Agnosticism/Atheism Sitemap - Page 46 2014-12-17

Religion in Lebanon - Protestants
islam faq roman catholicism religion around the world congress country studies flag of lebanon: Religion in Lebanon: Protestants.

Religion in Iran - Opposition Groups
bani sadr khomeini regime shia clerics flag of iran islamic conquest: Religion in Iran: Opposition Groups.

Religion in Lebanon - Jacobites (Syrian Monophysites)
patriarch of antioch turkish kurdistan homs syria syrian orthodox church islam faq: Religion in Lebanon: Jacobite or Syrian Orthodox.

Religion in Kazakstan - The Role of Women
Religion in Kazakstan: The role women play in social and religious life.

Religion in Jordan - Islam in Social Life
Religion in Jordan - How Islam impacts social and politica life.

Religion in Bahrain - Ancient Times
tigris and euphrates rivers wahhabi islam assyrian empire shia islam sunni islam: Religion in Bahrain: Ancient World.

Religion in Kuwait - Shia Islam
Religion in Kuwait - History and theology of Shia Islam.

Religion in Lebanon - Greek Orthodox
fall of constantinople autocephalous churches islam faq roman catholicism religion around the world: Religion in Lebanon: Greek Orthodox.

Religion in Sudan - Christianity
christian nubia tenets of islam flag of sudan indigenous religions western christianity: Religion in Sudan: Christianity.

Religion in Afghanistan - Islam
religion in afghanistan islam religion islamic conquest muslim identity arab armies: Religion in Afghanistan: Islam

Egypt- Islamic Political Movements
anwar as sadat hasan al banna muslim brotherhood islam faq al ikhwan: Religion in Egypt: Islamic Political Movements.

Religion in Somalia - Islam in the Colonial Era and After
gamal abdul nasser sufi brotherhoods tenets of islam muslim traditions prophet muhammad: Religion in Somalia - Islam in the Colonia Era.

Egypt- Islam
islam faq muslim calendar religion around the world merchant member arab conquests: Religion in Egypt: Islam.

Religion in Syria - Shia Islam
shia islam umayyad caliphate muslim empires ancient syria ottoman empire: Religion in Syria - Shia Islam.

Religion in Syria - Religious Life
umayyad caliphate prophet muhammad muslim empires ancient syria ottoman empire: Religion in Syria - Relgious Life.

Religion in Qatar - Sunni Islam
shia islam sunni islam sunni and shia islam faq differences between sunni and shia: Religion in Qatar - Sunni Islam.

Indonesia - Buddhism
schools of buddhism communist sympathies origins of islam supreme deity islam faq: Religion in Indonesia: Buddhism.

Religion in Iran - The Revolution
mehdi bazargan bani sadr flag of iran islamic conquest revolutionary committees: Religion in Iran: The Revolution.

Religion in Lebanon - Alawis
islam faq northern lebanon roman catholicism fertile crescent religion around the world: Religion in Lebanon: Alawis.

Religion in the United Arab Emirates - Wahhabi Islam
Religion in the United Arab Emirates: Wahhabi Islam.

Religion in Qatar - Spread of Islam
persian gulf region shia islam converts to islam sunni islam arab inhabitants: Religion in Qatar - Spread of Islam.

Religion in Tajikistan - Role of Islam
Religion in Tajikistan: Role of Islam in Tajikistian's society and politics.

Religion in Syria - Druzes
druze religion druze community prophets of islam umayyad caliphate ancient syria: Religion in Syria - Druze.

Religion in Bahrain - Spread of Islam
wahhabi islam persian gulf region shia islam converts to islam sunni islam: Religion in Bahrain: Spread of Islam.

Religion in Kuwait - Early Islam
Religion in Kuwait - Early history and development of Islam in the region.

Religion in Algeria - Political Islam
tenets of islam national contender national cohesion revolutionary rhetoric islam faq: Religion in Algeria: Poltical Islam.

Religion in Jordan - Ancient History
Religion in Jordan - Ancient religious and political history.

Religion in Algeria - Early History
shia islam tenets of islam sunni islam islam faq arab conquest: Religion in Algeria: Early History.

Religion in Iran - The New Constitution
bani sadr khomeini regime flag of iran islamic conquest islamic republic of iran: Religion in Iran: The New Constitution.

Religion in Kuwait - Spread of Islam
Religion in Kuwait - How Islam has spread in the region.

Religion in Somalia - Religious Roles in Somali Islam
Religion in Somalia - Religious Roles in Somali Islam.

Religion in Afghanistan - Interethnic Relations
land reclamation projects religion in afghanistan causes of prejudice ethnic mosaic racial homogeneity: Religion in Afghanistan: Interethnic Relations

Religion in Afghanistan - Ismailis
hindu kush sixth imam son ismail religion in afghanistan imam jafar: Religion in Afghanistan: Ismailis

Religion in Turkey - Secularist Policies and Secularism
ottoman sultans tenets of islam ottoman empire islam faq religion around the world: Religion in Turkey: Secularist Politics.

Religion in Lebanon - Druze
al matn lebanon druze flag of lebanon islam faq roman catholicism: Religion in Lebanon: Druze.

Saudia Arabia - Shia Islam
shia islam flag of saudi arabia al ahsa saudia arabia twelvers: Religion in Saudi Arabia: Shia Islam.

Religion in Iran - Bahais
bani sadr shia islam flag of iran islamic conquest islam faq: Religion in Iran: Bahais.

Religion in Iran - Consolidation of the Revolution
Religion in Iran: Consolidation of the Revolution.

Religion in Syria - Jews and Judaism
old testament times umayyad caliphate ancient syria muslim empires ottoman empire: Religion in Syria - Jews and Judaism.

Religion in Iran - Shia Islam
bani sadr shia islam shia muslims pillars of faith flag of iran: Religion in Iran: Shia Islam.

Saudi Arabia - Early History of Islam
flag of saudi arabia people of saudi arabia history of islam muslim calendar sacred structure: Religion in Saudi Arabia: Early History of Islam.

Religion in Tajikistan
russian orthodox faith time islam seventh day adventists branch of islam minority religions: Religion in Tajikistan.

Religion in Lebanon - Ismailis
ismaili sect soviet central asia agha khan succession dispute salamiya: Religion in Lebanon: Ismaili Islam.

Religion in Oman - Index
wahhabi islam abd allah sunni islam sunni muslims prophet muhammad: Religion in Oman

Religion in Afghanistan - Index
ahmad shah durrani arnold toynbee religion in afghanistan historian arnold islamic conquest: Religion in Afghanistan: Index

Religion in Qatar - Glossary of Religious Terms
shia islam sunni islam prophet muhammad islam faq congregational prayers: Religion in Qatar - Glossary of Religious Terms.

Religion in Bahrain - Sunni Islam
wahhabi islam shia islam sunni islam sunni and shia islam faq: Religion in Bahrain: Sunni Islam.

Religion in Uzbekistan - Index
soviet socialist republic uzbekistan index mainstream islam republic of uzbekistan library of congress: Religion in Uzbekistan.

Religion in Afghanistan - The Mujahidin Parties
religion in afghanistan islamic conquest islamic resistance intimate group customary practice: Religion in Afghanistan: The Mujahidin Parties

Saudi Arabia - Islamic Politics
ayatollah khomeini flag of saudi arabia grand mosque in mecca religious conservatism islamist movements: Religion in Saudi Arabia: Islamic Politics.

Religion in the United Arab Emirates - Sunni Islam
Religion in the United Arab Emirates: Sunni Islam.

Iraq - Conflict with Iran
shatt al arab waterway shia islam flag of iraq iraq conflict overthrow of the shah of iran: Religion in Iraq: Conflict with Iran.

Religion in Lebanon - Judaism
arab israeli conflict lebanese society islam faq roman catholicism religion around the world: Religion in Lebanon: Jews and Judaism.

Religion in Bangladesh - Islamic Political Parties
Religion in Bangladesh: Islamic Political Parties.

Religion in the United Arab Emirates - Shia Islam
united arab emirates shia islam wahhabi islam shia muslims sunni islam: Religion in the United Arab Emirates: Shia Islam.

Religion in Algeria - Index
algeria index tenets of islam arab conquest ministry acts islamic opposition: Religion in Algeria.

Religion in Syria - Yazidi
Religion in Syria - Yazidi, a secretive and little understood religious group.

Religion in Afghanistan - Gender Roles
daud khan religion in afghanistan spirit of islam islamic conquest male attitudes: Religion in Afghanistan: Gender Roles

Religion in Oman - Wahhabism
muhammad ibn abd al wahhab wahhabi islam sunni islam ottoman turks wahhabi movement: Religion in Oman - Wahhabi Islam

Religion in Sudan - Index
christian nubia republic of the sudan sharia islamic law sudan index tenets of islam: Religion in Sudan: Religion Index.

Iraq - General Beliefs of Islam
iraqi baath party shia islam concern muslims prophet muhammad flag of iraq: Religion in Iraq: General Beliefs of Islam.

Religion in Iran - Index
bani sadr sunni islam iran index flag of iran islamic conquest: Religion in Iran: Religion Index.

Religion in Turkey - The Ottoman Empire
tenets of islam ottoman empire islam faq religion around the world religious minorities: Religion in Turkey: Ottoman Empire.

Religion in Bangladesh - Early Developments of Islam
Religion in Bangladesh: Early Developments of Islam.

Religion in Sudan - Islamic Banking
faisal islamic bank democratic unionist party christian nubia national islamic front wages and pensions: Religion in Sudan: Islamic Banking.

Religion in Turkey - Early Development of Islam
ali ibn abu talib tenets of islam ottoman empire male descendants death of the prophet: Religion in Turkey: Early Development of Islam.

Religion in Turkey - Religious Minorities
tenets of islam ottoman empire islam faq religious minorities protestant denominations: Religion in Turkey: Religious Minorities.

Religion in Lebanon - Religious Life
muslim faiths islam faq roman catholicism religion around the world quota system: Religion in Lebanon: Religious Life.

Religion in Algeria - Religious Minorities
roman catholic population arab invasions tenets of islam roman catholic church arab conquest: Religion in Algeria: Religious Minorities.

Religion in Bangladesh - Religion and Society
government proclamations religion in the 1980s tenets of islam taslima nasrin bengal region: Religion in Bangladesh: Religion and Society.

Religion in Iran - Judaism
bani sadr jews in iran flag of iran islamic conquest babylonian captivity: Religion in Iran: Jews and Judaism.

Religion in Syria - Muslim Empires
umayyad caliphate muslim empires arab tribes ancient syria judeo christian tradition: Religion in Syria - Muslim Empires.

Religion in Kyrgyzstan - Index
religious freedom report russian orthodox church president akayev muslim feast muslim heritage: Religion in Kyrgyzstan: Index

Religion in Jordan - Ethnicity and Language
Religion in Jordan - The role of ethnicity and language in religion and society.

Egypt- Islam and Repression
rise of political islam elite circles islam faq religion around the world arab conquests: Religion in Egypt: Islam and Repression.

Religion in Oman - Early Islam
persian gulf states wahhabi islam sunni islam prophet muhammad god allah: Religion in Oman - Early islam

Religion in Oman - Shia Islam
shia islam wahhabi islam shia muslims sunni islam sunni muslims: Religion in Oman - Shia Islam

Indonesia - Arrival of Islam
buddhist religions islam indonesia buddhist traditions buddhist concepts origins of islam: Religion in Indonesia: Arrival of Islam.

Religion in Turkey - Retreat from Secularism
tenets of islam ottoman empire islam faq religion around the world religious minorities: Religion in Turkey: Retreat from Secularism.

Religion in Kazakstan - Ethnic Groups
Religion in Kazakstan - the roles of indigenous ethnic groups in the social and relgious makeup of the country .

Religion in Uzbekistan - Early Islamic Period
mainstream islam arab conquest islam faq sporadic raids religion around the world: Religion in Uzbekistan: Early Islamic Period.

Religion in Syria - Ancient Syria
umayyad caliphate ancient syria muslim empires ottoman empire ancient babylonia: Religion in Syria - Ancient Syria.

Religion in Turkey - Ancient Anatolia
konya ovasi konya basin anatolia turkey ancient anatolia tenets of islam: Religion in Turkey: Ancient Anatolia.

Religion in Kuwait - Wahhabi Islam in the Gulf
Religion in Kuwait - history and theology of Wahhabi Islam in the Gulf region .

Saudi Arabia - Glossary of Religious Terms
Religion in Saudi Arabia: Glossary of Religious Terms.

Religion in Bangladesh - Muslim League
india muslim league partition of bengal tenets of islam taslima nasrin historical chronology: Religion in Bangladesh: Muslim League.

Religion in Turkey - The Crusades
seljuk turks tenets of islam count baldwin ottoman empire fourth crusade: Religion in Turkey: The Crusades.

Religion in Iran - The Bani Sadr Presidency
bani sadr iran bani flag of iran islamic conquest iranian new year: Religion in Iran: The Bani Sadr Presidency.

Religion in Jordan - Religious Minorities
Religion in Jordan - The role and nature of religious minorities.

Religion in Syria - Ottoman Empire
umayyad caliphate ottoman empire muslim turks northwest turkey muslim empires: Religion in Syria - Ottoman Empire.

Religion in Turkey - Islam
arabian peninsula city tenets of islam prophet muhammad city of mecca ottoman empire: Religion in Turkey: Islam.

Pakistan - Islamic Politics
zulfiqar ali bhutto flag of pakistan penal measures politics pakistan history of islam: Religion in Pakistan: Islamic Politics.

Religion in Lebanon - Sunni Muslims
sunni muslims traditions of the prophet islam faq muslim faith roman catholicism: Religion in Lebanon: Sunni Muslims.

Religion in Kazakstan - Religion
kazakh soviet socialist republic soviet socialist republic roman catholic diocese congress country studies sunni muslims: Religion in Kazakstan - Index and Introduction .

Religion in Uzbekistan - Islam in the Soviet Era
mainstream islam muslim clerics grand mufti islam faq muslim faith: Religion in Uzbekistan: Islam in the Soviet Era.

Religion in Syria - Post-Umayyad Caliphates
umayyad caliphate umayyad dynasty sunni and shia muslims ali hasan muslim empires: Religion in Syria - Post-Umayyad Caliphates.

Religion in Afghanistan - Ithna Ashariya (Twelver or Imami) Shia
Religion in Afghanistan: Ithna Ashariya (Twelver or Imami) Shia

Religion in Kuwait - Sunni Islam
Religion in Kuwait - theology and history of Sunni Islam.

Egypt- Muslim Extremism
muslim extremism muslim brotherhood government in egypt islam faq al ikhwan: Religion in Egypt: Muslim Extremism.

Religion in Bangladesh - Buddhism
chittagong hills tenets of islam taslima nasrin historical chronology turkish conquest: Religion in Bangladesh: Buddhism.

Religion in Syria - Christianity
umayyad caliphate muslim empires ancient syria ottoman empire islam faq: Religion in Syria - Christianity.

Religion in Turkey - Rome and the Byzantine Empire
Religion in Turkey: Rome and the Byzantine Empire.

Egypt- Religion Index
aswan high dam egypt religion egypt index ancient civilizations nile river: Religion in Egypt: Index.

Indonesia - Islam in Society
quran islam religious adherents prophet muhammad origins of islam god allah: Religion in Indonesia: Islam in Society.

Religion in Algeria - Status of Women in Society
femmes algeriennes tenets of islam arab conquest islam faq islamic opposition: Religion in Algeria: Status of Women.

Religion in Sudan - Islamic Movements
christian nubia tenets of islam flag of sudan orthodox islam attributes of god: Religion in Sudan: Islamic Movements.

Saudi Arabia - Religion Index
rapid population growth world oil prices flag of saudi arabia private sector involvement saudi arabia index: Religion in Saudi Arabia: Religion Index.

Religion in Sudan - Indigenous Religions
Religion in Sudan: Indigenous Religious Movements.

Religion in Syria - Alawis
umayyad caliphate ancient syria muslim empires ottoman empire islam faq: Religion in Syria - Alawis.

Religion in Algeria - Arab Conquest
arab conquest tenets of islam arab invaders islam faq military expeditions: Religion in Algeria: Arab Conquest.

Religion in Bahrain - Index
wahhabi islam shia islam sunni islam sunni muslim english farsi: Religion in Bahrain: Index.

Religion in Sudan: Women and Family
christian nubia muslim households tenets of islam flag of sudan indigenous religions: Religion in Sudan: Women and Family.

Religion in Somalia - Index
somali democratic republic tenets of islam somali republic religious roles islamism: Religion in Somalia.

Religion in Turkey - Religious Life
tenets of islam ottoman empire islam faq mystical orders religious foundations: Religion in Turkey: Religious Life.

Religion in Sudan - Regionalism and Ethnicity
christian nubia addis ababa flag of sudan tenets of islam arabic languages: Religion in Sudan: Regionalism and Ethnicity.

Religion in Bangladesh - Hinduism
tenets of islam taslima nasrin historical chronology islam faq caste system: Religion in Bangladesh: Hinduism.

Religion in Bangladesh - Early History
state of west bengal tenets of islam taslima nasrin historical chronology islam faq: Religion in Bangladesh: Early History.

Iraq - Sunni Islam
shia islam sunni islam sunni and shia flag of iraq differences between sunni and shia: Religion in Iraq: Sunni Islam.

Religion in the United Arab Emirates - Ancient World
Religion in the United Arab Emirates: Ancient World.

Religion in Jordan - Relations with Arab States
Religion in Jordan - Relations between Jordan and other Arab States in the region.

Religion in Sudan - Tenets of Islam
five pillars of islam christian nubia tenets of islam pillars of islam flag of sudan: Religion in Sudan: Tenets of Islam.

Religion in the United Arab Emirates - Early Islam
Religion in the United Arab Emirates: Early Islam.

Religion in Turkey - Religious Interest in Politics
tenets of islam ottoman empire islam faq religion around the world religious minorities: Religion in Turkey: Religious Interests.

Religion in Syria - Ismailis Islam
shia islam son ismail umayyad caliphate ancient syria muslim empires: Religion in Syria - Ismaili Islam.

Religion in Lebanon - Armenian Orthodox or Gregorian
Religion in Lebanon: Armenian Orthodox or Gregorian.

Religion in Jordan - Early Islam
Religion in Jordan - The early history and development of Islam in the region.

Religion in Turkey - The Alevi
tenets of islam ottoman period ottoman empire islam faq religion around the world: Religion in Turkey: The Alevi.

Iraq - Shia Islam
shia muslims shia islam temporal leadership prophet muhammad flag of iraq: Religion in Iraq: Shia Islam.

Religion in Oman - Ancient Period
tigris and euphrates rivers wahhabi islam assyrian empire sunni islam assyrian king: Religion in Oman - ancient period

Indonesia - Hinduism
ritual purity origins of islam shadow puppet islam faq enduring traditions: Religion in Indonesia: Hinduism.

Religion in Turkey - Sufism and Folk Islam
sufi brotherhoods tenets of islam woolen garments islamic mysticism ottoman empire: Religion in Turkey: Sufism and Folk Islam.

Religion in Afghanistan - Politicized Islam
religion in afghanistan islam religion islamic conquest religious personalities ahmad shah: Religion in Afghanistan: Politicized Islam

Religion in Bangladesh - Tenets of Islam
tenets of islam taslima nasrin prophet muhammad historical chronology divine revelations: Religion in Bangladesh: Tenets of Islam.

Religion in Syria - Ethnic and Religious Opposition Movements
Religion in Syria - Ethnic and Religious Oppositions Movements.

Egypt- Early Developments of Islam
concept of islam islamic jurisprudence islam faq religion around the world arab conquests: Religion in Egypt: Early Developments of Islam.

Religion in Algeria - Tenets of Islam
seal of the prophets tenets of islam biblical revelations ritual occasions god allah: Religion in Algeria: Tenets of Islam.

Religion in Algeria - Islam and the State
french colonial regime muslim rulers tenets of islam muslim authorities islam faq: Religion in Algeria: Islam and the State.

Religion in Egypt - Changing Status of Women
islam faq domestic servants religion around the world congress country studies government estimates: Religion in Egypt: Changing Status of Women.

Saudi Arabia - Wahhabi Theology in Islam
Religion in Saudi Arabia: Wahhabi Theology in Islam.

Indonesia - Islamic Schools
muslim traditions muslim scholar origins of islam islam faq muslim school: Religion in Indonesia: Islamic Schools.

Religion in Egypt - Arab Conquest
arab conquest al arish king menes amr ibn arab tribes: Religion in Egypt: Arab Conquest.

Religion in Jordan - Islam and Arab Rule
Religion in Jordan - The manner in which Islam and Arab rule were imposed on the region.

Religion in Bangladesh - Relations with the Islamic World
Religion in Bangladesh: Relations with the Islamic World.

Religion in Jordan - Sunni Islam
Religion in Jordan - History and theology of Sunni Islam.

Religion in Somalia - Rising Islamism
bender cassim tenets of islam islam faq social trauma united nations team: Religion in Somalia - Rising Islamism.

Religion in Bangladesh - Christianity
jesuit priests tenets of islam taslima nasrin apostle thomas historical chronology: Religion in Bangladesh: Christianity.

Religion in Jordan - Islamic Revival
Religion in Jordan - The revival of Islam in Jordan.

Religion in Turkey - Turkish Origins
lake baykal altai mountains tenets of islam tang dynasty ottoman empire: Religion in Turkey: Turkish Origins.

Religion in Oman - Sunni Islam
wahhabi islam sunni islam islam faq religion around the world religious festivals: Religion in Oman - Sunni Islam

Religion in Turkey - The Hittites
indo european languages caucasus mountains cuneiform alphabet tenets of islam ottoman empire: Religion in Turkey: Hittites.

Religion in Bangladesh - Religious Education
tenets of islam taslima nasrin historical chronology islam faq religion around the world: Religion in Bangladesh: Religious Education.

Religion in Lebanon: Index
lebanon index flag of lebanon roman catholicism nusayri ilite: Religion in Lebanon: Religion Index.

Religion in Egypt - Akhenaten and Monotheism
sun god ra pharaoh akhenaten amenhotep iv islam faq religion around the world: Religion in Egypt: Akhenaten and Monotheism.

Religion in Kazakstan - Islam and the State
Religion in Kazakstan - How religion and the state interact .

Religion in Algeria - The FIS
tenets of islam islam faq arab conquest islamic opposition minority religions: Religion in Algeria: the FIS.

Religion in Syria - Sunni Islam
al hasakah sunni islam umayyad caliphate sunni muslims ancient syria: Religion in Syria - Sunni Islam.

Religion in Kyrgyzstan - Index
religious freedom report tribal healers spiritual kinship interest in islam mystical connections: Religion in Kyrgyzstan: Index

Religion in the United Arab Emirates - Index
united arab emirates wahhabi islam shia islam states abbreviation sunni islam: Religion in the United Arab Emirates: Index.

Religion in Egypt - Traditional Attitudes Towards Women
Religion in Egypt: Traditional Attitudes Towards Women.

Religion in Sudan - Arrival of Islam
christian nubia tenets of islam sudanese society flag of sudan prophet muhammad: Religion in Sudan: Arrival of Islam.

Religion in Oman - Spread of Islam
wahhabi islam persian gulf region converts to islam sunni islam arab inhabitants: Religion in Oman - spread of islam

Religion in Afghanistan - Islamic Conquest
abbasid dynasty hindu kush battle of qadisiya religion in afghanistan islamic conquest: Religion in Afghanistan: Islamic Conquest

History of Iraq: Timeline of Events, 6750 BCE - 2004 CE
History of Iraq: this chronology lists some of the major events which have defined the course of Iraqi history: wars, coups, births, deaths, and assassinations. The period covered begins with ancient Mesopotamia, goes through the British Mandate of the region, and finishes with events during the two invasions of Iraq by the United States.

Religion in Qatar - Shia Islam
shia islam shia muslims sunni islam sunni muslims temporal leadership: Religion in Qatar - Shia Islam.

Religion in the United Arab Emirates - Spread of Islam
Religion in the United Arab Emirates: Spread of Islam.

Religion in Somalia - Folk Islam and Indigenous Ritual
Religion in Somalia - Folk Islam and Indigenous Ritual.

Religion in Jordan - Palestinians
Religion in Jordan - The role Palestinians play in religion and politics.

Religion in Bangladesh - Index
index bangladesh tenets of islam taslima nasrin historical chronology pakistan data: Religion in Bangladesh: Index.

Religion in Jordan - Ottoman Rule
Religion in Jordan - The history of the Ottoman Turk Empire in the region.

Religion in Somalia - Religious Life
tenets of islam islam faq religion around the world religious roles pastoral life: Religion in Somalia - Religious Life.

Religion in Somalia - Religious Orders and the Cult of the Saints
Religion in Somalia - Religious Orders and the Cult of the Saints.

Religion in Bahrain - Early Islam
persian gulf states wahhabi islam shia islam sunni islam prophet muhammad: Religion in Bahrain: Early Islam.

Religion in Kazakstan - Islam in the Past
Religion in Kazakstan - The role of religion in identity, culture and history .

Religion in Bangladesh - Islam
caste hindus tenets of islam taslima nasrin conversion to islam historical chronology: Religion in Bangladesh: Islam.

Religion in Sudan - Christian Nubia
christian nubia city on the nile tenets of islam flag of sudan byzantine empress: Religion in Sudan: Christian Nubia.

Indonesia - Religion Index
hinduism buddhism islam christianity indonesia index origins of islam congress country studies: Religion in Indonesia: Index.

Religion in Lebanon - Twelver or Imami Shias
jafar as sadiq imam jafar son ismail male descendant islam faq: Religion in Lebanon: Twelver of Imami Shias.

Religion in Islam - Shia Islam
shia islam wahhabi islam shia muslims sunni islam sunni muslims: Religion in Bahrain: Shia Islam.

Egypt- Contemporary Islam
al azhar university social welfare issues ottoman rule islam faq religion around the world: Religion in Egypt: Contemporary Islam.

Religion in Iran - Sunni Islam
bani sadr persian gulf region sunni islam sunni muslims flag of iran: Religion in Iran: Sunni Muslims.

Azerbaijan - Religion
Religion in Azerbaijan: Discussion of the history of various religions in Azerbaijan, including the situation today for minority religions.

Iraq - Islamic Relations in Iraq
iraqi baath party saddam husayn shia islam ar rutbah flag of iraq: Religion in Iraq: Islamic Relations in Iraq.

Religion in Bahrain - Wahhabi Islam
wahhabi islam muhammad ibn abd al wahhab shia islam sunni islam wahhabi movement: Religion in Bahrain: Wahhabi Islam.

Religion in Turkey - Development of Islam in Turkey
Religion in Turkey: Development of Islam in Turkey.

Saudi Arabia - The Hajj (pilgrimage)
Religion in Saudi Arabia: The Hajj and Saudi Politics.

Religion in Turkey - Women and Gender Relations
tenets of islam ottoman empire islam faq family loyalty religion around the world: Religion in Turkey: Gender Relations.

Egypt- Coptic Christianity
coptic christianity millet system coptic church ottoman empire christian sect: Religion in Egypt: Coptic Christianity.

Religion in Iran - Zoroastrianism
bani sadr flag of iran sassanid empire islamic conquest islam faq: Religion in Iran: Consolidation of Theocracy.

Religion in Syria - Islam
umayyad caliphate muslim empires ottoman empire ancient syria islam faq: Religion in Syria - Islam.

Religion in Algeria - Islamic Opposition
tenets of islam opposition elements islamist movement islamic opposition islam faq: Religion in Algeria: Islamic Opposition.

Religion in Somalia - The Tenets of Islam
tenets of islam pilgrimage to mecca prophet muhammad somali coast god allah: Religion in Somalia - Tenets of Islam.

Iraq - Religion in Iraq
shia muslims shia islam flag of iraq religious observances violence in iraq: Religion in Iraq: Index.

Religion in Iran - Consolidation of Theocracy
bani sadr flag of iran islamic conquest islam faq religion around the world: Religion in Iran: Consolidation of Theocracy.

Religion in Qatar - Early Development of Islam
persian gulf states shia islam sunni islam prophet muhammad god allah: Religion in Qatar - Early Development of Islam.

Religion in Turkey - Index
tenets of islam turkey index ottoman empire religious minorities lydians: Religion in Turkey: Index.

Religion in Jordan - Relations with Israel
Religion in Jordan - Conflict and tensions with Israel.

Indonesia - Christianity
dutch reformed church indonesia christianity southern sulawesi northern sulawesi origins of islam: Religion in Indonesia: Christianity.

Religion in Turkey - Tenets of Islam
central beliefs of islam tenets of islam arabic quran ottoman empire islam faq: Religion in Turkey: Tenets of Islam.

Religion in Iran - Terror and Repression
bani sadr iran terror flag of iran opposition elements islamic conquest: Religion in Iran: Terror and Repression.

Religion in Turkey - Jews
tenets of islam ottoman empire islam faq religion around the world establishment of israel: Religion in Turkey: Jews.

Saudi Arabia - Sunni Islam
seal of the prophets flag of saudi arabia sunni islam biblical revelations ritual occasions: Religion in Saudi Arabia: Sunni Islam.

Religion in Turkey - The Greeks
mycenean civilization tenets of islam greek refugees aegean region greek settlers: Religion in Turkey: The Greeks.

Religion in Afghanistan - Afghan Resistance
harsh physical environment religion in afghanistan islamic conquest narrow confines afghan resistance: Religion in Afghanistan: Afghan Resistance

Religion in Syria - Index
general khalid umayyad caliphate muslim empires ancient syria flag of syria: Religion in Syria.

Religion in Turkey - Phrygians and Lydians
dorian invasion assyrian empire aegean world tenets of islam ottoman empire: Religion in Turkey: Phygrians and Lydians.

Religion in Iran - Islamic Conquest
bani sadr islamic conquest flag of iran prophet muhammad sassanid empire: Religion in Iran: Islamic Conquest.

Pakistan - Non-Muslim Religious Minorities
muslim minorities flag of pakistan passport members obtaining a passport religious minorities: Religion in Pakistan: Religious Minorities.

Religion in Lebanon: Roman Catholicism
sacraments of baptism seven sacraments roman catholicism islam faq religion around the world: Religion in Lebanon: Roman Catholicism.

Religion in Lebanon - Assyrian or Nestorian Church
Religion in Lebanon: Assyrian or Nestorian Church.

Religion in Uzbekistan - Mainstream Islam
mainstream islam interest in islam islam faq spread of islam islamic belief: Religion in Uzbekistan: Mainstream Islam.

Religion in Bahrain - Middle Ages
wahhabi islam shia islam sunni islam islam faq eastern arabia: Religion in Bahrain: Middle Ages.

Religion in Bangladesh - Islamization
mahmud of ghazni military forays tenets of islam taslima nasrin historical chronology: Religion in Bangladesh: Islamization.

Pakistan - Islam in Society
mohammad ali jinnah south asian subcontinent sir muhammad iqbal sufis islam poet philosopher: Religion in Pakistan: Islam in Society.

Religion in Syria - Umayyad Caliphate
umayyad caliphate muslim empires ottoman empire ancient syria islam faq: Religion in Syria - Umayyad Caliphate.

Religion in Kuwait - Index
wahhabi islam kuwait index shia islam sunni islam flag of kuwait: Religion in Kuwait - Index.

Religion in Kyrgyzstan - Index
religious freedom report sunni muslims fall of communism tribal customs congress country studies: Religion in Kyrgyzstan: Index

Religion in Iran - Christianity
bani sadr lake urmia assyrian villages flag of iran indigenous christians: Religion in Iran: Christianity.

Religion in Lebanon - Greek Catholics
greek orthodox church greek catholics catholic doctrines islam faq ancient rituals: Religion in Lebanon: Greek Catholics.

Religion in Bangladesh - Women in Society
tenets of islam taslima nasrin historical chronology fertility patterns education health care: Religion in Bangladesh: Women in Society.

Religion in Jordan - Index and Introduction
shia muslims sunni islam jordan index muslim parents ottoman rule: Religion in Jordan - Index and Introduction.

Religion in Lebanon - Maronites
john maron roman catholic church islam faq flag of lebanon fifth centuries: Religion in Lebanon: Maronites.

Religion in Oman - Medieval Period
wahhabi islam sunni islam islam faq eastern arabia islamic civilization: Religion in Oman - medieval period

Religion in Jordan - Tribes and Tribalism
Religion in Jordan - The influence of tribalism on religion and politics.

Egypt - Religious Minorities
coptic catholic church greek orthodox church coptic orthodox church egypt egypt islam faq: Religion in Egypt: Religious Minorities.

Religion in Lebanon - Hizballah
muhammad husayn najaf iraq islamic jurisprudence islam faq shaykh muhammad: Religion in Lebanon: Hizballah.

Religion in Bangladesh - Historical Chronology
mauryan empire siddartha gautama gupta empire tenets of islam taslima nasrin: Religion in Bangladesh: Historical Chonology.

Religion in Qatar - Index
shia islam sunni islam native pronunciation religious liberty approximation: Religion in Qatar.

International Religious Freedom Report 1999: Saudi Arabia
United States 1999 State Department Annual Report on Religious Freedom for the country of Saudi Arabia. What is the religious demography of Saudi Arabia? What is the status of religious freedom in Saudi Arabia? Are there restrictions on religious minorities?

International Religious Freedom Report 1999: Switzerland
United States 1999 State Department Annual Report on Religious Freedom for the country of Switzerland. What is the religious demography of Switzerland? What is the status of religious freedom in Switzerland? Are there restrictions on religious minorities?

Judaism in the World - Iran
american joint distribution committee joint distribution committee jews in iran babylonian captivity pharmacy medicine: Judaism in the World - Iran

Judaism in the World - Lebanon
palestine liberation organization lebanese authorities lebanese army muslim fundamentalists lebanese society: Judaism in the World: Lebanon.

Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Law. Introduction.


The Manifesto of the Communist Party - Section 2


The Manifesto of the Communist Party - Section 4


International Religious Freedom Report 1999: Serbia-Montenegro
United States 1999 State Department Annual Report on Religious Freedom for the country of Serbia-Montenegro. What is the religious demography of Serbia-Montenegro? What is the status of religious freedom in Serbia-Montenegro? Are there restrictions on religious minorities?

International Religious Freedom Report 1999: Taiwan
United States 1999 State Department Annual Report on Religious Freedom for the country of Taiwan. What is the religious demography of Taiwan? What is the status of religious freedom in Taiwan? Are there restrictions on religious minorities?

International Religious Freedom Report 1999: Sri Lanka
United States 1999 State Department Annual Report on Religious Freedom for the country of Sri Lanka. What is the religious demography of Sri Lanka? What is the status of religious freedom in Sri Lanka? Are there restrictions on religious minorities?

International Religious Freedom Report 1999: Tanzania
United States 1999 State Department Annual Report on Religious Freedom for the country of Tanzania. What is the religious demography of Tanzania? What is the status of religious freedom in Tanzania? Are there restrictions on religious minorities?

International Religious Freedom Report 1999: South Africa
United States 1999 State Department Annual Report on Religious Freedom for the country of South Africa. What is the religious demography of South Africa? What is the status of religious freedom in South Africa? Are there restrictions on religious minorities?

International Religious Freedom Report 1999: Sweden
United States 1999 State Department Annual Report on Religious Freedom for the country of Sweden. What is the religious demography of Sweden? What is the status of religious freedom in Sweden? Are there restrictions on religious minorities?

Balkan History Timeline - Agnosticism/Atheism
Short timeline of Balkan history, from your About.com Guide

Religious Reactions to Kosovo
Reactions by religious leaders around the world to the conflict in Kosovo.

Albania: basic facts - Agnosticism/Atheism
Basic facts regarding the nation of Albania, from your About.com Guide

Slobodan Milosevic: Brief Biography - Agnosticism/Atheism
A brief description of Slobodan Milosevic and his political history, from your About.com Guide

Kosovo: basic facts - Agnosticism/Atheism
Basic facts regarding the nation of Albania, from your About.com Guide

Index on Balkan Issues - Agnosticism/Atheism
A brief description of Slobodan Milosevic and his political history, from your About.com Guide

Balkan Ethnic/Religious Groups - Agnosticism/Atheism
Short timeline of Balkan history, from your About.com Guide

The Manifesto of the Communist Party - Introduction


The Manifesto of the Communist Party - Section 3


Theses on Feuerbach
Theses on Feuerbach

On the History of Early Christianity, Friedrich Engels


The Manifesto of the Communist Party - Section 1


On the Jewish Question


Chronology of the New Testament
Chronology of Early Christianity and Christian History, from your About.com Guide

Preface to the Manifesto of the Communist Party - Preface


1844: Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy


Apocalyptic Cults and Project Megiddo: assessment of domestic, religious terrorism


Jerusalem Project Megiddo: assessment of domestic, religious terrorism


Christian Identity and Project Megiddo: assessment of domestic, religious terrorism


Conclusion to Project Megiddo: assessment of domestic, religious terrorism


Project Megiddo: assessment of domestic, religious terrorism


Project Megiddo: assessment of domestic, religious terrorism


Summary of Project Megiddo: assessment of domestic, religious terrorism


Project Megiddo: assessment of domestic, religious terrorism


White Supremacy and Project Megiddo: assessment of domestic, religious terrorism


Black Hebrew Israelites and Project Megiddo: assessment of domestic, religious terrorism


Introduction to Project Megiddo: assessment of domestic, religious terrorism


Militias and Project Megiddo: assessment of domestic, religious terrorism


Recently Added Court Decisions
Recently added court decisions dealing with religion, liberty, and more..

A Bill Establishing A Provision for Teachers of the Christian Religion.


Jefferson's Bill for Religious Freedom
Jefferson's Bill for Religious Freedom

Committee on the Judiciary - Sager Statement


Religious Liberties Protection Act 2000
Religious Liberties Protection Act 2000 - full text of the bill.

Committee on the Judiciary - Hamilton Statement


Religious Freedom Amendment


Committee on the Judiciary - Anders Statement


Discussion: Is Belief in God Justified?
Discussion: Is Belief in God Justified?

Discussion: Emotional Atheism
Discussion: Emotional Atheism

Weekly Poll: Religion in American Politics
Weekly Poll: Religion in American Politics

How are Atheism & Theism Different? How are Atheism & Theism Similar?
How are Atheism & Theism Different? How are Atheism & Theism Similar?

Propaganda Poster: Criticism of Religions is Not Free Speech
Propaganda Poster: Criticism of Religions is Not Free Speech

Britain: Shariah Courts Legally Binding on Family, Criminal Cases
Britain: Shariah Courts Legally Binding on Family, Criminal Cases

Michael Savage: 'We Need More' Abuse of Prisoners
Michael Savage: 'We Need More' Abuse of Prisoners

Criminal Webmasters as Terrorists
Criminal Webmasters as Terrorists

Iraq Roundup
Iraq Roundup

Female Prisoners in Iraq
Female Prisoners in Iraq

Trent Lott: Homicide of Iraqi Prisoners is OK?
Trent Lott: Homicide of Iraqi Prisoners is OK?

Big Budget Cuts Loom if Bush Reelected
Big Budget Cuts Loom if Bush Reelected

Multiple Allies Involved in Abuse
Multiple Allies Involved in Abuse

Avoiding the “T” Word
Avoiding the “T” Word

Homebuyers to be Checked against Terrorist List
Homebuyers to be Checked against Terrorist List

Saudi Student Acquitted of Terrorism Charges
Saudi Student Acquitted of Terrorism Charges

Wince-Inducing Moment?
Wince-Inducing Moment?

Lt. Kafka in Guantanamo
Lt. Kafka in Guantanamo

Government to Clamp Down On Satellite Images?
Government to Clamp Down On Satellite Images?

Is Al-Qaeda Winning the War?
Is Al-Qaeda Winning the War?

Iraq Already Lost?
Iraq Already Lost?

Republicans Seeking to Outsource Torture
Republicans Seeking to Outsource Torture

Iraq: Major Combat Operations Resume
Iraq: Major Combat Operations Resume

Homeland Intelligence Chief: We Must Abridge Individual Rights
Homeland Intelligence Chief: We Must Abridge Individual Rights

American Traitors
American Traitors

Get Lost Lessons for Theology and God 101 (Email Course)
Theology describes the study, writing, research, or speaking on the nature of gods, especially in relation to human experience. Typically the concept includes the premise that such study is done in a rational, philosophical manner and can also refer to specific schools of thought - for example, progressive theology, feminist theology or liberation theology. This 23-week course introduces you to the study of theology, the history of theology, major trends in theology, as well as discussions about the nature of God: attributes commonly ascribed to God and arguments offered for or against God's existence.

Get Lost Lessons for Papacy 101 (Email Course)
Who or what is the pope? The title pope stems from the Greek word papas, which simply means 'father.' Early in Christian history it was used as a formal title expressing affectionate respect for any bishop and sometimes even priests. Today 'pope' continues to be used in Eastern Orthodox churches for the patriarch of Alexandria but is mostly widely used in the Catholic church. This 19-week course covers the origins of the papacy, the development of papal power over the centuries, the different types of popes who have ruled, how popes are elected, what the next papal election may be like, and links to short biographies of every past pope.

Get Lost Lessons for Agnosticism 101 (Email Course)
If there is anything as misunderstood and misrepresented as atheism, it must be agnosticism. There are many misconceptions about agnosticism, agnostics, and the reasons why anyone would adopt a position of agnosticism in the first place. This is unfortunate, because whether agnosticism is conceived of as a philosophy or simply an isolated position on the existence of gods, it is eminently reasonable and defensible. This 9-week course will cover the nature of agnosticism, the variety of agnostic positions, the philosophic origins of agnosticism, and some of the most important figures in the history of agnostic thought.

Get Lost Lessons for Pope John Paul II (Email Course)
John Paul II has been one of the longest-lived and most influential popes in the history of the Catholic Church. For good or for ill, his policies and personality have helped shape not only the current character of Catholicism but also the direction Catholicism will take for generations to come. Because of that, it's important to take the time to carefully consider what his policies have been and how they have affected Catholics around the world. This 12-week course covers John Paul's life, his ideas, and the various ways in which he has shaped the Catholic church today.

Get Lost Lessons for Atheism 101 (Email Course)
What is atheism? Is it a religion? Are all atheists communists? What is the difference between atheism and agnosticism? Atheism is often misunderstood and even vilified; a better understanding of it, however, reveals that many of the attacks made upon atheism and atheists are based upon errors and mistaken assumptions. This 17-week course will cover all aspects of atheism: how it is defined, the different types of atheism, the difference between atheism and agnosticism, why people become atheists, and more.

Get Lost Lessons for Existentialism 101 (Email Course)
Existential philosophy is more a trend or attitude than it is coherent school or movement because it is intensely subjective. As a result, existentialist thinkers tend to vary greatly in their concerns and ultimate conclusions. In general, existentialism emphasizes the uniqueness and isolation of individual experience in a hostile or indifferent universe while denying any special or unique essence that humans might have. This 9-week course covers the basics of existentialist beliefs, existentialist philosophers, and existentialist influences on modern philosophy.

Get Lost Lessons for Humanism 101 (Email Course)
In this century, humanism has come to refer to a philosophy that rejects traditional religious dogmas and usually theism itself. Although it is possible to be both a theist and a humanist, most who consciously use that term are atheists - especially if they are secular humanists . This modern humanism is a direct outgrowth of the Renaissance Humanism which, in turn, developed out of ancient Greek and Rome philosophy. Humanism is part of the fabric of Western culture and this 16-week email course will explain how it has developed, how it continues to influence culture today, and what types of humanism currently exist.

Get Lost Lessons for Philosophy 101 (Email Course)
It isn't easy to say what exactly philosophy is, how to study it, or how to 'do' it. So why has it long been one of the central subjects in Western academics? It is difficult to categorize philosophy because philosophizing makes up so much of what we do in life - there is no escaping it for anyone who want to think clearly or think about important subjects. This 14-week course introduces you to what philosophy is about, why it is important, and all of the major disciplines typically covered by philosophy: logic, aesthetics, ethics, epistemology, and more.

Creationism and The Flood
About Creationism: selected and annotated links to arguments supporting and opposing the idea that a global flood has occurred, as described in Genesis.

Top News Stories of 2003
Selected here are ten of the biggest stories from the year 2003. The reasoning behind some choices will be obvious, but not in other cases. In general, I chose not simply those with the largest impact around the world, but rather those which generated a great deal of attention and discussion both on this site and elsewhere. In nearly every case, it isn't the individual article that is the "top story," but rather that the article was about some aspect of a long-running story or issue.

Top Books Reviewed in 2002
Selected here are ten of the best books reviewed during the year 2002. It was difficult to pick just ten, there were so many good books from the past year, but I had to narrow the list down to fit this page. Qualities which helped books stand out include providing an interesting/unusual perspective on long-running debates, offering a real enduring value to readers (i.e., worth reading more than once), and being an invaluable resource on its topic.

Top Recently Published Books
Some of the most interesting books on religion, philosophy, atheism and skepticism published in the past months, organized in reverse order of when the book was reviewed.

Recently Reviewed Books on Alternative Medicine
What is alternative medicine? Does it do any good? Why do people pay money for it? The popularity of alternative medicine has increased dramatically in recent years, but understanding of scientific medicine hasn't. There are a lot of books out there which promote various alternative treatments, like homeopathy and acupuncture, but not as many which take a skeptical, critical look at the industry.

Recently Reviewed Books on American Religion
Religion plays an important role in American society, just as it does in most societies. Religion in America is not, however, quite like religion in other countries. It has it's own unique history and it's own understanding of the nature of religion, of Christianity, and of civil society. Learn here about some of the best recent books published about religion in America.

Recently Reviewed Books on Ancient Religions
The religions we see today didn't pop out of nowhere - they evolved gradually from more ancient faiths which have largely, it not entirely, died away. What are some of these religions and how have their beliefs survived down through today? Learn about some recent books on ancient religious beliefs and what they have to offer.

Recently Reviewed Books on the Bible
The Bible is one of the most important, influential and widely read books in Western Civilization. Thus, learning more about it and what it says is helpful in understanding more about Western culture and history - not to mention Judaism and Christianity, two religions based upon what we know as the Bible.

Recently Reviewed Books on Ethics and Morality
What are ethics? How can we lead ethical lives? How can ethical principles be applied in our lives and to fields such as science, business and religion? These are just some of the questions which occupy ethical philosophers and which are covered in a variety of new books published every year. Here you will find reviews of a few of the best.

Recently Reviewed Books on Evolution and Creationism
The debate over evolution and creationism can be very divisive in the United States. Which is the best explanation of the current diversity of life on Earth? Should both be taught in public schools? Are both evolution and creationism science, religion, or psuedoscience?

Recently Reviewed Books from Fortress Press
Recently Reviewed Books from Fortress Press: Fortress Press is academic imprint for Augsburg Fortress Publishers, publishing house for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Every year Fortress Press publishes a wide variety of books on theology, biblical studies, Christian history, and more.

Recently Reviewed Books About Jesus
Who was Jesus of Nazareth, the person revered by Christians as the messiah? Did he really exist? If so, what did he do, what were his goals? Does he continue to have any relevance today? These questions and more are addressed in dozens of new books every year. Learn here more about some of the best recently published books about Jesus.

Recently Reviewed Books on the Paranormal
Is there a 'paranormal' world out there, where psychic powers work, where astrology can predict your future, and where aliens come and visit us in UFOs? Some people certainly think so, but others are doubtful and write skeptical critiques about those beliefs. Learn here about some of the best books describing and critiquing paranormal beliefs.

Recently Reviewed Books on Philosophy
It isn't easy to say what exactly philosophy is, how to study it, or how to 'do' it. So why has it long been one of the central subjects in Western academics? The reason why it is so difficult to categorize philosophy is because philosophizing makes up so much of what we do during life - there is no escaping it for anyone who want to think clearly or think about important subjects. So, we need to learn how to do it well. Read about some recently published books on philosophy.

Recently Reviewed Books on the Philosophy of Religion
What is religion? Does religion serve any social or psychological purposes - and if so, how? These are just a few of the questions asked in the philosophy of religion. Studying religious philosophy is important for anyone hoping to learn more about religion generally - here you can find out about some recent books on the subject and whether they are worth buying.

Recently Reviewed Books on Psychology and Sociology
Both psychology and sociology influence politics, law, and many more facets of modern life. Despite this, most people don't entirely understand what sorts of finding modern psychological and sociological research offer. A few of the books published every year dealing with psychology and sociology are skeptical of commonly held beliefs while others providing interesting insight into human nature.

Recently Reviewed Books on Eastern Religions
People in the West tend to be most familiar with Western religions - Christianity, Judaism, and Islam in particular. Because of that most of their assumptions about religion are based upon those religious traditions - that, however, ignores all of the religions of the East - for example Shintoism, Taosim, and Buddhism. These religious traditions are just as important as those in the West.

Recently Reviewed Books on Religion
Religion is an important aspect of human culture and history - indeed, one can argue that it isn't possible to really understand culture and history without also understanding religion. There are many books published each year dealing with religion, religious history and religious issues. Archived here are reviews of books which tend to take a skeptical or scholarly perspective on religion, past and present.

Recently Reviewed Books on Science and Skepticism
Society today requires science more than at any time in the past. Unfortunately, people today are often scientifically illiterate - they don't understand science and they don't understand how to think skeptically. Every year there are hundreds of books published which deal with science and skepticism, some of which deserve a closer look. A few of those are reviewed here on this site. Find out more about these books and also the skeptical, scientific approach to nature.

Recently Reviewed Books on Religion & Science
Religion and science are often seen to be in conflict - whether the specific subject is biology, physics, or even social sciences like psychology. To what degree is this perception accurate and to what degree are science and religion actually compatible? Take a look at some recent books on the topic and find out what they have to say.

Recently Reviewed Books on Secularism and Humanism
What are secularism and humanism? Is it possible for a person to live without religion? Is it possible to be moral without religion? Must society have a religion in order to maintain order? Are secularism and humanism superior to traditional religions? These questions and more are addressed in the books reviewed here.

Agnosticism / Atheism - TopPicks
An index of TopPicks for the Agnosticism / Atheism guide site.

Book Review: Sacred Choices: The Right to Contraception and Abortion in Ten World Religions, by Daniel C. Maguire.
Family planning, contraception and abortion are all intimately related issues which are often subject to rancorous debates in modern society and international politics. According to conventional wisdom, traditional religious beliefs and institutions are opposed to all three. According to conventional wisdom, religion is inevitably anti-choice in such matters. What if conventional wisdom is wrong?

Abortion
Can a fetus feel pain? Should abortion be legal? General questions, issues and ethics.

Book Review - Leaving Islam: Apostates Speak Out, edited by Ibn Warraq.
For most people in the West, leaving one's religion (apostasy) is simply not an issue of great concern. Some may be disappointed when such an event occurs, but today changing religions is so common that it just doesn't arouse much antagonism or anger — even the world "apostate" is hardly used anymore. That, however, is not the case in Islam where apostasy continues to be a crime punishable by death: those who are apostates must fear for their lives and even the lives of their families.

Book Review - Leaving Islam: Apostates Speak Out, edited by Ibn Warraq.


About Philosophy & Logic
It isn't easy to say what exactly philosophy is, how to study it, or how to 'do' it. So why has it long been one of the central subjects in Western academics? It is difficult to categorize philosophy because philosophizing makes up so much of what we do in life - there is no escaping it for anyone who want to think clearly or think about important subjects.

Book Review - Fundamentalism: The Search for Meaning, by Malise Ruthven.
During the Cold War most international conflicts were framed in the context of the United States vs. the Soviet Union. Today most conflicts seem to involve religion - specifically, religious fundamentalism. Although conflicts also involve economic or territorial issues, there is little doubt that without the driving force of fundamentalism, the problems wouldn't be as heated or violent. What, though, drives fundamentalism itself? What really fundamentalism and how has it affected world politics?

Book Review - Fundamentalism: The Search for Meaning, by Malise Ruthven.


Book Review - Sacred Pain: Hurting the Body for the Sake of the Soul, by Ariel Glucklich.
Sacred Pain: For most people, pain is something to be avoided: it is a sign that something is wrong and that something needs to be fixed. But for a few people, at least some times, pain is something sought after. There are even religious reasons to seek pain and discomfort. But why would people do this? Are they insane, or do they know something the rest of us don't?

Book Review - Sacred Pain: Hurting the Body for the Sake of the Soul, by Ariel Glucklich.


Book Review - In Search of Zarathustra: The First Prophet and the Ideas That Changed the World, by Paul Kriwaczek.
In Search of Zarathustra: Obscured by time, history, and overlays of conflicting religious dogmas lies a religion which few people understand, but which has arguably had a profound affect upon the lives of a large percentage of the people who have lived during the past couple of millennia: Zoroastrianism. Is it possible to cut through all of the interference and learn more?

Book Review - In Search of Zarathustra: The First Prophet and the Ideas That Changed the World, by Paul Kriwaczek.


Book Review - Spiritual but not Religious: Understanding Unchurched America, by Robert C. Fuller.
Spiritual but not Religious: A figure commonly cited in atheist circles is that around ten percent of the population in the United States are nonbelievers. The resulting assumption, understandably enough, seems to be that if ten percent are nonreligious, then the remaining ninety percent must be religious, right?

Book Review - Spiritual but not Religious: Understanding Unchurched America, by Robert C. Fuller.


Book Review - Tortured Subjects: Pain, Truth, and the Body in Early Modern France, by Lisa Silverman.
Tortured Subjects: People may understand that torture was once used as a normal part of the legal process in Europe, but do people really understand how and why? Is it because the system had so little regard for human suffering? Is it because the system was simply sadistic? Or was there perhaps a better reason, one which appeared reasonable at the time?

Book Review - Tortured Subjects: Pain, Truth, and the Body in Early Modern France, by Lisa Silverman.


Book Review - Women's Seclusion and Men's Honor: Sex Roles in North India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, David G. Mandelbaum.
Book Review: In Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Northern India, rumors about a woman having an affair, marrying a man of her choice, or even just spending time with the wrong man can cause irredeemable disgrace to her family. The only recourse for male relatives is violence: beatings, disfigurement, and sometimes murder. Female relatives of the offending male may even be raped for the sake of honor.

Book Review - Women's Seclusion and Men's Honor: Sex Roles in North India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, David G. Mandelbaum.


Do Atheists Have No Reason to be Moral? Are There No Atheistic Moral Standards?
For most religious theists, their religion and their god provide the basis for their entire understanding of morality and moral values. They thus find it inconceivable that atheists who don’t believe in any gods and who have no religion could possibly have a basis for morality or even understand what true moral behavior is. Many go further and argue that this is a good reason to reject atheism, saying that it leads to immoral behavior, that it cannot account for the existence of morality, etc.

Atheist Recipe Book: Collection of Recipes from the Atheist Community
Can atheists cook? You bet they can — and they come up with some pretty good recipes, too. Collected here on this site are a wide variety of recipes from atheists, agnostics, skeptics, humanists, and other members of the forum community and site members. If you have some really great recipes you use at home, consider contributing them to this collection so that they can be shared with the wider community.

What is the Gospel According to Mark? Background of Mark’s Gospel
The Gospel According to Mark is anonymous, undated, and has no direct information about the historical, social, or political context in which it was written. Because specific and direct information about where this gospel comes from is absent, scholars have had to act like detectives in order to figure out what, if anything, might be said about it with some authority.

Jesus’ Authority to Forgive Sins & Heal the Sick (Mark 2:6-12) - Analysis and Commentary
If God is the only one with authority to forgive people's sins, then Jesus assumes a great deal in forgiving the sins of a man who came to him to have his palsy healed. Naturally, there are a few who wonder about this and question whether Jesus should do it.

Gospel According to Mark: Introduction, Analysis, Commentary, Background, History
The shortest of the four canonical gospels, most biblical scholars regard Mark as the oldest and a primary source for much of the material contained in Luke and Matthew. For a long time Christians tended to ignore Mark in favor of the longer, more detailed texts of Matthew and Luke. After it was identified as the oldest and thus presumably most historically accurate, Mark has gained in popularity.

Introduction to the Gospels: What is a Gospel? What Do the Gospels Say About Jesus?
The word 'gospel' stems from the Middle English godspel (god: good, spel: news) which itself comes from Greek and means the 'good news' of some important event (like a birth or a victory). The term gospel appears often in Paul’s letters in reference to the significance of the person, life, and ministry of Jesus. Justin Martyr was the first to refer to 'gospels' in the plural, around 150 CE, and today the term is limited almost entirely to the four canonical gospels that appear in the New Testament: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.

Bible and the Old Testament: Scriptures, Laws, Commentary, Analysis
For Christians, the Old Testament is the collection of biblical scriptures which is derived from the Jewish tradition. For Protestants, the Old Testament is the same as what appears in the classical Jewish collections. For Roman Catholics, the Old Testament is this collection plus the Apocrypha.

Bible Study, Commenary & the Gospels: What is a Gospel? What Do the Gospels Say About Jesus?
This online Bible study provides commentary on the gospels and their place in the Bible. The word 'gospel' stems from the Middle English godspel (god: good, spel: news) which itself comes from Greek and means the 'good news' of some important event (like a birth or a victory). The term gospel appears often in Paul’s letters in reference to the significance of the person, life, and ministry of Jesus. Justin Martyr was the first to refer to 'gospels' in the plural, around 150 CE, and today the term is limited almost entirely to the four canonical gospels that appear in the New Testament: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.

Bible Study, Commentary, Analysis: Old Testament Scriptures, Laws
This online Bible study provides commentary on and analysis of the Old Testament. For Christians, the Old Testament is the collection of biblical scriptures which is derived from the Jewish tradition. For Protestants, it is the same as what appears in the classical Jewish collections. For Roman Catholics, it is this collection plus the Apocrypha. This online Bible study and commentary is independent of all these perspectives.

Stem Cell Research and the Elections: Michael J. Fox, Rush Limbaugh, and the Changing Political Landscape
Support for stem-cell research comes not a small interest group pushing a narrow agenda, rather a well organized effort by lobbyists from a broad set of disease and disability organizations, representing people suffering from cancer, paralysis, heart disease and various other illnesses. These groups have pulled together and with their significant money raising ability they are helping pro stem cell research candidates win important votes.