Asian History Sitemap - Page 3 2016-09-26

Heian Era Japanese Beauties
During the Heian era, Japanese noble women adhered to a somewhat odd standard of beauty.

Traditional Masks of Korea | Talchum
Carved wooden masks with exaggerated features and bright paint are one of the characteristic elements of Korean culture. Korean masks were originally used in shamanist rituals; today, they appear most often in cultural festivals. Learn about the origin and meaning of the masks, and see some of the dozens of mask designs here, as well as pictures of mask-dancers performing.

Korean Masks | Modern Uses
It seems to be a fact of modern life, that great cultural artifacts end up copied, mass-produced, and sold to tourists. That has been the fate of Korea's tal, the traditional masks.

Korean Masks | Nojang
The Korean traditional mask-dance character Nojang is a devout head-monk of a Buddhist monastery who falls into evil ways.

Korean Masks | Bune
Bune, the traditional Korean mask-dance character, is a flirty young woman. She tempts the local Buddhist monks and other village men to sin with her rose-bud mouth and smiling eyes.

Korean Masks | Yangban
Yangban is the aristocratic character from Korean traditional mask-plays, or talchum. He is a primary character of the Hahoe style of mask, from the Andong region.

Korean Mask Dancing Music
You can't have a dance without music! Talchum, or traditional Korean mask-dancing, is accompanied by an orchestra of at least 5 pieces.

Origins of Korean Masks or Talchum
Korean mask-dancing, or talchum, arose out of traditional shamanist practices for curing sickness, seeing off the dead at funerals, and ridding palaces or other houses of evil spirits. When combined with sword-dancing performances called kommu, plus local stories about corrupt officials and foolish aristocrats, the art form known as talchum sprang into being.

Korean Traditional Masks | Choegwari
Choegwari, the old apostate monk, appears in many traditional Korean mask dances. He is corrupt, corpulent, and fond of the young ladies. Talchum provided common people a safe way to criticize the powerful Buddhist monks.

Korean Mask Dance Costumes
The colorful silk hanbok, traditional Korean clothing, is the costume of the talchum actor or actress. Mask dancers also use long white sleeves to increase the expressiveness of their movements.

Korean Mask Dancers Parade
Hahoe Talchum dancers participate in a Korean traditional arts festival. Visible in the picture are Yangban, the aristocrat, Kaksi, the bride, and Halmi, the old woman.

Asia's 5 Worst Dictators | 2013 Edition
Asia's five worst dictators, as of 2013. Over the past few years, many dictators around the world have died or been deposed, but some are hanging on to power. See a list of Asia's worst here.

Why Does Japan Love Baseball?
Japanese people love the all-American pastime, baseball. Why is that? It goes back earlier in history than you might think.

Batang Kali Massacre, 1948
During the brutal guerrilla war in British Malaya that is known as the Malayan Emergency, British troops massacred 24 unarmed villagers at Batang Kali.

The Malayan Emergency
This struggle, called the

The Yuezhi People
China's arid Tarim Desert contains many ancient secrets - including the history of the Indo-European Yuezhi people, horse suppliers to Qin China.

Kim Dae Jung Biography
Kim Dae Jung led South Korea's struggle to become a real democracy after years of dictatorship. He is sometimes called the

Who Were the Phoenicians?
The Phoenicians are justly famous for their skills as sailors and traders. Learn more about this fascinating ancient culture here.

Zheng Shi, Pirate Lady of China
Learn about the amazing life of Zheng Shi, also called Ching Shih, the female pirate admiral from China and one of the most successful pirates in world history.

Japanese Women's Hairstyles - Ancient and Medieval
Pictoral history of the evolution of hairstyles in Japan. Noble women throughout the ages followed many fashions in the court of the Japanese Emperor. See some of the different hairdos here.

Late Edo Era women's hairstyle - Japan
Simple hairstyle of Japanese court ladies in the late Edo Period

Heian Era Japanese Women's Hairstyles | Taregami
In the Heian Era of Japanese History, women wore their hair in the taregami style, extremely long and straight. The most beautiful hair reached the floor.

Shimada mage | Edo Period Women's Hairstyle
During the Tokugawa or Edo Period (1603-1868), Japanese women began to wear their hair in much more elaborate fashions. They pulled their waxed tresses back into a variety of different kinds of buns, decorated with combs, hairsticks, ribbons, and even flowers.

Late Edo Japanese Women's Hairstyle | Shimada mage
During the late Tokugawa or Edo Period, Japanese women's hairstyles became far more involved. All kinds of combs, wax, hair-sticks and ribbons held the hefty structure of the large shimada mage in place.

Edo Period Japanese Women's Hairstyles | Box Shimada Mage
Box Shimada Mage, a style of tied-back hair with a box at the back, became fashionable in the Middle to Late Edo Era, from 1750-1868.

Middle to Late Edo Japanese Women's Hairstyles
The Edo Period was

Late Edo Japanese Women's Hairstyles | Yoko-hyogo
Late Edo Period courtesans sometimes wore their hair in huge, elaborate styles called yoko-hyogo. The hair was piled on top, and the sides extended out into wings.

Late Edo Japanese Women's Hairstyles | Gikei
A late Edo Period Japanese hairstyle called gikei, which includes two very high topknots in the back, and wide wings over the ears.

Japanese Women's Hairstyles | Maru Mage
Elaborate Japanese women's hairstyle from the late Edo or Tokugawa period, 18th-19th centuries, called the maru mage.

Ashoka the Great
Biography of Ashoka the Great, emperor of India's Mauryan Empire during the third century BCE.

The Code of Hammurabi
Learn about the Code of Hammurabi, a set of laws from almost 4,000 years ago. It is so much more than just

What Does Aryan Mean?
The term Aryan has been appropriated by racists and hate groups, and reached its zenith with the Nazis in the 1930s. What does it actually mean?

Emperor Chandragupta Maurya Biography
Biography of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of India's ancient Mauryan Empire, and grandfather of the famous Ashoka the Great.

The Battle of Badr, 624 CE - Islam's First Battle
The Battle of Badr in March of 624 CE was small in scale, but it signaled the beginning of Islam's incredible expansion over the next two centuries. The Prophet Muhammad and his followers consolidated their position with a key victory over the people of Mecca.

What Was the Meiji Era?
A brief description and history of the Meiji Era in Japanese history.

Majapahit Empire | Java
The Majapahit Empire, based on Java in what is now Indonesia, was a major trading power in Southeast Asia at the height of the sea-borne Silk Road trade in the Indian Ocean.

7 Famous Ninjas
Learn about seven of the most famous ninja of all time.

Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
In 1979, the Soviet Union launched an invasion of Afghanistan, their equivalent of America's Vietnam War - an unwinnable quagmire. Learn more about the Soviets' Afghanistan War here.

Saladin | Hero of Islam
Biography of Saladin, the Kurdish sultan of Egypt and Syria, who defended the Holy Land from European Crusaders including Richard the Lionheart.

The Nanking Massacre, 1937
In 1937, Japan captured the Chinese capital city of Nanking, and carried out mass rape and murder against civilians and POWs. An estimated 200,000 Chinese were brutally killed.

Zoroaster or Zarathustra
Zoroaster founded one of the earliest monotheistic religions, and Zoroastrian ideas pop up in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Who was he?

Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great founded the ancient Achaemenid Empire in Persia. Learn more about this charismatic leader and the enlightened empire he established.

Why Does China Support North Korea?
Since Korea was divided, North Korea has had an ally in its neighbor - China. Now North Korea is a liability, so why does China still support it?

The Red Turban Rebellion in China
Learn about the Red Turban Rebellion in China, which played a pivotal role in overthrowing Mongol rule over China.

The Yellow Turban Rebellion in China
From 184 to 205 CE, the Han dynasty in China fought against the Yellow Turban Rebellion, led by a charismatic Taoist called Zhang Jue.

The 1918 Influenza Pandemic in India
The 1918 Flu Pandemic, sometimes called the Spanish flu, killed as many as 100 million people worldwide. One country in Asia suffered the most deaths.

Is Confucianism a Religion?
Is Confucianism a religion or a philosophy? What function does it serve in East Asian societies today? Learn more about these questions here.

Felepa Culala or Dayang-Dayang
Felepa Culala or Dayang-Dayang was a fierce woman and rebel leader, who led a guerrilla band against the Japanese occupiers of the Philippines.

The Boshin War in Japan
In 1868, a civil war broke out in Japan between forces who wanted to return power to the emperor, and those who wanted to keep the shogun in power.

Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid, caliph of the Abbasid Empire, ruled over a golden age of high Islamic culture that inspired the wondrous stories of the 1001 Arabian Nights.

The Shahnameh
The Shahnameh is the longest epic poem written by a single poet, the great Ferdowsi, and tells the story of Persia's ancient history.

Who Are the Romany or Gypsies?
Glossary definition of the word Romany from your Guide to Asian History.

South Korea - History, Geography, and More
Facts and history of South Korea since the end of World War II.

Queen Seondeok of Korea's Silla Kingdom
Queen Seondeok of Korea's Silla Kingdom was the first reigning queen of Korea, 606 - 647 CE.

Tenzing Norgay Biography
Biography of Tenzing Norgay, the Nepalese Sherpa who conquered the summit of Mt. Everest, the world's tallest mountain, with Edmund Hillary in 1953.

Ninoy Aquino - Philippine Opposition Leader Biography
Biography of Benigno Ninoy Aquino, opposition leader in the Philippines during the dictatorial rule of Ferdinand Marcos. Ninoy was the husband of later president Corazon Aquino and father of current president Benigno Aquino III, called Noynoy.

Boxer Rebellion Timeline | China
Timeline of the Boxer Rebellion in China at the turn of the 20th century. Chinese Boxers took up arms against foreigners, Chinese Christian converts, and other symbols of foreign oppression in Qing China in 1899-1901, but the rebellion was quashed.

Empress Dowager Cixi - Chinese History
Biography of the Dowager Empress Cixi of Qing China. Sometimes called the Old Buddha or Dragon Lady, she is one of the most vilified rulers in history.

The Crimean Tatars
Short history of the Crimean Tatars, who descend from the Mongol Golden Horde. They faced oppression and genocide under the Soviets.

Facts and History of Turkey
Facts about and history of Turkey, once the seat of the powerful Seljuk and Ottoman Empires, and today the leading secular nation in the Islamic world. Also includes information on the people of Turkey, the economy, religion in Turkey, and other topics.

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk - A Biography
Biography of Ataturk, founder of the modern Republic of Turkey, also called Mustafa Kemal. He created a westernized secular state out of the remains of the Ottoman Empire after World War I.

Iran-Iraq War of 1980-1988
Learn more about the Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988, between Saddam Hussein's invading army of Iraqis and the Iranian defensive forces under Ayatollah Khomeini. This grinding and pointless war included the use of chemical weapons by Saddam, and the use of waves of young boys as cannon-fodder by the Iranians.

What Was the Kushan Empire?
The Kushan Empire ruled over Afghanistan, Pakistan and northern India early in the common era. Learn more about this fascinating ancient empire here!

Pekinese Dog | China's Imperial Lion-Dog
History of the Pekingese dog, bred by Chinese emperors to resemble guardian lions. The Peke almost died out with the fall of Qing Dynasty in 1911.

Iraq Facts and History
Facts and history of Iraq, formerly known as Mesopotamia, a cradle of human civilization that has seen several wars over the last few decades.

Who Were the Mamluks
Who were the Mamluks? Find out about these fearsome warrior-slaves here.

What Was the Long March?
The Long March is one of the most famous episodes in modern Chinese history, but what was it exactly? Find out here.

History of the Geisha in Japan
The geisha of Japan were highly trained and talented entertainers, adept in the arts of music, dance, poetry and conversation. Geisha were distinct from prostitutes, and usually did not perform sexual favors for their customers.

First Battle of Panipat
India's pivotal First Battle of Panipat pitted the cavalry of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire, against the war elephants of Ibrahim Lodi of the Delhi Sultanate.

The Histry of Chopsticks
Chopsticks are ubiquitous in East Asia, and widely found in the rest of the world too, but who invented them? How long ago? The answer may surprise you.

The Persian Immortals
The Persian Immortals, sometimes called the

Bahadur Shah Zafar, the Last Mughal
The last emperor of the Mughal Dynasty was a dreamy poet and Sufi mystic, not suited to the demands of being a rebel leader. Learn about his life here.

The Tajik Civil War, 1992 - 1997
For more than five years, civil war among communists, democrats and Islamists rocked the new nation of Tajikistan,as it emerged from the Soviet Union.

The Last Mughal - 4 "Lasts" in Asian History
Learn about 4

The Last Ninja Lords - "Lasts" in Asian History
Learn about four

China's Last Emperor - 4 "Lasts" in Asian History
Learn about four

The Last Samurai - "Lasts" in Asian History
Learn about four

Ahmad Shah Massoud | Afghanistan's Lion of Panjshir
Biography of Ahmad Shah Massoud, the Lion of Panjshir, the mujahadeen commander who fought against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the Taliban, and was assassinated by al-Qaeda just two days before the September 11 attacks on the United States.

The 1948 Arab-Israeli War
In 1948, the new nation of Israel was created as a Jewish homeland on what had long been Palestinian Arab land. Five Arab nations immediately attacked.

Yasser Arafat
Learn about the life and work of Yasser Arafat, an important figure in the history of Palestine.

The Greatest Ninja Battle
At the end of the sixteenth century, Oda Nobunaga began to reorganize chaotic feudal Japan, and the ensuing peace spelled the end of the ninjas. Learn more about the battle and siege that signaled the end of ninja independence here.

Foot Binding in China
For hundreds of years, girls in China underwent the torturous process of foot-binding, in which their feet were bound so they grew into three inch long stumps.

Haenyeo - Korea's Diving Women
The diving women or haenyo of South Korea's Jeju Island support their families by deep diving for shellfish and other seafood.

"Persia Won!" Political Cartoon of British India
Political cartoon showing British negotiations with Persia to block Russian access to India, 1873.

The US Civil War Forces Britain to Buy Indian Cotton
Cartoon of Britain deciding to buy cotton from India during the disruption of the US Civil War.

"New Crowns for Old" - British Imperialism in India
Political cartoon of Disraeli offering Queen Victoria a new crown as Empress of India in exchange for her old queenly crown.

Panjdeh Incident - Diplomatic Crisis for British India
In 1885, Russia attacked Afghanistan, provoking a diplomatic crisis with Britain, which was worried about Russian advances toward British India.

The Indian Mutiny - Political Cartoon
A political cartoon from Punch shows Sir Colin Campbell presenting a semi-tamed India to Lord Palmerston after the Indian Mutiny.

The Invention of the Wheelbarrow
Did you know that the first wheelbarrows, invented in China, were considered top secret military hardware? Learn about the invention of the wheelbarrow.

How Did the Huns Impact Europe?
The Huns came out of Central Asia and swept into Europe, and helped bring down the Roman Empire. Learn about all of their effects on Europe here.

What Is Falun Gong?
What is Falun Gong? Why does the Chinese government repress this spiritual practice so violently? Are practitioners really being tortured and killed?

Antonio Luna Biography
Antonio Luna was a brilliant military strategist who led troops against the American imperialists after the US took the Philippines from Spain in 1899.

Palestine | Facts and History
The region called Palestine is also known as the Land of Israel, and Palestinians and Israelis live uneasily side-by-side. Learn more about Palestine here.

What Is Japan's Self Defense Force?
Since World War II, Japan has not had a standing army or navy - at least, not formally. However, it does have a very well-equipped

Darius I, the Great of Persia
Darius I, also known as Darius the Great, was the third ruler of ancient Persia's Achaemenid Empire. Learn more about his life and times here.

History of the Ninja
Ninjas dart through movies and comic books, but what is the historical reality behind the pop culture icon of The Ninja?

Marco Polo Biography
Biography of Marco Polo, the young Venetian merchant who traveled to Kublai Khan's court in Yuan China during the 13th century.

A Brief History of Babylon
A brief history of the ancient city-state of Babylon, which lay on the fertile plain between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia (Iraq).

Brunei | Facts and History
Facts about the Sultanate of Brunei, including its history, geography, and people.

Sima Qian, China's Grand Historian
Sima Qian, the official astrologer for the Han Chinese court, risked all to support a disgraced general - and was punished with a horrifying choice.

The Fukushima Disaster, 2011
A chain reaction of disasters struck Japan in March of 2011. Learn about the earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear meltdown that unfolded in north-central Honshu.

Elephants as Combatants
Elephants have been trained as combatants in war, especially in Asia. How was that done? Why Asian elephants and not African ones?

War Elephants across Asia
The use of war elephants was common from Persia (Iran) to Southeast Asia, historically. But India is perhaps the place most associated with war elephants.

Modern Uses for War Elephants
Indian princes used war elephants thousands of years ago against Alexander the Great, but they were still in use into the 19th and 20th centuries.

The Dzungar Khanate, 1634-1758
It seems fitting somehow that the last great nomadic empire of Asia was formed by Mongols - the Dzungar branch of the Oirats. They lasted for more than century before the Qing Empire exterminated them.

Asian Countries I to K
Profiles of Asian Countries beginning with I through K

The Philistines
Who were the Philistines in history, and why are they so reviled?

Kim Jong-Un, Leader of North Korea
Kim Jong-Un is the current leader of North Korea, which was founded by his grandfather. Like his father before him, Kim is erratic and unpredictable - and he has nukes.

Kim Jong il | North Korea
A brief description of the life and times of Kim Jong-il, North Korea's eccentric communist dictator and Dear Leader.

Saigo Takamori | The Last Samurai
Biography of Saigo Takamori, famed in Japan as the Last Samurai. He played a key role in forming the Meiji government, and in the Satsuma Rebellion.

Where Was Xanadu
Definition of the term Xanadu from your Guide to Asian History.

Where Is Bactria?
Bactria was a historic region of ancient Central Asia, which saw such famous leaders as Alexander the Great and Cyrus the Great conquer it. Today the name is perhaps most closely associated with Bactrian (two-humped) camels.

Invention of Paper | Chinese Inventions
Learn more about the invention of paper, which took place in northwestern China around 2000 years ago.

Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Brief history of the Mongol Empire, founded by Genghis Khan, which was one of the largest empires in human history.

Sultan Definition
Glossary definition of the term sultan from your Guide to Asian History.

Sun Tzu Biography
Biography of Sun Tzu, famous military strategist and author of The Art of War, from ancient China’s Warring States Period.

Samurai History in Japan
Profile of the samurai, medieval Japan's warrior class. Includes information about the history of the samurai, samurai swords, other samurai weapons, samurai armor and samurai culture.

Review | Ninja, 1,000 Years of the Shadow Warrior by John Man
Review of the book Ninja: 1,000 Years of the Shadow Warrior by John Man.

The Ashikaga Shogunate
In the 13th century, feudal Japan entered a new era called the Ashikaga or Muromachi period, when the arts, culture, and Zen Buddhism flourished.

Hideyoshi Toyotomi - Timeline
Timeline of Hideyoshi Toyotomi's life, providing a quick overview of his amazing rise from humble origins to the become the leader who reunited Japan after the Sengoku (

What Was the Sengoku Period
Glossary definition of the word sengoku from your Guide to Asian History.

Piles of the Dead, Hiroshima
Dead bodies strewn around the streets of Hiroshima in the wake of the bombing, August 1945.

Genbaku Dome, Hiroshima
The famous Genbaku Dome in Hiroshima, which survived the atomic bombing in 1945.

Nagasaki, Before and After the Bomb
Before and after photos of Nagasaki, site of the second atomic bombing on Japan by the United States during World War II.

Mother and Son with Rice Rations
Photo of a mother and child the day after the atomic bombing in Nagasaki, holding their meager rice rations.

Hiroshima Flattened by the Atomic Bomb
Aerial photo of Hiroshima after the atomic bombing.

Radiation burn victims in Hiroshima
A couple with terrible radiation burns after the Hiroshima atomic bombing.

Hiroshima Scars
Japanese man from Hiroshima showing thick scarring on his back from the atomic bombing in 1945.

Atomic Shadow of a Soldier
Atomic shadow of a soldier cast onto the wall where he was standing guard when the Nagasaki atomic bomb went off.

Saddam Hussein of Iraq
Saddam Hussein ruled Iraq by fear for decades, and launched invasions of neighboring countries, until he was brought down by a US-led coalition in 2003.

What Was the Tet Offensive?
The Tet Offensive was a turning point in the Vietnam War. Learn more about this surprise attack here.

King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia Biography
Biography of Saudi King Abdullah, the sixth ruler of Saudi Arabia.

Brief Biography of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand
Biography of Thailand's King Bhumibol Adulyadej, Asia's longest-serving monarch.

Genghis Khan Exhibit | Mongolian Trebuchet
Photograph of a Mongolian trebuchet, a type of siege machine used by the army of Genghis Khan.

Genghis Khan Exhibit - Mongolian Dancer
Mongolian Dancers from the Museum of Science and Nature in Denver, at the exhibit on the empire of Genghis Khan.

Mongolian Shaman - Genghis Khan Exhibit
Photo of a Mongolian shaman model from the Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire exhibit at the Denver Museum of Science and Nature.

Genghis Khan Exhibit | Mongolian Crossbow
Photograph of a Mongolian crossbow, used by Genghis Khan's army to attack besieged cities.

Mongolian Coffin - Genghis Khan Exhibit
Coffin of a Mongolian noblewoman from the Genghis Khan museum exhibit.

Genghis Khan Exhibit - Grasslands and Yurt
Exhibit space about the Mongolian grasslands or steppe, including the interior of a typical Mongolian yurt from the time of Genghis Khan.

Genghis Khan Exhibit | Mongol Warrior
A model of a Mongol warrior from the Genghis Khan and the Mongolian Empire exhibit at the Denver Museum of Science and Nature.

Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Photograph from the Genghis Khan and the Mongolian Empire exhibit at the Denver Museum of Science and Nature - Entrance to the Exhibit

Mongolian Mummy - Genghis Khan Exhibit
Photo of a Mongolian mummy from the Genghis Khan museum exhibit

History of the 1001 Arabian Nights
The Tales of the 1001 Arabian Nights are known around the world, but what is the real history behind these magical stories?

North Korea Bombs Rangoon, 1983
In 1983, the North Korean government blew up a memorial in Rangoon, then the capital of Burma (now called Myanmar). Why did the North Koreans do this?

The Vanishing Aral Sea
For decades, the Aral Sea has been evaporating into the dry air of Central Asia, starved of water by massive cotton and rice plantations.

Admiral Barbarossa of the Ottoman Empire
Barbary pirate turned Ottoman naval commander Hayreddin Barbarossa led a very interesting life. Learn more about him here.

The Ottoman Empire Encouraged European Exploration
From the 1400s, the Ottoman Empire took control of the pivotal link between Europe and the Asian spice islands. To get Asian goods, Europeans had to go around...

Afghanistan Country Facts and History
Profile of Afghanistan, including facts about its geography, government, culture, people, and history.

Babur | Founder of the Mughal Dynasty
Babur founded one of India's great empires - the Mughal Empire. Learn more about this pivotal figure in the history of India here.

Facts on the Vietnam War
A quick guide to facts on the Vietnam War: when did it happen, who was involved, who won the war, and how many people died?

Vietnam (Facts, History and Profile)
Facts about and history of Vietnam, Southeast Asia, from your Expert on Asian History.

Facts and History of Malaysia - Country Profile
The area that is now Malaysia has a rich history stretching back millennia. The country itself, though, is quite young - it was created only in 1963, after throwing off British colonization. Learn more about this fascinating country's history, economy, people and landscapes.

50 Amazing Asian Inventions Over the Past 12,000 Years
Links to information from 10,000 BCE to 2000 CE, from silk cloth to the PC sound card.

Facts and History of the Republic of India
Profile of the Republic of India, including information about its government, history, economy and geography.

North Korea | Facts and History
Profile of North Korea, including information about its people, government, climate, history and economy.

Qin Shihuangdi's Terracotta Army
Why was Qin Shi Huangdi of China buried with an army of terracotta soldiers?

Iran Profile - Facts, History, Geography & More
Profile of Iran, formerly known as Persia, including facts about its people, geography, economy and history.

The My Lai Massacre | Vietnam War
Learn about the My Lai Massacre, one of the worst atrocities of the Vietnam War.

Nepal | History, People, Geography and Economy
Facts and information about Nepal, including its history, people, geography and economy.

Yemen Nation Profile - Geography, Climate and History
Profile of Yemen, with information about its people, geography, climate, economy, and history.

First Indonesian President Sukarno Biography
Biography of Sukarno or Soekarno, Indonesia's first president after it gained independence from the Netherlands.

Kublai Khan | Mongolia and Yuan China
Biography of Kublai Khan, founder of China's Yuan Dynasty and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, who hosted Marco Polo at Xanadu

Ho Chi Minh Biography
Biography of Ho Chi Minh, leader of the North Vietnamese communist forces during the Vietnam War.

Sun Yat-Sen Biography
Sun Yat-Sen is considered the Father of the Nation in both the People's Republic of China and in Taiwan.

Jawaharlal Nehru
Biography of Jawaharlal Nehru, Indian independence leader, India's first prime minister, and leader of the international non-aligned movement during the Cold War.

Genghis Khan's Genetic Legacy
DNA studies have proven that about 5% of men living in modern Asia are directly male-line descendants of a single man - probably Genghis Khan.

History of India Timeline
Timeline of Indian history, from the earliest civilizations to the modern day.

What Was the Bataan Death March?
What was the Bataan Death March? Learn more about the details of this World War II atrocity in the Pacific Theater here.

Who Are the Rajput? - Definition
Glossary definition of the term Rajput from your Guide to Asian History.

The Handover of Hong Kong in 1997
Why did Britain hand control of Hong Kong over to China in 1997? How did the British come to control the island in the first place? Learn more here.

Genghis Khan, Not Such A Bad Guy
Ask most people in Europe, the Middle East, or the Americas about Genghis Khan, and they probably will describe a blood-thirsty mass murderer who delighted in

The Buraku - "Untouchables" of Japan
During the shogunate era in Japan, the samurai class sat atop a four-tier social structure. Below them were farmers and fishermen, artisans, and merchants.Some

The Strange Fate of India's Peacock Throne
The Peacock Throne was a wonder to behold - a gilded platform, canopied in silk, and encrusted in precious jewels. It was built in the 17th century for the

Indian Roots for the Ayatollah Khomeini?
Asian History.

Empress Jingu | Samurai Women of Japan
Depiction of one of the earliest samurai women of Japan, the Empress Jingu, who lead an invasion of Korea in the second century CE.

Tomoe Gozen on Horseback | Samurai Women of Japan
Famed Japanese samurai woman Tomoe Gozen on horseback. This twelfth century warrior woman is known for her ferocity in battle as well as her feminine beauty.

Yamakawa Futaba | Samurai Women of Japan
Photo of a Japanese samurai woman, Yamakawa Futaba, who fought against the Meiji Restoration of 1868. The Meiji Emperor abolished the samurai class and created a conscript army instead, so the samurai were fighting for their very existence.

Nanako Takeko | Samurai Women of Japan
Samurai woman Nakano Takeko, who gave her life in the Battle of Aizu defending the samurai class against the 1868 Meiji Restoration.

Minamoto Yoshitsune | A Faux Samurai Woman of Japan
Print of a samurai who appears to be a woman bearing two swords, but is actually the famous male samurai Minamoto Yoshitsune, and the legendary warrior-monk Benkei, from the late 18th century.

Tomoe Gozen | Samurai Women of Japan
Print of the most famous samurai woman of Japan, Tomoe Gozen, who fought in the Genpei War of the twelfth century.

Tomoe Gozen in Battle | Samurai Women of Japan
Print of the twelfth-century Japanese samurai woman, Tomoe Gozen, defeating a male opponent in battle.

Two Views of Tomoe Gozen | Samurai Women of Japan
A double print of famous Japanese samurai woman Tomoe Gozen playing the koto, a musical instrument, and riding out to war. This scene emphasizes the 12th century woman warrior in her roles as both a fighter and a more traditional Japanese woman.

Hangaku Gozen | Samurai Women of Japan
A famous Japanese female samurai of the Genpei era, Hangaku Gozen, who later became a rebel leader.

Yamamoto Yaeko | Samurai Women of Japan
Photo of samurai woman Yamamoto Yaeko, a gunner in the Boshin War, fought against the Emperor during the Meiji Restoration of 1868. The samurai were defeated, and the feudal class system abolished. Many male samurai became policemen, while the samurai women often moved in to the educational field.

Israel | Facts and History
Facts about the State of Israel, its people, economy, climate, and more, plus a brief history of this oft-contended land.

The Moro Rebellion in the Philippines
Between 1899 and 1913, Moro insurgents in the southern Philippines fought against the American occupiers in a bloody jungle war. Learn about the Moro Rebellion here.

Tsangyang Gyatso, the Sixth Dalai Lama
The sixth incarnation of the Dalai Lama, Tibetan Buddhism's leader, was more interested in wine, women and song than in a monastic life.

Nepal's Royal Massacre
In the blink of an eye, the Nepalese Royal Massacre ended ten lives; it later brought down Nepal's centuries-old monarchy.

Why Does ISIS Want to Establish a New Caliphate?
Why does ISIS want to establish a new caliphate in Iraq and Syria? What significance does the caliphate hold in the modern day? Learn more here.

Manuel Quezon of the Philippines
Learn about Manuel Quezon, second president of the Philippines, who led the government in exile during the Japanese occupation in World War II.

Godzilla in Japanese Culture and History
In 1954, the Japanese film Gojira (translated as Godzilla in English) told the tragic story of a monster awakened by nuclear bombs that destroys Tokyo.

What Is a Sphere of Influence?
When a colonial power wanted to control part of a weaker country without formally seizing the land, it might create a sphere of influence, designed to keep other colonial powers out.

The Khilafat Movement (1919 - 1924)
Learn about the Khilafat Movement in India after World War I, which linked Indian Muslims with the fate of the crumbling Ottoman Empire.

Aum Shinrikyo, Japan's Killer Cult
Aum Shinrikyo is famous for the Tokyo subway sarin attack in 1995, but there is much more to this Japanese cult and terrorist organization's story.

Operation Blue Star, 1984
In June 1984, Indira Gandhi ordered the Indian Army into the Sikh Golden Temple at Amritsar. The results were deadly - for the Sikhs and for PM Gandhi.

Indian Castes and Feudal Japanese Classes (Comparison)
India's caste system was based on Hinduism, while feudal Japan's four-tiered class structure sprang out of Confucian thought. Nonetheless, the two were remarkably similar in some ways. Compare India's caste system and Japan's four-tiered class structure.

What Was the Black Hole of Calcutta?
Answer to the FAQ: What Was the Black Hole of Calcutta? by your Guide to Asian History.

Kings, Emperors, & Ancient Asian Rulers Called 'Great'
Asia has seen thousands of kings and emperors over the past five thousand years, but only a select few are called The Great. Find out more about Ashoka, Cyrus, Gwanggaeto, and the other great leaders of Asia!

The Ceramic Wars: Japan Kidnaps Korean Artisans
In the sixteenth century, Japan invaded Korea twice. Although Japan did not conquer Korea in the Imjin War, also called the Ceramic Wars, it did kidnap tens of thousands of Korean artisans, including potters.

Taiwan Facts and History
An island in the South China Sea, Taiwan is a manufacturing powerhouse and a democratic nation. It stands in opposition to mainland China, which claims Taiwan as a lost province, but the two have been separate since 1895.

Events in Asian History - Wars, Natural Disasters, Art
The history of Asia is filled with crucial events and cultural advances. Battles decided the fate of nations, wars rewrote the continent's maps, protests rocked governments, natural disasters afflicted the people, great inventions improved everyday life and new arts brought enjoyment and expression to the peoples of Asia.

What Is Telangana? - Question and Answer
What is India's Telangana, and what implications does it hold for the rest of India?

Emperors of China's Han Dynasty (202 BCE - 220 CE)
The emperors of the Han Dynasty ruled China for more than 400 years. This is considered a

A Profile of Kyrgyzstan - Facts and History
Kyrgyzstan, a former Soviet republic in Central Asia, is a land of gorgeous scenery, rich history, and amazing people. Learn more about the culture and history of Kyrgyzstan here.

Japan's Genpei War, 1180 - 1185
Brief history of the Genpei War, 1180-1185, in Japan.

The Gunpowder Empires: Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal
At the dawn of the modern era, three empires in Asia established and maintained themselves thanks to their advantage in firearms and artillery. The so-called

Warriors Killers and Spies in Asian History
Throughout Asian History, certain groups have been famed as warriors, killers or spies. These groups may be based on ethnicity, religion, or just personality attributes, but they could each be deadly in their own way.

Modern Invasions of Afghanistan
Over the past two centuries, the British Empire, the Soviet Union and the United States have invaded the small Central Asian nation of Afghanistan. Usually, Afghan warriors have sent the great powers home with their tails between their legs.

Western Versions of Famous Asian Names
During the Middle Ages, westerners had trouble with Chinese, Arabic, and Persian names, so they simplified or Latinized the names of famous poets, warriors, and scientists of Asia. See the western and original names of these great thinkers here.

Mao Zedong - Brief Timeline
A compact timeline of Mao Zedong's life, from a humble birth through the founding of the People's Republic of China, to the disaster of the Great Leap Forward and beyond.

Compare Nationalism in China and Japan
How did rising nationalism in China and Japan compare in the important period between 1750 and 1914?

First Sino-Japanese War History (1894-95)
Learn about the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95, in which Japan wrested control of Korea away from China.

Extraterritoriality Definition and Examples
Glossary definition of the term extraterritoriality from your Guide to Asian History.

The Dalai Lama | Tenzin Gyatso
Biography of the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, who was until recently the leader of the Tibetan government in exile, and is still the leader of Tibetan Buddhism.

Who Are the Taliban?
Learn more about the group who ruled Afghanistan in the late 1990s and continue to fight the US-led coalition today.

The Ottoman Sultans Were Not Very Turkish
Ottoman Turkey's sultans usually took Christian women concubines, so what percentage of their blood was actually Turkish, by the end? Find out here.

The Hundred Flowers Campaign in China
In 1956, Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong invited critics and intellectuals to openly voice their opinions of his regime. It was a cruel trick.

The Satsuma Rebellion
The Satsuma Rebellion of 1877 was the last stand of the samurai warriors against the social upheaval and modernization of the Meiji Restoration in Japan.

Who Are the Cossacks? - Asian History
Learn about the mixed-ethnicity group from southern Russia, Central Asia, and the Ukraine, including their history and from whom the group descended from.

Kazahkstan - Facts and History of Kazahkstan
Facts and history of Kazakhstan, Central Asia's largest republic and former member of the Soviet Union.

Class Identity in Feudal Japan - Fun Facts and Examples
Fourteen facts and examples about class identity and the four-tiered social system in feudal Japan. See examples that show the inner workings of Tokugawa Japan's social structure.

Facts on the Russo-Japanese War
Quick summary of the pivotal Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05.

World War II in Asia Outline
Timeline of World War II in Asia, including not just the Pacific War but also battles in the Asian interior and the Middle East.

Iran Hostage Crisis, 1979
What was the Iran Hostage Crisis of 1979? Learn about what happened when student demonstrators took over the US Embassy in Tehran during the Iranian Revolution.

What Is a Shah?
Glossary definition of the term shah from your Guide to Asian History.

Bengal Famine of 1943, India
Learn more about the devastating Bengal Famine of 1943, which struck British India during the Second World War.

History of Nutmeg Spice
Nutmeg, a delicious spice associated with the holidays in the west, has a long and often tragic history. Learn about the unsavory history of a tasty spice here.

Gamelan History | Indonesian Music and Dance
History of gamelan, Indonesia's signature traditional musical style.

Emperor-Gods of Japan
Tradition states that Japan's emperors have come from a single family since 660 BCE, and that they are the sons of a goddess. As a result, Japan is a heavenly kingdom. Learn about the divine origins of the Japanese imperial family here.

Mao Zedong Timeline
Timeline of the life of Mao Zedong, first leader of the People's Republic of China, and Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party.

Medieval Asian Inventions
Medieval Asia saw the invention of products both luxurious (porcelain, toilet paper, perfume, chess) and intensely practical (the flamethrower, canal locks, and hypodermic needles).

Prehistoric Asian Inventions
Between 10,000 and 3,500 BCE, the earliest human cultures in Asia created some of the most basic inventions. They domesticated many of the plants and animals that we rely upon for wheat, peas, sheep, cats, cattle, chickens, and rice. They also invented pottery, woven cloth, alcohol, and the wheel.

Kuwait | Facts and History
Facts about Kuwait as well as a brief history of the oil-rich Persian Gulf state.

The Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lanka's bloody civil war lasted more than 25 years, and claimed up to 100,000 lives before it ended in 2009.

The Marco Polo Bridge Incident
What happened at the Marco Polo Bridge? Learn about the incident that launched the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II in Asia.

The Sino-Indian War, 1962
In 1962, war broke out between China and India. The Sino-Indian War was mostly about the high mountain border, but also about India's support for the Dalai Lama.

Where Is Cathay
Where is Cathay, and why did this question so puzzle Europeans in the early modern period? Learn about the fabled land of Cathay here.

Gandhara Definition
Glossary definition of the term Gandhara, describing an ancient kingdom of South and Central Asia, from your Guide to Asian History.

Oman | Facts and History
Facts about Oman, including its people, geography, climate, and economy, as well as a brief history of the Sultanate.

Syria Facts and History
Learn more about Syria - its history, demographics, religion, geography and more - in this profile of the Syrian Arab Republic.

Ho Chi Minh Trail
The Ho Chi Minh Trail served as a vital supply line for communist forces during the Vietnam War. Learn more about this famous supply route here.

Afghanistan and Pakistan's Border
History of the troubled border between Afghanistan and Pakistan, also known as the Durand Line.

Who Are the Bedouin?
Glossary definition of the term bedouin from your Guide to Asian History.

What Was the Qing Dynasty?
Glossary definition of the Qing Dynasty from your Guide to Asian History.

What Is a Sheik?
Glossary definition of the term sheik from your Guide to Asian History.

Who Are the Shi'a?
Glossary definition of the term Shi'a from your Guide to Asian History.

Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan
Biography of Islam Karimov, the Soviet-era premiere of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, and the founding president of the independent Republic of Uzbekistan.

Deforestation in Asia
A brief history of deforestation in Asia over the past six centuries, with examples from Japan, China, India, and Southeast Asia.

Book Review | Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World
Review of Jack Weatherford's book Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World

Pusan Perimeter and Invasion of Incheon | Korean War
Three months after North Korea's surprise attack in 1950, South Korean forces were pinned down in a small corner on the southeast of the peninsula, called the Pusan Perimeter. Map of the perimeter, plus the UN forces' flanking attack, the Invasion of Incheon.

Gates of Hell in Derweze Turkmenistan
History of the incredible Door to Hell or Gates of Hell natural gas fire in Derweze, Turkmenistan. Learn more about this beautiful but ecologically disastrous place here.

Japan's Showa Era
Learn more about the Showa Era in Japanese history, which corresponds with the lengthy reign of Emperor Hirohito (1926 - 1989).

Hakka People
Who are the Hakka people? Find out in this glossary definition of the term Hakka from your Guide to Asian History.

Yamato Definition
Definition of the term Yamato from your Guide to Asian History.

Gisaeng | Korean Geisha Girls
Glossary definition of the Korean term gisaeng, from your Guide to Asian History.

Persia's Achaemenid Empire
Brief history of the Achaemenid Empire from your Guide to Asian History.

Where Is Bengal?
Where Is Bengal? Learn more about this densely populated region of the Indian Subcontinent here.

Abbasid Caliphate
Glossary definition of the Abbasid Caliphate from your Guide to Asian History.

Definition of Khitan
Glossary definition of the term Khitan from your Guide to Asian History.

Where Is Shambhala?
Definition of the term Shambhala from your Guide to Asian History.

What Is a Mudang?
Glossary definition of Mudang, a Korean term, from your Guide to Asian History.

What Is a Kuriltai?
Glossary definition of the Mongol term kuriltai from your Guide to Asian History.

Goryeo Kingdom | Ancient Koryo or Korea
A brief history of the Koryo or Goryeo Kingdom, which ruled Korea from 918 to 1392 CE.

Safavid Empire | Persia
Glossary definition of the Safavid Empire of Persia from your Guide to Asian History.

Definition of Tamil
Glossary definition of the term Tamil, from your Guide to Asian History. Who are the Tamils?

Who Were the Tangut?
Glossary definition of the term Tangut, referring to the ancient ethnic group in China, from your Guide to Asian History.

Tarim Basin Definition
Where is the Tarim Basin, and what is its significance in history? Learn more here.

Gwangju Massacre in South Korea
Learn more about the 1980 Gwangju Uprising in southern South Korea, and General Chun Doo-hwan's bloody response, called the Gwangju Massacre.

The Maldives | Facts and History
Learn more about the history, politics, demographics and economy of the Maldives, Asia's smallest country.

Saparmurat Niyazov | Turkmenistan
Biography of Saparmurat Niyazov, also known as Turkmenbashi, the first president of the former Soviet republic of Turkmenistan, Central Asia

Iraq War Facts | Second Gulf War
Quick guide to the Iraq War or the Second Gulf War, in which a US-led coalition overthrew Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq.

The Execution of Stoddart and Conolly in Bukhara
One of the key events in the Great Game, a competition between the Russian and British Empires for power in Central Asia, was the torture and execution of British spies Charles Stoddart and Arthur Conolly by the Emir of Bukhara. Learn about the incident here.

Emishi People | Japanese History
Glossary definition of the term Emishi from your Guide to Asian History.

Sun Myung Moon
Biography of Sun Myung Moon, the founding leader of the Unification Church in South Korea. His followers are derisively known as

Confucius Biography
Biography of Confucius (Kong Fuzi), the famous Chinese philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period.

Park Chung Hee | South Korea
Park Chung Hee, a former South Korean army general, overthrew Syngman Rhee in a military coup, and ruled South Korea for 16 years.

Ba Trieu | Warrior Lady of Vietnam
In the third century CE, a young rebel leader called Trieu Thi Trinh led her people in rebellion against Chinese rule. As a result, she is known as the

Bhutan | Facts and History of the Kingdom of Bhutan
Learn more about the Himalayan nation of Bhutan's history, economy, government, religion and more.

First Anglo-Afghan War, 1839-1842
The First Anglo-Afghan War of 1839-1842 was part of the

Invention of the Stirrup
Invention of the stirrup, a key piece of horse tack for warriors and other riders. The subject of where stirrups were invented is surprisingly controversial; Mongolia, China, Korea and Japan all have supporters in the debate.

Battle of Dien Bien Phu | The First Indochina War in Vietnam
The crushing Viet Minh victory over French colonial forces at Dien Bien Phu in 1954 marked the end of France's direct involvement in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia (formerly French Indochina). The peace turned out to be only a lull before the Second Indochina War, also known as the Vietnam War, between Ho Chi Minh's forces and the United States.

Mahatma Gandhi Quotes
A collection of great quotes from the Mahatma Gandhi on topics such as peace, non-violence, compassion, and life.

Who Were the Flying Tigers?
Who were the Flying Tigers? Learn more about this volunteer group who contributed to the defense of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.

Comfort Women | World War II in Asia
Who were the comfort women? Learn more about the history of sex slavery during World War II in Asia.

Taiping Rebellion in Qing China
Learn more about the Taiping Rebellion, an uprising and civil war in southern China during the later Qing Period (mid-1800s).

What Was the Sword Hunt in Japan?
In 1588, Toyotomi Hideyoshi ordered a Sword Hunt throughout Japan. What was the sword hunt, and why did Hideyoshi issue this decree? Find out here.

The An Lushan Rebellion in Tang China
What was the An Lushan Rebellion? Why did it start, and how did it nearly bring down one of China's most glorious dynasties?

Role of the Yellow River in China's History
What role has the Yellow River played in Chinese history?

Korea's Bone-rank System | Golpum
The Silla Kingdom of Korea had an elaborate system for determining caste, called the bone-rank system, which was more complicated than a simple blood-line system. Learn how it worked here.

Attila the Hun Timeline
Single-page timeline of the history of the Huns, with emphasis on the reign of Attila the Hun.

Nuclear Weapons History in Asia
History of nuclear weapons in Asia, where five nations plus Russia currently hold nukes, and where the world's only war-time use of nuclear weapons took place during World War II.

Battle of Gaugamela
The Battle of Gaugamela, also known as Arbela, pitted the forces of Alexander the Great against the Achaemenid leader Darius III, in what is now Iran. This pivotal battle set Alexander on the path to conquest of much of southern Asia - and spelled doom for the Achaemenid Empire in Iran.

Battle of Gaugamela
The Battle of Gaugamela, also known as Arbela, pitted the forces of Alexander the Great against the Achaemenid leader Darius III, in what is now Iran. This pivotal battle set Alexander on the path to conquest of much of southern Asia - and spelled doom for the Achaemenid Empire in Iran. Page 2.

Tiananmen Square - Tank Man Photographer - Jeff Widener Interview
Interview and images from Jeff Widener, the photographer who took the iconic

Qin Dynasty | Emperors of China's Qin Dynasty
List of Emperors from China's Qin Dynasty, beginning with Qin Shi Huangdi, the first emperor of unified China.

Glossary of Asian History Terms
Ever-growing glossary of terms related to the history of Asia, from your Guide to Asian History. Starts at

Gwanggaeto the Great of Korea
Biography of Gwanggaeto the Great, king of Koguryeo, the northernmost of ancient Korea's Three Kingdoms.

AP World History | Asian History Study Guide
AP World History study guide. Learn about all of the Asian history topics that appear on the AP World History test.

Samurai Attack a Village
Images from a samurai attack on a Japanese village. These vivid and detailed pictures of samurai in action were created sometime between 1750 and 1850.

Turkmenistan | Facts and History
Profile of Turkmenistan, Central Asia. Includes information about the former Soviet republic of Turkmenistan's people, culture, economy and landscape.

What Is a Ger?
Glossary definition of the term ger from your Guide to Asian History.

Iran or Persia Timeline
Timeline of Iranian (Persian) history from the age of Zarathustra, the founder of Zoroastrianism, through the death of the Ayatollah Khomeini.

Aung San Suu Kyi of Burma
Biography of Aung San Suu Kyi, the Nobel Peace Prize Laureate and opposition leader of Burma (Myanmar), who was jailed by the military junta after winning a democratic election in 1990 by an overwhelming majority.

Hu Jintao | China
Biography of Chinese Premiere Hu Jintao, from his early childhood through his tenure as head of the People's Republic of China.

Glossary definition of the term Farsi from your Expert on Asian History.

Glossary definition of the term Tajik from your Expert on Asian History.

The Crusades
Glossary definition of the phrase The Crusades from your Expert on Asian History.

What Is a Mullah?
Glossary definition of the term mullah from Asian History on

What Is a Khan?
Glossary definition of the term khan from Asian History on

Than Shwe Biography
Biography of Than Shwe, military dictator and head of the ruling junta in Burma (Myanmar), including his life story and a description of his rule.

East Timor or Timor-Leste | Facts and History
Profile of East Timor (Timor-Leste), including information on its people, culture, and history. Covers the period from early settlement through Portuguese colonization, the Indonesian occupation, and independence in 2002.

What Was the Sassanid Dynasty?
Glossary definition of the term Sassanid Dynasty from your Guide to Asian History.

Who Were the Xiongnu
Glossary definition of the word Xiongnu from your Guide to Asian History.

Ancient India - History Timeline
Timeline of India's early history, from the Indus Valley Civilization through the development of Buddhism and Jainism

Beijing Opera - Chinese Opera - Old Scholar - Photo - Picture
Beijing Opera Lao Sheng or senior male character. Page 2.

Chinese Opera Photos - Beijing and Sichuan Opera Pictures
Photo gallery of Chinese Opera pictures, including Beijing and Sichuan Opera. Page 12.

Chinese Opera Photos - Beijing and Sichuan Opera Pictures
Photo gallery of Chinese Opera pictures, including Beijing and Sichuan Opera. Page 11.

Chinese Opera Photos - Beijing and Sichuan Opera Pictures
Photo gallery of Chinese Opera pictures, including Beijing and Sichuan Opera. Page 8.

Empress Sunjeong of Korea
A youthful Empress Sunjeong of Korea. She was the consort of Emperor Sunjong, Korea's last emperor. Page 7.

King Chulalongkorn of Siam | Siam's Royal Family
King Chulalongkorn the Great (Rama V) of Siam, with his family. In this photo, Crown Prince Vajirunhis leans on his father's chair, while future King Rama VI, Prince Vajiravudh, stands behind the queen's chair. Page 4.

King Chulalongkorn of Siam and Son | Rama V and Rama VI
King Chulalongkorn the Great of Siam and his son, the Crown Prince Vajiravudh, photographed in 1890. Page 3.

Queen Mother of Siam | Photos of Siam's Royal Family
This undated photo shows an unidentified Queen Mother of Siam dressed in pearls and western-influenced clothing. Page 5.

Japanese Samurai | Kabuki Actors as Samurai
Actors Bando Mitsugoro and Bando Minosuke portraying samurai warriors, woodcut print by Toyokuni Utagawa, c. 1777-1835. Page 9.

Samurai picture | Japanese woodcut print
Woodcut print of a man examining famous samurai swordsman Miyamoto Musashi, by Kuniyoshi Utagawa (1798-1861). Page 10.

Japanese Prints | Fighting samurai
Two samurai fighting on the roof of Horyu Tower (Horyukaku), Japanese woodcut print c. 1830-1870. Page 11.

Samurai Pictures | Japan Historical Prints
A samurai warrior and a homeowner prepare to fight inside the house, while a woman is disturbed from her koto playing. Page 8.

Samurai Warrior Helmet | Toyko Museum
A samurai warrior's helmet from the collection of the Tokyo Museum. Page 13.

Samurai Mask - San Francisco
Photo of a samurai mask on display at the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco. Page 14.

Samurai Swords | Japanese Weapons
A display of samurai swords (katana) from Japan in London's Victoria and Albert Museum. Page 16.

The King and I | King Mongkut
Yul Brynner as King Mongkut of Siam (Rama IV) and Deborah Kerr as Anna Leonowens, his children's nanny. Page 2.

King Rama IX of Thailand and Queen Elizabeth II of England | Chakri Kings of Siam
King Rama IX and his queen visit Queen Elizabeth II of England, 1960. Page 10.

Modern samurai, Tokyo, Japan 2003
Modern samurai: Japanese samurai re-enactors, Tokyo, Japan 2003. Page 17.

Samurai Warriors | Japanese Historic Prints
Edo-period samurai warriors attacking a village in Japan. Page 7.

Japan's Samurai Warriors Board a Mongol Ship During the 1281 Invasion at Hakata Bay
Japan's Samurai Warriors Board a Mongol Ship During the 1281 Invasion at Hakata Bay. Page 3.

Samurai armor in the National Museum in Tokyo, Japan
Samurai body armor in the National Museum in Tokyo, Japan. Page 15.

Samurai scroll of Mongol Invasion of Japan, 1274 and 1281
Scroll depicting the Mongol invasions of Japan in 1274 and 1281, commissioned by Samurai Takezaki Suenaga. Page 4.

Photo of Tokugawa Era Samurai
Photograph of Japanese samurai warrior, 1860s. Page 12.

Tomoe Gozen | Samurai Woman Warrior
Tomoe Gozen, a female samurai warrior from twelfth-century Japan. Page 2.

Samurai Warriors Fighting | Japanese Woodcut Prints
Woodcut print of Japanese samurai Ichijo Jiro Tadanori and Notonokami Noritsune fighting 1810-1820. Page 5.

Japanese Samurai | Woodcut Prints
Woodcut print of samurai warriors Genkuro Yoshitsune and Musashibo Benkei by Toyokuni Utagawa, c. 1804-1818. Page 6.

What Was the Great Game?
Learn the glossary definition of the phrase Great Game from your Guide to Asian History.

What Is an Emir?
Glossary definition of the term emir from your Guide to Asian History.

What Was the Qin Dynasty?
Glossary definition of the term Qin Dynasty from your Guide to Asian History.

What Is a Raj?
Glossary definition of the term raj from your Guide to Asian History.

What Is a Sunni?
Glossary definition of the term Sunni from your Guide to Asian History.

What Was the Song Dynasty
Glossary definition of China's Song Dynasty from your Guide to Asian History.

What Is a Tsar?
Glossary definition of the term tsar from your Guide to Asian History.

Who Are the Basij
Glossary definition of Iran's Basij from your Guide to Asian History.

What Is a Yurt?
Glossary definition of the term yurt from your Guide to Asian history.

Tang Dynasty - Chinese History
Glossary definition of the term Tang Dynasty from your Guide to Asian History.

Who Were the Tocharians?
Glossary definition of the term Tocharian from your Guide to Asian History.

Who Are the Waziri?
Glossary definition of the term Waziri from your Guide to Asian History.

What Is a Zaibatsu?
Glossary definition of the term zaibatsu from your Guide to Asian History.

Where Is Burma?
Glossary definition of the term Burma from your Guide to Asian History.

What Is a Chaikhana?
Definition of the term chaikhana from your Guide to Asian History.

What Was the Ming Dynasty?
Glossary definition of the term Ming Dynasty from your Guide to Asian History.

What Was the Khmer Rouge
Glossary definition of the term Khmer Rouge from your Guide to Asian History.

Who are the Hui People?
Glossary definition of Hui people from your Guide to Asian History

What Are the Kami?
Glossary definition of the word kami from your Guide to Asian History.

The Karen People
Who are the Karen people? Find out in this Glossary entry by your Guide to Asian History.

What Was the Han Dynasty?
Glossary definition of the Han Dynasty from your Guide to Asian History.

What Was Jomon?
Glossary definition of the term Jomon from your Guide to Asian History.

Chinese Opera Photos - Beijing and Sichuan Opera Pictures
Photo gallery of Chinese Opera pictures, including Beijing and Sichuan Opera

Korea's Imperial Family
When Japan won the Sino-Japanese War (1894-95), it overturned the tributary relationship between Qing China and Joseon Korea. In order to more easily control Korea, Japan encouraged King Gojong to declare himself the Emperor of Korea. Thus began the short, thirteen-year reign of the Korean Empire. See photos of the imperial family and their staff here.

Korean War Photos
Photo gallery of the Korean War, 1950-1953.

Ronin (Masterless Samurai) Fending Off Arrows, 1869
Ronin (Masterless Samurai) Fending Off Arrows 1869

Samurai Images - Japanese Warriors
Images of samurai warriors and their armor, as well as some modern-day samurai imitators. Includes traditional wood-cut prints, as well as photos of an Edo-era samurai and museum displays of samurai gear.

Samurai Images - Japanese Warriors
Images of samurai warriors and their armor, as well as some modern-day samurai imitators. Includes traditional wood-cut prints, as well as photos of an Edo-era samurai and museum displays of samurai gear.

What Is a Vizier?
Glossary definition of the word vizier from your Guide to Asian History.

Languages of Central Asia
Explores the various written and spoken languages of Central Asia, where trade along the Silk Road led to fascinating linguistic cross-pollination.

Asian History FAQs
Here are answers to frequently-asked questions about Asian History, like

The History of Buddhism and Hinduism in Asia
Describes the development of Hinduism, and its descendant Buddhism, from their roots in the Indian subcontinent, and their spread across Asia. Traces the myriad variants of Buddhism now practiced in Asia and beyond.

Early Humans in Asia
Famous fossilized human remains have been found across Asia, from