History and Archaeology
Latin American culture history and archaeology, including the countries of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Costa Rica.

Mediterranean Sea Cultures
The heart of western civilization was the Mediterranean Sea, and not just the Greeks; here are a selection of archaeological sites and assorted topics on this most ancient mother of waters.

Middle Eastern Culture History and Archaeology
Middle Eastern Culture History and Archaeology - Cultural history and archaeological investigations into the ancient worlds of the Middle East.

Archaeology Digs in North America
Field schools are abundant in the United States and Canada; here is a sampling of several of the most recent.

Scandinavian Culture History and Archaeology
Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Scandinavia.

East Anglia Culture History and Archaeology
Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of East Anglia, England, including the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire, and Essex.

West Midlands Culture History and Archaeology
Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the West Midlands of England, including the counties of Staffordshire, Shropshire, West Midlands, Worcestershire, Herefordshire, and Warwickshire.

North West England - Lake District Culture History and Archaeology
Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of North West England and the Lake District, including Cumbria, greater Manchester, Cheshire, Merseyside, and Lancashire.

South East England Culture History and Archaeology
Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of South East England, including the counties of Kent, East Sussex, West Sussex, Surrey, Berkshire, Hampshire, Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, and greater London.

Applying to Graduate School - the Process of Grad School Applications
The application process for getting into the graduate school of your choice is a long and detailed process--but it doesn't have to be mysterious. These tips from former graduate school secretary Lesley Nicholls lets you know what to expect.

Central North England Culture History and Archaeology
Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Central North England, including the counties of North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, and East Riding.

Graduate School in Archaeology - Getting into Graduate School in Archaeology
Advice from your guide--and four former graduate students--on making the decision to go for that graduate degree in archaeology and thus commit to the profession.

An Hour in the Life of an Archaeologist
Some professional archaeologists describe an hour of their typical day for us. Just an hour, because every day in the field is packed with things that happen, and trying to edit that down would be impossible and, detract from the original concept, which is what is archaeology really like?

Islands of the United Kingdom Culture History and Archaeology
Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the islands of the United Kingdom, including the Isle of Wight, the Scilly Isles, and the Isle of Man.

East Midlands Culture History and Archaeology
Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the East Midlands of England, including the counties of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, Rutland, and Northamptonshire.

Monte Alban (Oaxaca, Mexico)
The mountainous capital city of the Zapotec state called Monte Alban ruled the Oaxaca Valley of Mexico between 500 BC and AD 700.

North East England Culture History and Archaeology
Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of North East England, including the counties of Northumberland, Tyne and Wear, Durham, and Teeside.

Pompeii and the Archaeology of Vesuvius's Eruption
Pompeii and Herculaneum were two Roman towns in Italy that were destroyed by a volcano on August 24, 79 AD. The sites have seen over two centuries of archaeological research, beginning with the Bourbons, and attesting to the fascination of Pompeii.

Archaeological Sites of the American Plains and Midwest
Archaeological Sites of the American Plains and Midwest - Descriptions and webpages devoted to archaeological sites of the central part of the United States.

South West England Culture History and Archaeology
Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of South West England, including the counties of Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, Somerset, Dorset, Devon, and Cornwall.

Angkor Wat, Cambodia
Angkor Wat is a temple complex and capital city of the Angkor (or Khmer) civilization, and one of the most important archaeological sites in Asia.

Calendar History and Ancient Ways of Keeping Time
The calendar was invented several times in several places in the world. Here is a selection of ancient ways of keeping track of the lunar and solar calendar.

Catal Hoyuk - Catal Huyuk - Catal Hoyuk - Catalhoyuk
The most well-known site in Turkey is probably Catal Hoyuk, spelled any number of ways. Its importance in some respects has to do with the innovative research conducted at this early Neolithic site in the Anatolian Plain.

Chinese Dynasties
China has had imperial dynasties since the second century BC; making Chinese dynasties among the longest lived string of civilizations on the planet today.

Imaging, photography, scanning and 3d methods
Imaging Techniques in archaeology

Research in Tree Ring Dating
One of the earliest methods of absolute dating used in the archaeological sciences is tree ring dating, which uses the affects of climate on the growth of specific species of trees to pinpoint when a tree was cut down.

Archaeological Sites in France
A catalogue of some of the more important archaeological sites in France.

Archaeological Sites in Germany
A selection of archaeological sites investigated in the modern country of Germany.

Google Earth Placemarks and Archaeology
A collection of auteurs on Google Earth who have created placemarks for archaeological sites. You need Google Earth installed on your machine before any of these explorations will make any sense, but, if you do, these are a great way to explore the world.

Archaeological Sites in Ireland and Northern Ireland
A collection of archaeological sites which have been recorded in Ireland and Northern Ireland

Radiocarbon Dating Techniques
Radiocarbon dating, also called c14 dating, is a scientific method of finding out the age of organic materials such as plant, animal, and human remains.

Remote Sensing Definitions - Remote Sensing Applications
Remote sensing applications are numerous in archaeology; here are definitions of the remote sensing techniques used in the field today.

Scotland Culture History and Archaeology
Scotland Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Scotland.

Online Site Tours - Virtual Site Tours
Virtual tours of archaeological sites of the world, both reconstructions and real time images.

A Short Course in Scientific Dating Methods
This course on archaeological dating methods is provided here as an introduction to the primary methods of dating in archaeology. It is also available as an email short course.

Bibliographies in Archaeology by Topic
Several excellent bibliographies are available on the Internet, some of which were created especially for

Jordanian Archaeological Sites
Archaeological sites in Jordan, excavated by universities around the world and in conjunction with the Jordanian government.

Archaeology Glossary Entries from C-Group to Ceren
Dictionary entries in archaeology beginning with C and Ca, from C-Group Culture to Ceren

Archaeology Glossary Entries from Da But to Deserted Medieval Villages
Dictionary entries in archaeology beginning with Da and De, from Da But to Deserted Medieval Villages.

Japanese Archaeological Sites
Summaries and site descriptions of many of the most important archaeological sites in Japan.

Glossary Entries between the Scientific Method and Settlement Patterns
Dictionary entries in archaeology beginning with Sc and Se, from the Scientific Method to Settlement Patterns.

Indian Archaeological Sites - Archaeological Sites in India
Archaeological sites located within the borders of the modern-day country of India.

Chinese Archaeological Sites - Archaeological Sites Located in China
Chinese Archaeological Sites: Archaeological sites located within the modern borders of the republic of China.

Archaeological Sites in Iraq
A collection of archaeological sites which are located within the borders of modern-day Iraq.

Glossary Entries between Amarna and Henry AnYang
Dictionary entries in archaeology beginning with Am and An, from Amarna to AnYang

Archaeology Glossary Entries from BC to Blombos Cave, South Africa
Dictionary entries in archaeology beginning with BC, Be, Bh, Bi, and Bl, from BC to Blombos Cave, South Africa.

Blog Carnivals in Archaeology
A blog carnival is a roundup of blog postings collected from myriad blogs on a specific topic. While there aren't too many dedicated to archaeology, a few of the most venerated are on history and/or science.

Educational Blogs in Archaeology
Many weblogs these days are run by academics for the main purpose of pedagogy; to elaborate on ideas from classes, provide insight into news stories and discuss other issues of the day.

Frauds and Hoaxes in Archaeology
Some of the alternative ideas promulgated about archaeology are deliberate frauds perpetrated to embarrass professionals or cheat a gullible public. Here are some of the more interesting of these peculiar relics of our past.

Kennewick Man and the New World Entrada
The Kennewick Man case of Washington state is but the tip of the ice berg for the New World Entrada controversy. Who occupied the American continents first and where did they come from are questions which are intricately connected with the rights of indigenous Native American peoples who lived here at the time, whether they are immediate genealogical ancestors or not.

Repatriation and NAGPRA
Resources on indigenous peoples rights,

Archaeology Project Blogs
One of the latest form of blogging is the most specific: blogging about a specific project, such as blog in support of a dig or field school.

Readings: Article Abstracts in Archaeology and Anthropology
There are many articles in scientific anthropology and archaeology journals that never see the light of day in the mainstream press, but are still interesting to think about and read. Here's a sampling of some that have crossed my desk lately.

Theories and Movements
Two hundreds years of archaeological theory, in one short page: enjoy!

Reference Materials for Writers
Most, if not all, archaeologists, whether they are professional or amateur, must spend a certain amount of time thinking and writing about the things that they find or the ideas that they have about archaeological sites. Here are a few salient references for those that write.

Archaeological Sites in Russia
What you need to know about the most important archaeological sites found in the modern day country of Russia.

Academic Journals
Links to on-line journals, Archaeology.

American Northeast Culture History and Archaeology
American Northeast Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the Northeastern United States.

The application of analytical techniques from the field of engineering and related physical sciences.

Chemistry as an Archaeological Tool
The hard science of chemistry continues to assist archaeologists in the laboratory as they try to put together the pieces of the past.

Experimental Archaeology
Replication experiments in archaeology,

Animal Studies in Archaeology
Animals are an important part of human existence, and so the study of animals in archaeology, also known as faunal studies, is an important component of the archaeological sciences.

Plants and Archaeology
As part of our diet, what we build our homes of and what we burn in our fires, among so many other things we produce and eat, plants have to be a crucial part of the study of archaeology.

Archaeological Sites in Guatemala
A list of and information about archaeological sites recorded in the modern country of Guatemala.

Maps and Mapping
Maps and mapping techniques, cadastral surveying and historical atlases, maps of the world and how to draft them.

Research Institutions in Mexico
The primary research institutions, universities and governmental agencies that conduct archaeological research in Mexico.

Stable Isotopes and Archaeology
The application of the field of organic chemistry called stable isotope analysis has been used to identify evidence for human dietary elements like maritime creatures such as whales, fish and shellfish, various domesticated plants such as corn and millet, and cattle dairying and mother’s milk. Here are a few applications on this burgeoning topic.

Books and Organizations on Underwater Archaeology
A collection of books and organizations on underwater archaeology and shipwrecks.

The human ancestor known as Australopithecus lived on our planet between about 4.4 and 2 million years ago.

Early Homo Sapiens Sites
Paleontological sites which have been found to contain the remains of what are characterized as early forms of Homo sapiens.

Flores Man - Hobbit
The Indonesia hominin named Flores man (Homo floresiensis) is still being debated. Here's the latest information on what scientists believe about the little people called 'hobbits' in the press.

Homo Erectus and Homo Ergaster - Paleontological Sites with Homo Erectus
Homo erectus and Homo ergaster are two (or one, depending on who you talk to) of our hominin ancestors, and the sites associated with their skeletal materials hold the potential to resolve some of the important issues of human evolution.

Jomon Culture
The Jomon culture in Japan is the name given to a cultural tradition that lasted for over a thousand years and included a long range of subsistence behaviors and artifact styles. Jomon sites have among the earliest samples of ceramics in the world to date, and may or may not have invented pottery.

Old English Writings
The older form of the English language has its roots in the Anglo-Saxon manuscripts of Beowulf and, ultimately, the Indo-European languages of the ancient world.

Online Databases for Archaeology
A collection of databases on the

Pre-Clovis Archaeological Sites - PreClovis
All of the sites in North and South America that date prior to 12,000 BC or earlier are called pre-Clovis, and most are problematic, but that doesn't mean we shouldn't think about them. Here is a collection of pre-clovis sites that are worth consideration.

Pyramids at Giza
The ancient Old Kingdom pyramids at Giza are the last remaining of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, no matter how you count them.

Shipwreck Archaeology
Shipwreck archaeology involves the underwater investigations of sailing vessels that sank, whether thousands of years ago or fifty. Here are a few links on specific archaeological shipwreck sites.

Viking Runes
The Viking language was written on stone steles across their empire, called rune stones.

Albanian Archaeology - Archaeology of Albania
Albania Archaeology - Archaeological sites, researchers, universities, cultural history and other resources of Albania.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Culture History and Archaeology
Bosnia and Herzegovina Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of countries of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Bulgarian Archaeology - Archaeology of Bulgaria
Bulgaria Archaeology - Archaeological resources of the modern country of Bulgaria.

Croatian Archaeology - Archaeology of Croatia
Croatia Archaeology - Archaeological sites and other resources related to the cultural history of the modern country of Croatia.

Czech Republic Culture History and Archaeology
Czech Republic Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of what is now the Czech Republic.

Archaeology of Hungary - Hungarian Culture
Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Hungary.

New South Wales Archaeology
New South Wales Archaeology - Archaeological sites and cultural history of the state of New South Wales, Australia.

Polish Culture History and Archaeology
Polish Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Poland.

Queensland Archaeology
Queensland Archaeology - Archaeological sites and other information about archaeological research being undertaken in Queensland, Australia.

Romanian Archaeology - Archaeology of Romania
Romania Archaeology - Archaeological sites, cultural history, universities, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Romania.

Serbia and Montenegro Archaeology
Serbia and Montenegro Archaeology - Archaeological sites and other cultural resource information about the past of the Balkan states of Serbia and Montenegro.

South Australia Archaeology
South Australia Archaeology - Archaeological sites and other information about current and past research in South Australia.

Tasmania Archaeology
Tasmania Archaeology - Archaeological sites and other information about current research in Tasmania.

Ukraine Culture History and Archaeology
Ukraine Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Ukraine.

Victoria, Australia Archaeology
Victoria, Australia Archaeology - Archaeological sites and other information about the past of the state of Victoria, Australia.

Western Australia Archaeology
Western Australia Archaeology - Archaeological sites, cultural history and other resources about the past of Western Australia.

American Northwest Culture History and Archaeology
American Northwest Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the northwestern United States.