Agnosticism / Atheism Sitemap - Page 46 2014-04-17

Meeting My Match - Jim : How I Got Religion, And Then Lost It
How I Got Religion, And Then Lost It: The story of Doug, an atheists who experienced quite a lot as a fundamentalist and Pentecostal. Doug explains how he got involved with that Christian denomination, what it was like, and how he eventually got back out again.

Meeting My Match - Ken: How I Got Religion, And Then Lost It
How I Got Religion, And Then Lost It: The story of Doug, an atheists who experienced quite a lot as a fundamentalist and Pentecostal. Doug explains how he got involved with that Christian denomination, what it was like, and how he eventually got back out again.

The Break: How I Got Religion, And Then Lost It
How I Got Religion, And Then Lost It: The story of Doug, an atheists who experienced quite a lot as a fundamentalist and Pentecostal. Doug explains how he got involved with that Christian denomination, what it was like, and how he eventually got back out again.

Faith Withers: How I Got Religion, And Then Lost It
How I Got Religion, And Then Lost It: The story of Doug, an atheists who experienced quite a lot as a fundamentalist and Pentecostal. Doug explains how he got involved with that Christian denomination, what it was like, and how he eventually got back out again.

Atheism, Holidays and Rituals: Alternative Holidays?
Atheism, Holidays and Rituals: Should atheists secular alternatives to religious holidays? What would a secular, atheist holiday look like - and is there really any point to having one?

Atheism, Holidays and Rituals: Saying Grace
Atheism, Holidays and Rituals: What should atheists do when people want to say grace before a meal? Can or even should atheists participate in saying grace? Is it rude to refuse to say grace with the others?

Atheism FAQ: Atheism, Holidays and Rituals
rituals, amp, holidays, atheism

Atheism, Holidays and Rituals: Finding Meaning
Atheism, Holidays and Rituals: Can atheists find meaning in holidays with religious origins? Is religion necessary for a holiday to be meaningful?

Atheism, Holidays and Rituals: Revealing Atheism
Atheism, Holidays and Rituals: How should you reveal your atheism if it comes up during the holidays? Should you even reveal it in the first place, or would it be better to just keep quiet for your family's sake?

Atheism, Holidays and Rituals: Families and Traditions
Atheism, Holidays and Rituals: How can atheists deal with family traditions like attending church services during holidays? Is it better to go to church for the sake of family harmony or can an atheist simply refuse?

Myths about Atheism: Atheism & Christianity
Myths and Misconceptions about Atheism: an examination of various myths, misunderstandings and misconceptions people have had about the relationship between atheism, atheists and Christianity.

Myths about Atheism: Atheists are bigoted against Christians
Atheism Myths: is it true that atheists are bigoted against Christians?

Atheism Myths: do atheists hate God and Christians?
Atheism Myths: Is it true that atheists hate God and/or Christians?

Myths about Atheism: Do atheists worship Satan?
Atheism Myths: is it true that atheists worship Satan?

Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Atheism vs. Theism
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Are there any advantages to being an atheist over being a theist? Are there any reasons for a person to choose atheism over theism? Why bother being an atheist?

Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Bad Influence on Family
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Bad Influence on Family. Some family members might want to restrict your contact to younger membres of the family because, as an atheist, you are an bad influence on others. What do you do if that happens?

Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Going to Church
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Going to Church. Sometimes, your family might force you to continue going to church even though you not only aren't religious, but are an atheist. What should you do if that happens?

Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Doubts About Religion
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: I'm having doubts about religion, but my family is very devout. What do I do?

Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Hiding your Atheism
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Hiding your Atheism. Some families might want an atheist to hide their atheism from others in the family or from the community. Should you hide your atheism? Should you deny who you are just to keep up appearances?

Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Going through a Phase?
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Going through a Phase? Some family members might think that you are just going through a phase and, hence, don't take you very seriously. What can you do to overcome such an attitude about atheism and atheists?

Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Reconversion to Religion
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Reconversion to Religion. Some families may object to atheism so much that they may try to reconvert a member who is an atheist. What should you do if your religious framily tries to reconvert you away from atheism and back to their religion?

Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Revealing Atheism
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: How do I reveal my atheism to my family? Some religious families are very devout and may not react very well to the idea that you not only don't share their religion anymore, but don't even believe in God now.

Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Dealing with Upset Family
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Dealing with Upset Family What do you do when your family doesn't react well to the idea that you are an atheist? Do you argue with them?

Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Aren't you afraid?
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: What if you are wrong and God exists? Aren't you afraid of hell? Don't you worry about what might happen to you when you die?

Atheism FAQ: Questions about Atheism and Atheists
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: these are questions asked not only by theists, but also by atheists about atheism, atheists, and how atheists should deal with theists.

Questions about Atheism and Atheists: What is atheism?
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: What is atheism? Is it a belief system? Is it different from agnosticism? What do atheists believe?

Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Why be an atheist?
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Why be an atheist? Why do people become atheists? What does atheism have that theism doesn't have?

Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Why should I consider atheism?
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Why should I consider atheism? Is there any reason to think that atheism is better for me than theism?

Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Why are you an atheist?
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Why am I an atheist? What caused me to reject not only religion, but also belief in the existence of any gods?

Arguing Against Gods: Omniscience
Omniscience: a characteristic often attribted to God, but is it compatible with the notion of free will?

Bible FAQ - Index
Is the Bible a valid guide or argument? A FAQ for all your questions.

Bible FAQ - Prophecies
Is the Bible a valid guide or argument? A FAQ for all your questions.

Atheism FAQ: Questions about Atheism and Atheists
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: these are questions asked not only by theists, but also by atheists about atheism, atheists, and how atheists should deal with theists.

Questions about Atheism and Religion: Atheist Opposition to Religion
Questions about Atheism and Religion: Atheist Opposition to Religion. Many atheists are opposed to religion and religious beliefs in various ways - but why? Do all atheists feel that way? In fact, many theists are also opposed to religion!

Questions about Atheism and Religion: Is atheism just another religion?
Questions about Atheism and Religion: Is atheism just another religion? Some people believe that atheism is a religion like Christianity or Islam - but that belief relies upon a misunderstanding about what both atheism and religion actually are.

Atheism FAQ: Questions about Atheism and Religion
Questions about Atheism and Religion: What is the relationship between atheism and religion? Are atheists anti-religious -and if so, why? Can atheists themselves be religious and is atheism a religion?

Atheism Myths: do atheists hate God and Christians?
Atheism Myths: Is it true that atheists hate God and/or Christians?

Atheism FAQ: Myths about Atheism
Atheism: and examination of various myths, misunderstandings and misconceptions people have had about atheism and atheists

Myths about Atheism: Atheist & Meaning. Can atheists have any meaning in their lives?
Myths about Atheism: Atheist & Meaning. Can atheists have any meaning in their lives?

Myths about Atheism: Many atheists have experienced deathbed conversions
Atheism Myths: Is it true that many atheists have experienced deathbed conversions? Many believers, Christians in particular, have claimed that this is so - but even if it is, does it actually meaning anything?

Atheism Myths: Is Atheism a Religion?
Atheism Myths: Many people operate under the mistaken idea that atheism is itself a religion, but they are very wrong.

Atheism FAQ: Dropped Chalk
Atheism Myths: is it true that a professor once challenged God to keep a piece of dropped chalk from breaking... and lost?

Myths about Atheism: Atheism and Christianity
Myths and Misconceptions about Atheism: an examination of various myths, misunderstandings and misconceptions people have had about the relationship between atheism, atheists and Christianity.

Atheism Myths: do atheists hate God and Christians?
Atheism Myths: Is it true that atheists hate God and/or Christians?

Atheism FAQ: History of Atheism
Skepticism and Critique of both religion and theism are sometimes thought to be relatively recent developments. But this is not true - they occurred long ago in a wide variety of cultures.

Atheism FAQ: Advice for Atheists on Family, Work, and other Social Issues
Advice for Atheists on Family, Work, and other Social Issues. Atheists, agnostics, nonbelievers, and religious skeptics of all sorts often have questions about how to best deal with touch situations with family, friends, neighbors, and coworkers. Religion and theism can become sources of nasty confrontations and hurt feelings - but how can atheists avoid that?

Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Atheist Beliefs
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: Atheist Beliefs. What do atheists believe and why? Are atheists just going through a phase? Do athiests really believe in nothing at all?

Atheism FAQ: Questions about Atheism and Family Issues
Questions about Atheism and Family Issues: these are questions asked not only by theists, but also by atheists about how best to handle conflicts, disagreements, and problems they have with devoutly religious family members.

Atheism FAQ: Questions about Atheism and Atheists
Questions about Atheism and Atheists: What is atheism? General questions about the nature of atheism and who athiests are deserve to be addressed.

Arguing Against Gods: Omniscience
Omniscience: a characteristic often attribted to God, but is being omniscient compatible with being morally good?

Arguing Against Gods: Omniscience
Omniscience: a characteristic often attribted to God. But does it make any sense? Contrasting Omniscience with God, Goodness, Humanity and Truth.

Arguing Against Gods: Omniscience
Omniscience: a characteristic often attribted to God. But does it make any sense? Is it even compatible with the very concept of knowledge?

Agnosticism 101: What is Agnosticism? Index of Documents and Articles
Agnosticism: what is it, what isn't it? How did Huxley originally define agnosticism? What did Spencer say the definition of agnosticism is? What is the difference between agnosticism and atheism?

Analysis & Critique of Attacks on Atheism
state separation, critique, atheism, church state

Atheism Biography: Famous Atheists, Skeptics and Freethinkers
Famous Atheists, Skeptics and Freethinkers: index of short biographies of some famous atheists, skeptics, agnostics and freethinkers through history.

Atheism Biography: American Atheists, Skeptics and Freethinkers
American Atheists, Skeptics and Freethinkers: index of short biographies of some famous atheists, skeptics, agnostics and freethinkers through American history.

Atheism Guide: Introduction to atheism, agnosticism, freethought, and more
Atheism Guide: What is atheism? What is agnosticism? What are the differences between atheism, theism and agnosticism? Is atheism a religion? How do atheists define atheism? What are some common myths about atheism? This guide to atheism addresses those questions and many, many more.

Atheism and Atheists - Recent News and Posts
Hate Mail: a collection of some of the more interesting emails I receive from people who are outraged over the existence of this atheism site.

Atheism FAQ: Atheism and Society
Atheism and Society: How do atheists interact with the wider, religious and theistic society?

Weekly Quotes: Quotations on Philosophy, Religion, Politics, and More
This index references the 'Weekly Quote' feature of this site. Every week a quotation or short passage dealing with philosophy, religion, politics, or some other interesting facet of life is presented along with an analysis and discussion of the ideas raised in the quote.

Myths about Atheism: Atheist Attitudes
Myths about Atheism: Atheist Attitudes: negative attitude bad attitudes bad feelings atheists christian doctrine

Atheism FAQ: Myths about Atheism
Atheism Myths: is it true that atheists simply refuse to accept that they sin?

Administrative FAQ
Atheism: what is it, what isn't it? A FAQ for all your questions.

Administrative FAQ - Copyright Laws and Standards
Agnosticism / Atheism forum and chat: Copyright Laws and Standards

How to Submit Guest Articles
Submitting Guest Articles - Criteria and Suggestions

Administrative FAQ
Agnosticism / Atheism forum and chat: what is and is not permitted?

How to put HTML in your posts
HTML in your posts - instructions for the agnosticism / atheism forum

Administrative FAQ
Atheism: what is it, what isn't it? A FAQ for all your questions.

Administrative FAQ
Atheism: what is it, what isn't it? A FAQ for all your questions.

Administrative FAQ
Atheism: what is it, what isn't it? A FAQ for all your questions.

How to Submit New Links
Submitting URLs - Criteria and Suggestions: quality suggestions note creation selective directory deep links large graphics

How to Submit Guest Articles
Submitting Guest Articles - Criteria and Suggestions

Debating the Existence of God: Does God Exist or Not? Atheists vs. Theists
Debating the Existence of God: Does God Exist or Not? This is an index of basic documents on the nature of debates over the existence of God. Does the existence of God even matter? Why bother to debate God? If we do debate, who has the burden of proof - atheists or theists?

Does God Exist? What is God? Understanding Questions About the Existence of God
Does God Exist? What is God? Understanding Questions About the Existence of God. Debates about God are not easy - it is important to have an understanding of the most basic questions and issues before one can debate well and seriously.

Does God Exist? Arguing for and against Gods
Arguing for and against Gods: what are some basic arguments for and against the existence of gods? How sound are they?

Arguing against Gods
Arguing against Gods: what are some basic arguments against the existence of gods? How sound are they?

Omniscience: Problems with Omniscience
Omniscience: a characteristic often attribted to God. But does it make any sense? Examining the nature of knowledge and how it relates to omniscience From your About.com Guide

Arguing Against Gods: Omniscience
Omniscience: a characteristic often attribted to God, but is it compatible with the notion of free will?

Arguing Against Gods: Omniscience
Omniscience: a characteristic often attribted to God, but is that compatible with other common characteristics attributed to god?

Islam and Muslims: Alawis
Alawis descend from the Muslim religious tradition, but most Muslims no longer regard them as Muslim today.

Bahai
Baha'i is a religious descendent of Islam.: violent revolts mirza husayn hidden imam ali muhammad fanatical followers

Basic Muslim Beliefs: Muslim Beliefs in Submission to God, Purity, Monotheism -
There are a number of beliefs which go beyond the Five Pillars, or which are logically dependent upon the Five Pillars.

Islamic Extremism - Muslim Brotherhood
Origins of Islamic Extremism - Muslim Brotherhood developed to offer an Islamic alternative to Western political ideologies, often turning violent in its opposition to the government.

Islam in the World: Country Index
Islam in the World: Index of Countries, from your About.com Guide. Learn the facts and history of religion around the world.

Islamic Extremism - Al-Dawa
Origins of Islamic Extremism - Al-Dawa was an Islamist magazine which promoted a violent anti-Christian, anti-Jewish and anti-Western attitude.

Islam and Muslims: Druze
Druze descends from Islam, but many no longer regard it as a part of Islam any more.

Islamic Extremism - Groups and Personalities
islamic extremism, islamic extremists, personalities

Islam and Muslims: Fatimid Islam
Fatimids: Muslim rulers of Egypt.: al sabbah abbasid caliphs islam islam mountain fortress guerrilla warfare

Islam: What is the Hadith?
The Hadith is a collection of the sayings and deeds of Muhammad, used to spplement the Qur'an. Unfortunately, the Hadith's accuracy and reliability is highly questionable.

Muslim Holy Sites & Holy Cities: Connecting Holiness, Politics, and Violence - How Have Holy Places in Islam Connected to Religious Violence, Division?
According to Hector Avalos, religions might preach peace, love, and harmony, but establishing a textual canon or sacred site which only some have privileged access to also establishes an illusory “scarcity” which causes people to fight. This is the intent of religious leaders, but it’s an inevitable outgrowth of their actions — and we can see this occurring in the context of Islam with its holy sites and cities: Mecca, Medina, the Dome of the Rock, Hebron, and so on.

Islam FAQ: Introduction and Methodology
Find out more about this Islam FAQ and some of the methodological assumptions which lie behind what has been written.

What is Islam? In Islam, Peace is Based on Submission & Surrender to God - But Peace and Justice Cannot Exist on the Basis of Submission & Surrender
Islam isn't just a title or name of a religion, it's also a word in Arabic which is rich in meaning and has many connections to other fundamental Islamic concepts. Understanding the concept of 'Islam,' or 'submission,' is critical to understanding the religion which derives its name from it - not only can it make critiques of Islam better informed, but there are in fact good reasons to critique and question Islam on the basis of the concept of submission to an authoritarian god.

Islamic Extremism - Jamaat-i-Islami
Origins of Islamic Extremism - Jamaat-i-Islami is an extreme Islamist organization in Pakistan, started by a man who pratically invented modern Islamism

Islamic Extremism - Jamaat Islamiyyah
Origins of Islamic Extremism - Jamaat Islamiyyah were Islamic student groups which used violence and intimidation to 'purify' university campuses.

What is Jihad?
The nature of jihad is hotly debated in the press and even among Muslim theologians. Many apologists for liberal and moderate Muslims in the West argue that jihad has nothing to do with violence, but history says something very different.

Islam and Islamic Extremism - Kharijites
Origins of Islamic Extremism - Kharijites are perhaps the original Islamic extremist group. Learn more about their vision of Islam and how they treated other Muslims.

Islamic Extremism - The Mahdi
Origins of Islamic Extremism - The Mahdi was an Islamic revolutionary who rose up against corruption at home and the supporting Western powers

Relationship Between Mosque and State
Learn about the complex relations between mosque and state in Islamic history. To what degree are the combined, and to what degree have they been opposed?

Who Was Muhammad?
Contrary to traditional Islamic history and assumptions, we don't know a great deal about Muhammad, what he did, or what he taught.

Nizari Islam
Nizari Islam is better known by another name: the assassins.

Evolution, Creationism, and Science: Basics
Evolution, Creationism, and Science: Basics. What is Evolution? Is it science? Is it a theory? Is it a fact? What is Creationism? Is creationism scientific? Just what is science, anyway, and what makes a theory scientific rather than unscientific?

Evolution FAQ
evolution faq

Evolution FAQ
evolution faq

Evolution FAQ - What are creationist 'kinds'?
Evolution FAQ - What are creationist 'kinds'?.: microevolution and macroevolution evolution faq different kinds of animals evolutionary scientists macro evolution

Bibliography - Evolution and Creationism
Evolution and Creationism FAQ: Bibliography: stephen jay gould burgess shale evolution faq evolution evolution blind watchmaker

Glossary - Evolution and Creationism
transfer rna, ribosomal rna, messenger rna, genetic message, organic compounds, amino acids, amino group, carboxyl group, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, heredity, chromosome, fungi, large group, nucleus, molecule, organisms, proteins, dna, segment

Evolution FAQ
Evolution FAQ: Creationism, Evolution and Society.

Philosophy FAQ: Philosophical Schools and Systems
Philosophy FAQ: Philosophical Schools and Systems - everything from modern Analytic Philosophy through ancient Hellenism is covered here.

Ethics FAQ: Selling Organs
Ethics FAQ: Selling Organs - should we be able to sell human organs? Would that lead to the exploitation of the poor?

Evolution and Creationism: Recent News, Recent Posts
Wondering about what has been going on in the world when it comes to evolution and creationism? There are regular new stories about the efforts of creationists to insert creationism or 'Intelligent Design' into public schools that teach evolution. How are they doing this and how does it affect others?

Separation of Chuch and State and the Constitution
Separation of Church and State: Myths and Misconceptions. What are some of the misunderstandings and myths which some people have about the separation of church and state with regards to the Constitution? Learn what church / state separation is really about.

Church / State Separation: Military Chaplains
Church / State Separation: Myths and Misconceptions. Is it true that chaplains in the military and Congress prove that there is no separation of church and state?

Religious Symbols, Religious Holidays
religious holidays, religious symbols

Religious Symbols, Religious Holidays
religious holidays, religious symbols

Separation of Church and State: FAQ
What is the separation of church and state? What are some common myths about separation? What are some important court decisions about separation? What does the Constitution say about the separation of church and state?

Jehovah's Witnesses: Public Evangelization
Jehovah's Witnesses and Religious Liberty - how Jehovah's Witnesses fought against restrictions on public evangelization and thus enhanced religious liberty

Jehovah's Witnesses and Religious Liberty
Jehovah's Witnesses and Religious Liberty - how the Jehovah's Witnesses fought against requirements to pledge to the flag, then enhance liberty for all.

Jehovah's Witnesses and Religious Liberty
Jehovah's Witnesses and Religious Liberty - how the Jehovah's Witnesses were persecuted when the government forced them to pledge to the flag.

Church / State Separation: Jehovah's Witnesses
A Christian group which was created by Charles Taze Russell (1852-1916 CE) in the late 19th Century, the Jehovah's Witnesses are a Protestant Christian denomination which have played an important role in the United States in the development of religious liberty for minoritiy groups.

Separation of Church and State: Recent News, Stories, and Articles
Separation of Church and State: Recent News, Stories, and Articles. Find out some of the latest news, latest stories, and latest articles relating to the separation of church and state.

Pledge of Allegiance, Under God - Recent News and Posts
Because of the words 'under God,' many regard the pledge not simply as an expression of patriotism, but also as an expression of religious piety. Furthermore, it has been used by many of these same people as evidence that this is a religious nation. Read about news and events relating to the Pledge of Allegiance and the court cases challenging it.

The Rise of the Theo-Libertarian State: Redefining Religious Freedom
The Rise of the Theo-Libertarian State: Redefining Religious Freedom. A libertarian government is one which doesn't infringe upon people's rights and actions unless absolutely necessary - for example, to prevent harm to others. If religious conservatives have their way and religious believers are exempt from general laws so long as those laws infringe upon religious beliefs and actions, wouldn't that effectively create a libertarian state? It would, however, be one based upon theological considerations - a theo-libertarian state.

Prayer and Pledge: Reactions
Prayer and Pledge - how have people reacted to the decisions to prohibit the government from encouraging religion?

News on the Ten Commandments and Judge Roy Moore
Curious about what has been happening in America involving the Ten Commandments? Here you will find news stories not just about Judge Roy Moore in Alabama, but legal cases taking place all over the United States as people sue to have Ten Commandments monuments, plaques, and posters moved from government property to private property.

Jerusalem: Dome of the Spirits
Located on the Temple Mount and close to the Dome of the Rock is the Dome of the Spirits, Aubbat el-Arwah. Underneath this dome is bare bedrock which, according to some, the original Holy of Holies of the Herodian and Solomonic Temples was located.

Images of Jerusalem: Gates of Jerusalem Gallery
The wall surrounding Jerusalem's Old City has 11 gates, seven of which are open: Jaffa, Zion, Dung, St. Stephen's (Lions'), Herod's, Damascus (Shechem) and New.

Gates of Jerusalem: Damascus Gate, 1927
Located on the northern side, Damascus Gate is the main gate into Jerusalem's Old City. It was constructed at the time of Suleiman the Magnificent, Ottoman Emperor. Many Jews call it Shechem Gate because the road it opens to leads first to Shechem and then Damascus.

Gates of Jerusalem: Golden Gate, Undated Photograph
The Golden Gate, which is unusual in that it is sealed so that no one can pass through it today, was originally built around 640 CE by either that last of the Byzantine rulers or the earliest Arab conquerors. Why is the gate sealed? Jewish tradition has it that the Messiah would enter Jerusalem via this gate when he comes, so Muslims during the reign of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) sealed this gate to keep him out.

Gates of Jerusalem: Golden Gate, Current Day
The Golden Gate, which is unusual in that it is sealed so that no one can pass through it today, was originally built around 640 CE by either that last of the Byzantine rulers or the earliest Arab conquerors. Why is the gate sealed? Jewish tradition has it that the Messiah would enter Jerusalem via this gate when he comes, so Muslims during the reign of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) sealed this gate to keep him out.

Gates of Jerusalem: Jaffa Gate, Undated Drawing
The Jaffa Gate was given this name because it is on the road that leads to the port city of Jaffa (Joppa). This is the only gate on the western side of Jerusalem's Old City and it was here that General Allenby entered Jerusalem in 1917.

Gates of Jerusalem: St. Stephen's Gate, 1927
St. Stephen's Gate is so named because, according to some traditions, St. Stephen was martyred near there. It has also been called Lion's Gate because of the four lions that decorate it on the outside. Finally, it has also been called St. Mary's Gate because the tomb of St. Mary is located just to the east of it in the Kidron Valley.

Gates of Jerusalem: Zion Gate, 1927
Located along the southern wall of the Old City, Zion Gate was built by Suleiman the Magnificent in 1540 CE. The name comes from the belief that the southern extension of the nearby hill was the biblical Mount Zion - an erroneous belief, in fact.

Gates of Jerusalem: Dung Gate
Where did the Dung Gate get its name from? There's no consensus on that. Some believe that it acquired this name by the fact that people typically took their trash and waste out through it, but there are other theories. It's also been called the Gate of the Moors because it was right by a neighborhood of immigrants from North Africa during the 16th century.

Gates of Jerusalem: Jaffa Gate Today
The Jaffa Gate was given this name because it is on the road that leads to the port city of Jaffa (Joppa). This is the only gate on the western side of Jerusalem's Old City and it was here that General Allenby entered Jerusalem in 1917.

Gates of Jerusalem: Tower Inside Jaffa Gate
This is a photo facing south at the large tower which stands just inside (to the east) of Jaffa Gate. You can see that the tower is made up of three sections: the bottom rises up out of a dry moat, the middle (below the windows) probably dates to the time of Herod and the top (with the windows) dates to the time of Suleiman the Magnificent, Ottoman Emperor.

Gates of Jerusalem: Golden Gate Today
The Golden Gate, which is unusual in that it is sealed so that no one can pass through it today, was originally built around 640 CE by either that last of the Byzantine rulers or the earliest Arab conquerors. In this photo you can see some of the many graves that surround the city walls of Jerusalem.

Gates of Jerusalem: Illustration of Jesus Entering Jerusalem through the Golden Gate
The Golden Gate, which is unusual in that it is sealed so that no one can pass through it today. Why is the gate sealed? Jewish tradition has it that the Messiah would enter Jerusalem via this gate when he comes, so Muslims during the reign of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) sealed this gate to keep him out. In this illustration, Jesus is depicted passing through the gate into Jerusalem, fulfilling that tradition..

The Garden of Gethsemane: Images of The Garden of Gethsemane in Jerusalem
One of the most famous places mentioned in the gospels may be the Garden of Gethsemane - according to Mark and Matthew, this was the place where Jesus prayed alone and asked that he not have to endure the suffering and crucifixion that was to come. It was also here that his betrayal by Judas and arrest occurred. A couple of sites today claim to be the location of the Garden of Gethsemane, but as none can be traced back earlier than the 4th century, the veracity of their claims is dubious.

Garden of Gethsemane Image, 1920s: Images of Jerusalem and the Garden of Gethsemane
Gethsemane is a Greek form of the Hebrew phrase for 'oil press' (gat shemanim). Mark and Matthew describe a 'place' called Gethsemane located near the Mount of Olives. John describes Jesus' betrayal as occurring in a 'garden' located across the Kidron valley east of Jerusalem and thus on the western slope of the Mount of Olives. Christians have ever since sought out a 'Garden of Gethsemane' east of Jerusalem and on the Mount of Olives (Hebrew: Har ha-Zetim).

Garden of Gethsemane Image, 1898: Images of Jerusalem and the Garden of Gethsemane
The Garden of Gethsemane is closely associated with olive-growing because of the ancient olive trees that are still located there. There are, to be specific, eight ancient trees, each between six and eight meters in circumference. There are also numerous plots and pots of flowers.

Garden of Gethsemane, Undated Image: Images of Jerusalem and the Garden of Gethsemane
This photograph shows a monk next to one of the oldest olive trees in the Garden of Gethsemane. This site is currently under the control of Franciscan monks and the olives from the oldest tree at the site are regularly sent to the pope in Rome. It is thought that there are trees here that may be almost as old as 2,000 years.

Garden of Gethsemane, Undated Image: Images of Jerusalem and the Garden of Gethsemane
In this photo you can see the Garden of Gethsemane in the foreground and the wall of Jerusalem in the background. This is where the eastern wall ends and turns north; to the right and out of the photo would be the Golden Gate. The area around the Mount of Olives is pretty desolate today; in ancient times, though, it was probably heavily wooded with olive trees. The Mount of Olives has also been a traditional site for messianic expectations.

Garden of Gethsemane Image, 1943: Images of Jerusalem and the Garden of Gethsemane
In this photograph with the olive tree and monk in the foreground, it's possible to see the walls of Jerusalem in the background. To the left you can also see the Golden Gate. It is thought that when Jesus entered Jerusalem, he entered by the Golden Gate. Before it was sealed by the Turks, this was the gate used by people coming along the roads from Bethany and Jericho.

Garden of Gethsemane Image, 1893: Images of Jerusalem and the Garden of Gethsemane
Although today the Garden of Gethsemane is arranged in a decorative manner, 2,000 years ago the area would have been an agricultural area dedicated to the growing of olives for pressing into olive oil. Heavy stone slabs would have been used to crush the olives. The oils squeezed out would run into a pit and then later collected into clay jars.

Images of Jerusalem: Maps and Diagrams
Learn more about Jerusalem through viewing maps and diagrams of the city and its buildings through ages: Jerusalem Old City, Solomon's Temple, and more.

Jerusalem:Map of Solomon's Temple
Although it was first destroyed in 586 BCE and then again in 70 CE, many traditional Jews continue to pray three times each day for the reconstruction of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem. From the time it was constructed around 1000 BCE, it was the focal point of Jewish religious practice and was the site of many, many ritual animal sacrifices.

Jerusalem During Solomon's Reign
Solomon's best known accomplishment, aside perhaps from his numerous political marriages, is the construction of the first Jewish Temple around 1000 BCE (it would be destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 BCE). This concentrated religious practice and authority in Jerusalem, a parallel to his policy of concentrating political and military in his own hands.

Geography & History of a Holy City: Map of Jerusalem's Old City and the Creation of Illusory Scarcity[R]
Jerusalem is one of the most important cities in the world - not because it controls access to any vital minerals, oil, precious metals, or anything else of intrinsic value. Intead, it controls access to something that exists wholly in the minds of human beings and is sustained solely by the activity of religious organizations: access to holy sites and 'holiness' itself. This is why Jerusalem is the central focus of so much religious violence - either as the location where the violence occurs, or the starting point from which violence is launched.

Jerusalem: Detail of Map of Solomon's Kingdom
Here you can see the region around Jerusalem around the era of Solomon's reign, about 1000 BCE. At this time then northern and southern portions of Israel were still united and the nation was relatively strong in comparison to its neighbors.

Jerusalem: Map of the Palestine Region, c. 30 CE
Here you can see the area around Jerusalem around the time Jesus is believed to have lived, about 30 CE. At this point there are several political divisions in the region: Judaea, Samaria, and Galilee.

Images of Jerusalem: Church of the Holy Sepulcher
Also referred to as the Church of the Resurrection by Greek Orthodox Christians, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is treated by many as the holiest site in all of Christendom. According to tradition Jesus was crucified outside the walls of Jerusalem's Old City and then buried in a nearby garden. This church, built by Constantine the Great's mother Helena when she visited in 326 CE, is supposedly located on the site of that crucifixion.

Jerusalem: Church of the Holy Sepulcher, 1927 (entrance)
Also referred to as the Church of the Resurrection by Greek Orthodox Christians, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is treated by many as the holiest site in all of Christendom. Notice that in the entrance on door is open while the other is sealed. This is due to a decree from Saladin to cut down on the number of pilgrims. The keys to the open door were entrusted to the Muslim family Al-Ghodayya (today known as the Joudeh family).

Jerusalem: Church of the Holy Sepulcher, 1927 (interior)
Also referred to as the Church of the Resurrection by Greek Orthodox Christians, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is treated by many as the holiest site in all of Christendom. This wide exterior shot provides an indication of just how large the church is. Keep in mind that an average adult is less than half as tall as the doors down below.

Jerusalem: Church of the Holy Sepulcher, 1927 (interior)
Also referred to as the Church of the Resurrection by Greek Orthodox Christians, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is treated by many as the holiest site in all of Christendom. According to tradition Jesus was crucified outside the walls of Jerusalem's Old City and then buried in a nearby garden. This church, built by Constantine the Great's mother Helena when she visited in 326 CE, is supposedly located on the site of that crucifixion.

Jerusalem: Church of the Holy Sepulcher, Today (interior)
Also referred to as the Church of the Resurrection by Greek Orthodox Christians, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is treated by many as the holiest site in all of Christendom. Here we have a photo of a woman prostrate over The Holy Anointing. According to tradition there is a rock here, dressed with marble, where Jesus' body was placed after being removed from the cross. Joseph of Arimathaea and Nicodemus anointed his body with myrrh and aloes, then wrapped it in a linen cloth for the burial.

Jerusalem: Church of the Holy Sepulcher - Diagram
Also referred to as the Church of the Resurrection by Greek Orthodox Christians, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is treated by many as the holiest site in all of Christendom. Here we can see a long line of people waiting to get into the Holy Sepulcher itself - this is very common, especially during Holy Season.

Jerusalem: Church of the Holy Sepulcher - Exterior
Also referred to as the Church of the Resurrection by Greek Orthodox Christians, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is treated by many as the holiest site in all of Christendom. These diagrams provide some structural context for the church and the Sepulcher. You can see the relatively size of the Sepulcher to the rest of the church, for example.

Images of Jerusalem: The Temple Mount Image Gallery
The Temple Mount in Jerusalem (known to Muslims as the Noble Sanctuary) is perhaps the most famous and most contested piece of religious real estate in the world. The Temple Mount where many believe that Cain murdered Abel (ironically enough, it was in a dispute who would own the location, according to one Jewish tradition). Many Jews believe that Abraham nearly sacrificed Isaac here. The Temple Mount is where many believe that King David first erected an altar to God. It's where both Solomon and Herod built massive temples. It's where Muslims believe that Muhammad ascended to heaven and where the Dome of the Rock, one of Islam's holiest sites, currently stands.

Images of Jerusalem: Arch of Titus (in Rome)
The Arch of Titus is located on the highest point of the Via Sacra, a road leading to the Roman Forum. This arch commemorates Titus' victorious conquest of Judaea, ending the Jewish wars and leading the sacking of Jerusalem. The arch was constructed after Titus's death in 81 CE and, hence, after his becoming a god.

Jerusalem: Arch of Titus (in Rome), 1943
The Arch of Titus is located on the highest point of the Via Sacra, a road leading to the Roman Forum. This arch commemorates Titus' victorious conquest of Judaea, ending the Jewish wars and leading the sacking of Jerusalem. The arch was constructed after Titus's death in 81 CE and, hence, after his becoming a god.

Arch of Titus Detail: Inscription
Here we can see the primary inscription on the attic of the Arch of Titus. The Latin reads: Senatus Populusque Romanus Divo Tito Divi Vespasiani Filio Vespasiano Augusto

Arch of Titus Relief: The Triumph of Titus
This relief on the Arch of Titus shows Titus himself participating in the triumphal procession, riding a chariot and accompanied by allegorical figures: winged Victory, a goddess leading the horses, and the Genius of the People.

Arch of Titus Relief: The Spoils of the Jerusalem
This relief is an image of the Romans' triumphal procession, returning with spoils from the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. Especiallyl prominent is the sacred Menorah, but we can also see the Table of the Shewbread at an angle and the silver trumpets which called Jews to Rosh Hashanah.

Images of Jerusalem: Tombs in and around Jerusalem
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Because of its age, there are naturally a lot of tombs in the area - including tombs of famous individual (or at least their alleged tombs). Around Jerusalem there are many sites where pilgrims go to be near what they believe to be the final resting spots of martyrs and other important religious figures.

Jerusalem: Tomb of Absalom
The Tomb of Absalom is on the east side of the Kidron Valley, on the lower (western) slope of the Mount of Olives and north of the Tomb of the Sons of Hezir. Despite the name, this tomb is not from the days of David's son Absalom. Experts believe that it comes from some time during the 1st century BCE.

Jerusalem: Tombs of Absalom, Zechariah, and the Sons of Hezir
With a view to the east, we are looking at the most complex group of Second Temple tombs located in the Kidron Valley. All can be found on the lower (western) slope of the Mount of Olives. From left to right (north to south): the Tomb of Absalom, the Tomb of the Sons of Hezir, and the Tomb of Zechariah. The structure to the right of the Tomb of Zechariah is an unnamed tomb.

Jerusalem: Tombs of Zechariah and the Sons of Hezir
Looking east at the Mount of Olives we can see here the most complex tomb structures in the Kidron Valley. From left to right (north to south): the Tomb of the Sons of Hezir, and the Tomb of Zechariah. The structure to the right of the Tomb of Zechariah is an unnamed tomb.

Jerusalem: Tomb of the Virgin Mary, 1927
At the foot of the Mount of Olives lies the tomb of the Virgin Mary; built over top is the Church of the Assumption. According to Catholic doctrine Mary was taken from here directly into heaven because she was sinless.

Jerusalem: Entrance to the Tomb of the Virgin Mary
At the foot of the Mount of Olives lies the tomb of the Virgin Mary; built over top is the Church of the Assumption. According to Catholic doctrine Mary was taken from here directly into heaven because she was sinless.

Images of Jerusalem: The Wailing Wall Image Gallery
The Wailing Wall (also: Western Wall), located in Jerusalem, is considered by both Jews and Muslims as a significant and holy site. For the Jews, it is one of the last remaining portions of the ancient Temple of Solomon (an outer wall, in fact). The original length is estimated to have been around 485 meters; today what remains is just 60 meters long.

Jerusalem: Wailing Wall, Today
The Wailing Wall, located in Jerusalem, is considered by both Jews and Muslims as a significant and holy site. In the middle is a fence (mechitza) separating men from women - Orthodox Jewish men don't believe that it is acceptable to pray right alongside women. Men, of course, are given the much larger area for prayers.

Jerusalem: Wailing Wall, 1927
The Wailing Wall, located in Jerusalem, is considered by both Jews and Muslims as a significant and holy site. In this image we have several women standing up against the wall, praying. Today there is a fence (mechitza) separating men from women - Orthodox Jewish men don't believe that it is acceptable to pray right alongside women. Men, of course, are given the much larger area for prayers.

Jerusalem: Wailing Wall, 1927
The Wailing Wall, located in Jerusalem, is considered by both Jews and Muslims as a significant and holy site. This photo depicts several men standing up against the wall, praying. Because the photo was taken in 1927, it was well before there was any sort of Jewish state.

Jerusalem: Wailing Wall Beneath the Dome of the Rock
The Wailing Wall, located in Jerusalem, is considered by both Jews and Muslims as a significant and holy site. In the upper-middle portion of this photo you can just see a bit of the Dome of the Rock, one of the holiest sites for Muslims. This helps show just how close Muslims and Jews are when they are worshipping in Jerusalem. The size of the people here also provides context for how large the wall still is - and it's just a small portion of what was once here.

Jerusalem: Wailing Wall
The Wailing Wall, located in Jerusalem, is considered by both Jews and Muslims as a significant and holy site. For the Jews, it is one of the last remaining portions of the ancient Temple of Solomon (an outer wall, in fact). The original length is estimated to have been around 485 meters; today what remains is just 60 meters long.

Jerusalem: Wailing Wall, undated photograph
The Wailing Wall, located in Jerusalem, is considered by both Jews and Muslims as a significant and holy site. For the Jews, it is one of the last remaining portions of the ancient Temple of Solomon (an outer wall, in fact). The original length is estimated to have been around 485 meters; today what remains is just 60 meters long.

Jerusalem: Wailing Wall, undated photograph
The Wailing Wall, located in Jerusalem, is considered by both Jews and Muslims as a significant and holy site. The angle and distance from which this photo was taken helps emphasize just how small a person is when standing against the wall - a recipe for inculcating feelings of humility.

Images of Jerusalem: Cities of the Crusades
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Common referred to as Zion or the City of David (the Jewish leader recorded as having claimed it for the Jews), there is no consensus on the origin of the name.

Nietzsche vs. Gibson: Suffering, Debt, and Guilt
Mel Gibson's movie 'The Passion' is almost entirely concerned with Jesus' suffering and death - even to the exclusion of Jesus' ministry and resurrection. What does this say about Gibson's theology and Christianity in general? Nietsche labeled such obsession a 'mental cruelty' and an 'insanity of will' - find out why and what Nietzsche thought about this sort of Christian passion.

Future of a Second Bush Presidency: Questions about Church and State
There are, however, quite a few questions about what a second term for President George W. Bush would mean for people, especially when it comes to issues like the separation of church and state. Unfortunately, the outlook for separation and religious liberty under a second Bush presidency is very poor.

(Former) Democratic Presidential Candidates on Church & State
Where do the various (former) Democratic candidates for the 2004 presidential election stand on the separation of church and state? What do they think about faith-based initiatives, religious discrimination, government endorsement of the Ten Commandments, and related matters? Read original quotes and some commentary.

Rhodes Fortress, 1915: Cities of the Crusades
Christianity was introduced to Rhodes by Paul and the island was incorporated into the Byzantine empire in 297 CE. Throughout the Byzantine period Rhodes was attacked by various sides, both Muslim and Christian. Muawiyah I raided Rhodes in 653, taking away the remaining pieces of the Colossus to sell as scrap metal, and he finally occupied the island in 672.

Rhodes Fortress Entrance, 1915: Cities of the Crusades
Byzantine rule on Rhodes was finally ended in 1309 - not by Muslims but by the Knights Hospitaller who had been forced to flee the mainland. They renamed themselves the Knights of Rhodes, expanded and island's fortifications, and used it as a base of operations for Christian attacks on Muslim territory in the Holy Land.

Rhodes - Castle Lindos, 1915: Cities of the Crusades
The Knights Hospitaller renamed themselves the Knights of Rhodes, expanded and island's fortifications, and used it as a base of operations for Christian attacks on Muslim territory in the Holy Land. The Hospitallers were able to turn back Muslim attacks in 1444 and 1480, but Suleiman the Magnificent was able to capture the island in 1523. Those who survived the attack were permitted to move their base of operations to Malta, where they renamed themselves the Knights of Malta.

Richard the Lionheart: Illustrations, Drawings, Woodcuts
Richard I Lionheart of England was born to King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Richard would be one of the leaders of the Third Crusade with Philip II Augustus of France in 1187. As king Richard would only spend a small amount of time in England, leaving the administration of his kingdom to various appointed officials. He was not very concerned about England and didn't even learn much English - he was much more concerned with protecting his possessions in France and making a name for himself that would last through the ages.

Cities, Sites, and Places of the Crusades: Illustrations, Drawings, Woodcuts
The Crusades were religious, military, political, and commercial expeditions against both rival religions and rival Christian groups. They helped European society define itself and they laid the groundwork for end of feudalism. The relationship between Christianity and Islam was permanently altered and the Crusades continue through this day to influence how Islam sees the West.

Safed: Cities of the Crusades
Currently located in northern Israel in the mountains of Galilee, Safed (Safed, Zefat, Tsfat, Zfat, Safad, Safes, Safet, Tzfat) is regarded by Jews as one of the four holy cities of Israel (along with Jerusalem, Hebron, and Tiberias). A fortress here was once occupied by Crusaders but it surrendered to Saladin in 1188.

Knights Templar Gallery: Illustrations, Drawings, Woodcuts
Hugues de Payens founded the Order of Knights Templar in Jerusalem. The name came from the fact that their headquarters was on the site of Solomon's Temple.

Teutonic Knights Gallery: Illustrations, Drawings, Woodcuts
Originally based in Acre, the Teutonic Knights was a crusading order of knights created in in 1190 for the purpose of give medical aid to pilgrims to the holy places. Although they did not originally have a military mission, the need for more combattants against the Muslims forced them to re-organize along military lines in 1198 and adopt the title Ritter, or Knight. They wore a white uniform with a black cross.

Dating Easter: Religious Origins and Background
Although the dating of Easter is a little complicated, it still seems like it should be a rather straightforward process. Appearances can be deceiving, however - because this date is supposed to commemorate the resurrection of Jesus Christ, Christians have always placed a high emphasis on getting it right...

Gambling and Christianity: Is Gambling a Sin? is Christianity a Gamble?
Is gambling a sin for Christians? There's a lot of debate about this question in Christian circles, and not all Christians agree on whether there is something wrong with gambling in itself or if it is only a problem when done to excess. The answers to this question carry interesting implications for Christianity as a whole.

Images of Jerusalem: Churches in and around Jerusalem
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Because of this, it naturally has a great many religious structures - including a lot of churches. Nearly every denomination of Christianity has some sort of presence in Jerusalem and those that have been around the longest have the most visible presence: large, ornate churches of great antiquity, some going back thousands of years.

Jerusalem: Church of the Nativity
Jerusalem is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Because of this, it naturally has a great many religious structures - including a lot of churches. The Church of the Nativity is one of the oldest continually operated churches in the world. Constantine I ordered the original church built by Bishop Makarios of Jerusalem after the First Council of Nicaea in 325, but that burned down in 529.

Jerusalem: Church of the Ascension
Located on the Mount of Olives, the Church of the Ascension was built because of a local tradition that Jesus ascended to heaven following the crucifixion from this spot.People believe that his footprints are imprinted in the stone floor of the chapel. Crusader rebuilt it as an octagonal chapel, but after Jerusaelm fell to Saladin it was transformed into a mosque.

Jerusalem: Tomb of the Virgin Mary, 1927
At the foot of the Mount of Olives lies the tomb of the Virgin Mary; built over top is the Church of the Assumption. According to Catholic doctrine Mary was taken from here directly into heaven because she was sinless.

Jerusalem: Entrance to the Tomb of the Virgin Mary
At the foot of the Mount of Olives lies the tomb of the Virgin Mary; built over top is the Church of the Assumption. According to Catholic doctrine Mary was taken from here directly into heaven because she was sinless.

Jerusalem: Church of St. Mary Magdalene
The Church of St. Mary Magdalene is a Russian Orthodox Church built on the slopes of the Moutn of Olives. It was constructed by Alexander III of Russia in 1888 and he dedicated it to his mother, Maria. Buried inside is Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna, wife of the Czar's brother Sergei, sister of the Czar's wife Alexandra, and granddaughter of English Queen Elizabeth I. Elizabeth, living in a convent at the time, was killed when the Bolshevik's took over Russian in 1917 and she is now a saint.

Jerusalem: Unknown Church (can anyone help?)
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Because of this, it naturally has a great many religious structures - including a lot of churches. Nearly every denomination of Christianity has some sort of presence in Jerusalem and those that have been around the longest have the most visible presence: large, ornate churches of great antiquity, some going back thousands of years. I don't know what church this is, though.

Images of Jerusalem: David's Citadel Gallery
Located right by Jaffa Gate on the western side of the city and one of the most prominent landmarks in Jerusalem aside from the Temple Mount is the Citadel, often called David's Citadel and David's Tower. These names are erroneous because David didn't have anything to do with them. The cylindrical tower was built during the 16th century and the square tower dates back to Herod. Today the site is a museum that teaches about the history of Jerusalem's Old City.

Jerusalem: David's Citadel & Tower
Located right by Jaffa Gate on the western side of the city and one of the most prominent landmarks in Jerusalem aside from the Temple Mount is the Citadel. In this photo we can see the Citadel's tower and some of the fortification from a little bit of distance outside the city.

Jerusalem: David's Tower
Located right by Jaffa Gate on the western side of the city and one of the most prominent landmarks in Jerusalem aside from the Temple Mount is the Citadel. In this photo we are looking at the so-called David's Tower through a stone arch.

Jerusalem: Citadel - Crusader Fortifications
Located right by Jaffa Gate on the western side of the city and one of the most prominent landmarks in Jerusalem aside from the Temple Mount is the Citadel. In this photo we can see some of the large fortifications added by soldiers of the First Crusade. On the left tower are over-hanging turrets (bartizans), with three facing us. From openings on the bottoms, defenders could pour nasty things down upon attackers.

Images of Jerusalem: Pictures of the City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Common referred to as Zion or the City of David (the Jewish leader recorded as having claimed it for the Jews), there is no consensus on the origin of the name.

Jerusalem: Jerusalem Today
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. This photo shows us the Temple Mount area. The Dome of the Rock is to the left. The smaller dome in the middle is the Al Aqsa Mosque.

Jerusalem: Jerusalem from the air, 1918
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In this aerial shot you can see the Dome of the Rock as the dark spot in the middle the Temple Mount, the large area in the upper right of the city. The Al Aqsa Mosque is in the lower right of the Temple area.

Jerusalem: Jerusalem in the 1920s
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Common referred to as Zion or the City of David (the Jewish leader recorded as having claimed it for the Jews), there is no consensus on the origin of the name.

Jerusalem: Jerusalem Street, 1927
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In this shot of a Jerusalem city street we can get a feeling for just how ancient the city is - many areas appear untouched by time and look much as they must have hundred or thousands of years ago.

Jerusalem: Via Dolorosa, 1927
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. This image depicts people praying along the Via Dolorosa, the 'way of sorrows.' One of the major streets cutting through Jerusalem, it runs from the Lion's Gate where people believe that Jesus appeared before Pontius Pilate and ends at the Church of the Holy Sepulcher where people believe Jesus was crucified and resurrected.

Jerusalem: Washing of the Feet
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. This ceremony, featuring the Greek Orthodox Patriarch in 1918, is common to Holy Thursday celebrations. It commemorates when Jesus' feet were washed prior to his crucifixion.

Jerusalem: Solomon's Temple (undated drawing)
Jerusalem is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. By the end of Solomon's reign the northern ten tribes of Israel split off and formed their own Kingdom. Jerusalem remained the capital of the Kingdom of Judah in the south, even after Israel itself was conquered by the Assyrians. Only in 598 BCE was the city overrun by the Babylonians. This drawing shows what Solomon's Temple might have looked like.

Jerusalem: Gethsemane & the Mount of Olives
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In this photo we can see large crowds of people visiting the Gethsemane and Mount of Olives area outside of Jersusalem.

Jerusalem: Model of the Ancient City
Jerusalem is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. By the end of Solomon's reign the northern ten tribes of Israel split off and formed their own Kingdom. Jerusalem remained the capital of the Kingdom of Judah in the south, even after Israel itself was conquered by the Assyrians. Only in 598 BCE was the city overrun by the Babylonians. This model shows what ancient Jerusalem might have looked like - notice Solomon's Temple in the upper right.

Jerusalem: City Today, with the Dome of the Rock and the City Wall
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. This photo of the city features the Temple Mount area. You can see the Dome of the Rock here and a portion of the Jerusalem city wall.

Jerusalem: East Wall, Below the Dome of the Rock
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In this photo we can see people outside the Jerusalem city wall, close to the Dome of the Rock (which is not visible here).

Jerusalem: City Street, with Donkey
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Here we see someone using a donkey - this is quite common because Jerusalem streets are so narrow that donkey can be a good means for travel or for transporting goods, just as has been done for thousands of years.

Jerusalem: Narrow City Street
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Common referred to as Zion or the City of David (the Jewish leader recorded as having claimed it for the Jews), there is no consensus on the origin of the name.

Jerusalem: City Steps and Street, with Donkey
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Here we see someone using a donkey - this is quite common because Jerusalem streets are so narrow that donkey can be a good means for travel or for transporting goods, just as has been done for thousands of years.

Jerusalem: Dome of the Rock above the Golden Gate
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In this photograph we can see both the Dome of the Rock and the Golden Gate through which some Jews expect the messiah to pass upon entering Jerusalem (which is why Muslim rulers had it sealed. Most images of these sites don't reveal how close they are to each other.

Jerusalem: Dome of the Rock and the Wailing Wall
Jerusalem (Hebrew: Yerushalayim, Arabic: al-Quds) is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In this photo we can see the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount rising above the Wailing Wall below. The Wailing Wall is the Western Wall of the Temple platform and all that remains of the original Jewish temples.

Jerusalem: House of Caiaphas
Tradition has it that this was the House of Caiaphas. Josephus writes that Caiaphas was made High Priest of the Jews by the Roman procurator Valerius Gratus, predecessor of Pontius Pilate, around 18 CE. The New Testament refers to Caiaphas a number of times, in particular as being responsible for the capture and execution of Jesus.

Images of Jerusalem: Dome of the Rock
Constructed in Jerusalem around 691 CE by Umayyad Dynasty, the Dome of the Rock has become the third holiest site for Muslim pilgrimage, after Mecca and Medina. It is probably the oldest surviving example of early Islamic architecture and is modeled after the Christian Church of the Holy Sepulcher, which is located nearby.

Jerusalem: Dome of the Rock, Current Day
Constructed in Jerusalem around 691 CE by Umayyad Dynasty, the Dome of the Rock has become the third holiest site for Muslim pilgrimage, after Mecca and Medina. It is probably the oldest surviving example of early Islamic architecture and is modeled after the Christian Church of the Holy Sepulcher, which is located nearby.

Jerusalem: Dome of the Rock, Current Day
The Dome of the Rock is a Muslim shrine which stands on raised bedrock which is traditionally believed to be the place where the first Jewish temple was built. In the foreground of this photo we can see the el-Kas fountain where a couple of Muslims are performing ablutions prior to prayers within the mosque.

Jerusalem: Dome of the Rock, 1927
Constructed in Jerusalem around 691 CE by Umayyad Dynasty, the Dome of the Rock has become the third holiest site for Muslim pilgrimage, after Mecca and Medina. It is probably the oldest surviving example of early Islamic architecture and is modeled after the Christian Church of the Holy Sepulcher, which is located nearby.

Jerusalem: Dome of the Rock, undated drawing
The Dome of the Rock is a Muslim shrine which stands on raised bedrock which is traditionally believed to be the place where the first Jewish temple was built. In the foreground of this photo we can see the el-Kas fountain where Muslims wash prior to prayers within the mosque. Today the el-Kas fountain is surrounded by a green fence, absent in this older image.

Jerusalem: Dome of the Rock
Constructed in Jerusalem around 691 CE by Umayyad Dynasty, the Dome of the Rock has become the third holiest site for Muslim pilgrimage, after Mecca and Medina. It is probably the oldest surviving example of early Islamic architecture and is modeled after the Christian Church of the Holy Sepulcher, which is located nearby.

Jerusalem: Dome of the Rock
The Dome of the Rock is a Muslim shrine which stands on raised bedrock which is traditionally believed to be the place where the first Jewish temple was built. In the foreground of this photo we can see the el-Kas fountain which is connected to one of the largest of 49 cisterns underneath the Temple Mount area. Muslims come here to wash themselves prior to prayers within the mosque.

Jerusalem: Dome of the Rock
Constructed in Jerusalem around 691 CE by Umayyad Dynasty, the Dome of the Rock has become the third holiest site for Muslim pilgrimage, after Mecca and Medina. It is probably the oldest surviving example of early Islamic architecture and is modeled after the Christian Church of the Holy Sepulcher, which is located nearby.

Jerusalem: Dome of the Rock
The Dome of the Rock is a Muslim shrine which stands on raised bedrock which is traditionally believed to be the place where the first Jewish temple was built. This photo was shot facing the northwest and through the arches of the arcade - one of seven leading up to the raised platform where the Dome of the Rock stands. All except one are at ninety degree angles to the wall to which they are attached.

Jerusalem: Dome of the Rock, Interior
The Dome of the Rock is a Muslim shrine which stands on raised bedrock which is traditionally believed to be the place where the first Jewish temple was built. In this photo we can see a wide shot of the whole interior of the mosque.

Jerusalem: Dome of the Rock, Interior
The Dome of the Rock is a Muslim shrine which stands on raised bedrock which is traditionally believed to be the place where the first Jewish temple was built. In this photo we can see the inside of the dome itself, looking up.

Peter the Hermit Addresses a Crowd: Peasant's Crusade Gallery
In 1096 Peter the Hermit, a native of Amiens in France, led 20,000 commoners out of Cologne on the Peasants' Crusade. When they arrived in Constantinople they are so decimated by hunger and disease that they caused a great deal of trouble. Made up of poorly organized groups led by Peter the Hermit and Walter the Pennyless, the Peasants' Crusade pillaged Asia Minor but meet with a very messy end.

Peter the Hermit Kneels Before Pope Urban II: Peasant's Crusade Gallery
In 1096 Peter the Hermit, a native of Amiens in France, led 20,000 commoners out of Cologne on the Peasants' Crusade. Made up of poorly organized groups led by Peter the Hermit and Walter the Pennyless, the Peasants' Crusade was not an official response to Constantinople's request for aid against the Muslims. It was, instead, a popular religious uprising that led to the deaths of most of those involved.

Peter the Hermit with the Patriarch of Jerusalem: Peasant's Crusade Gallery
In 1096 Peter the Hermit, a native of Amiens in France, led 20,000 commoners out of Cologne on the Peasants' Crusade. Made up of poorly organized groups led by Peter the Hermit and Walter the Pennyless, the Peasants' Crusade never actually made it to Jerusalem. Most died and later, in 1098, Tancred found Peter the Hermit attempting to flee to Constantinople. Tancred made sure that Peter returned to continue the fight.

Roland Fights at Roncevalles: Roland of Breton Gallery
In 778 Charlemagne, King of the Franks and soon-to-be Holy Roman Emperor, was invited by a group of Arab leaders in Spain to attack Abd al-Rahman I, ruler of Cordova. Charlemagne obliged, but was forced to retreat after only getting to Saragossa. During his march back through the Pyrenees his forces were set upon by Basques. Among the many who died was Roland from Breton, killed in Roncevalles. His memory has been preserved in the Chanson de Roland, an important epic poem during the Middle Ages.

Roland Sounds His Horn, Olifant: Roland of Breton Gallery
This image, from 1902, was created by Louis Guesnet and engraved by A. Closs. According to the epic Chanson de Roland, Roland's friend Oliver tells him to blow his horn Olifant to summon aid, but Roland's code of honour obliges him to keep Charlemagne safe and fight on despite being outnumbered. Roland eventually blows his horn, but it is too late because the Franks have all been massacred. In his final act Roland kills the last remaining Muslims before succumbing to his wounds.

Roland Sounds His Horn, Olifant (color): Roland of Breton Gallery
This color image depicts Roland sounding his horn. According to the epic Chanson de Roland, Roland's friend Oliver tells him to blow his horn Olifant to summon aid, but Roland's code of honour obliges him to keep Charlemagne safe and fight on despite being outnumbered. Roland eventually blows his horn, but it is too late because the Franks have all been massacred. In his final act Roland kills the last remaining Muslims before succumbing to his wounds.

Roland Memorial and Statue in Bremen, Germany (front): Roland of Breton Gallery
This picture shows the Roland statue from the front. Created in 1404, this memorial and statue in the Bremen market place commemorates the death of Roland who was killed at Roncevalles by Muslim and Basque forces attacking the rear-guard of Charlemagne's army. At 5.55m tall, it is one of the largest such statues in Germany and he was chosen because in the Middle Ages many cities regarded Roland as a symbol of freedom and justice.

Roland Memorial and Statue in Bremen, Germany (side): Roland of Breton Gallery
This picture shows the Roland statue from the side. Created in 1404, this memorial and statue in the Bremen market place commemorates the death of Roland who was killed at Roncevalles by Muslim and Basque forces attacking the rear-guard of Charlemagne's army. At 5.55m tall, it is one of the largest such statues in Germany and he was chosen because in the Middle Ages many cities regarded Roland as a symbol of freedom and justice.

Richard the Lionheart: Richard the Lionheart Gallery
Richard I Lionheart of England was born to King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Richard would be one of the leaders of the Third Crusade with Philip II Augustus of France in 1187. As king Richard would only spend a small amount of time in England, leaving the administration of his kingdom to various appointed officials. He was not very concerned about England and didn't even learn much English - he was much more concerned with protecting his possessions in France and making a name for himself that would last through the ages.

Isaac Comnenus of Cyprus Begs for the Release of this Daughter: Richard the Lionheart Gallery
Isaac Comnenus, a great-nephew of Manuel I, established an independent kingdom in Cyprus in 1184. Richard the Lionheart arrived in 1191 and conquered the island because Isaac had refused to allow his future wife, blown there during a storm, to come ashore for water. The crew of one ship that wrecked had also imprisoned. Richard demanded the release of all prisoners and all stolen treasure, but Isaac refused - to his later regret.

Richard Lionheart Lands in Cyrpus: Richard the Lionheart Gallery
Richard the Lionheart arrived in Cyprus in 1191 and conquered the island because saac Comnenus had refused to allow his future wife, blown there during a storm, to come ashore for water. Richard landed with heavy troops at Lemesos (now Limassol) in Cyprus and proceeded to scatter the Cypriot forces.

Richard Lionheart Comes Ashore at Limassol, Cyprus: Richard the Lionheart Gallery
Richard the Lionheart arrived in Cyprus in 1191 and conquered the island because saac Comnenus had refused to allow his future wife, blown there during a storm, to come ashore for water. Richard landed with heavy troops at Lemesos (now Limassol) in Cyprus and proceeded to scatter the Cypriot forces.

Richard Lionheart With Muslim Prisoners at Acre: Richard the Lionheart Gallery
Richard the Lionheart's tactical skills and military training made a huge difference in the Crusaders' capture of Acre in 1191. Richard marched 2,700 Muslim soldiers out of Acre, onto the road of Nazareth in front of the forward positions of the Muslim army, and had them executed one by one. Saladin had for more than a month delayed fulfilling his side of the agreement that had led to the surrender of Acre and Richard meant this as a warning of what would happen if delays continued.

Richard Lionheart Fighting Near Jaffa: Richard the Lionheart Gallery
In the Battle of Arsuf, Richard I the Lion Heart and Hugh, Duke of Burgundy, were ambushed by Saladin in Arsuf, a small town near Jaffa about 50 miles from Jerusalem. Richard had prepared for this, though, and the Muslim forces were defeated.

Richard Lionheart Fighting at Ascalon: Richard the Lionheart Gallery
In 1192, after deciding that a siege of Jerusalem during the winter weather would be unwise, Richard the Lionheart's Crusading forces moved into the ruined city of Ascalon, demolished by Saladin the previous year in order to deny it to the Crusaders.

Richard Lionheart With Saladin: Richard the Lionheart Gallery
During the Crusaders' siege of Acre, Richard the Lionheart fell seriously ill. Distressed at this Saladin offered to come with his own doctors to help him, but Richard declined. In reality the two leaders never met personally, despite the scene depicted in this illustration.

Richard Lionheart Captured: Richard the Lionheart Gallery
After he negotiated the Treaty of Jaffa with Saladin and secured the right of Christian pilgrims are granted special rights of travel around Palestine and in Jerusalem, Richard the Lionheart departed from home in 1192 - but he had made many enemies. He was shipwrecked, captured, and given to German Emperor Henry VI. His 150,000-mark ransom was raised through heavy taxes in England.

Richard Lionheart Dying: Richard the Lionheart Gallery
One of the leaders of the Third Crusade, Richard I Lionheart, king of England, died in 1199 from the effects of an arrow wound received during the siege of Chalus in France. This image of Richard dying has a castle in the background with what look like an Islamic minaret - if that was the illustrator's intention, it is an error.