Archaeology Sitemap - Page 5 2016-09-26

American Southeast Culture History and Archaeology
American Southeast Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the southeastern United States.

Austrian Archaeology - Archaeology of Austria
Austria Archaeology - Archaeological sites, cultural history, universities, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Austria.

Belgium Culture History and Archaeology
Belgium Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Belgium.

Denmark Culture History and Archaeology
Denmark Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Denmark.

Easter Island, Chile - Archaeology of Rapa Nui or Easter Island
Easter Island, also called Rapa Nui, is an island in the Pacific Ocean which is currently owned by Chile, with several large stone statues, monumental architecture, called moai. Its supposedly environmental collapse has been the focus of many recent archaeological studies.

Greek Culture History and Archaeology
Greek Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Greece

Maltese Archaeology - Archaeology of Malta
Malta Archaeology - Archaeological sites and other resources for the modern country of Malta.

Monte Verde, Chile
Chile's Monte Verde site has gathered a considerable amount of controversy since it was published in the 1980s by Tom Dillehay.

Distance Learning Opportunities - Archaeological Distance Learning
Would you like to take a course on archaeology from your home computer? Here are a few opportunities from around the world straight to your computer

British Columbia Culture History and Archaeology
British Columbia Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the Canadian province of British Columbia.

Have Trowel, Will Travel: A Guide for the Field Technician
Shovel Bum. Dig Bum. Hobo Field Crew. That was me, once upon a time. Some of my happiest days in archaeology were when I was poor and just getting started, making the rounds as hobo field crew. It's how many of us get started, and certainly how many of us become educated in the ways of archaeology, and it can be a rewarding and hideous experience at the same time.

Archaeology of Historic Pottery
A key artifact recovered from historic period archaeological sites is the historic pottery sherd, which can often give precise dates of manufacture, whether from maker's marks or from styles or designs. Here's a sampling of reference sites on historic ceramic identification, pretty interesting for all of us.

Dutch Archaeology - Archaeology of the Netherlands
Netherlands Archaeology - Archaeological resources of the Netherlands, including sites, universities, and cultural history.

New Brunswick Culture History and Archaeology
New Brunswick Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the Canadian province of New Brunswick.

Newfoundland and Labrador Culture History and Archaeology
Newfoundland and Labrador Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the Canadian provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador.

Northwest Territories Culture History and Archaeology
Northwest Territories Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the Canadian province of Northwest Territories.

Nova Scotia Culture History and Archaeology
Nova Scotia Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia.

Portuguese Archaeology - Archaeology of Portugal
Portugal Archaeology - Archaeological sites and other information regarding the past of the modern country of Portugal.

Saskatchewan Culture History and Archaeology
Saskatchewan Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan.

Swiss Culture History and Archaeology of Switzerland
Swiss Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Switzerland.

Books on Art and Architecture
Some of the most beautiful books ever published detail ancient art and architecture from the archaeological ruins of the world. Here's a selection.

Biographies of Archaeologists and Related Scientists
Archaeologists do live interesting lives, at least some of us. Here's a collection of recent biographies to sink your teeth into; and some other historically interesting titles.

Archaeological Books for Beginners
Whether you're interested in getting your feet wet about the science of archaeology or longing to take an amateur passion to the next level? Here's a collection of great introductions to the field of archaeology with you in mind. Go ahead, dive on in.

Book Reviews of Child's Books
Book reviews of recent books for children on the subject of archaeology are few, but some are quite excellent.

Archaeological Studies of Climate and Environment
The study of past climates and environments in archaeology is one of the most important studies archaeologists can follow: not just to better understand the past, but to get a grip on what we can do for ourselves in the future. Here are some studies of the environment from an archaeological viewpoint.

Getting an Education in Archaeology
Being a professional archaeologist takes a lot of education; but archaeologists have started almost anywhere, from an internship in high school to beginning after retirement from another profession.

Guide to Graduate Schools in Archaeology by Location
Looking for a university in a particular location? Here's information on universities which provide graduate decrees in archaeology by their location in the world.

Guide to Graduate Schools in Archaeology by Name
An alphabetic listing of all the universities in the world that provide graduate degrees in archaeology

Guide to Graduate Schools by Program Focus
Some, but not all, academic programs in archaeology are focused at specific subjects in archaeology. This type of program is particularly prevalent in the United Kingdom. Here is a collection of many of the programs available to students of archaeology.

Glossary Entries between Phalaborwa and Pitted Ware Culture
Archaeology dictionary terms beginning with Ph and Pi.

Yukon Territories Culture History and Archaeology
Yukon Territories Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the Canadian province of Yukon Territories.

Peru Ruins - Archaeology and Peru Ruins
The ruins of archaeological sites in Peru include Incan, Moche, Nazca, and many other of the most sophisticated civilizations of the world.

Books on Traveling to Archaeological Sites
A collection of recent published books on traveling to places and visiting archaeological sites.

Ecotours and Ecotourism - Finding an Ecotour
These selected tour operations appear to meet the criteria for 'eco-tour' as established by the Quebec Declaration on Ecotours.

Fictional Archaeology from Elizabeth Peters
Beginning in 1973, the archaeologist Barbara Mertz, at the time and still a world-class romantic mystery writer known as both Elizabeth Peters and Barbara Michaels, published the first adventures of Victorian spinster Amelia Peabody and her crotchety husband, archaeologist Radcliffe Emerson.

Kathleen O'Neal Gear and W. Michael Gear: The Anasazi Mysteries
Some of the hottest selling archaeology-related mystery novels are those of the Gears, retired archaeologists who have written nearly forty murder mysteries. Their series called

Living History
Living history parks, where the docents speak to you as if they were people from the past, and dress and act as if they were from the past, are very popular.

Octavia Butler - A Social Science Fiction Writer
I love Octavia Butler, and was heartbroken when she died in March 2006. Butler's fiction was definitely in the social science fiction vein, and she wrote a couple of series, but my favorite has to be the Patternist series, that begins (within the logic of the series) with Wild Seed (1980).

Suzette Haden Elgin
Linguist and writer Suzette Haden Elgin is probably best known for her books on the

Ursula LeGuin's Social Science Fiction
Classic fantasy science fiction writer Ursula K. LeGuin comes by the social science brand honestly--she is the daughter of anthropologist Alfred Kroeber.

South African Archaeology Sites - Archeology of South Africa
South Africa has some of the most ancient sites of human kind, and by some accounts was the cradle of humanity. Here's a few of the important archaeological sites found in the modern country of South Africa.

18th and 19th Century Sites
Resources and links to sites with written documentation, from your About.com Guide

Archaeological Sites of the Historic Period
This is a collection of archaeological sites which were occupied during the historic period over the world, which generally means after the European colonization of the 15th and 16th centuries.

Archaeological Sites in Egypt
Several pages have been dedicated to single monuments or archaeogical sites in the Nile Valley. Here's a sample.

Frontier Studies
Resources on contact-period archaeology,

Ancient Egypt: Middle Kingdom
The Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt lasted between 2022 and 1650 BC, under the rule of Senwosret, Khendjer, Neferhotep, and Salitis, and with the important archaeological sites of Hierakonpolis, Heracleopolis, Abydos, Dendera, el Kab, and Deir el Ballas.

Ancient Egypt: New Kingdom
The New Kingdom is the name given to the third flowering of ancient Egyptian society. The pharaohs of the New Kingdom are among the most famous of the Egytian ruling class, including Akhenaten, Tutankhamun, Ahmose and Hatshepsut.

Ancient Egypt: Predynastic and Early Periods
The first and earliest portion of ancient Egyptian civilization is known as the Predynastic period, including the 3,000 years before the separate kingdoms Upper and Lower Egypt were united for the first time.

Alexander the Great Archaeological Sites
Alexander the Great's history is reported in the ancient historical texts of Plutarch and Ptolemy, and a wealth of others. Archaeological evidence of the sites and campaigns of Alexander is less evident; but there are some. Here's a sample.

Moche Archaeological Sites
The Moche lived on the north coast of Peru in South America between about AD 100 and 800, and produced some of the finest portrait ceramics ever made in the world.

Inca Ruins
The archaeological ruins of the ancient Inca or Inka civilization are primarily located in the country now known as Peru, South America.

Archaeological Sites of the Mississippian Culture
Mississippian, Adena, Hopewell and Caddoan sites are found throughout the middle part of the United States within the river basins of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers.

Archaeological Sites in the Indus and Sarasvati Rivers
The archaeological sites of the ancient civilization of the Indus and Sarasvati rivers in India and Pakistan are some of the oldest urban settlements on our planet.

Archaeological Sites in Greece
One great thing about the Greek culture is the fact that there are so many ancient Greek ruins to visit and learn about. Here's a sampling.

Assyrian Archaeology
Assyria was an ancient civilization located in Asia during the 14th-7th century BC, including much of the ancient land between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris, and as far south as the Persian Gulf.

Books on the Ancient Incas
There have been many fabulous books published in the last few years on Inca archaeology and history; here are a few.

Books on Greek Archaeology
There are lots of really great books out there about Greek archaeology; here's a selection.

Archaeology and Ancient History of Homer's Trojan War
Scholarly investigations of the ancient Greek bard Homer have included both archaeology and ancient history, probing into the location and possibility that Homer's Iliad and Odyssey were truly based on history.

Mycenaean Culture
The Mycenaean culture, also called Helladic Greece, is that part of classical Greek civilization between 1700 BC and 1100 BC, located in the Peloponnese and central portions of what is modern day Greece.

Ancient Writing of the Americas
Ancient writing in the Americas, including the Maya, Aztec, and Incan civilizations, has a long established history, including carvings on stone, leather, paper, and in the mysterious knots on a string.

Ancient Greek and Roman Writing
When you think of ancient writing from the west, you naturally think of Plato and Aristophanes; but they are not the only Greek and Roman writers nor the only Greek or Roman Writings worth investigating.

Quotes from the Ancient Past
The ancient written documents of our ancestors often have pithy things to say about the past, or things that reverberate down to our present.

Ancient Writers - Legend Makers and Ancient Writers
Although the writers of most of the ancient legends and writings of the world are unknown to us today, there are a few ancient writers whose writing continues to fascinate modern readers.

Ancient Writing of Mesopotamia
Ancient writing was probably invented in Mesopotamia in the form of cuneiform; but it is not the only nor the most interesting of the ancient writing forms out of the middle and near eastern parts of our world.

Anthropologists and Other Scientist Quotes
Quotations taken from the work of other scientists about archaeology, history, or the past in general.

Ancient Writing of India and Asia
Some of the most ancient poetry we know of today has been found in the Upanishads; and some of the most ancient writing of all comes from the far east. Here's proof.

Battlefield Sites and Archaeology
The best known example of military archaeology is conducted at historical battlefield sites, whether ancient or relatively modern. Here's a selection.

Bog Bodies
Bog bodies are human remains that were purposefully or accidentally placed in ponds, and then recovered centuries later, perfectly preserved, from the resulting peat bogs.

Humorous Quotations in Archaeology
A collection of humorous quotes about the past.

Ancient Writing of Egypt - Egyptian Writing Systems
Hieroglyphic writings from Egypt are some of oldest of our ancient writing; but they are not the only nor the most interesting of the ancient writing forms out of the middle and near eastern parts of our world.

Military Forts and Outposts: Archaeology
Archaeological studies of fortresses are more typical of standard archaeological investigations: but because they were built for a specific purpose, they are of great interest to historians and archaeologists alike.

Plantations and Farmsteads
Plantations and farmsteads are the focus of archaeological interest because they involve a microcosm of cultural activities.

Quotes from Writers and Poets
A collection of quotes about the past from writers and poets.

Archaeologist Biographies A-C
Biographical sketches of modern and classic archaeologists from Charles Conrad Abbott to Ernst Curtius.

Archaeologist Biographies D-F
Biographical sketches of modern and classic archaeologists from Raymond Dart to Morton Fried.

Archaeologist Biographies G-J
Biographical sketches of modern and classic archaeologists from Dorothy Garrod to Donald Johanson.

Archaeologist Biographies K-L
Biographical sketches of modern and classic archaeologists from Ferdinand Keller to Charles Lyell.

Archaeologist Biographies M-N
Biographical sketches of modern and classic archaeologists from R.A.S. Macallister to Rasmus Nyerup.

Archaeologists of the Past
The history of archaeology is filled with scholars who contributed great or little advances in the science. Here are links to biographies of the archaeologists of the past.

Archaeologist Biographies O-Q
Biographical sketches of modern and classic archaeologists from David Oates to Frederic Ward Putnam.

Archaeologist Biographies S
Biographical sketches of classical and modern archaeologists with names beginning with S, starting with Fuad Safar.

Archaeologist Biographies T
Biographical sketches of classical and modern archaeologists with names beginning with T, from Maurice Taieb to E.B. Tylor.

Archaeologist Biographies U-V
Biographical sketches of modern and classical archaeologists beginning with the letters U and V, from Peter Ucko to Elisabeth Vrba.

Archaeologist Biographies W
Biographical sketches of modern and classical archaeologists beginning with the letter W, beginning with Alan J.B. Wace.

Modern Archaeological Scholars
Modern archaeology has benefited from the work of many young turks of recent decades. Here are resources on the modern influential leaders in archaeology of today.

Mummies and Archaeology
Mummies - the preserved remains of human beings - are one of the world's great fascinations.

Women in Archaeology
From the very start of the science, women have had a difficult time getting into the field of archaeology. Here are a few brief biographical sketches of some of the women who prevailed and are making or have made contributions to the science.

Blog Round-Up: Amalgamated Friday
A round up of archaeological and related blog commentary and news, served up weekly from your About guide to archaeology.

Archaeology Newsletters - Compilation of Archaeology Newsletters
There are numerous wonderful archaeology newsletters in cyberspace that keep us uptodate with recent listings of the latest happenings in the world of archaeology. Here's a selection of the finest.

History of Archaeology: Books and Readings
A number of our best scholars have attempted to make sense of the history of archaeology, its science and its not-so-science. Here is a sample of the best on offer today.

Contested Archaeological Sites
Some archaeological sites, by their very natures, end up controversial, where there are several possible interpretations or when professionals disagree on their interpretations.

Crossword Puzzles
Crossword puzzles, free and online or downloadable, with an archaeological theme.

Development Issues in Archaeology
The world's population is quickly expanding, and as a result, more and more archaeological sites are being endangered by the need for development. Here are several resources on the tightrope between development and preservation.

Discussion Groups - Archaeology News Groups
Electronic discussions are carried on most of the varied specialities that interest archaeologists; here is a selection.

Engaged Archaeology
Some of the latest trends in archaeology are interesting but untested. Here's some of the newest ideas that I think are worth taking for a spin.

Jigsaw Puzzles
Jigsaw puzzles from great archaeological images, to be played online

Podcasts in Archaeology
Podcasting is the latest craze among the digiterati, and there are already a handful of archaeology podcasts on the Internet.

Quizzes
Free fun quizzes with an archaeological slant.

Video Collections in Archaeology
Video collections are groups of videos produced by groups now publishing information about their sites via Youtube, Google Video and other video networks. Here's a selection of these video sites.

Word Plays - An Introduction to Archaeology Concepts
Word Plays are brief quizzes on high-flown archaeological concepts, and (with any luck) are painless introductions to the higher elements of archaeological theory..

Archaeology Magazines - Popular Science Archaeology Magazines
Links to general interest magazines, where you can find an article written in plain language about archaeological matters

Archaeology Glossary: I Terms
Archaeological glossary entries from Ice Age through Izapa, Mexico.

Archaeology Glossary: J Terms
Archaeological terms defined from Jabrudian Industries to Junjen nomads.

Archaeology Glossary: K Terms
Archaeology terms defined from K2 Village in South Africa to Kuyunjik, Iraq.

Multimedia Sources
A collection of resources on film and video for the teacher, student, and enthusiast, from your About.com Guide

Archaeology Glossary: N Terms
Words from archaeology starting with N, from Na'aren through Nuragic Culture.

Documentary Films in Archaeology - Resources
Each year, documentary films are produced on archaeological sites and topics around the world. Here's a listing of societies for archaeology film producers, film festivals, university programs and other resources on film-making in archaeology.

Electronic Publishing and Review
Peer review and electronic publishing,

Field Songs in Archaeology
One absolutely sacrosanct tradition in archaeology is the field song. For reasons that have yet to be explained to me, if you get a group of archaeologists in the same place (read: pub) at the same time (3:30 am) and in the same state (convivial semi-sobriety), they sing. Here are some classics and some new ones.

Archaeology in Poetry
A collection of poems, modern and ancient, about the past and its romance, glory and sadness, and comic relief: which, after all, describes archaeology exactly.

Archaeology Glossary: U Terms
A guide to the obscure jargon of archaeology, for terms beginning with the letter U, from Uan Muhugglag Utari Culture.

Y Terms - Dictionary of Archaeology
Y Terms--About.com's Dictionary of Archaeology, terms beginning with the letter y

Z Terms: Dictionary of Archaeology
About.com's dictionary of archaeology: Archaeological definitions of words beginning with the letter Z.

Archaeology Glossary - X Terms
Archaeology glossary terms beginning with the letter X.

Algerian Culture History and Archaeology
Algerian Culture History and Archaeology: Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Algeria.

Angolan Culture History and Archaeology
Angolan Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Angola.

Benin Culture History and Archaeology
Benin Culture History and Archaeology: Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Benin.

Botswana Culture History and Archaeology
Botswana Culture History and Archaeology: Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern African country of Botswana.

Burkina Faso Culture History and Archaeology
Burkina Faso Culture History and Archaeology - including archaeological sites, culture history and other resources of interest.

Cameroon Culture History and Archaeology
Cameroon Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Cameroon.

Cape Verde Culture History and Archaeology
Cape Verde Culture History and Archaeology: Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern African country of Cape Verde.

Central African Republic Culture History and Archaeology
Central African Republic Culture History and Archaeology: Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the Central African Republic.

Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Cultural History and Archaeology
Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Cultural History and Archaeology - cultural history and other archaeological information about the Ivory Coast.

African Cultures - Culture Histories of Africa
The political boundaries of the countries in Africa do not always match the older cultural groups. Here is a selection of African cultures--the important inter-national cultural groups known for the continent of Africa.

Democratic Republic of the Congo Culture History and Archaeology
Democratic Republic of the Congo Culture History and Archaeology - archaeological sites, cultural history and other interesting bits of information about the country formerly known as Zaire.

Egyptian Culture History and Archaeology
Egyptian Culture History and Archaeology: Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Egypt.

Ethiopian Culture History and Archaeology
Ethiopian Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Ethiopia.

Gabon Culture History and Archaeology
Gabon Culture History and Archaeology: Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Gabon.

Gambia Culture History and Archaeology
Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of the Gambia.

New and Used Book Stores
A selection of the best electronic places one can find the best price for the out-of-print (or brand new) book you've been looking for.

Archaeology Quotations
Archaeological quotes of the week, from scientists and researchers in the field and associated scientists and thinkers from around the world, commenting on the past and how we can use it to understand the present and imagine the future.

Asian Cultures and Civilizations
Culture history and archaeology of many of the ancient civilizations that make up the modern countries of Asia.

Books on the Mississippian Civilizations
Always good to find a good book on an ancient civilization: and with the Mississippian and related civilizations, that's easy.

Georgia Archaeology - Archaeology of Georgia
Georgia Archaeology - Archaeological sites and other cultural history resources from the former Soviet Union country of Georgia.

Ghana Archaeology - the Archaeology of Ghana
Ghana Archaeology: Resources on the archaeology and cultural history of the African country of Ghana.

Indonesian Culture History and Archaeology
Indonesian Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Indonesia.

Kenyan Culture History and Archaeology
Kenyan Culture History and Archaeology: Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Kenya.

Libyan Culture History and Archaeology
Libyan Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern culture of Libya.

Madagascar Culture History and Archaeology
Madagascar Culture History and Archaeology: Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Madagascar.

Mali Culture History and Archaeology
Mali Culture History and Archaeology: Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the African country of Mali.

Mauritania Culture History and Archaeology
Mauritania Culture History and Archaeology: Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the nation of Mauritania.

Nigerian Culture History and Archaeology
Nigerian Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Nigeria.

Sudan Archaeology - The Archaeology of Sudan
Sudan Archaeology: Archaeological resources and site descriptions of sites in the African country of Sudan.

Tanzania Culture History and Archaeology
Tanzania Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Tanzania.

Tunisia Culture History and Archaeology
Tunisia Culture History and Archaeology: Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Tunisia.

Zimbabwe Culture History and Archaeology
Zimbabwe Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Zimbabwe.

Afghanistan Culture History and Archaeology
Afghanistan Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Afghanistan.

Armenia Archaeology - Archaeology of Armenia
Armenia Archaeology - Cultural history, archaeological sites and other information related to the historic and prehistoric past of the country of Armenia.

Iranian Culture History and Archaeology
Iranian Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Iran.

Kuwait Culture History and Archaeology
Kuwait Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Kuwait.

Lebanon Archaeology - Archaeology of Lebanon
Lebanon Archaeology - Archaeological resources and sites from the modern country of Lebanon.

Micronesia Archaeology
Micronesia Archaeology - Archaeological sites and cultural resources of the Marshall Islands.

Mongolia Archaeology - Archaeology of Mongolia
Mongolia Archaeology - Cultural history, archaeological sites and other information about the past of Mongolia.

Pakistan Culture History and Archaeology
Pakistan Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Pakistan.

Philippines Archaeology - Archaeology of the Philippines
Archaeological resources, including sites, researchers, timelines, and cultural history, from the Philippines. There's not much on the Internet about the Philippines, so if you know anything more pass it along.

Thailand Culture History and Archaeology - Archaeology of Thailand
Thailand Culture History and Archaeology - The modern country of Thailand has a long cultural history, including a significant portion of the Angkor civilization. On this page, you'll find culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Thailand.

Latin American Culture Books - Archaeology of Latin America
A collection of book reviews on Latin American culture history, and including Mesoamerican and South American civilizations such as the Maya, Inca, and Aztec civilizations.

Antigua and Barbuda Archaeology
Antigua and Barbuda Archaeology - Archaeological sites, cultural history and other information related to the past of Antigua and Barbuda.

Archaeological Sites of the Mediterranean Sea
A collection of webpages on specific sites near and in the Mediterranean Sea.

Central American Civilizations and Cultures
Central America, that part of the Americas below the United States and above South America, has a wealth of interesting cultures, including the Aztec, Olmec, Maya, Toltec, Zapotec, and Maya civilizations.

Bahrain Archaeology - Archaeology of Bahrain
Bahrain Archaeology - Archaeological sites and other information about the cultural history of the middle eastern country of Bahrain

Costa Rican Culture History and Archaeology
Costa Rican Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Costa Rica.

Cuban Culture History and Archaeology
Cuban Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the island nation of Cuba.

European Culture History
Descriptions and information about the varied prehistoric and historic cultures of the European continent.

Tonga Archaeology
Tonga Archaeology - Archaeological sites, researchers and cultural history on the island nation of Tonga.

Argentina Culture History and Archaeology - Archaeology of Argentina
Argentina Culture History and Archaeology - Argentina's culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to Argentina's past.

Bolivia - Culture History and Archaeology
Bolivia's culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Bolivia.

Brazil - Culture History and Archaeology
Brazilian Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Brazil.

Colombian Culture History and Archaeology
Colombian Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Colombia.

Dominican Republic Culture History and Archaeology
Dominican Republic Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the Dominican Republic.

El Salvador Culture History and Archaeology
El Salvador Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of El Salvador.

Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat) Culture History and Archaeology
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat) Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Greenland, also called Kalaallit Nunaat.

Honduran Culture History and Archaeology
Honduran Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Honduras.

Icelandic Archaeology - Archaeology of Iceland
Iceland Archaeology - Archaeological sites and cultural history resources for the modern country of Iceland.

South American Civilizations and Cultures
South American culture history and archaeology sorted out by the civilization, Inca, Tiwanaku, Moche, Chimu and all the others.

Nicaraguan Culture History and Archaeology
Nicaragua Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Nicaragua.

Norwegian Culture History and Archaeology
Norway Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Norway.

Swedish Culture History and Archaeology
Swedish Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Sweden.

Building with Brick and Tile
The invention of brick as a building material, and tile as a water and sewage management vehicle, made great changes in human society.

Paleolithic Cave Paintings - Archaeological Sites with Ancient Cave Paintings
Cave paintings are the earliest expression of permanent, non-portable art, and have been found throughout the world, with the earliest attempts at the beginning of the the Upper Paleolithic period, about 40,000 years ago.

Ecuador Culture History and Archaeology
Ecuador Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Ecuador.

Figurines, Clay Pipes, and Ceramic Armbands
When you think of ceramics in archaeology, mostly you think about pottery vessels; here are some resources on other uses for fired clay, including figurines, ceramic armbands, and that ubiquitous historic Euroamerican object, the clay pipe.

Venezuela Culture History and Archaeology
Venezuela Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Venezuela.

Smoke Pfeiffer's Never-Ending Projectile Point Bibliography
Beginning at least as early as the mid-1990s, archaeologist Michael

Atlatls and Throwing Sticks
Atlatls are a technological leap forward in hunting, developed by our human ancestors about 20,000 years ago. Resources today include both archaeological studies and experimental studies conducted by members of the primitive skills movement.

Career Stories from Archaeologists
Only somebody in the field can be brutally honest about what his or her life is really like. In Career Stories, proefssional archaeologists talk about what they like and don't like about their careers.

Cultural Resource Firms
The definitive list of cultural resource firms, conducting archaeological and architectural research in the United States, the United Kingdom and elsewhere.

Curricula - Teaching Materials in Archaeology Curricula
Lesson plans and teaching tips for all levels,

Archaeology Job Listings
There are several excellent places that list recent postings for archaeology and associated jobs. Here are some of the best.

Projectile Point Studies in Archaeology
Most people, when they think of stone tools, think of projectile points, or arrowheads, those little stone objects fastened to long pieces of wood and shot or thrust and flung into some planned piece of dinner. Here's a good collection.

Archaeologist Biographies R
Biographical sketches of classical and modern archaeologists with names beginning with R, from Oliver Rackham to Walter Roth.

Minoan Culture of Greece
The Minoan culture is that part of the Greek civilization between about 3000 and 1000 BC, and largely centered in the Crete.

Section 106 Guidelines and Links
Section 106 NHPA cultural resource management federal funding

Smoke Pfeiffer's Directory of Archaeology
Smoke Pfeiffer is an archaeologist, and more than that, a fabulous collector of information, and for years he has had this directory of associations, newsletters, and journals for archaeology kicking around the Internet. He was kind enough to let me post this latest version here.

Swahili Culture
The Swahili Coast was the center of an important trading community who exchanged goods and services throughout the Persian Gulf, Africa and India during the Medieval period.

Tibetan Kingdom
The archaeology and history of the Tibetan kingdom, a 7th-9th century AD on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau in China, including the ancient history of the region.

Nabataean Civilization
The Nabataeans were nomadic traders in the northern Arabian peninsula between about 300 BC and 100 AD. During that 400 year period, Their capital city was the amazing Petra, and their stock in trade, the aromatic resins frankincense and myrrh.

Steppe Societies of Central Asia
The steppe societies of the vast central plains and deserts of Asia were pastoralist nomads, who thrived in the barren lands and facilitated the trade networks between the east and west.

Amateur Archaeology and Antiquarianism
Not everybody wants to be a professional archaeologist; but you can learn about the history and prehistory of human beings, protect the cultural resources of the world, volunteer on archaeology excavations, contribute to the science of archaeology, and still have a great time doing it.

Global Legislation
Legal protection for archaeological sites, looting theft laws

Artifact Looting, Theft and Smuggling
Laws protecting the cultural heritage of the world are being broken every day by smugglers who deliver ancient artifacts to private collectors. The lust for the possession of ancient objects increases the profits for looting archaeological sites; and thus our collective heritage is being destroyed.

Safety Issues in Archaeology
The world is not a safe place--and heavens knows the archaeological field is fraught with danger, from working in trenches to dealing with temperature extremes to plant and animal life.

Sureyya's Journey: Beginning Archaeology
22-year-old I.T. sysop Sureyya Kose has decided to change careers from Information Technology to Archaeology. In this occasional series, Sureyya describes her pathway to a career in archaeology.

Archaeology Field Schools in Focus
Descriptions of upcoming archaeological digs for the year 2009, with photographs and information straight from the directors.

Digging without the Dirt: Online Excavations
In this day and age, on line excavations allow the Internet surfer to find out exactly how a field trip goes, using daily diaries and digital photographs and maps. Here you'll find a selection of the latest excursions on line.

Pacific Islands Culture History and Archaeology
Pacific Island culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the Pacific Islands.

Archaeology Projects for Kids - Projects for Children
Archaeology projects for kids includes in-classroom studies, experimental archaeology classes where kids make pots or other prehistoric activities, and actual field sessions, where kids go out and dig.

Arctic and Subarctic Culture History and Archaeology
Arctic and subarctic culture history and archaeological sites, and other information related to the people of the arctic and subarctic regions of the world.

Interviews with Working Archaeologists
Sometimes the best way to understand what's going on in archaeology with respect to a particular subfield is ask a lot of nosy questions. Here's a list of interviews conducted by email.

Frequently Asked Questions in Archaeology
While it may seem that there are many mysteries in archaeology waiting to be solved, some are merely waiting for the question to be asked. Here's where you'll find some of those mysterious questions answered.

Archaeoastronomy
The study of past ways of keeping track of the changing seasons by way of the solar and lunar calendars is called archaeoastronomy.

Ethnic Studies
Race and ethnicity are cultural constructs that have almost no correlates in real human physical attributes. Nonetheless, they are cultural differences, and there is material culture evidence of people's self-defined ethnicity.

Forensic Archaeology
Forensic archaeology is about the law and how it applies to archaeology, but it usually refers specifically to the study of crime and how it is solved; human skeletal studies are a related field.

Gender Studies
The study of the activities, the relative positions of autonomy and power, and the symbolic meanings of gender in the past.

Site Types in Archaeology
Archaeologists classify archaeological sites by function, size, date, and assemblage of artifacts. Here's a few of the terms used to define site types.

Slavery and Archaeology
Archaeologists study slavery for many reasons, but the primary reason is probably that it allows comparison between two classes of people living and interacting at the same time. This page is a collection of resources for people doing research on archaeology and slavery.

Textiles - Archaeology and Textiles
Archaeological evidence of the ancient art of weaving cloth; the weaver and the loom

Prehistoric Tools - Tools of Prehistory - Prehistoric Tools
Prehistoric tools used by people in the past to hunt, grow crops, paint, build housing; and were made of shell, bone, metal, stone, and other materials.

Urban and Industrial Archaeology
Urban archaeology includes archaeological studies in cities and manufacturing sites. The study of urban archaeology has its own special problems and tools to assist in the safe and controlled excavations in cities and towns throughout the world.

Ancient Near East and Biblical Archaeology
Biblical Archaeology is the study of the Near Eastern cultures that had a role in the writing and activities of the Old and New Testament of the Jewish and Christian bible.

Byzantine and Ottoman Empires
The Byzantine empire was based in the city of Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) between the 4th through 7th centuries AD; and the Ottomans followed between the 13th century through the 1920s.

Caral Supe Civilization
The Caral civilization is the earliest discovered civilizations of the new world, located as several towns on the coast of Peru.

Etruscan Civilization - Etruscan Culture History
The Etruscans were an ancient civilization of the Etruria region of Italy, and they ruled Italy from the Iron Age until the Roman Empire.

Hittite Civilization
The ancient Hittite Civilization includes much more than the small Iron Age city states mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. During its heyday, the Hittites owned all of what is now Turkey between the 15th and 13th centuries BC, centered on their capital city of Hattusha.

Islamic Civilization
The ancient civilization of Islam includes much of Africa and Central Asia, beginning with the Mohammed's revelation of AD 622 well into the 1500s, and continues into the modern day.

Olmec Civilization
The Olmec civilization is the name given to a sophisticated central American culture between 1200 and 400 BC.

Longshan Culture of China
The Longshan culture is a Neolithic and Chalcolithic culture (ca 3000-1900 BC) of the Yellow River Valley of Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Inner Mongolia provinces of China.

Tiahuanaco - Tiwanaku
The Tiahuanaco (also spelled Tiwanaku) Empire, based at Lake Titicaca in Bolivia and Peru, was dominant in central South America during the 6th through 9th centuries AD.

Mesoamerican Ball Courts - Oldest Sports Arenas in the Americas
A ballcourt is a prehistoric sports arena, built throughout the Americas beginning about 1500 BC, and associated with the Mesoamerican ballgame.

Edgefield Pottery - Ceramic Innovation in South Carolina
The Edgefield pottery, or Edgefield district, is the name of an important set of potters in the 19th century, who together created an international amalgam of stonewares.

The Forms of Mesoamerican Ball Courts
Archaeology. Page 2.

Bibliography on the History of Alpacas and Llamas
Recent scholarly articles on the domestication of South American camelids. Page 2.

Sandhavn - Viking and Inuit Trading Port at Greenland
Sandhavn is a medieval period trading bay on the southern shore of Greenland, used by Norwegian trawlers and co-habited by Inuit and Norse both.

Popol Vuh - The Sacred Maya Creation Book
The Popol Vuh, often dubbed the Bible of the Maya, is a colonial document which narrates the creation myth of the Maya Quiché of Guatemala and the Story of the Hero Twins

The History of Llamas and Alpacas in South America
Llamas and alpacas are two different species of camel in South America, both domesticated in about the same location and time in the Andean highlands.

Building a Paleoclimatic History of the World
Green isotope stages, or oxygen isotope stages, are the steps of and chronological listing of alternating cold and warm periods on our planet, identified by paleoclimatologists for the past 2 1/2 million years. This page lists the current dates for the past million years, as well as the cultural events that took place in human history.

Bibliographic References for Marine Isotope Stages
a collection of bibliographic references for use with understanding Marine Isotope Stages. Page 2.

Jingdezhen - Ceramic Capital of China
Jingdezhen is the name of a famous ceramic production center in China, where a veritable army of potters created fabulous porcelains for the emperors of the Ming, Qing, Yuan and Song dynasties.

Hohokam Water Control System
For over 1,000 years, the Hohokam farmers of the American southwest farmed the Sonoran desert, using a vast system of canals to bring life to the desert.

Bibliography for the Hohokam Irrigation System
Archaeology. Page 2.

Bitumen - The Archaeology and History of Black Goo
Bitumen is a naturally-occurring organic byproduct of decomposed organic materials used by humans for many very useful things for the past 40,000 years.

10,000 Years of Bitumen in California's Channel Islands
Early Californians used bitumen just like the Mesopotamian people did: to seal canoes, decorate objects and stick things together. Page 2.

Ancient Mesoamerican Ball Game Origins and Gameplay
The Mesoamerican ball game was an exciting, dangerous game played by most cultures in central America, beginning over 3,500 years ago.

Aztec Religion - Main Aspects and Gods of the Ancient Mexica
The Aztecs had a complex set of beliefs, ceremonies and gods, each one overlooking an aspect of human life and responding to the needs of the Aztec people.

Ritual Objects of Ancient Taino - Caribbean Islands
Zemis were an important part of the Taino culture of the Caribbean, with archaeological evidence supporting their use for at least 2,000 years.

Xipe Totec - Grisly Aztec God of Fertility and Agriculture
Xipe Totec was the Aztec god of fertility and agriculture renewal, with violent and grisly ceremonies involving the flayed skins of war captives.

Timber Sources for Chaco's Great Houses
Timber used in Great House construction was collected from some distance away; that timber has provided precise dating for Chaco Canyon.

Recent Academic Papers on Chaco Canyon's Great Houses
Recent research on Chaco Canyon Great Houses

Shared Elements of the Chacoan Great Houses
While quite diverse in plan and execution, the Chaco great houses hold many features in common, including ritual architecture and artifacts.

What Science Has Learned about Chacoan Great Houses
Anasazi Great Houses are the monumental residential and ritual buildings found within and outside of Chaco Canyon and dated between 850-1150 AD.

Chronology of Great House Construction in Chaco Canyon
The Great Houses in Chaco Canyon were built over a period of 250 years, beginning in the mid ninth century AD with the oldest called Una Vida.

Building Styles of the Anasazi Great Houses
Archaeologists have identified five distinct types of architecture used to create the great houses and other structures in Chaco over time.

Fish Weir - Ancient Fishing Tool of Hunter-Gatherers
A fish weir or fish trap is a step forward in fishing technology, used first in Mesolithic Europe 8,000 years ago, and in North America by 5,000 years ago.

What Has Science Learned about Fish Weirs?
Recent scientific literature on the archaeology and technology of fish trapping and fish weirs. Page 2.

Toba Volcano (Sumatra) - Setting the Archaeological Clock in India
The Toba Volcano is the site of one of the largest eruptions Planet Earth has ever known: and it may have had a direct impact on the survival of humankind.

Did the Toba Eruption Cause a Human Genetic Bottleneck
The Toba eruption occurred just about the time human beings started to move into the Indian subcontinent. Page 2.

Edamame History - How the Soybean Became an Edible Side Dish
The edamame, which graces tables in upscale restaurants and creative cooks everywhere, is the same species as the nearly inedible soybean.

Why Did the Oneota Leave Wisconsin - and Where Did they Go?
Archaeologists think they know where the Oneota came from and what happened to them. Page 2.

The Oneota Culture - Last Prehistoric Culture of the American Midwest
The archaeological remains of the cultures of the American midlands which were overrun by the European invasion are called the Oneota.

Ozette Village - A North American Pompeii
Ozette site, a North American Pompeii, Ozette buried village

Bibliography for Ozette
Archaeology. Page 2.

Complex Hunters and Gatherers
Complex hunter-gatherers or affluent foragers, are hunter-gatherers with benefits.

Archaeology and Prehistory of Cuba
Guide to the archaeology and prehistory of Cuba

Mesoamerica Cultural Timeline
Mesoamerica Timeline: Chronology of the Mesoamerican Cultures. Description of the time periods for Mesoamerican archaeology.

The Palace of Palenque and Pakal the Great
The palace of Palenque: an ancient Maya royal residence.Description of the main features of the royal palace at Palenque, Mexico.

Ancient Traders and Merchants of Mesoamerica
Mesoamerican market and merchants, Maya and Aztec merchants, refer to this page to learn more bout trade organization in Mesoamerica

Geofacts - When is a Broken Rock NOT an Artifact?
A geofact is a piece of rock that has been naturally broken, as opposed to one that was broken by purposeful human agency.

Banpo - Yangshao Neolithic Farming Village in China
Banpo is Neolithic Yangshao village where millet farmers lived on the Wei River in Shaanxi Province, China, somewhere between 7000 and 5000 years ago.

Arrowhead - The Misnamed Object that Everybody Thinks They Know
An arrowhead is the most-recognized ancient relic in the world, found by exploring children in farm fields and stream beds: too bad it is a misnomer.

De Landa's Alphabet
De Landa’s alphabet contained in his Relación de las Cosas de Yucatan represented a fundamental step in the decipherment of Mayan writing system

Diego De Landa: Bishop and Inquisitor, Colonial Yucatan
Spanish fray, and later bishop of Yucatan, Diego de Landa is famous for his fervor in destroying Maya codices, as well as for the detailed description of Maya society on the eve of the conquest recorded in his book, Relación de las Cosas de Yucatan (Relation on the Incidents of Yucatan).

DeLanda in Yucatan, Izamal (1549)
De Landa arrived in Yucatan in 1549 and was in charged of the chirch and convent of Izamal

Book Burning at Mani, Yucatan 1561
At Mani, the infamous burning of Maya codices and other sacred objects believed by the Spaniard to be the work the devil was ordered by Diego de Landa.

Diego de Landa's Relación de las Cosas de Yucatan (1566)
The Relación de las Cosas de Yucatan was written by Diego de Landa in 1566, in Spain while waiting to be judged for his conduct against the Maya of Yucatan

John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood
John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood were Maya explorers of the 19th century, who made the ancient Maya known to the wide public in Europe and United States...

Origins and Use of Amaranth in Prehistoric America
Amaranth is a widespread grain used in ancient Mesoamerica since very early times for its value as staple food, dye and by the Aztec for its religious importance.

The Pyramid of the Magician - Maya Site of Uxmal Mexico
The Pyramid of the MAgician is one of the main monument at the Maya site of Uxmal, in the Yucatan peninsula

The Aztec Sun Stone - Aztec Calendar Stone
The Aztec Calendar Stone, known more properly as the Aztec Sun Stone, is a basalt sculpture with carvings related to the sun god Tonatiuh and other calendar symbols

Aztec God of Fire - Huehueteotl and Xiuhtecuhtli
Huehueteotl-Xiuhtecuhtli was an important Aztec deity, who incorporated the aspects of the old god as well as the god of fire and of the year.

Calpulli - Core Organization of Aztec Society
The Calpulli was the basic unit of social organization in the Aztec empire, organized around clan groups and similar work patterns.

Timeline of Caribbean Prehistory - Precolumbian
Refer to this page to learn more about the archaeology of ancient Caribbean islands and their prehistory.

Dugout Canoes - Native Americans in the Northwest Coast
Northwest Coast canoes and Early Native American navigation along the Pacific Northwest coast

Dating Archaeological Objects by TL and OSL
Thermoluminescence and Optically Stimulated Luminescence dating methods have been successfully used on several types of artifacts, Page 2.

Luminescence Dating - A Cosmic Method of Archaeological Dating
Luminescence dating is a scientific methods which date certain artifacts by measuring the amount of light energy they have trapped.

Garlic Domestication - Where Did it Come from and When?
Garlic was first domesticated by the horsemen of the Central Asian steppes, and spread out to the rest of us to flavor our world.

The Domestication of Sesame Seed - Ancient Gift from Harappa
Sesame seeds were domesticated by the Indus Valley civilization about 4500 years ago, and spread from there out into the world.

Mature Harappan Phase at Harappa: The Integration Era of the Indus Valley
Harappa was a cosmopolitan city on the Ravi river in Pakistan about 4500 years ago. Was it climate change that brought about its abandonment? Page 2.

Harappa (Pakistan) - Capital City of the Indus Civilization
About 5,000 years ago, Harappa was one of a handful of capitals of the Indus Civilization located on the bank of the Ravi River in Punjab, Pakistan.

What Is the Narmer Palette?
The Narmer Palette is an early Period Egyptian civilization artifact, showing the conquest of Upper and Lower Egypt by the first Egyptian pharaoh, Menes or Narmer.

Tell Asmar - Dynastic Mesopotamian Capital of Eshnunna
Tell Asmar is the archaeological ruins of the Mesopotamian capital city of Eshnunna, and home of some of the earliest dynastic rulers in Mesopotamia.

Bat Cave - Early Evidence for Domesticated Maize in North America
Bat Cave is a complex of rock shelters in New Mexico, where the science of exploring the origins of plant domestication took a great leap forward.

Nok Art - The Earliest Sculptural Art in West Africa
Nok art is the earliest known sculptural terracotta art in West Africa, found throughout Nigeria and made between 500 BC and 500 AD.

Have Trowel Will Travel: The Contact List
Whether you're looking for a job in archaeology or merely thinking about going into graduate school, this page is the starting point for you.

Directory of US State Archaeological Societies - Archaeology Societies in Iowa Through Tennessee
Smoke Pfeiffer's Directory of State Archaeological Societies, alphabetically listed from Iowa to Tennessee. Page 4.

Directory of US State Archaeological Societies - Archaeology Societies in Texas through Wyoming
Smoke Pfeiffer's collection of archaeological societies in the United States. Page 5.

Smoke Pfeiffer's Directory of National and International Archaeological Societies
National and international archaeological societies, derived from Michael

Smoke Pfeiffer's Directory of Archaeological Societies: Regional
Michael A.

Directory of US State Archaeology Societies from Michael A. Smoke Pfeiffer - Archaeology Societies from Alabama through Illinois
There are several archaeology associations for amateurs, professionals or both, located in most states of the union. Page 3.

Will Durant on Geological Consent - Archaeology Quotations
Will Durant was an influential historian, with an elegant turn of phrase.

The Bog Bodies of Europe - Archeological Finds
The term bog bodies is used to refer to human burials, some likely sacrificed, recovered from peat bogs of Denmark, Germany, Holland, Britain, and Ireland.

Akrotiri - Minoan City on the Island of Santorini
Akrotiri is the name of a Minoan city, utterly destroyed by a volcanic eruption in the late 17th century; except for what archaeologists have discovered to date.

'Ain Ghazal - Pre-Pottery Neolithic Site in the Levant of 'Ain Ghazal
The site of 'Ain Ghazal is an early Neolithic village site located along the banks of the Zarqa River near Amman, Jordan.

Destination: Towton Battlefield
The bloodiest battle ever fought in England was part of the War of the Roses, on Palm Sunday, in the year 1461. Carried on between the Yorkist King Edward IV, and the Duke of Somerset, fighting on the Lancaster side for Henry VI and Queen Margaret, Towton is reputed to have killed between 20,000 and 28,000 people.

Cave of Forgotten Dreams - Werner Herzog's Documentary on Chauvet Cave
The Cave of Forgotten Dreams is director Werner Herzog's documentary of Chauvet Cave, an Upper Paleolithic cave full of paintings made about 32,000 years ago. A review of the film.

Tikal - Ancient Maya Capital Center in Guatemala
The Maya civilization capital city of Tikal was occupied for 1,500 years: and its collapse was abrupt and messy. Here's what archaeologists think happened.

Recent Archaeological Studies at Tikal
Recent archaeological studies at the Maya site of Tikal have focused on environmental impacts on cultural change. Page 2.

Blombos Cave - Early Modern Humans in South Africa
Great strides in understanding the development of modern human beings are being taken at the very southern tip of Africa these days.

Blombos Cave - Bibliography
Print resources on the most ancient of human sites on the planet, Blombos Cave, South Africa. Page 2.

Craft Specialization - A Primer
A core concept in archaeology today is craft specialization; it is a cornerstone of civilizations, and most likely the reason we don't have an egalitarian society today.

Bibliography of Craft Specialization
Want to read further? Here's a brief bibliography of craft specialization. Page 2.

Secrets of the Dead - The Real Trojan Horse: A Review
The Real Trojan Horse is a 2015 video from PBS's Secrets of the Dead series, exploring the crazy, fun idea: what would a Trojan Horse have looked like?

Chinampa - Raised Field Agriculture in the Americas
Chinampa systems are a type of American traditional agriculture that has been practiced for at least 1,000 years

Bibliography for Chinampa Farming
Bibliographical sources on chinampa agriculture. Page 2.

Vedbaek (Denmark)
The archaeological site of Vedbaek is an Ertebølle culture Mesolithic cemetery site located in Denmark, with early evidence of social stratification.

Lewis Roberts Binford [born 1930]
The quintessential

What Is Cahokia?
. Archaeology.

Tollund Man - What is Tollund Man
Tollund Man is the name given to an Iron Age man whose body was recovered in amazingly pristine state from the Bjældskovdal peat bog near Tollund, Denmark.

Discovery Site of Lyuba, the Baby Mammoth
The 40,000 year old baby mammoth called Lyuba was discovered on the bank of the frozen Yuribei River near this location.

Lyuba the Baby Mammoth - Waking the Baby Mammoth Lyuba
In May 2007, a baby woolly mammoth was discovered exposed on the Yuribei River in Yamal Peninsula of Russia. Her discovery and investigation was examined in the National Geographic documentary film, Waking the Baby Mammoth.

How Did Lyuba the Baby Mammoth Die
After her discovery, Lyuba was transferred to the city of Salekhard and stored at the Salekhard museum of natural history and ethnology.

Microscopic Surgery for Lyuba - Waking the Baby Mammoth
At a hospital in St. Petersburg, researchers perform investigative surgery on Lyuba and removed samples for study.

Stupa - Archaeology of Buddhism Sacred Architecture
Stupas are sacred structures, built to honor the historical Buddha throughout South Asia beginning at least as long ago as the 3rd century BC.

Adze - A tool for working wood
An adze or adz is a stone tool made specifically for working with and shaping wood

Subsistence - How We Feed Ourselves
Subsistence, to an archaeologist anyway, refers to the suite of behaviors that humans use to feed themselves.

Hagia Sophia: Istanbul's Ancient Mystery (Video Review)
A 2015 NOVA video on the 1500-year-old Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey, highlights its long cultural and architectural history, as well as preservation efforts.

Oranjemund Shipwreck - Namibia Maritime Archaeology
The Oranjemund shipwreck was discovered in 2008 on the Atlantic coast of Namibia by diamond miners.

International Trade in Artifacts - www.plunderedpast.com - Karen Olsen Bruhns
Karen Olsen Bruhns is an archaeologist and part time US customs officer, assisting with the retrieval of stolen international artifacts and the identification of looters. www.plunderedpast.com is a commentary from her on the prevalence of pot-hunting.

The Precolumbian Antiquities Market: International Trade in Looted Antiquities
Archaeology. Page 2.

The Antiquities Trade: An International Problem
Archaeology. Page 3.

Forgeries and Fakes: International Trade in Looted Antiquities
Archaeology. Page 4.

Archaeology
Archaeology. Page 5.

Pinnacle Point - Howiesons Poort Cave Site in South Africa
Pinnacle Point is the name of a cave located on the southern coast of South Africa, where very early modern human behaviors have been recorded some 160,000 years ago.

Selam - Australopithecus Afarensis in Ethiopia Selam
Selam is the name given to a nearly complete juvenile Australopithecus found in the Afar Triangle of Ethiopia.

Ancient City of Ur - Mesopotamian Urban Community
The Mesopotamian city of Ur, known as Tell al-Muqayyar, was an important Sumerian city state between about 2025-1738 BC.

Bibliography for Ur
A brief bibliography on the Mesopotamian city of Ur. Page 2.

Gordion - Phrygian capital in Turkey
The archaeological site of Gordion is located in central Turkey, about 100 kilometers west of the modern town of Ankara, said to be the home of the Phrygian King Midas.

Ranking and Social Inequality
The study of ranking and social inequality in archaeology is based on the anthropological and economic studies of Elman Service and Morton Fried.

Chullpa - Andean Group Burials
A chullpa refers to a type of group burial, used by the various cultures in South America for at least 1500 years.

Archaeology Book Publishers
A list of companies who specialize in the publication of academic and general public archaeology books.

Archaeology Book Publishers
A list of companies who specialize in the publication of academic and general public archaeology books.

Vinland - Identifying the Viking Homeland in America
Where in the North American continent is Vinland, the land reported in the Viking chronicles as that colonized by Leif Erikson? Birgitta Wallace has an idea.

Is Vinland Wineland?
Birgitta Linderoth Wallace argues that Vinland meant

Homo Erectus Colonization in Europe - Pakefield Homo erectus in England
Geoarchaeologists working on the coast of the North Sea of Britain at Pakefield in Suffolk, England have discovered artifacts suggesting that Homo erectus arrived much earlier than previously thought.

Australian Settlement - When was the Australian Settlement
New mitochondrial data reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on May 7, 2007, supports the somewhat still controversial Australian colonization as having occurred at about 50,000 bp--and that it was a single founder population who were subsequently isolated from the rest of the world.

The Peopling of Australia and New Guinea: A Bibliography
A brief bibliography of articles about the evidence for the population of the Australian continent. Page 2.

Actun Tunichil Muknal - Human Sacrifices at the Maya Cave
The Maya cave of Actun Tunichil Muknal, in Belize, is best known for containing artifacts related to bloodletting activities related to rain rituals, along with the remains of 14 individuals, mainly young and children, probably sacrificed to the rain gods.

Chinchorro Culture
The Chinchorro culture is the name of an archaic period South American society of hunter-fisher-gatherers, with a strong is a cemetery site located on a beach in Arica, in northern Chile.

Anthropology - What is Anthropology
Anthropologists have many interests, traditionally defined in four fields: biological and cultural anthropology, archaeology, and linguistics. Here's a definition of this crucial concept provided by Michael Scullin.

Maya Highlands - Archaeology of the Maya Highland
The Maya Highlands includes the southeastern part of the Maya civilization, located in the volcanic mountains of Guatemala, Mexico, Honduras and el Salvador.

Mayan Civilization City of Copan, Honduras
Over a century of archaeological research at Copán has resulted in a vast wealth of information about the Maya of Honduras.

Bibliography of the Maya Civilization Site of Copan
A bibliography of the Maya civilization of Copan. Page 2.

Mapungubwe - African Iron Age Polity in South Africa
Mapungubwe dates to the middle to late Iron Age in Africa, and it was the seat of power for the region during the 13th century AD.

Osteodontokeratic
The term osteodontokeratic was invented by the Australian archaeologist Raymond Dart, to describe the tool kit of our hominid ancestor Australopithecus africanus. Great name,isn't it? Too bad he was wrong.

What Is the Oasis Theory?
The Oasis Theory is a core concept in archaeology, referring to one of the main hypotheses about the origins of agriculture.

Pearl Millet - Domestication and History
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) was domesticated in west Africa at least 4500 years ago.

The Archaeological Site of Devil's Lair (Australia)
Devil's Lair is one of the oldest securely dated archaeological cave sites in Australia.

Klasies River Caves - Middle Paleolithic South Africa
What does it mean to be human? Archaeological excavations at one of the earliest Homo sapiens site on the planet, the Klasies River Caves site in South Africa, teach us about our ancestors.

Igbo Ukwu - What and where is Igbo Ukwu
Igbo Ukwu is an archaeological site near the modern town of Onitsha, southeastern Nigeria.

Arrowheads and Other Prehistoric Hunter Tools
Arrowheads are the most identifiable archaeological artifact in the world. Whether they've personally collected them from nearby farmlands, seen them in museum displays or just watched them being shot into people in John Wayne movies, most people know the triangular tips of arrow shafts are the remnants of a hunting trip.

Experimental Archaeology
Experimental archaeology is a branch of archaeological study that replicates or attempts to replicate past processes to understand how the deposits came about.

HBO's Vice: Egyptian Tomb Raiders - Looting and the Antiquities Trade
In May of 2015, HBO's Vice television series offered a news story on the impact of the Arab Spring on archaeological sites and cultural history.

Glass - An Illustrated History
Glass is a transparent hard substance created by the application of enormous amounts of heat to sand or quartz. Nature's glass is made by volcanic action, superheating and creating the substance called obsidian.

The Earliest Glass Material Manufacture
The first manufactured glass material in prehistory was made in Mesopotamia and Egypt about 3500 BC.

Natron and Glass Making
Natron was used almost exclusively as a flux for the production of glass in the Mediterranean between the 5th century BC and the 9th century AD

Molded Glass
Molded or cast glass vessels were first made by the Late Bronze Age of Mesopotamia and Egypt, about 1500 BC.

Opaque Glasses at the Venetian Lagoon
The beginning of the truly commercial artisanship of glass making was in Roman Italy, arising from the combined talents of Levantine and Roman workers in workshops such as Aquileia. However, the Levantine coast continued to be at the forefront of glass innovation for the next seven hundred years.

Blown Glass and the Levantine Coast
The blown glass technique--whereby glass vessels are created by humans blowing air into heated glass--was invented on the Levantine coast, probably in the Phoenician city of Sidon.

Roman Glass Making
The coastal Levantine glassmakers set up workshops in the roman towns of Aquileia and Campania and worked together with Roman artisans to perfect the technique, including such equipment as iron blow pipes and sophisticated horizontal kilns.