Archaeology Sitemap - Page 8 2016-09-26

El Castillo - Neanderthal and Early Modern Human Cave Sites in Cantabria
El Castillo is the name of a conical limestone mountain in the Cantabrian region of what is today Spain. It contains several caves which hold archaeological evidence of Neanderthal occupations as recently as 30,000 years ago.

Guide to the Western Stemmed Tradition - Paleoindians in the Great Basin
The Western Stemmed Tradition is the name scholars have assigned the material culture left behind by hunter-gatherers in the arid desert states of the USA.

Old Smyrna - Classical Greek Site and Possible Home of Homer in Anatolia
Old Smyrna is a classical Greek site located on a peninsula which once jutted into the Gulf of Smyrna, with Hellenistic, Lydian and Ionian occupations.

Tobacco and the Maya - Nicotine Use by Classic Period Mayan Civilization
Tobacco was an important part of the religious and secular life of the Maya civilization, particularly during the Classic Period.

Ch'arki - The Original Jerky Method of Preserving Meat
Ch'ark is the word from which our modern day jerky was developed: a method of preserving fresh meat without preservatives.

Nazlet Khater - Early Modern Human Mining in Egypt
Nazlet Khater is an important set of archaeological sites, located in the Nile Valley of Egypt, where the oldest early modern human in north Africa has been discovered.

Mounds - Prehistoric Archaeological Construction
Mounds are prehistoric archaeological constructions made of earth, which may or may not contain a burial. Recent work has identified the structural complexity and architectural sophistication of such structures.

Kebara Cave - Middle Paleolithic and Natufian Site in Israel
Located on the western escarpment of Mount Carmel, Kebara Cave has two important components, Middle Paleolithic Aurignacian and Mousterian, and Epi-Paleolithic Natufian.

Dama de Elche - Cinerary Art of Classic Iberia
The Dama de Elche is a funerary object, a statue of a woman dated to 4th or 5th centuries BC.

Synagogues - What is a Synagogue
A synagogue is, of course, a religious structure that can be identified with the Jewish faith; the earliest synagogues may have developed as early the Babylonian exile period of the 6th century BC.

al-Fustat - Where and What is al-Fustat
Al-Fustat is the name of the first Islamic capital of Egypt, founded shortly after the Ummayyad conquest of Egypt in the 7th century AD.

Pulque - Ancient Mesoamerican Sacred Drink
Pulque is obtained by fermentation of maguey, the agave plant, and its production dates back to ancient Mesoamerica....

Giant Ground Sloth Extinction in the Americas
A news story from researchers at the University of Florida suggests megafaunal extinctions may have been the result of human predation, rather than climate change.

Stonehenge - an Online Bibliography
An online listing of webpages about one of the most famous archaeological sites in the world.

Journal Articles - Finding Journal Articles
Why are journal articles so hard to find? Whether you are sitting in your home, office, public, or academic library, you have access to complete articles in archaeology. Some journal articles you may have to buy, some you may have to be logged onto to even search. Some are even open access. This list of links leads you to each of the major online resources for academic research in archaeology.

England - Culture History and Archaeology of England
The archaeological sites, research institutions, and other information concerning English culture history.

Computer Programs for Archaeologists: Archaeology Software
There are a number of very useful utility programs for archaeologists on the web, many of which are freeware. Whether its running a Harris Matrix or calibrating a c14 date, here's a selection of the best software available.

Nunavut Culture History and Archaeology
Nunavut Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the Canadian province of Nunavut.

Ontario Culture History and Archaeology
Ontario Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the Canadian province of Ontario.

Quebec Culture History and Archaeology
Quebec Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the Canadian province of Quebec.

Archaeology News Blogs
The fastest way to hear about archaeology stories that are in the main stream press is through a news blog, and there are several excellent ones.

Personal Blogs about Archaeology
Blogs are often personal diaries; and many archaeologists and students in archaeology are beginning to write of their experiences on the web. The personal blog about archaeology is an excellent resource for people who are interested in getting into the field, or just finding out a little more information about how archaeology works.

Australian Capital Territory Archaeology
Australian Capital Territory Archaeology - Archaeological sites, cultural history, and other information about the past of the ACT in Australia.

Arnhem Land Archaeology
Arnhem Land Archaeology - Archaeological sites, cultural history and other resources of the state of Arnhem Land, Australia.

Fringe Concepts about Archaeology
A large portion of the websites about archaeology on the Internet are assembled to support a alternative explanations in archaeology, those derived from non-scientific sources. Here's a selection of the most prevalent.

Northern Territory, Australia - Archaeology
Northern Territory, Australia Archaeology - Archaeological sites, cultural history, universities, researchers and other information related to the past of the Northern Territory of Australia.

Skeptics and Debunkers
Thank goodness, there are lots of sites on the web that take time to debunk the crackpots. Got a favorite crackpot theory? Here's the real story.

Bibliographic Databases
The best thing about the Internet: subject bibliographies. You can start any kind of archaeology project, whether in school or out of it, on the Internet.

Geomorphological Investigations in Archaeology
Geomorphology is the study of landforms, and, as geomorphologists like to say, all of archaeology takes place in the dirt. Here are some resources that these associated scientists provide for the benefit of archaeologists everywhere.

India Archaeology - Research and Teaching Institutes in India
Many universities and research institutions conduct archaeology in India. Here are some of them.

Research Institutions Conducting Work in Peru
Many universities in Peru and around the world conduct archaeological research in the country. Here are some of their websites.

Archaeology Videostore - Adventure and Romance
A selection of films in the adventure and romance category, related to archaeology, from your Guide.

Archaeology Videostore - Comedy
A selection of films related to archaeology in the comedy sub-genre, from your Guide.

Archaeology Videostore - Horror
A selection of films related to archaeology in the subgenre of horror, from your Guide.

Kate Wilhelm
Science fiction writer Kate Wilhelm has frequently used social science topics as subjects for study in her novels.

Alberta Culture History and Archaeology
Alberta Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the Canadian province of Alberta.

Cyprus Archaeology
Cyprus Archaeology - Archaeological sites and other resources related to the cultural past of the modern country of Cyprus.

Manitoba Culture History and Archaeology
Manitoba Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the Canadian province of Manitoba.

Andorran Archaeology - Archaeology of Andorra
Andorra Archaeology - Archaeological sites, cultural history, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Andorra.

Luxembourg Archaeology - Archaeology of Luxembourg
Luxembourg Archaeology - Archaeological sites, university studies, researchers, other information about the cultural history of the modern country of Luxembourg.

Spanish Culture History and Archaeology
Spanish Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Spain.

Boots and Shoes for the Archaeologist
You can always pick out the archaeologist in the local bar: she's the one with the really great boots. Here are some suggestions for picking the best hiking boots, gum boots, site shoes, and cowboy boots for you or the archaeologist in your life.

Professional Associations
Professional archaeological associations assist the working archaeologist to keep in touch with colleagues, debate issues, and provide assistance with ethical and legal issues. They are also a great resource for finding jobs and appropriate schools for beginners.

Associations in Related Fields
Archaeology is an amazingly broad discipline, touching on several related fields. While an archaeologist must specialize, sometimes the best way to do that is to join a closely related field to your area of expertise. These listings include associations commonly joined by archaeologists.

Trying Archaeology Out as a Career
If you've ever wanted to be an archaeologist, or are considering going into the field, these resources are for you: field stories and how to get your feet wet and your trowel dirty.

Associations for the Study and Protection of Rock Art
Several very strong groups around the world study, discuss, and work to protect ancient rock art.

Archaeology Digs in the United Kingdom and Ireland
Numerous archaeology digs, field schools and other excavations are conducted in England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

Eastern European Archaeological Digs
Field schools located in eastern Europe, the Balkan states, and the countries of the former Soviet Union.

Jamaican Culture History and Archaeology
Jamaica Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of Jamaica.

Science Writers
Looking for a good science writer to help with your archaeology or anthropology project? Here's a list of writers who have published works in those fields.

Electronic Journals
Each of the links on this page points to a professional archaeological journal or magazine that provides substantial online content, whether as a supplement to their print publication, or solely as an online provider.

Magazines for Children - Archaeology Magazines for Children
Although many of the general public magazines for archaeology are perfectly suitable for children, there are also several new journals directed to those kids who are early intrigued by the adventures of archaeologists.

Scientific News Sources
Keeping up with what's going on in archaeology is not necessarily a matter of googling once a week. These scientific news sources often carry archaeology news stories. Each of these pages has frequent updates on scientific news sources. Some of them have more archaeology than others; but all of them touch on the subject fairly frequently.

Ancient Weapons - Archaeology of Ancient Weaponry
Ancient weapons, the original arms race, were developed long before the discovery of metal (we could always bash one another over the head with a rock). Information about ancient swords and other weapons of destruction are found here.

Discussion Groups and Journals
Feel the urge to chat over ancient ruins, read some great articles, debate Greek mythology, or just listen into some fascinating discussions on Mycenaen and Minoan cultures? Here are are few places to do just that.

Egyptology Study Groups
You can find plenty of current information about Egyptology in these resources, including discussion groups and associations.

History of Egyptian Archaeology
The history of Egyptian archaeology is quite broad and in certain respects parallels the history of archaeology itself. Here are a few links to whet your appetite.

Associations and Clubs in Archaeology
Archaeological clubs and societies, both professional and avocational, help the archaeologist stay on top of current events, discuss things with their colleagues, and promote the value of archaeology to the general public.

DNA and Genetic Studies of Evolution
If we're very lucky, the study of ancient DNA assists in the identification of our most ancient ancestors. Here are some studies that discuss how DNA works.

Human Origins
Resources and links about the origins of the human race,

Bahamas Archaeology - Archaeology of the Bahamas
Bahamas Archaeology - Archaeological sites and cultural history information on the past of the Bahamas.

Barbados Culture History and Archaeology
Barbados Culture History and Archaeology - including cultural history, archaeological sites and other information about the archaeological resources of Barbados.

New Zealand Archaeology
New Zealand Archaeology - Archaeological sites, universities, cultural history and related resources about the past of what is now New Zealand.

Israel Culture History and Archaeology
Israel Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern state of Israel.

Jordanian Culture History and Archaeology
Jordanian Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern day country of Jordan

Oman Archaeology - Archaeology of Oman
Oman Archaeology - Archaeological sites, researchers, and culture history of the country of Oman.

Azerbaijan Archaeology - Archaeology of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan Archaeology - Archaeological sites and other information related to the history and prehistory of the modern country of Azerbaijan.

Bangladesh Archaeology - Archaeology of Bangladesh
Bangladesh Archaeology - Archaeological sites and other related cultural information about the country of Bangladesh.

Comoros Culture History and Archaeology
Comoros Culture History and Archaeology: Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the three island nation called Comoros off the African coast.

Republic of Congo-Brazzaville Culture History and Archaeology
Congo Culture History and Archaeology - Culture history, archaeological sites, and other information related to the past of the modern country of Congo.

Archaeology Digs in Africa
Field schools and other planned excavations are held each year in the countries of Africa. Here are a few of the recent listings.

Archaeological internships
A list of archaeological internships, regular opportunities for students to learn a specialization in archaeology while working for a specialist. These are usually associated with academic departments around the world and may be for credit, although they are very rarely paid positions.

Archaeology Digs in the Middle East
The ancient middle and near east has been the primary interest to archaeologists for a very long time indeed. Here are a few of the recent and ongoing archaeology digs.

Beads and Beadmaking
Bead making is one of our very first arts, as humans. Here are some articles and resources on this endlessly fascinating world.

Employment Surveys in Archaeology
Recent surveys of the archaeological profession from around the world, about how many archaeologists are employed, where their pay scales are like, what industry they work in, and other things of interest to the prospective student of archaeology.

Monte Verde II - A Photo Essay of Monte Verde
Monte Verde is an archaeological site, located in southern Chile, on an inland estuary 55 kilometers west of the current Pacific coastline.

Living at Monte Verde II - What Was Life Like at Monte Verde II
Life at Monte Verde is known to us in remarkable detail, because of the excellent preservation. Page 2.

Medicinal Hut at Monte Verde II
Also discovered at Monte Verde is a hut with a wish-bone shaped foundation, that researchers are interpreting as a medicinal hut. Page 3.

Seaweed Exploitation at Monte Verde II
Nine species of seaweed were discovered at Monte Verde, in addition to a wide range of other foodstuffs. Page 4.

Monte Verde II - The Prototypical PreClovis Occupation of Monte Verde
In the face of all the remarkable things about Monte Verde, remarkable indeed is the breadth of information retrieved about the living styles of the residents, and the complete antithesis to Clovis lifeways that are shown there. Page 5.

Centeotl - The Aztec God of Maize
Centeotl was one of the many aspect of the maize god for the Aztec

The Dawn of Angkor: Ban Non Wat:
Investigations at this cemetery in Thailand have provided excavator Charles Higham with evidence for the early rise of elite civilizations in Angkor

Discussion Groups on the Ancient Roman Empire
Oh, to be among the Romans when Caesar took it in the ribs! If you are fond of dreaming Roman dreams, here are some ways to find like minded individuals.

Picol Passo and the Art of Maiolica - What is Maiolica
Maiolica is a type of pottery which includes technical innovations of both Chinese and Islamic medeival wares. Page 2.

Picol Passo and the Art of Maiolica - The Workshop
The workshops at the medieval Italian pottery making center of Castel Durante were where Picol Passo learned the craft of majolica. Page 3.

Picol Passo and the Art of Maiolica - Istoriato
Surface decoration of medieval majolica, like all forms of art, is a result of the prevailing social aspects of the day, often sharing figurative and narrative subjects from woodcuts and engravings of medieval society. Page 4.

Archaeology Digs in South America
South American field schools are conducted each year by universities around the world. Here's a selection.

Field Schools and Scheduled Excavations in Canada
Archaeological sites are excavated every year throughout Canada. Here's a sample.

Field Schools and Scheduled Excavations in the Western USA
Numerous field schools and other planned excavations are held each year in the western United States. Here's a sampling of the most recent.

Finland Archaeology
Finland Archaeology - Archaeological sites and cultural historic resources about the past of the modern country of Finland.

Discussion Groups on Lithics and Stone Tools
Heaven knows there are lots of people who are crazy about lithics and making stone tools; and with the Internet, they've learned to hunt in packs. Here's a good compilation of the best.

Projectile Point Typologies
Archaeologists build a point typology based on the size and shape of projectile points--from spear points to true arrowheads. A typology allows you to date a point based on comparing it to other points found in a region.

Monte Alban Walking Tour
Photo gallery of Monte Alban with main spot to visit

Monte Alban - Group IV
Group IV is one of the most imposing architectural complex of Monte Alban. It is a closed ceremonial complex with the typical Temple-Altar-Patio complex. Page 10.

Monte Alban Tombs
Monte Albán is a famous archaeological site in oaxaca which was hte capital of the Zapotec civilization of Mesoamerica. It reached its apogee in the CLassic time. Page 11.

The North Platform at Monte Alban
The Northern Platform at Monte Alban is the largest construction of the site and includes many residential and ceremonial buildings along with the famous Sunken Patio. Page 2.

The Sunken Patio at Monte Alban
The Sunken Patio is a squared, sunken plaza on top of the north Platform at Monte Albán, probably used for religious ceremonies. Page 3.

Monte Alban's Ball Court
Monte Alban sunken ball court in the main plaza is one of the five that exist at the site. Page 4.

Building S - The Palace at Monte Alban
One of the building of the main plaza of Monte Alban is the so-called Palace. Page 5.

Monte Alban's South Platform
Southern Platform at Monte Alban closes the southern side of the main plaza. Page 6.

Conquest Slabs at Monte Alban
Conquest slabs from Building J portray a series of place names. Page 8.

Monte Alban - Los Danzantes
Gallery of the Dancers is a series of carved slabs with human figures in a position that resemble that of dancers. Page 9.

Causeways - What is a Causeway
A causeway is an early form of transportation system, consisting of a narrow, man-made earthen or rock structure that bridged a waterway.

Nunnery Quadrangle Plaza at Uxmal
Although Uxmal started out as a small community at its beginnings about 600 AD, Uxmal became one of the largest urban centers of ancient Mexico, reaching its height of importance during the latter part of the classic period (AD 800-1000). Page 4.

Causeway to Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico
This is part of the great elevated road system (called sacbeobs) leading to the large regional capital of Calakmul, and it links many of the sites in the highly forested Maya lowlands. Page 9.

Cahuachi - the Nazca Civilization site of Cahuachi
Cahuachi is a major ceremonial center of the Nasca civilization in Peru, occupied from between AD 1-500.

The Lost City of Z - A book review of The Lost City of Z
The Lost City of Z tells the story of Percy Harrison Fawcett--an obsessed man who sacrificed his life and family in search of the fabled El Dorado.

Catalhoyuk - Urban Life in Neolithic Anatolia
Catalhoyuk is one of the earliest urban centers in the world; and Ian Hodder's study of its shrines has included the most forward-thinking and vital work in archaeology today.

Walt Whitman's Unnamed Lands
19th century American poet Walt Whitman describes his feeling for this past in this snippet from Leaves of Grass called Unnamed Lands.

Feddersen Wierde - Iron Age Settlement of Feddersen Wierde
Feddersen Wierde is an important Iron Age site located on the marshy coastland of northern Germany. It was first occupied around the first century BC and continued without break until the 5th century AD.

Have Trowel, Will Travel: Shovel Bums Unite!
Have Trowel, Will Travel is a perfect description of what its like to be a field archaeologist. Here's an introduction to the concept.

Who owns the past?
Who owns the past? We all do. So, how can we best serve the past as archaeologists and interested people?

The Roots of NAGPRA
An interview with Steve Russell on his work studying the beginning moments of the American Indian repatriation movement and how it impacts archaeology.

The Roots of NAGPRA
An interview with Professor Steve Russell on the history of the repatriation movement. Page 2.

The Roots of NAGPRA
The state of affairs of the American Indian Repatriation movement as it was in 1997; and interview with Professor Steve Russell. Page 3.

The Roots of NAGPRA:
How the repatriation movement reflects and refracts the more general movement of indigenous peoples' rights; an interview with Professor Steve Russell. Page 4.

House Hunting: Archaeological Houses
Having a home--a place to be protected from the weather or your enemies--is a long-held need for Homo sapiens. This article is a guide to how house construction has changed through the ages, from an archaeological standpoint.

Ancient Peru and Central Andes - The Archaeology of Peru - Ancient Peru
This page describes the archaeology of Peru, with a brief introduction to Precolumbian Peru and the ancient Andes

Paleoindian and Archaic Burials - A Bibliography
When were the American continents populated? Some of the answers lie in the skeletal remains of individuals buried more than 8,000 years ago--called Paleoindian and Archaic. Page 2.

Northwest Coast Timeline - Timeline of the Northwest Coast Native Americans
Detailed timeline of the Native American history of the Northwest Coast.

The Role of Politics and Education in Indigenous Archaeology: Interview with Darby Stapp and Julia Longenecker
What ways do Native American groups get involved in archaeology, and what educational pathways are there open to Native American students? An interview on Indigenous Archaeology with Darby Stapp and Julia Longenecker. Page 2.

Action Anthropology and the Future of Indigenous Archaeology
In this part of an interview with Darby Stapp and Julia Longenecker, they discuss the role of action anthropology in their lives, and the future of indigenous archaeology. Page 3.

Indigenous Archaeology: Cultural Resource Management by Native Americans: An interview with Darby Stapp and Julia Longenecker
One of the more exciting trends in archaeology today is the growing active participation of indigenous people in the federal bureaucracy of protecting cultural resources. In this email interview, archaeologists Darby Stapp and Julia Longenecker discuss their experiences with tribes conducting Indigenous Archaeology.

Christopher Columbus's Failed Outpost - The First European Colony in the New World
The archaeological site of La Isabela on the island of Hispaniola in the Dominican Republic is the 15th century settlement of explorer Christopher Columbus.

Cerén - The Lost Maya Village of El Salvador
Shortly after dinner started, one early evening in August about 595 AD, the Loma Caldera volcano of north central El Salvador erupted, burying the town of Cerén and preserving its spectacular normalcy for archaeological study.

American Cultural Resource Firms Conducting Archaeology Projects
A list of cultural resource firms that are based primarily in the United States and conduct archaeological studies.

American Cultural Resource Firms Conducting Archaeology Projects
A list of American cultural resource firms that conduct archaeological projects in the American southwest and southeast. Page 2.

American Cultural Resource Firms Conducting Archaeology Projects
A list of American cultural resource firms that conduct archaeological investigations in the American northeast and northwest, and outside of the continental USA. Page 3.

An Olympic Excavation
In 1875, German archaeologist Ernst Curtius realized one of his life long dreams: to excavate at the Greek site of Olympia, home of the ancient festival of Zeus. What he found there ultimately led to the re-institution of the Olympic Games.

An Olympic Excavation: Further Reading
References for the casual or more dedicated reader for the archaeological site of Olympia. Page 2.

The Mixtecs of Southern Mexico
The Mixtecs of Southern Mexico. A summary of the main cultural aspects, sites and events of Mixtec history.

Archaeology and the Potters of San Ildefonso
The beautiful American Indian pottery of San Ildefonso pueblo found in museums in Santa Fe is the work of the descendants of Tewa potter Maria Martinez, assisted by that insensitive clod, archaeologist Edgar Lee Hewett.

Nahuatl - the Language of the Aztecs
Nahuatl is a native American language spoken by the Aztec/Mexica and other people of ancient Mesoamerica. It is still spoken today in many regions of Mexico.

Labrets - Ancient Body Piercing - Labrets
Learn more about the ancient art of bodily decorations and piercing called labrets.

Guide to Mesoamerica - Introduction to Mesoamerican Cultures and People - Guide to Mesoamerica
Refer to this Mesoamerican guide to learn more about Mesoamerican cultures and people. Learn more about the origin and the use of the term Mesoamerica

Precolumbian Panama - Prehistory of Panama
Ancient Panama, Prehistory of Panama, Precolumbian Panama

Arietos - Ancient Caribbean Taino Ceremonies called Arietos
Areitos were ancient ceremonies of the Taino people, performed in open spaces within villages throughout the Caribbean.

Tlatilco - early Mesoamerican village of Tlatilco, Mexico
The early Mesoamerican site of Tlatilco, Mexico, Tlatilco figurines, Tlatilco burials,

Mesolithic Age Hunter-Gatherer of Central Europe
About 6,000 BC, the inhabitants of Europe were Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers, who lived in houses that looked more or less like the reconstructed house illustrated in the photograph. Page 2.

Neolithic Farmers of Central Europe - Linearbandkeramik
Neolithic farmers of Central Europe, called the Linearbandkeramik, arrived on the scene about 5500 BC, and faced some amount of hostility. Page 3.

Genetic and Linguistic Data about Human Migrations
Nuclear DNA research on Africans provides us information about the origins and migration patterns of all of us, reported in a slide show.

Human Migration Map - How We Left Africa
The evolution of modern Homo sapiens took place someplace in east Africa, about 200,000 years ago. We stayed in Africa for some 100,000 to 150,000 years, before venturing out into the world. Page 2.

The People Who Stayed - The San Bushmen
The people who today hold the most diverse genetic structure in the world are the San bushmen of South Africa. Page 3.

Ardi - A Partially Complete 4.4 Million Year Old Ancestress
ARA-VP-6/500, nicknamed Ardi, is a partial hominid skeleton of Ardipithecus ramidus, recovered form the Lower Aramis member of the Central Awash Complex. Page 2.

Ardipithecus Pelvis
Ardi's femur and pelvis offered a close look at the stride of Ardipithecus ramidus, and it again came as a surprise. Page 6.

Mammoths and Mastodons - Ancient Extinct Elephants
Mammoths and mastodons are both extinct forms of elephant that roamed the world before the end of the Pleistocene period.

Longshan Culture Timeline and Description
The Longshan culture is a Neolithic and Chalcolithic culture (ca 3000-1900 BC) of the Yellow River Valley of Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Inner Mongolia provinces of China.

African Languages and and Genetics
Africa contains more than 2,000 distinct languages, about one-third of all the languages in the world. Page 4.

African Diaspora - the Results of the Slave Trade
Over 90 African-Americans were included in the study, from Chicago, Baltimore, Pittsburgh and North Carolina to see if genetic studies could reveal where their ancestors might have been stolen from during the 16th century slave trade. Page 5.

Mural at Bonampak, Chiapas, Mexico
The fantastic painted murals at the Maya site of Bonampak illustrate some of the rituals associated with the preparation for public festivals. Page 2.

Samarra - What is Samarra
The modern city of Samarra is located on the Tigris River; its earliest urban occupation dates to the Abbasid period.

Tracing the Hunting to Farming Transition - mtDNA and Archaeology
Evidence concerning the travels and ultimate success of the LBK has been addressed through the use of mitochondrial DNA, discovered in the skeletons of Neolithic, Mesolithic and modern humans in Europe. Page 4.

A Wooded Habitat for Ardipithecus
The locality where Ardipithecus ramidus was recovered lies in the Awash valley of Ethiopia. Soils, fossils, phytoliths and stable isotope evidence all suggest that when Ardipithecus ramidus was alive the local habitat in Ethiopia was a woodland, rather than the savanna usually associated with Australopithecus. Page 3.

Teeth and Jaws of the Ardipithecus
To date, more than 145 teeth of Ardipithecus ramidus have been recovered from the Middle Awash region, including several strips of lower (mandibular) and upper (maxillary) jaws. Page 4.

Ardipithecus Hands and Wrists
The hands and wrists bones of Ardi, the substantially complete skeleton of a 4.4 million year-old Ardipithecus ramidus discovered in Ethiopia, are virtually intact, and they show curiously non-ape like aspects. Page 5.

Ardipithecus Feet
Several foot bones of Ardipithecus ramidus have been discovered among the 110+ individuals discovered in the Awash valley. Resarchers suggest that Ardi would have successfully climbed trees and walked upright, with a foot adapted to both arboreal and terrestrial locomotion. Page 7.

Our Ancestral Background
Up until today, the best known ancient ancestor of ours has been the Australopithecus afarensis known as Lucy, more than a million years younger than Ardipithecus. Page 9.

Amelia Peabody Thrillers (Elizabeth Peters)
Amelia Peabody Thrillers (Elizabeth Peters)

Amelia Peabody Thrillers (Elizabeth Peters)
Amelia Peabody Thrillers (Elizabeth Peters)

Ancient Foods
In the exhibit, visitors can learn about the connections between the foods we eat today - like tomatoes, corn, beans and chocolate - and those domesticated by the ancient Americans. Included are the Garambullo cactus, black sapote, mesquite, hog plums, corn, white wapote, chiles, guaje and acorns. Page 6.

Clovis Spear Point
As Ice Age hunter-gatherers, the Clovis people relied on expertly crafted spear points like this for a successful hunt. This spear point would have been tied to a long shaft with animal sinew and could have penetrated the thick skins of mammoths and other large mammals extinct today. Page 8.

Hopewell Mica Claw, Ohio, North America
This beautiful mica bird claw holds clues about Hopewell society. The mica used is from the Appalachian Mountains, which shows that the Hopewell interacted with people outside of Ohio. Great skill was needed to fabricate this object out of mica, suggesting craft specialists within Hopewell society. Page 10.

Maya Lady Xoc
This Maya carving of ruler Lady Xoc depicts her experience of a supernatural vision after performing a sacrifice of her own blood. Like many ancient American rulers, Maya elite like Lady Xoc, acted not only as political rulers of their community, but also the spiritual ones. Page 17.

Teo Mask, Teotihuacan, Mexico
This ceramic mask was created by the people of Teotihuacan, one of the largest cities in the world at AD 500, with an estimated population of 125,000 people. The rulers of Teotihuacan remain nameless to this day, leaving behind anonymous masks and statues. Page 16.

Maya Stela in Bonampak Plaza, Chiapas, Mexico
This stela is of the eighth century ruler of Bonampak called Chan Muán, and it is placed within the boundaries of the plaza at that site. Plazas were probably not solely used for public theatrical events, and even during the events different parts of a plaza may have been used as stage or audience; the placement of stelae like this one would have interrupted the flow of traffic. Page 11.

East Court of Copán, Honduras
East Court of Copán, Honduras. Page 8.

Great Plaza at Copán
This plaza is that of Copán, one of the largest classic period centers between about 450 and 820 AD. Located in Honduras, Copán is best known for its rich sculptural elements, including several fine stela located around the margins of the Great Plaza. Page 6.

Great Plaza at Tikal, Peten, Guatemala
The site of Tikal, located in Guatemala, was first occupied during the Formative period, about 800 BC; and it reached its height of power and influence between AD 652 and 800. The Great Plaza at Tikal, shown in this photograph, is surrounded by the most important architecture, including Temple 1, seen here in the back center. Page 5.

Platform D, Copán, Honduras
This large platform at Copán is located east of the main plaza, and some researchers believe it may have been used for the preparation, practice or execution of dances for the public. Page 7.

Plaza at Tulúm, Quintana Roo, Mexico
Tulum is a postclassic Maya center first occupied about AD 1200. Tulum was probably a port city for the Maya, as it overlooks the Caribbean; and it may have been one of the first inhabited towns seen by the Spanish invaders in 1518. Page 3.

Stela H, Great Plaza of Copán, Honduras
This tall stela is called Stela H, and like most of the stelae at Copán, Stela H is a portrait of the 13th ruler of Copán called 18 Rabbit or Waxaklahun Ubah K'awil. Page 10.

Maya Festivals and Maya Plazas: Spectacles and Spectators
This photo essay illustrates some of the plazas at Maya archaeological sites and examines the evidence for public rituals during the Classic period Maya.

Great Pyramid at Giza
Great Pyramid at Giza. Archaeology.

Khafre's Pyramid at Giza
Khafre's Pyramid at Giza. Archaeology. Page 2.

Menkaure's Pyramid at Giza
Menkaure's Pyramid at Giza. Archaeology. Page 3.

The Sphinx, Old Kingdom, Egypt
The Sphinx, Old Kingdom, Egypt. Archaeology. Page 4.

Giza Plateau Pyramids
A photo essay of the Old Kingdom pyramids and the Sphinx on the Giza Plateau, and built by the 4th dynasty pharaohs Khufu (also spelled Cheops by the Greeks), Khafre (spelled Chephren), and Menkare (spelled Mycerinus) between 2613-2494 BC.

Dugouts and Dugout Dwellings: The Archaeology of Pioneer Housing - Commemorative Plaque
Dugouts and Dugout Dwellings: The Archaeology of Pioneer Housing - Commemorative Plaque of the 1870 Dugout Dwelling of Anna Byberg Christopherson Goulson Page 2.

Conjectural Drawing of the Dugout Dwelling of Anna Byberg Christopherson Goulson
Conjectural Drawing of the Dugout Dwelling of Anna Byberg Christopherson Goulson Page 3.

Dugouts and Dugout Dwellings: The Archaeology of Pioneer Housing - Excavation Photograph, Anna Byberg Christopherson Goulson Dugout House Excavations
Dugouts and Dugout Dwellings: The Archaeology of Pioneer Housing. Page 6.

Dugouts and Dugout Dwellings: The Archaeology of Pioneer Housing - Iron Knife Handle and Copper Alloy Grommet
Dugouts and Dugout Dwellings: The Archaeology of Pioneer Housing - Iron Knife Handle and Copper Alloy Grommet from the 1870 Dugout Dwelling of Anna Byberg Christopherson Goulson Page 7.

Dugouts and Dugout Dwellings: The Archaeology of Pioneer Housing - Site Plan of the 1870 Dugout Dwelling of Anna Byberg Christopherson Goulson
Dugouts and Dugout Dwellings: The Archaeology of Pioneer Housing - Site Plan of the 1870 Dugout Dwelling of Anna Byberg Christopherson Goulson Page 4.

Hampi Ruins, India
Hampi Ruins, India. Archaeology. Page 3.

Hampi Ruins, India
Hampi Ruins, India. Archaeology. Page 2.

Kushinagar Ruins, India
Kushinagar Ruins, India. Archaeology. Page 4.

Nalanda University Ruins, India
Nalanda University Ruins, India. Archaeology. Page 6.

Sanchi Ruins, India
Sanchi Ruins, India. Archaeology. Page 5.

Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal. Archaeology.

Boomplaas Cave - South Africa
Boomplaas Cave - South Africa. Archaeology. Page 8.

Elands Bay Rock Art - South Africa
Elands Bay is an important rock art site in South Africa. Page 9.

Klasies River Caves - South Africa
This photograph of the Klasies River Cave (South Africa) was taken by archaeologist John Atherton in the late 1970s. Page 6.

Klasies River Caves (South Africa)
Another photograph of the Middle Paleolithic Klasies River Caves site of South Africa. Page 7.

Sterkfontein Caves, South Africa - Archaeology of South Africa
Visitors to Sterkfontein exploring the interior of one of the caves. Page 2.

Dugouts and Dugout Dwellings: The Archaeology of Pioneer Housing - Artifacts from the Dugout
Dugouts and Dugout Dwellings: The Archaeology of Pioneer Housing - Artifacts from the Dugout. Page 8.

The Dawn of Angkor - Cemetery Studies at Ban Non Wat, Thailand
Excavations by Charles Higham at the Neolithic, Iron Age, and Bronze Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat in Thailand. A row of very rich, aristocratic Bronze Age burials at Ban Non Wat. The dead were interred in log coffins, or coffins made from clay. Page 8.

Late 18th Century Scottish Tombstone
Late 18th Century Scottish Tombstone. Page 3.

The Rise and Fall of Swahili States
Chapurukha Kusimba's book The Rise and Fall of Swahili States investigates a truly cosmopolitan civilization which rose and fell on the eastern coast of Africa between the 11th and 16th centuries AD

Outies - A Book Review of Outies by J.R. Pournelle
Outies is a sequel to A Mote in God's Eye, cast in a social science fiction genre.

Human Impact on Ancient Environments
Charles Redman's book puts the human actor at the forefront, detailing the impacts that human actions have had on the environment in the past 10,000 years.

From Hunting to Farming - Mesolithic to Neolithic Transition in Europe
The transition from hunting to farming in central Europe has long been a source of fascination to many. Recent archaeological investigations have improved our understanding of this difficult, violent era in human history.

Ardipithecus Ramidus - An Ancient Human Ancestor Surprises
An ancient human ancestor, Ardipithecus ramidus, deals paleontologists a surprise, a surprise supported by intensive research into fossil animal and plant remains, skeletal analysis, and habitat investigations, all reported in the October 2, 2009 issue of Science magazine.

Debra L. Friedkin Site - Pre-Clovis in Texas - Friedkin Site
The Debra L. Friedkin site is located on Buttermilk Creek in Texas, and it is a Pre-Clovis site, one of the earliest human occupations yet discovered in the Americas.

Keatley Creek - Classic Lillooet Site of Keatley Creek
Keatley Creek is an important archaeological site in British Columbia, where hunter-gatherers built a village about 1500 years ago.

The Spread of Agriculture - Early Farming Dispersal Hypothesis
Archaeologist Peter Bellwood argues that the spread of agriculture occurred through the movement of human populations, not the ideas.

RCYBP - Radio Carbon Years Before the Present or RCYBP
RCYBP (Radio Carbon Years Before the Present and abbreviated in many different ways) is a shorthand reference to the uncalibrated date recovered from carbon 14 dating.

Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction
Paleoenvironmental reconstruction refers to the investigations which are undertaken to reconstruct the climate of a specific time and place.

Norse - Who were the Norse
The Norse were Viking warriors who were great adventurers, traveling westward from the Viking homeland to Iceland, Greenland, and yes, even Canada.

Nimrud, Iraq
The archaeological site of Nimrud is one of the most important Assyrian sites in the world.

Narmada Valley (India)
The Narmada Valley site in India is known for both a Cretaceous period fossil prehistory, as well as the discovery of an isolated cranium of an archaic Homo Sapiens.

Martin's Hundred (USA)
Martin's Hundred is an archaeological site in Virginia in the southeastern United States, consisting of a British colonial village first occupied in 1619.

Kumbi Saleh - What is Kumbi Saleh
The Iron Age archaeological site of Kumbi Saleh in what is today Mauritania was built by the west African Soninke society about AD 600, and was probably used as a capital city for the Ghana empire.

Harris Matrix
The Harris Matrix is a tool developed by British archaeologist Edward Cecil Harris in 1973 to assist in the examination and interpretation of the stratigraphy of archaeological sites.

Grauballe Man - Who was the Bog Body called Grauballe Man
The Grauballe Man is the name of an Iron Age bog body recovered in 1952 from a peat bog in central Jutland, Denmark.

Funnel Beaker Culture - What is the Funnel Beaker Culture
The Funnel Beaker Culture, called TRB for the abbreviation of its German name (Tricherrandbecher), is a subset of the Beaker culture.

Gamla Uppsala - What is Gamla Uppsala
The modern town of Uppsala about 45 miles northwest of Stockholm, Sweden, and adjacent to it is a Viking period site called Gamla.

Fishtail Points
Fishtail points are to South America what Clovis points are to North America: associated with the earliest occupations in South America that everybody agrees on.

Bartolomé de las Casas [1484-1566]
Spanish Dominican priest Bartolomé de las Casas was one of the early Spanish visitors to the New World, arriving in Santo Domingo in 1502.

Coxcatlan Cave (Mexico)
Coxcatlan Cave is a rockshelter in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico, and it was occupied by humans for nearly 10,000 years.

Wharram Percy - What is Wharram Percy
The archaeological site of Wharram Percy is located in Yorkshire about 30 kilometers from York; it is a type of site called a Deserted Medieval Village (DMV).

Valdivia Culture
Valdivia culture is the name given by archaeologists to the beginnings of settlement life in Ecuador, South America, between about 3500-1500 BC

Ternifine (Algeria)
Ternifine is an Acheulean site located near Palikao in the Oran region of Algeria, which contained hominin skeletal material, stone tools and theropithecus remains.

Taxila (Pakistan)
The World Heritage site of Taxila is located in Punjab Province of what is now Pakistan, about 30 kilometers from Islamabad.

Tehuacan Valley (Mexico)
The Tehuacan Valley in the state of Puebla, Mexico, was the focus of a large-scale survey led by American archaeologist R.S. MacNeish during the 1960s.

The Southern Cult - Southeastern Ceremonial Complex
The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (also known as the Southern Cult) is the name given to a broad, regional similarity of artifacts, iconography, ceremonies and mythology of the Mississippian period between about AD 1000 and 1600.

Sipan (Peru)
Sipan is the name of a large Moche culture administrative and religious center, located in the lower Lambayeque Valley on the northern coast of Peru.

Archibald Henry Sayce [1845-1933]
British philologist A. H. Sayce was an Orientalist of the old school, based at Oxford and primarily interested in ancient languages of Babylonia and Assryia.

Sandia Cave- What is Sandia Cave
The archaeological site of Sandia Cave, located in the American state of New Mexico, is one of those sites that archaeologists and politics have clashed so strenuously that we'll probably never really know what's going on with it.

Sourcing in Archaeology - Where Did That Artifact Come From
Archaeological sourcing involves identifying the location or native habitat of a particular raw material (animal, plant, or mineral) and figuring out how it arrived in an archaeological site

Rift Valley
The Rift Valley of eastern Africa and Asia is an enormous geological split in the crust of the earth.

Henry Creswicke Rawlinson [1810-1895]
British archaeologist Henry Creswicke Rawlinson [1810-1895] is known primarily as a linguist of ancient languages, and is considered by some the father of cuneiform.

Predmostí - Upper Paleolithic Site in the Czech Republic
Predmostí­ is an early modern human Upper Paleolithic site, located in the Moravian region of what is today the Czech Republic.

Jacques Jean-Marie de Morgan [1857-1924]
French civil engineer, geologist and archaeologist Jacques de Morgan was the director of Antiquities in Egypt during the later 19th century.

Dorothy Annie Elizabeth Garrod [1892-1969]
British archaeologist Dorothy Garrod did most of her excavation work in the middle east, and is best known for her work at Gilbraltar, Western Judaea, Southern Kurdistan and Mount Carmel.

Antioch on the Orontes (Turkey)
Founded by Alexander the Great's general Seleucus around 300 BC, Antioch also was the seat of a Roman governor after 64 BC.

Gustaf Kossinna [1858-1931]
German archaeologist and ethnohistorian Gustaf Kossinna is widely perceived as being a tool of the megalomaniac Adolf Hitler.

Field Technician: Career Paths in Archaeology
Before you do anything else in archaeology, you need to put in your time as a field technician. Step 1: get a job as a field tech.

GIS Specialist: Career Paths in Archaeology
Geographic Information Systems is now a career in many fields, and archaeology has not been slow in including GIS as a subdiscipline.

Cultural Resource Lawyer - Career Paths in Archaeology
A cultural resource lawyer provides legal advice and services in connection with cultural resource related issues. Colleen McCarthy, who has practiced cultural resource law for many years, describes this archaeology career path.

Aquileia - Roman Empire Center of Aquileia
Aquileia is an important archaeological site in northern Italy, and it was one of the richest Roman towns during the imperial period.

Archaeology 101, The Basics
The study of archaeology is a profession for an estimated 20,000 people in the world today. Do you want to become one of them? Here are resources on what education you need, what kinds of jobs there are, and what kinds of things archaeologists do.

Mesolithic Sites in Europe - European Mesolithic Sites
The Mesolithic period was a time of change, when hunter-gatherers began to exploit fish and other localized resources. Here is a listing of Mesolithic sites in Europe

Small Museum Archaeology Online Shops
Small museums are an excellent place to find authentic reproductions; money spent in the shop usually goes to support the museum collections, and the goods are often produced by local artisans.

Maya Site of Bonampak, Chiapas, Mexico
The Maya ruins called Bonampak are those of a classic period Maya (AD 250-900) site located in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. This photo illustrates the way the site looks today as you approach it from the road.

A Photo Essay of India's Archaeological Ruins
A photo essay of interesting archaeological sites to visit in India

Buffalo Soldiers in Texas: Archaeology at Pine Springs Camp
Excavations at the Buffalo Soldiers camp called Pine Springs, in the Guadalupe Mountains of West Texas

Stallings Island - What is Stallngs Island
Stallings Island is the type site of the Stallings culture, a Late Archaic culture of the Middle Savannah River Valley of South Carolina and Georgia in the American Southeast, dated between 5000 and 3000 years ago.

Axumite Civilization
The Axumite civilization is a Coptic pre-Christian state in Ethiopia, from about AD 100-800.

Australopithecus - Guide, Description and Bibliography
Australopithecus is one of several species of hominins who may or may not be Homo sapiens direct ancestor.

Sea Peoples
Sometime in the late 13th or early 12th centuries BC a loose confederation of people from the Mediterranean Sea caused great havoc throughout the region: they were called the Sea Peoples.

Cayonu Tepesi - Pre-Pottery Neolithic Site of Cayonu Tepesi
Cayonu (Turkey) is an Early Neolithic site (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) in the upper Tigris valley of southeastern Turkey

Przeczyce (Poland)
The archaeological site of Przeczyce is located in the lower Silesia region of Poland, and dates to the Bronze Age.

Paleoindian - What is Paleoindian
The term paleoindian generally refers to the first inhabitants of the America continents--maybe.

Firuzabad (Iran)
Firuzabad is a modern city in southern Iran, about 200 kilometers south of Shiraz in Fars province.

Gao - An archaeological description of the Songhai city of Gao
The west African kingdom of Gao (or Kawkaw) was established by the 8th century AD, and involved in active trade throughout northern Africa; it's major city became the capital of the Songhai empire in 15th century.

Geophysical Survey - A definition
Geophysical survey can refer to any systematic collection of geophysical data for spatial studies.

Eastern Agricultural Complex
The Eastern Agricultural Complex refers to the whole range of plants that were selectively tended by Native Americans in eastern North American and the American midwest before corn and beans reached there

Economic Archaeology - What is Economic Anthropology
A subdiscipline of archaeology or maybe just a byproduct, economic archaeology is the study of how people control their economic resources, most particularly but not entirely, their food supply.

Kwaday Dan T'sinchi - Who was Kwaday Dan T'sinchi
Kwäday Dän Ts'ěnchi, or

Cultural Historical Method
The cultural-historical method is a way of conducting anthropological and archaeological research developed by V.G. Childe and Franz Boas.

Cuneiform - What is Cuneiform
One of the earliest forms of writing, cuneiform was (probably) invented in Uruk, Mesopotamia around 3000 BC.

La Tene Culture - Late European Iron Age - La Tene Culture
The La Tene culture is what archaeologists call the barbarians of central Europe, who for several centuries terrorized the Greek and Roman civilizations during the European Iron Age.

Chirand (India)
Chirand is a stratified Neolithic, Chalcolithic, and Iron Age settlement in the eastern Ganges Valley of Bihar in northern India, between about 2500-AD 30.

Chwezi Dynasty
The Chwezi Dynasty (also called Bachwezi or Kitara Dynasty) is the possibly mythical, certainly legendary, kingdom of Uganda, who are said to have ruled between 1300 and 1500 AD.

Opal Phytoliths - What are Opal Phytoliths
An opal phytolith is a tiny, three-dimensional copies of a plant cells created by a plant as a product of taking in water with dissolved silica.

Turnover Pulse Hypothesis
The Turnover Pulse Hypothesis was constructed by paleoanthropologist Elisabeth Vrba to explain the appearance of an extensive evolutionary shift world wide, that led to early hominin forms in Africa.

Sepphoris (Israel)
The site of Sepphoris (known as Zippori in Hebrew) was the capital of the Galilee region at the time of the Roman occupation.

Akan - The West African Cultural Group and the Archaeology of Akan
In the 11th century AD the Akan were a West African forest kingdom in what is now Ghana and the Ivory Coast.

Acheulean Tradition
The Acheulean Tradition is an Old World Lower and Middle Paleolithic culture, dated from 1.4 million years ago to 100,000 years ago.

Travel (Robert Louis Stevenson)
This archaeological poem from Robert Louis Stevenson's A Child's Garden of Verses was suggested by faithful reader Diana M.

Karnak - What is Karnak
Karnak is the name of a long-used Egyptian temple near Luxor, the largest of the religious sanctuaries in Thebes.

Feast: Why Humans Share Food - Martin Jones - a book review of Feast
Martin Jones' Feast: Why Humans Share Food uses both broad and specific views to examine the social history of sharing meals, from Homo erectus to TV dinners.

Caribbean Rum: A Social and Economic History - Book Review
Frederick Smith's Caribbean Rum details the story of rum making within the context of the African and European cultures, both at home and in the colonies, the political machinations of intercontinental trade, the competing colonial markets and the effects of treaties and conflicts. Most of all, the book describes the social and religious aspects of alcohol in the Caribbean, among the various components of that eclectic society. The story Smith tells is a fascinating one.

Oldowan Tradition - The Lower Paleolithic Oldowan Tradition
The Oldowan Tradition is the name given to a pattern of stone-tool making by our hominid ancestors, some 2.5 million years ago.

Sechin Alto (Peru)
The archaeological site called Sechin Alto is the capital of a pre-Incan culture located on the northwest coast of Peru, occupied between approximately 1800-900 BC.

Songhai Empire - Subsaharan Africa and the Songhai Empire
The Songhai Empire was established in western subsaharan Africa by Sonni 'Ali Ber in AD 1464.

Arikamedu (India)
Arikamedu was a Roman trade center on the southeast coast of India, near the modern town of Pondicherry.

Spatial Analysis
The study of spatial analysis in archaeology concerns examining the pattern of archaeological artifacts or sites as they appear in relation to one another.

Agricultural Field Systems

Corded Ware Culture
The Corded Ware culture or complex is the name given to a wave of people in the Neolithic period, originating from the Carpathian mountains and the area now called the Baltic States.

Murray Black Collection - Human Skeletal Collection of Murray Black
The Murray Black collection was a huge collection of human skeletal material in Australia, amassed in the 1930s-1950s by G. Murray Black.

Secondary Products Revolution
When archaeologists speak of a

Soan Valley Tradition
The archaeological sites in the Siwalik region of Pakistan and India called the Soan Valley Tradition date to the Lower Paleolithic (circa 500,000-125,000 years ago), and are roughly equivalent to the Acheulian period.

Beeches Pit (United Kingdom)
Beeches Pit is the name of a Middle Pleistocene archaeological site located in the East Anglia, England, close to an abandoned channel of the Bytham/Ingham river.

Schlep Effect - Inferring Butchering from Body Part Representation
The 'schlep effect' is the term used by archaeologists to refer to the postulated reason for patterned bone deposits at field butchery sites and home base sites for prehistoric peoples.

Villanova Culture
The Villanova Culture is the name given to the early Iron Age predessors of the great Etruscan civilization

Middle Awash - What is the Middle Awash
The Middle Awash is part of the very rich archaeological region in Ethiopia called the Afar Triangle

Rock Art - What is Rock Art
Rock art is the collective term used for various forms of artistic expression by humans and their immediate ancestors

Tappeh Sialk (Iran)
The archaeological site of Tappeh Sialk is an important Early Neolithic site near the modern town of Kashan in Iran, with occupations dated to as early as 6000 BC.

Sanghao Cave (Pakistan)
Sanghao Cave is a rockshelter located on the Potwar Plateau of Pakistan with an Upper Paleolithic component.

Ground Penetrating Radar - GPR
Ground penetrating radar (abbreviated GPR) is a remote sensing technique that uses the continuous transmission of high frequency electronic signals

Diuktai Cave - What and Where is Diuktai Cave
Diuktai Cave is an archaeological site on the Aldan River, a tributary of the Lena in eastern Siberia, occupied by a group that may have been ancestral to some Paleoarctic people of North America.

Champa Kingdom
The Champa Kingdom was located along the coastal plains of southern and central Vietnam, between about AD 192 and 1832.

Cairo (Egypt)
The Islamic city of Cairo is, oddly enough, one of the newer cities in Egypt, founded in the 7th century AD as a military outpost.

Border Cave - South African Rockshelter
Border Cave is a rockshelter in the Lebombo Mountains between South Africa and Swaziland, in Kwazulu Natal of South Africa.

Boxgrove (UK)
The Boxgrove site is a Middle Stone Age site located in a stone quarry in West Sussex England.

The First Human: The Race to Discover Our Earliest Ancestors - Book Review
The First Human: The Race to Discover Our Earliest Ancestors is an enjoyable book, even if the pettiness of the scholars makes me cringe. This fascinating look into the men and women of the search for the earliest human ancestor is well worth investigating on your own.

Ancient Flutes - Archaeological Evidence of Prehistoric Music Making
Ancient flutes made of animal bone and mammoth ivory, have been found at several Upper Paleolithic sites in Europe.

Sumer and Sumerians
Sumer was one of two Early Dynastic period communities in southern Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (the other was Akkad).

Sutton Hoo (UK)
The archaeological site of Sutton Hoo consists of a group of at least fourteen burial mounds, located in southeastern Suffolk, England, one of which is an Anglo-Saxon period ship burial with some of the richest burial goods ever found in the UK.

Uraha (Malawi)
The paleontological site of Uraha is located in Malawi, east Africa, and was discovered in the early 1990s by the German archaeologist Friedemann Schrenk.

Stone Hoe - Prehistoric Artifact Type Stone Hoe
A stone hoe is a working tool used by prehistoric peoples to dig in the earth, and is primarily associated with farming societies.

Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty [221-206 BC], while only fifteen years in duration and only including two emperors, was one of the most important and influential of periods in Chinese history.

Ephesus - Archaeological Ruins of Ephesus
The archaeological ruins of the Ionian city of Ephesus are located in western Turkey at the mouth of the Cayster River as it enters the Aegean Sea.

Bigo Bya Mugenyi (Uganda)
Bigo Bya Mugenyi is a late Iron Age settlement in Uganda, the capital of the Kitara or Chwezi Dynasty

Ctesiphon Iraq
Ctesiphon is the name of a very old city at the confluence of the Tigris and Diyala rivers near Baghdad in what is now Iraq.

Dugouts and Dugout Dwellings: The Archaeology of Pioneer Housing - Norwegian Pioneer Anna Byberg Christopherson Goulson [1847-1918] (taken ca 1910)
Dugouts and Dugout Dwellings: The Archaeology of Pioneer Housing - Norwegian Pioneer Anna Byberg Christopherson Goulson [1847-1918] (taken ca 1910)

Non Nok Tha (Thailand)
The site of Non Nok Tha, Khok Kaen province of Thailand, belongs to the Phu Lon complex and dates between 1500 and 1000 BC.

Olga Soffer [b. 1944]
American archaeologist Olga Soffer came to archaeology from a diverse background, to say the least.

Sibudu Cave - Middle Stone Age site of Sibudu Cave
Sibudu Cave is an extremely important Middle Stone Age (MSA) rockshelter located on the Tongati River near the KwaZulu coast of South Africa.

Sima del Elefante - Lower Paleolithic Site in the Atapuerca
Sima del Elefante is an important Lower Paleolithic site, discovered in a railway trench in the Atapuerca valley of Spain in the first decade of the 20th century

Landscape Archaeology - A Definition
Landscape archaeology studies the way people of the past shaped the land around them, consciously or unconsciously.

Little Salt Spring - Well-Preserved Archaic and Paleoindian Site Little Salt Spring
The archaeological site of Little Salt Spring includes a 6000-year-old cemetery, so well preserved that brain tissue was recovered from some of the individuals.

Tutankhamun's Tomb - What is Tutankhamun's Tomb
The archaeological site of Tutankhamun's Tomb must surely be one of the most famous burials on the planet.

Opone (Somalia)
The ancient trade center of Opone on the east coast of Africa was mentioned in Egyptian records about 40 AD, and is probably the archaeological site of Ras Hafun, Somalia.

Radiocarbon Dating
Radiocarbon dating is a method used by archaeologist to date organic materials by comparing the amount of Carbon 14 (C14) available in living creatures as a measuring stick.

Fission Track Dating - What is Fission Track Dating
Fission track dating was developed in the mid 1960s by three American physicists

Valley of the Kings (Egypt)
The Valley of the Kings is the name given to a long dry valley or wadi running parallel to the Nile River on the west bank opposite Luxor, Egypt.

Cannibalism - A Definition and the Archaeology of Cannibalism
Cannibalism refers to a range of behaviors in which one human consumes another or parts of another for survival, dietary, ritual and/or pathological reasons.

Omo Kibish - What and Where is Omo Kibish
Omo Kibish is an ancient rock formation in Ethiopia where excavations by Richard Leakey and others have recovered Homo sapiens remains as old as 125,000 years before the present.

Post Modernism in Archaeology
Post-modernism is a philosophical movement that touches on almost all forms of science and culture.

Potassium-Argon Dating
The potassium-argon method of dating artifacts and sites, like radiocarbon dating, relies on measuring radioactive emissions.

Mesa Verde (United States) - a definition
Mesa Verde (

Deserted Medieval Villages - What are Deserted Medieval Villages
During the late Middle Ages, thousands of small villages were abandoned, as a result of the Black Death, or related causes; these are called Deserted Medieval Villages.

Portable Art - Mobiliary or Portable Art
Portable art refers to objects carved during the Upper Paleolithic period of prehistory that can be moved, in contrast to cave art.

Taima Taima (Venezuela)
The site of Taima-Taima is located within deeply buried, stratified beach sand deposits in northern Venezuela, and consists of lithic tools (including paleoindian-era El Jobo points) in contact with a mastodon skeleton.

Tlapacoya - What and Where is Tlapacoya
The archaeological site of Tlapacoya is a multicomponent settlement located on an island in a precolumbian lake at the foot of the Tlapacoya volcano, in the central southern Basin of Mexico.

Allyu - The Inca Social and Political Organization of the Allyu
Allyu is the Inca word for the social and political system of organization for the Inca Empire.

Andre Parrot [?-1980]
French archaeologist Andre Parrot was the main discoverer and excavator of the Mari State, overseeing excavations at the site of Mari, Syria, for a remarkable 40 year period between 1933 to 1974.

Roman Empire Ruins
Not all Roman sites are in Italy: there are Roman ruins to visit all over Europe and parts of Asia and Africa.

Jwalapuram - Middle and Upper Paleolithic Sites in Andhra Pradesh
Jwalapuram is an archaeological complex of over 20 sites located in the Jurreru River valley of Kumool district in Andhra Pradesh of southern India, where 7.5 meters of river sediment includes artifacts before and after the Toba ashfall, dated at ~74,000 years ago.

Urartu - What and Where is Urartu
Urartu is the ancient name for the region called Ararat in the Judeo-Christian bible, located in parts of what are now the modern day countries of Turkey, Armenia and Iran.

Pyramid - What is a Pyramid
A pyramid is one of the earliest form of massive monumental architecture built by humans.

Dendrochronology - Archaeological Dating Technique
Dendrochronology is the name given to the archaeological dating technique which uses the growth rings of long-lived trees as a calendar.

Cro-Magnon is a now-outmoded word meaning early Homo sapiens sapiens, circa 35,000 to 10,000 years before the present.

To anthropologists (and many archaeologists), culture refers to the way of life of a group of people.

Carib Indians
Native American group who had the unfortunate honor of being the first to meet Columbus in the New World in 1492. Within a decade, they were reported to have been destroyed by diseases brought by the Spanish explorers; but their ancestors continue to populate the Caribbean Islands.

Archaeologists use the word 'assemblage' to refer to the collection of artifacts recovered from a single site.

Zooarchaeologist: Career Paths in Archaeology
Archaeological science has an increasing interest in the analysis of animal remains; is that your career path? This page is for you.

Google Earth: Find the Archaeology
Find the Archaeology is a game on the Google Earth community bulletin board where people post an aerial photograph of an archaeological site and users figure out where it is. It looks like it might be fun to play, if you could find a listing of them, so here they are.

Ostraca - Inscribed Shell or Potsherd called Ostraca
The term ostraca (singular ostracon) is from a Greek word 'ostrakon' meaning 'shell.'

Map of the Silk Road - Interactive Map of the Silk Road

Domestications - the Archaeological Evidence
The domestication of animals and plants is known from archaeological site excavations. These are a few of the most important sites where such evidence has been found.

Warriors Project Excavations at Pine Springs Camp - Buffalo Soldiers and Apaches in Texas
The history of the Warriors Project excavations at Pine Springs Camp begins in 2002.

National Park Service at Pine Springs Camp
Excavations at the Buffalo Soldiers camp called Pine Springs: Map of Pine Springs Camp showing usable camp area.

History of the Buffalo Soldiers - Archaeology at Pine Springs Camp and Buffalo Soldiers
The history of the Buffalo Soldiers, and how they ended up in Texas fighting the Apache

Surveying Pine Springs Camp for additional features
Surveying Pine Springs Camp for additional features

Soldier's tent, Fort Davis Museum, Texas
Soldier's tent, Fort Davis Museum, Texas

Unexcavated feature, Pine Springs Camp, Texas
Unexcavated feature, Pine Springs Camp, Texas

Buffalo Soldiers in Texas: Archaeology at Pine Springs Camp
Excavations at the Buffalo Soldiers camp called Pine Springs, in the Guadelupe Mountains of West Texas

Buffalo Soldier's Museum, Houston, Texas
Buffalo Soldier's Museum, Houston, Texas

Students map a 19th century earth oven used by buffalo soldiers
Students map a 19th century earth oven used by buffalo soldiers

Students excavate a potential earth oven at the Black Warrior site, Texas
Students excavate a potential earth oven at the Black Warrior site, Texas

Mapping an excavated feature using a grid form, at the Black Warriors site, Texas
Mapping an excavated feature using a grid form, at the Black Warriors site, Texas

A student excavates the foundation of a fireplace at Pine Springs Camp
A student excavates the foundation of a fireplace at Pine Springs Camp