Chemistry Sitemap - Page 1 2016-09-26

About Chemistry: Chemistry Projects and Periodic Tables
Learn chemistry, get project instructions, and learn about chemical reactions, elements, and the periodic table.

Is Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) a Strong or Weak Acid?
Here is a look at whether HF or hydrofluoric acid is a strong acid or a weak acid and an explanation of the answer.

How To Make Homemade Magic Sand
Use two common household materials to make homemade Magic Sand, a special play sand that doesn't get wet in water.

How to Use a Scientific Calculator
You can't work science and math problems using a scientific calculator if you don't know which keys to press. Here's a review of how to use your calculator.

What Is the Density of Air at STP?
This is a look at the density of air at STP, the factors that affect air density, and how it is changed by temperature, pressure, and water vapor.

Use Boyle's Law To Find Volume of a Gas
Boyle's gas law states the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure, at constant temperature. Here's a Boyle's law example problem.

Charles' Law Example Problem
Charles' law is a special case of the ideal gas law at constant pressure. This example shows how to use Charles' law to solve gas problems.

Sulfuric Acid and Sugar Chemical Reaction
One of the most spectacular chemistry demonstrations is also one of the simplest. It's the dehydration of sugar (sucrose) with sulfuric acid.

Dissolving Salt in Water - Chemical or Physical Change?
Is dissolving salt in water a chemical change or a physical change? Here's the process that occurs and an explanation of the answer.

Where on a Magnet Is the Magnetic Force the Strongest?
Have you ever wondered where on a bar magnet the magnetic force is the strongest? Here is the answer to the question.

The Ingredients and Their Function in Coke Explained
At one time Coca-Cola or Coke contained cocaine. The beverage is still flavored with an extract from the coca leaf. Here are the ingredients in Coke.

How to Disinfect Rainwater for Drinking
Learn how to disinfect rainwater to use it for drinking water. Options are given for simple chemical treatment as well as heat.

What Is a Chemical Equation? Definition & Example
A chemical equation is a type of mass and charge relation in chemistry. Here's what a chemical equation is and some examples of chemical equations.

Names of 10 Bases With Chemical Structures and Formulas
Here is a list of ten common bases with their names, chemical structures, and chemical formulas.

Easy Steps for Balancing Chemical Equations
Learn how to balance chemical equations. These step by step instructions are simple enough for dummies. You're not dumb. You can do this!

Write the Unbalanced Chemical Equation
The first step in balancing chemical equations is to write the unbalanced chemical equation.

Write Down Number of Atoms
Once you have an unbalanced chemical equation, you need to add up the number of atoms for each element to balance the equation.

Add Coefficients To Balance Mass in a Chemical Equation
Add coefficients to chemical species to balance mass in a chemical equation.

Balance Oxygen and Hydrogen Atoms Last
When balancing chemical equations, the last step is to add coefficients to oxygen and hydrogen atoms.

Why Do Batteries Discharge More Quickly in Cold Weather
Batteries don't work equally well in hot weather and cold weather. Learn about the effect of temperature on battery performance.

Can You Smell Rain? - Geosmin and Petrichor
Learn the science behind what causes the smell of rain and lightning and why sometimes you can smell rain yet other times you can't.

How to Calculate Percent Error
Percent error or percentage error is the difference between an approximate or measured value and an exact or known value. Here is how to calculate percent error.

Electrolyzed Water - Miracle Liquid?
Water is already pretty great stuff. Electrolyzed water is also amazing. Here's a look at what it is and how it works.

What Is The Difference Between Diffusion and Effusion?
Understand the difference between diffusion and effusion of a gas and find out which is faster.

What Is a Control Group?
A scientific experiment may be designed with a control group. Here's what a control group is and how it helps increase the validity of an experiment.

What Type of Bonds Does Carbon Form?
Carbon and its bonds are key to understanding chemistry. Here's the most common type of bond formed by carbon and the other chemical bonds it forms.

What Is the Heaviest Element?
Are you wondering which element is the heaviest? Here's an answer to the question and the explanation why it's hard to pick just one element.

Name Five Nonmetals and Five Metals
It's important to be able to distinguish between metals and nonmetals. Here is a list of five metals and five nonmetals and how to tell them apart.

List of Common Polyatomic Ions - Names, Formulas and Charges
This is a list of some of the most common polyatomic ions. It is worth committing the polyatomic ions to memory, including their molecular formulas and ionic charge.

Balancing Equations Chemistry Test Questions
Balancing chemical equations is a basic skill in chemistry. This collection of ten chemistry test questions deals with balancing chemical reactions.

Calculate Root Mean Square Velocity of Gas Particles
This example problem demonstrates how to calculate the root mean square velocity of particles in an ideal gas.

Gas Constant (R) - Chemistry Definition
The gas constant or R is an important constant in the ideal gas law. This is the definition and value of the gas constant.

Quartz Triboluminescence
Quartz triboluminescence is the easiest form of triboluminescent light to observe. Quartz is the most common mineral, plus the procedure is simple.

Why the Dead Sea Is Dead (or Is It?)
Learn why the Dead Sea is dead, exactly how salty it is, and why so many people drown in its waters.

What Are Elements? - Definition and Introduction
What are elements? The chemical elements are central to the study of chemistry. Here is the element definition and examples.

How To Make a Fruit Battery
If you have fruit, nails, and wire then you can make a fruit battery to generate electricity to turn on a light bulb. Here's what you do.

What Is a Base Metal? Definition and Examples
Base metals are used in jewelry and industry. Here is the explanation of what a base metal is, along with several examples.

How to Grow Bismuth Crystals
Bismuth is one of the easiest and prettiest metal crystals that you can grow. Try these step-by-step instructions for growing bismuth crystals.

What Is the Difference Between Molarity and Normality?
Both molarity and normality are measures of concentration. Here are the definitions of these terms and how to use them in chemistry calculations.

Metallic Character - Properties and Trends
Learn what is meant by the metallic character of an element and the metallic character trend on the periodic table.

How To Melt Aluminum Cans at Home
It's easy and straightforward to recycle your own aluminum. Here's how to melt aluminum cans at home.

Why Are Flamingos the Color Pink?
Have you wondered why flamingos are pink or orange? You've probably heard it has to do with what flamingos eat. Here's the exact cause of the color.

Mass Percent Composition - Sample Chemistry Problem
Mass percent is a way to express the concentration of a substance in a mixture or element in a compound. Here's an example mass percent calculation.

What Is the Rydberg Formula? Definition and Examples
The Rydberg formula is a mathematical equation used to predict the wavelength of light of the elements. Here's how it works.

Transition Metals - Properties of the Element Group
Here's a list of transition metals. Learn about the characteristics and common properties of the transition metal element group.

How Much Water is a Mole of Water?
How much is a mole of water? A mole is a unit of measuring quantity. It is simple to calculate the weight and volume of a mole of water.

How to Prepare Common Acid Solutions
Learn how to prepare common acid solutions using this handy table. Recipes are included for sulfuric, nitric, hydrochloric acid and more.

Table of Electrical Resistivity and Conductivity
This is a table of electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity of several materials and a look at the factors that affect conductivity.

What Happens if You Mix Regular and Synthetic Oil?
Have you ever wondered what happens if you mix regular and synthetic motor oils? Here's the answer and whether mixing oils could damage the engine.

6th Grade Science Fair Projects
Get ideas for 6th grade science fair projects. These are topics and experiments suitable for upper grade school or entry level into middle school.

Water Intoxication & Hyponatremia
Is it really possible to drink to much water? Learn about water intoxication and hyponatremia.

Heat Capacity Worked Example Problem
This example problem demonstrates how to calculate the amount of heat required to change the temperature of a substance.

Calculate Energy Required To Turn Ice into Steam
This worked example problem demonstrates how to calculate the energy required to raise the temperature of a sample that includes changes in phase. This problem finds the energy required to turn cold ice into hot steam.

Heat of Vaporization Example Problem
This example problem demonstrates how to calculate the amount of heat required to change the phase of a substance from liquid to gas using the heat of vaporization.

10 Lithium Element Facts - Lightest Metal
Here are 10 interesting and fun facts about lithium, the third element on the periodic table and the lightest metal.

10 Calcium Element Facts You Should Know
Calcium is one of the elements you need in order to live, so it's worth knowing a little bit about it. Here are quick facts about the element calcium.

10 Interesting Facts About Mercury (Element)
Here are 10 interesting mercury element facts, including its properties, uses, history, and sources.

Homemade Non-Toxic Tattoo Ink Recipe
The earliest tattoo inks came from nature. Here's a homemade tattoo ink recipe that uses simple, non-toxic natural ingredients.

7th Grade Science Fair Projects
Find an idea for a 7th grade science fair project or a science project targeted at the intermediate middle school level.

Understand the Visible Spectrum (Wavelengths and Colors)
Learn the wavelengths that correspond to the colors of visible light, plus learn about colors the human eye can't see.

How To Make Ice Cream in a Bag
Make ice cream in a bag to get a tasty treat while learning about the science of freezing point depression and phase changes.

10 Nitrogen Facts - Learn About Element Atomic Number 7
Nitrogen is an element you encounter every day. Here are 10 handy facts for the element nitrogen.

How to Preserve a Carved Halloween Jack o Lantern
Your carved pumpkin or jack o lantern doesn't have to rot or mold before Halloween! See how to preserve a pumpkin so it will last weeks and not days.

What Is Petroleum Jelly? Chemical Composition
Petroleum jelly or petrolatum is a paraffin-like material. Here is a look at what petroleum jelly is and its chemical composition.

Photographic Periodic Table of the Elements
This photographic periodic table of the elements includes thumbnails to show pictures of the elements.

How to Make a Storm Glass To Predict the Weather
Use your knowledge of chemistry to make a storm glass to help you predict the weather. Crystals form when a storm approaches.

How To Make Giant Unpoppable Bubbles
Learn how to make huge bubbles strong enough to pick up and examine. These giant bubbles are harder to pop than the regular kind.

Understand Chemistry Unit Conversions
Learn how to do chemistry unit conversions and review the most common units of measurement and conversion factors.

How to Remove Ball Point Pen Ink
Ball point pen ink is not removed with soap and water, but there is an easy and inexpensive way to remove ink from surfaces or clothing. Here's how.

Cerium Facts - Ce or Atomic Number 58
Get periodic table facts on the chemical and physical properties of the element cerium or atomic number 58.

Make Hot Ice - Heating Pad Chemistry
Here's an easy chemistry project you can do in which you take a clear liquid and instantaneously solidify it into hot 'ice'.

Are Avocado Seeds Edible? Are They Poisonous?
Learn about the toxin or poison in avocado seeds or pits and whether it poses a health risk to people or pets.

Toxic Holiday Plants and the Risk to Children and Pets
Some popular holiday plants can be poisonous or toxic, especially to children and pets. Here's a look at some of the most common poisonous holiday plants and also reassurance about plants many people think are poisonous that really aren't that dangerous.

10 Common Naturally Radioactive Foods
Learn about 10 common foods that are naturally radioactive and find out how much radiation you get from eating them.

How To Make Green Fire
It's easy to make brilliant green fire. This cool chemistry project only takes two household chemicals.

What Is The Formula For Boyle's Law?
Boyle's Law is a special case of the ideal gas law. Here's the formula for the law and an example of how to use it.

Normality Definition - Chemistry Glossary
This is the definition of normality as the term is used in chemistry, along with examples of normal solutions and how to calculate normality.

Heat of Fusion Example Problem - Melting Ice
This example problem demonstrates how to calculate the heat required to change the phase of a substance from solid to liquid using the heat of fusion.

Why Dead Fish Float Upside Down
You've likely seen a dead fish floating in the water and may have noticed they often go belly up, literally. Here's the science behind the phenomenon.

Vinegar (Acetic Acid) Molecular and Structural Formula
This is the chemical or molecular formula of vinegar, along with chemistry facts about this important molecule.

Electron Domain Definition and Example
This is the definition of an electron domain in chemistry, with example of the electron domain Lewis structure of carbon dioxide.

What Causes Swimmer's Hair? - Causes & Prevention
If you swim and your hair is dry and damaged, you may have swimmer's hair. Here are the causes of swimmer's hair and how to prevent or fix it.

What Are Olympic Medals Made Of?
Do you ever wonder if the Olympic gold medals really gold? Here's the metal composition of Olympic medals and how it's changed over time.

Amber Photo
This rough piece of amber contains an insect. Page 5.

Amber with Insect
This piece of amber contains an insect inclusion. Page 3.

Apatite Crystals Gemstone
Apatite is the name given to a group of phosphate minerals. Page 10.

Australian Opal Gemstone
This is a polished Australian opal cabochon, a colorful gemstone. Page 45.

Aventurine Gemstone
Aventurine is a form of quartz which contains mineral inclusions that give a glistening effect known as aventurescence. Page 12.

Benitoite Gemstone
These are blue crystals of the rare barium titanium silicate mineral called benitoite. Page 15.

Chrysocolla Gemstone
This is a polished nugget of the mineral chrysocolla. Chrysocolla is a hydrated copper silicate. Page 20.

Cymophane or Catseye Chrysoberyl Gemstone
Cymophane or catseye chrysoberyl exhibits chatoyancy due to needle-like inclusions of rutile. Page 22.

Diamond Gemstone Photo
This is a photo of a faceted ideal diamond, a rare and beautiful gemstone. Page 24.

Fluorite Gemstone Crystals
This is a photo of fluorite. Fluorite or fluorspar is an isometric mineral composed of calcium fluoride. Page 30.

Fluorite or Fluorspar Gemstone Crystals
These are blue fluorite crystals. Fluorite also occurs in other colors. Page 29.

Faceted Garnet Gemstone
This is a faceted gemstone-quality garnet. Page 31.

Heliodor Crystal Gemstone
This is an image of heliodor. Heliodor is also known as golden beryl. Page 33.

Jasper Gemstone
This is a polished orbicular jasper that comes from Madagascar. Page 38.

Sugilite or Luvulite
Sugilite or luvulite is an uncommon pink to purple cyclosilicate mineral. Page 60.

Sunstone - Oligoclase Sunstone
Sunstone is a sodium calcium aluminum silicate. Sunstone contains inclusions of red hematite that give it a sun-spangled appearance, leading to its popularity as a gemstone. Sunstone is a type of plagioclase feldspar. Page 61.

Cubic Zirconia or CZ Gemstone
Cubic zirconia or CZ is a diamond simulant made from zirconium oxide. Page 69.

Gemmy Beryl Emerald Crystal
This is a 12-sided beryl crystal from Colombia. Green gemstone-quality beryl is called emerald. Page 70.

Agate Gemstone
This photo gallery showcases a variety of mineral used as gemstones.

Alexandrite Gemstone
Alexandrite is a variety of chrysoberyl that displays a light-dependent color change. Page 2.

Ametrine Gemstone
This is a cut purple and yellow ametrine. Page 9.

Azurite Gemstone
Azurite is a blue gemstone. Chemistry. Page 13.

Beryl Crystal Gemstone Photo
This is a photo of an uncut beryl crystal. Page 16.

Chrysoberyl Gemstone
This is a photo of a faceted chrysoberyl gemstone. Page 19.

Emerald Gemstone Crystals
This is a collection of rough emeralds from a mine in North Carolina, USA. Page 28.

Uncut Emerald Gemstone
This is a photo of a rough emerald crystal. Page 27.

Heliotrope or Bloodstone Gemstone
This is a photo of polished heliotrope, also known as bloodstone. Page 34.

Hematite Gemstone
This is a photo of rough hematite, which can be polished to yield a metallic-looking gemstone. Page 35.

Iolite Gemstone
Iolite is a deep blue-violet gemstone. This is an example of a cut specimen. Page 37.

Morganite Gemstone
This is a photo of a rough morganite sample. Morganite is a pink gemstone. Page 41.

Opal Vein Gemstone
Veins of opal often occur between other minerals, as shown in this photo. Page 44.

Opal Gemstone
This is a photo of rough opal, a colorful gemstone. Page 43.

Pearls - Gemstone
Pearls are one of the few gemstones made by living organisms. Page 47.

Quartz Crystal - Gem Quality
This is a photograph of a quartz crystal. Page 51.

Red Topaz Gemstone
Red topaz is one of the colors of this beautiful gemstone mineral. Page 63.

Rose Quartz Gemstone
This is a sample of rough rose quartz, a pink silicate gemstone. Page 42.

Smoky Quartz Gemstone
Here are points of smoky quartz gemstones. Page 52.

Star Sapphire - Star of India Gemstone
This is a famous sapphire gemstone, the Star of India. Page 57.

Topaz Gemstone
This is a crystal of topaz, a valuable gemstone. Page 64.

Tourmaline Gemstone
This is a faceted and polished green tourmaline gemstone. Page 66.

Tri-Color Tourmaline
Tourmaline is a silicate mineral that often displays multiple colors in a single crystal. Page 67.

Amber Gemstone
Amber is an organic gemstone. Chemistry. Page 4.

Amethyst Gemstone Photo
This is a natural amethyst crystal. Page 7.

Amethyst Gemstone
This is a picture of amethyst crystals. Page 6.

Aquamarine Gemstone
Aquamarine is a watery blue gemstone. Page 11.

Azurite Crystal Gemstone
Here is a photo of the mineral azurite. Azurite crystals are blue. Page 14.

Carnelian Gemstone
Carnelian ranges in color from orange to red. Page 18.

Citrine Gemstone
This is a photo of a faceted citrine gem. Page 21.

Diamonds - Gemstone
This is a collection of cut diamonds. Page 25.

Emerald Gemstone
Emerald is a green to blue-green gemstone. Page 26.

Garnets in Quartz - Gem Quality
These are rough gemmy garnets with quartz. Page 32.

Hiddenite Gemstone
This is photo of a small hiddenite rough gemstone. Page 36.

Kyanite Gemstone
This is a sample of rough blue kyanite. Page 39.

Malachite Gemstone
Malachite is a banded green gemstone. This is a photo of a polished specimen. Page 40.

Olivine or Peridot Gemstone
Olivine or peridot is a lime-green gemstone commonly found with volcanoes. Page 49.

Rough Opal
Here is an example of rough opal, a silicate gemstone. Page 46.

Pearl Gemstone
Here is a pearl inside the shell of a mollusk. Page 48.

Quartz Crystal Gemstone
These are pointed crystals of the silicate gemstone quartz. Page 50.

Uncut Ruby
Here is a rough ruby gemstone, usually seen in a red or pink coloration. Page 54.

Ruby Gemstone
This is a cut ruby gemstone, a form of corundum. Page 53.

Sapphire Gemstone
This is an example of a cut and set sapphire gem. Page 55.

Sodalite Gemstone
This is a rough specimen of the gemstone sodalite. Page 58.

Spinel Gemstone
These are two examples of spinel crystals, a gemstone made of magnesium, aluminum, and oxygen. Page 59.

Star Sapphire Gemstone
Here is an example of a polished star sapphire gem. Page 56.

Tanzanite Gemstone
Tanzanite is a rare gemstone, usually seen in blue-violet, although color depends on its orientation in light, Page 62.

Turquoise Gemstone
Turquoise is an opaque mineral, commonly seen in blue or green forms. Page 68.

Amethyst Geode Gemstone
These are crystals of amethyst from Brazil. Page 8.

Beryl Gemstone
This is a magnified image of a beryl crystal. Page 17.

Rough Diamond Gemstone
This is a photo of a rough diamond crystal, which can be cut to produce a gemstone. Page 23.

Topaz - Gem Quality
Topaz can occur in almost any color. This is a gem-quality topaz. Page 65.

Gemstone Photo Gallery
See photos of rough and cut gemstones and learn about the chemistry of the minerals.

Gemstone Photo Gallery
See photos of rough and cut gemstones and learn about the chemistry of the minerals.

Gemstone Photo Gallery
See photos of rough and cut gemstones and learn about the chemistry of the minerals.

Gemstone Photo Gallery
See photos of rough and cut gemstones and learn about the chemistry of the minerals.

Gemstone Photo Gallery
See photos of rough and cut gemstones and learn about the chemistry of the minerals.

Gemstone Photo Gallery
See photos of rough and cut gemstones and learn about the chemistry of the minerals.

Here's the Reason Why Dry Ice Makes Fog
Dry ice is used for smoke and fog special effects. Learn what dry ice is and how it makes fog.

Covalent Bond: Definition and Example (Chemistry)
This is the definition of a covalent bond as the term is used in chemistry, with examples of molecules that exhibit covalent bonding.

Green Snow
This is green Antarctic snow. The snow is green due to the presence of Chlamydomonas algae. The colored snow is sometimes called 'watermelon snow' both because of its color (red or green) and because it reportedly tastes and smells sweet. Eating colored colored snow is inadvisable, since the algae can cause illness. Page 39.

Ice Crystals
Ice Crystals. Chemistry. Page 38.

Snow Crystals - Scanning Electron Microscope
Snow Crystals - Scanning Electron Microscope. Page 37.

Snow Machine Snow
Snow Machine Snow. Chemistry. Page 35.

Column Snowflakes
Column Snowflakes. Chemistry. Page 5.

Column and Bullet Snowflakes
Column and Bullet Snowflakes. Chemistry. Page 6.

Dendritic Snow Crystal
Dendritic Snow Crystal. Chemistry. Page 19.

Fernlike Stellar Dendrite Snowflake
Fernlike Stellar Dendrite Snowflake. Page 20.

Graupel
Graupel. Chemistry. Page 26.

Hail
Hail. Chemistry. Page 23.

Hexagonal Plate Snow Crystal
Hexagonal Plate Snow Crystal. Chemistry. Page 10.

Hexagonal Plate Snowflake
Hexagonal Plate Snowflake. Chemistry. Page 13.

Hexagonal Plate Snowflake
Hexagonal Plate Snowflake. Chemistry. Page 15.

Irregular Snow Crystals
Irregular Snow Crystals. Chemistry. Page 9.

Needle Snow Crystals
Needle Snow Crystals. Chemistry. Page 8.

Rimed Snow Crystal
Rimed Snow Crystal. Chemistry. Page 24.

Snowflake with a Star
Snowflake with a Star. Chemistry. Page 12.

Snowflake
Snowflake. Chemistry. Page 36.

Stellar Dendrite Snowflake
Stellar Dendrite Snowflake. Chemistry. Page 22.

Stellar Dendrite Snowflake
Stellar Dendrite Snowflake. Chemistry. Page 18.

Stellar Plate Snowflake
Stellar Plate Snowflake. Chemistry. Page 16.

Dendritic Snowflake
Dendritic Snowflake. Chemistry. Page 17.

Fernlike Dendritic Snow Crystal
Fernlike Dendritic Snow Crystal. Chemistry. Page 21.

Branched Hexagonal Plate Snow Crystal
Branched Hexagonal Plate Snow Crystal. Page 14.

Hexagonal Plate Snow Crystal
Hexagonal Plate Snow Crystal. Chemistry. Page 11.

Hexagonal Plate Snow Crystal
Hexagonal Plate Snow Crystal. Chemistry. Page 7.

Ice Crystal Closeup
Ice Crystal Closeup. Chemistry. Page 28.

Ice Found by the Mars Phoenix
Ice Found by the Mars Phoenix. Chemistry. Page 31.

Snow Crystal False Color Micrograph
Snow Crystal False Color Micrograph. Page 34.

Snowflake - Fernlike Stellar Dendrite
Snowflake - Fernlike Stellar Dendrite. Page 2.

Hoar Frost
Hoar Frost. Chemistry. Page 29.

Hoarfrost - Ice Crystals
Hoarfrost - Ice Crystals. Chemistry. Page 27.

Ice Crystals
Ice Crystals. Chemistry. Page 30.

Rime
Rime. Chemistry. Page 25.

Snow Crystal - Tsuzumi Form
Snow Crystal - Tsuzumi Form. Chemistry. Page 4.

Snow Crystal
Snow Crystal. Chemistry. Page 33.

Snow Images
Snow Images - Scanning Electron Micrographs

Snowflake Electromicrograph
Snowflake Electromicrograph. Chemistry. Page 3.

Wilson Bentley's Snowflakes
Wilson Bentley's Snowflakes. Chemistry. Page 32.

Snowflake Photo Gallery
Snowflakes take many forms. This is a photo gallery of snowflakes and ice crystals.

Snowflake Photo Gallery
Snowflakes take many forms. This is a photo gallery of snowflakes and ice crystals.

Snowflake Photo Gallery
Snowflakes take many forms. This is a photo gallery of snowflakes and ice crystals.

Snowflake Photo Gallery
Snowflakes take many forms. This is a photo gallery of snowflakes and ice crystals.

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Scientific Equipment and Instruments
Find images of laboratory equipment and instruments, including glassware and antique items.

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Pictures of Chemicals - Photo Gallery of Chemical Samples
Sometimes it is helpful to see pictures of chemicals so that you know what to expect when dealing with them and so you can recognize when a chemical doesn't look the way it should. This is a collection of photographs of various chemicals that might be found in a chemistry laboratory.

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Dalton's Alchemy Symbols - Alchemy and Chemistry Symbols Used by Dalton in the 19th Century
Dalton used specific alchemy and chemistry symbols for his research in the 19th century. These are his symbols for the elements and common chemical compounds.

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What Is a Primary Standard? Definition & Examples
This is the definition of a primary standard as the term in used in chemistry (particularly analytical chemistry) as well as an example.

pOH Calculations - Chemistry Quick Review of pOH
Sometimes you are asked to calculate pOH rather than pH. Here's a review of the pOH definition and an example calculation.

Why Veins Look Blue Even Though Blood Is Red
Your blood is red even when it is deoxygenated, so why do veins look blue? They aren't really blue, but here is the reason why veins look that way.

What Is Oxidation? - Definition and Example
This is the definition of oxidation as the term is used in chemistry, along with examples of oxidation or redox reactions.

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Know the 5 Kinds of Nucleotides
Learn about the 5 kinds of nucleotides, including their names, structures, and how they form DNA and RNA molecules.

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Energy From Wavelength Example Problem
This example problem demonstrates how to find the energy of a photon from its wavelength and discusses the energy equation.

Find Energy From Frequency - Worked Example Problem
This example problem demonstrates how to find the energy of a photon from its frequency.

Compounds with Ionic and Covalent Bonds
Some compounds contain both ionic and covalent bonds. Here are examples of compounds that exhibit both types of chemical bonding.

What Are the Seven Diatomic Elements?
There are seven elements that form homonuclear diatomic molecules or simple molecules with their own atoms. This is a list of the 7 diatomic elements.

The Thermite Reaction Chemical Reaction
The exact chemical reaction involved in the thermite reaction depends on the metals that you used, but you're essentially oxidizing or burning metal. Here's a typical reaction plus a look at some metals that can be used in the thermite reaction.

Thermite Reaction - Instructions and Chemistry
The thermite reaction is a highly exothermic reaction in which metal essentially burns. Here's how you can perform the thermite reaction safely.

Prepare the Thermite Mixture
You need a metal and a metal oxide to prepare the thermite mixture. It's an extremely easy reaction to set up.

Perform the Thermite Reaction
Once you have the thermite mixture, it is extremely simple to ignite the mixture to initiate the thermite reaction. However, you need a special heat source to achieve the high temperature required for the reaction.

m or M? Difference Between Molarity and Molality
M and m are two units of concentration in chemistry. Here is an explanation of the difference between molarity and molality.

Why Does the Pool Turn Blonde Hair Green?
Do you think it's the chlorine in the swimming pool that turns blonde hair green? Guess again. Here's the real reason for hair discoloration.

What Is a Polar Bond? Definition and Examples
This is the definition of polar bond as the term is used in chemistry, with examples of molecules that have polar bonds.

Are the Olympic Gold Medals Real Gold?
You can tell the Olympic gold medals are colored like gold, but are they solid gold or even real gold? Here's the answer to the question.

What Is a Chemical? (and What Isn't One)
Are you wondering what makes a chemical a chemical? Here's the answer to this frequently asked chemistry question.

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Chemical Structures Starting with the Letter O
Browse structures of molecules and ions that have names beginning with the letter O, like ovalene and oxalic acid.

How To Substitute Baking Powder and Baking Soda
Baking powder and baking soda are leavening agents that help baked goods to rise. Here is exactly how to substitute baking powder and baking soda.

Controlled Variable Definition (Control)
This is the definition and examples of a controlled variable or constant variable, also known simply as a control.

Chemistry Laboratory Safety Rules
Make your chemistry laboratory experience safe by following these simple lab safety rules. The reasons for the rules are explained.

How Much Is an Olympic Gold Medal Worth?
The Olympic gold medal is extremely valuable, both in terms of its precious metal value and its historic value. Here's a look at how much the Olympic gold medal is worth today.

How to Find the Volume in a Test Tube
Learn how to find the volume of liquid in a test tube and report the value using the correct number of significant figures.

Chemical Composition of the Human Body
This is the chemical composition of the average adult human body in terms of elements and major compounds.

Molarity Definition (As Used in Chemistry)
Here is the molarity definition in chemistry, as well as examples of how to calculate it and interpret the value.

What Is the Boiling Point of Alcohol?
The boiling point of alcohol depends on the type of alcohol and the atmospheric pressure. Here is the boiling point of different types of alcohol.

What Happens If You Eat Silica Gel Beads?
Silica gel beads are those little packets that say

Element Group Versus Element Period
Groups and periods are two ways to categorize elements on the periodic table. See how to tell them apart and how they relate to periodic table trends.

What Is Brass? - Definition and Properties
Brass is a common useful metal. Here's a look at what brass is made of and information about its chemistry.

Noble Gases - Properties of Element Groups
Get information about the properties shared by the noble gases or inert gases and a list of the elements in this group.

What Is the Boiling Point of Milk?
You may need to know the boiling point of milk for cooking or you may simply be curious. Here's the boiling point of milk and factors that affect it.

Exceptions to the Octet Rule
The octet rule is used to predict compound molecular structures . Here are the exceptions to the octet rule and how it applies to Lewis structures..

10 Helium Facts - Atomic Number 2 on the Periodic Table
Here are ten quick facts about the element helium, which is atomic number 2 on the periodic table and has the element symbol He.

What Is Chemistry? - Definition
What is chemistry? Here is a dictionary definition for chemistry as well as a more in-depth description of what chemistry is.

Indicator Definition - Chemistry Glossary
This is the definition of an indicator in chemistry along with examples of different types of indicators.

10 Interesting Facts About the Element Oxygen
Learn 10 interesting facts about the element oxygen, including its color, characteristics, and characteristics.

Radioactivity Definition
This is the chemistry glossary definition of radioactivity.

Metal Jewelry Stamps & Marks
Jewelry made from precious metals is stamped with a mark to indicate metal chemical composition. Here's what different quality marks mean.

What Is Distillation? - Principles and Uses
Here is an explanation of the process of distillation, a common method used in chemistry to separate substances.

What Is a pH Meter?
This is the definition of pH meter as the term is used in chemistry and a description of how it looks.

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Chemical Structures Starting with the Letter F
Browse structures of molecules and ions that have names beginning with the letter F, such as formaldehyde and folic acid.

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Acids - Chemical Structures of Acids
This is an image gallery of the chemical structures of acids, such as hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid.

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Chemical Structures Starting with the Letter G
Browse structures of molecules and ions that have names beginning with the letter G, such as glucose.

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