Chemistry Sitemap - Page 25 2016-09-26

Joe 4 - Soviet Nuclear Test 4 - Sloika or Layer Cake Design
This is a photograph of the nuclear explosion of the RDS-6s device, the fifth Soviet nuclear test which was called Joe 4 in the US. Page 22.

Atomic Bomb Cake
This cake was served at a Washington party November 5, 1946 to celebrate the success of the atomic testing program and the disbanding of the Joint Army-Navy Task Force Number One which organized and oversaw the first postwar atomic test in the Pacific. Page 24.

Beaker & Flask
This is a photo of a beaker and a flask, two common pieces of chemistry lab glassware. Page 2.

Beakers
Beakers are important pieces of chemistry lab glassware. Page 24.

Chemist Girl Holding Flask
This girl is holding a flask of liquid. Page 7.

Chemist Picture
Picture of a chemist examining a flask of liquid. Page 19.

Chemist Pouring a Solution
Synthetic chemist Julie Perkins pours a chemical from a round-bottom flask. Page 12.

Chlorine Liquid
This is a flask of liquid chlorine. Chlorine gas and liquid are yellow. Page 10.

Erlenmeyer Bulb
An Erlenmeyer bulb is another name for a round bottom flask. Page 13.

Erlenmeyer Flask
An Erlenmeyer flask is a type of laboratory flask with a conical base and cylindrical neck. Page 23.

Erlenmeyer Flasks
Erlenmeyer flasks of ink in soybean oil and a petroleum-derived oil. Page 17.

Female Chemist with Flask
This female chemist is holding a flask of liquid. Page 9.

Flask & Circuit
This is a photo of a flask and a circuit. Page 4.

Flask of Blue Liquid
This is a flask of blue liquid. Chemistry. Page 21.

Flask of Green Liquid
A gloved hand swirls an Erlenmeyer flask containing a green liquid. Page 6.

Flask of Pink Liquid
This is the silhouette of man holding a flask of pink liquid. Page 22.

Flask
This is a photo of a flask, a common piece of laboratory glassware. Page 16.

Flasks
Here are some flasks for chemistry. Page 18.

Florence Flask
A Florence flask or boiling flask is a round-bottom borosilicate glass. Page 14.

Funnel & Flask
Cornell Student Taran Sirvent prepares Hypericum perforatum for chemical analysis. Page 15.

Iodine Vapor
This is a flask of elemental iodine vapor. Page 11.

Meniscus Girl
Girl age 10-12 reads the meniscus level on a beaker. Page 20.

Orange Liquid in a Flask - Old Nassau Reaction or Halloween Reaction
Orange Liquid in a Flask - Old Nassau Reaction or Halloween Reaction. Page 5.

Pink Liquid in a Flask
This is a silhouette of a man holding a flask of pink liquid. Page 3.

Volumetric Flask
Volumetric flasks are used to accurately prepare solutions for chemistry. Page 8.

Tsar Bomba Fireball
This is the fireball resulting from the Russian Tsar Bomba explosion (RDS-220), the most powerful detonation of any nuclear weapon. Tsar Bomba was dropped from over 10 km and detonated at 4 km. Its fireball did not reach the surface, although it extended nearly to the altitude of the Tu-95 bomber that deployed it. Page 26.

Tsar Bomba Mushroom Cloud
This is the mushroom cloud resulting from the Russian Tsar Bomba explosion, the most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated. The 100 megaton intended yield of Tsar Bomba was intentionally reduced to 50 megatons to limit nuclear fallout from the bomb. Page 25.

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849 - 1936)
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849 - 1936). Page 5.

Joseph Priestley (1733 - 1804)
Joseph Priestley (1733 - 1804). Chemistry. Page 13.

Linus Pauling (1901 - 1994)
Linus Pauling (1901 - 1994). Chemistry. Page 4.

Augusto Righi (1850 - 1920)
Augusto Righi (1850 - 1920). Chemistry. Page 10.

Charles Richter (1900 - 1985)
Charles Richter (1900 - 1985). Chemistry. Page 7.

Charles Robert Richet (1850 - 1935)
Charles Robert Richet (1850 - 1935). Page 6.

Ellen Swallow Richards (1842 - 1911)
Ellen Swallow Richards (1842 - 1911). Page 5.

Francois-Marie Raoult (1830 - 1901)
Francois-Marie Raoult (1830 - 1901). Page 2.

Frederick Reines (1918 - 1998)
Frederick Reines (1918 - 1998). Chemistry. Page 4.

Guillaume François Rouelle (1703 - 1770)
Guillaume François Rouelle (1703 - 1770). Page 15.

Henri-Victor Regnault (1810 - 1878)
Henri-Victor Regnault (1810 - 1878). Page 3.

Hermann Rorschach (1884 - 1922)
Hermann Rorschach (1884 - 1922). Chemistry. Page 14.

Isaac Roberts (1829 - 1904)
Isaac Roberts (1829 - 1904). Chemistry. Page 11.

Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier (1754 - 1785)
Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier (1754 - 1785). Page 16.

Jeremias Richter (1762 - 1807)
Jeremias Richter (1762 - 1807). Chemistry. Page 8.

Martin Rodbell (1925 - 1998)
Martin Rodbell (1925 - 1998). Chemistry. Page 12.

Ronald Ross (1857 - 1932)
Ronald Ross (1857 - 1932). Chemistry. Page 13.

Sally Ride
Sally Ride. Chemistry. Page 9.

August Wilhelm von Hofmann (1818 - 1892)
August Wilhelm von Hofmann (1818 - 1892). Page 5.

Emil Adolf von Behring (1854 - 1917)
Emil Adolf von Behring (1854 - 1917). Page 4.

Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci self portrait. Chemistry. Page 3.

Paul Vieille (1854 - 1934)
Paul Vieille (1854 - 1934). Chemistry. Page 2.

Face Mask and Gloves
Face Mask and Gloves. Chemistry.

Hazmat Suit
The DEA agents are wearing level B hazmat suits to protect them from dangerous materials. Page 7.

Kids Wearing Safety Goggles
These kids are wearing safety goggles to protect their eyes. Page 2.

Lab Safety
This scientist is illustrating the use of several pieces of protective gear, including gloves, eye protection, and a lab coat. Page 4.

Mission-Oriented Protective Posture or MOPP Gear
Operation Iraqi Freedom, US Marine Corps soldier wearing Mission-Oriented Protective Posture response level 4 (MOPP-4) gear. March 20, 2003. Page 5.

NBC Suits
These NATO soldiers are wearing nuclear, chemical and biological protective gear known as NBC suits. Page 8.

Purple Nitrile Glove
This type 6 purple nitrile glove is used to protect the hands from liquid chemicals. Page 6.

Safety Glasses
Everyone who sets foot in a chemistry lab should have a pair of safety glasses handy. Page 3.

Alum Crystals
In the Smithsonian kits, these are called 'frosty diamonds'. The crystals are alum on a rock. Page 8.

Copper Sulfate Crystals
These are blue crystals of copper sulfate pentahydrate, which is known as copper sulphate pentahydrate in the UK. Page 108.

Lopezite Crystals
Potassium dichromate crystals occur naturally as the rare mineral lopezite. Page 110.

Copper Sulfate Crystals
These are crystals of copper sulfate which forms a mineral known as chalcanthite. Page 112.

Hot Ice Crystals
These are crystals of hot ice or sodium acetate. Page 43.

Sodium Acetate Crystals
These are crystals of hot ice or sodium acetate. Page 85.

Sodium Acetate Crystals
These are crystals of sodium acetate or hot ice. Page 86.

Ear Protection Required Sign
This symbol or sign indicates ear protection is required. Page 4.

Eye Protection Required Sign
This sign or symbol means that proper eye protection must be worn. Page 3.

Gloves Required Symbol
Gloves Required Symbol. Chemistry. Page 7.

Protective Clothing Required Symbol
Protective Clothing Required Symbol. Page 5.

Protective Eyewear Sign
Mandatory Eye or Face Protection Symbol. Page 2.

Protective Footwear Required Sign
Protective Footwear Required Sign. Page 6.

Respiratory Protection Sign
Respiratory Protection Sign. Chemistry.

Gas Mask - East German National People's Army
This is a gas mask that was used by the NVA (National People's Army) in Easy Germany. Page 15.

Iranian Soldier Wearing Gas Mask
This is a photograph of an Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran-Iraq War (March 2007). Page 14.

WWI Tear Gas Casualties
British 55th (West Lancashire) Division troops blinded by tear gas await treatment near Bethune during the Battle of Estaires, 10 April 1918. Page 12.

Crocoite Crystals
These are crystals of crocoite from the Red Lead Mine, Tasmania, Australia. Crocoite is a lead chromate mineral that forms monoclinic crystals. Crocoite may be used as chrome yellow, a paint pigment. Page 106.

Blue Copper Sulfate Crystal
This is a blue copper sulfate crystal. Page 107.

Iodine Crystals
These are crystals of the halogen element, iodine. Solid iodine is a lustrous blue-black color. Page 109.

Chemist Halloween Costume
It's easy to make a chemist costume, which you can use as a chemist Halloween costume or for any costume party. Page 28.

Evil Genius Costume
Looking the part of Evil Genius is mainly about hair and eyebrows, but adding a bit of science increases both the 'evil' and 'genius' aspects of the costume. Page 26.

Mad Scientist Halloween Costume
The mad scientist costume typically involves a lab coat and wild hair. A few props can add more science and more madness. Page 27.

Hideyo Noguchi (1876 - 1928)
Hideyo Noguchi (1876 - 1928). Chemistry. Page 3.

Lars Fredrik Nilson (1840 - 1899)
Lars Fredrik Nilson (1840 - 1899). Page 2.

Chemist Halloween Costume
It's easy to make a chemist costume, which you can use as a chemist Halloween costume or for any costume party. Page 7.

Easy Scientist Halloween Costume
What makes a great scientist Halloween costume? It's as simple as wearing a lab coat. If you don't have a lab coat, you can make one yourself by simply cutting a plain white t-shirt up the center. Goggles, gloves, or a magnifying glass are nice accessories to add to this Halloween costume. Page 4.

Evil Genius Costume
Looking the part of Evil Genius is mainly about hair and eyebrows, but adding a bit of science increases both the 'evil' and 'genius' aspects of the costume. Page 10.

Mad Scientist Halloween Costume
The mad scientist costume typically involves a lab coat and wild hair. A few props can add more science and more madness. Page 2.

Scientist Costume
Here's an easy scientist costume that you can make from household materials. Page 9.

Scientist Halloween Costume
You can make a science costume for Halloween. It's easy and inexpensive. It's also way cool. Page 6.

Simple Chemist Costume
A pair of goggles is enough to identify you as a chemist for a simple chemist costume. You can pick up inexpensive lab safety goggles at a dollar general store. They are also found in many kids' science kits. Page 8.

Toxic Chemical Symbol
Toxic Chemical Symbol. Chemistry. Page 5.

Chlorine Gas Attack - WWI
Chlorine Gas Attack - WWI. Chemistry. Page 4.

Czech Gas Mask
This is a photograph of Czech Gas mask model OM-10-M. Page 11.

Gas Masks - WWI
Gas Masks - WWI. Chemistry. Page 6.

Machine Gun Crew Wearing Gas Masks
Machine Gun Crew Wearing Gas Masks. Page 2.

German Gaswerfer
1916, WWI German western front, 18cm

Horse Gas Mask
This is a photograph of a soldier wearing a gas mask and a horse fitted with a gas mask. The photograph was taken circa 1917-1919. Page 9.

Mission-Oriented Protective Posture or MOPP Gear
Operation Iraqi Freedom, US Marine Corps soldier wearing Mission-Oriented Protective Posture response level 4 (MOPP-4) gear. March 20, 2003. Page 13.

Mustard Gas Burns
Mustard Gas Burns. Chemistry. Page 5.

Mustard Gas Burns
Mustard Gas Burns. Chemistry. Page 7.

Tear Gas in Use
Tear Gas in Use. Chemistry. Page 8.

World War I Gas Attack
World War I Gas Attack. Chemistry.

World War I Gas Attack
World War I Gas Attack. Chemistry. Page 3.

Black/White Fire Extinguisher Sign
Black/White Fire Extinguisher Sign. Page 3.

Combustible Materials Sign
Combustible Materials Sign. Chemistry. Page 12.

Explosive Material Sign
Explosive Material Sign. Chemistry. Page 13.

Explosives Sign
This is the hazard symbol for explosives or an explosion hazard. Page 9.

Fire Blanket Safety Sign
This safety sign indicates the location of a fire blanket. Page 4.

Fire Extinguisher Sign
Fire Extinguisher Sign. Chemistry. Page 2.

Fire Extinguisher Sign
Fire Extinguisher Clipart. Chemistry. Page 16.

Fire Hose Safety Sign
This safety sign indicates the location of a fire hose. Page 5.

Flammable Gas Sign
This is the placard that indicates a flammable gas. Page 6.

Flammable Sign
This is the hazard symbol for flammable substances. Page 10.

Flammable Sign
Flammable Sign Clipart. Chemistry. Page 14.

Flammable Symbol
This is the sign or symbol indicating the presence of a flammable substance. Page 11.

No Open Flames Sign
This sign prohibits flames and smoking. Page 8.

Open Flame Prohibited Sign
Open Flame Prohibited Sign. Chemistry. Page 15.

Nonflammable Gas
Nonflammable Gas. Chemistry. Page 7.

Carcinogen Hazard Symbol
This is the UN's Globally Harmonized System sign for carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens, respiratory sensitizers and substances with target organ toxicity. Page 8.

Do Not Eat or Drink Sign
Do Not Eat or Drink Sign. Chemistry. Page 7.

Harmful or Irritant Sign
This is the hazard symbol for an irritant or the general symbol for a potentially harmful chemical. Page 4.

Poison Sign
Poison Sign. Chemistry. Page 9.

Skull and Crossbones Poison Symbol
The skull and crossbones is used to indicate the presence of a toxic or poisonous material. Page 6.

Toxic Chemical Sign
Toxic Chemical Sign. Chemistry. Page 2.

Toxic Materials Sign
Toxic Materials Sign. Chemistry. Page 10.

Toxic Sign
This is the hazard symbol for toxic substances. Page 3.

Dmitri Mendeleyev
Dmitri Mendeleyev (or Dmitri Mendeleev) is credited with developing one of the first periodic tables that organized the elements according to increasing atomic weight and accounted for trends in their chemical and physical properties. Page 46.

Julius Lothar Meyer
Julius Lothar Meyer was a German chemist and contemporary of Dmitri Mendeleev. The scientists independently developed the periodic table of the elements in which the elements were ordered according to increasing atomic weight and were grouped according to predictable and periodic properties. Page 48.

Alexandre-Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois
de Chancourtois was a French geologist who devised a periodic table of the elements in which the elements were grouped according to periodic properties and ordered according to increasing atomic weight. Page 20.

Printable Graph Paper - 5 lines per inch with a 5x5 Grid
This downloadable and printable graph paper has 5 lines per inch and a 5x5 grid. Page 3.

Printable Graph Paper - 10 Lines Per Inch and 5x5 Grid
This downloadable and printable graph paper has a 5x5 grid with 10 lines per inch. Page 2.

Printable Graph Paper - 5 lines per inch with Centered X-Y Axis
Printable Graph Paper - 5 lines per inch with centered X-Y axis. Page 4.

Printable Graph Paper - 5 lines per inch with 5x5 Grid and Centered X-Y Axis
Printable Graph Paper - 5 lines per inch with 5x5 grid and centered X-Y axis. Page 11.

Printable Graph Paper - 8 lines per inch with 4x4 Grid
Printable Graph Paper - 8 lines per inch with 4x4 grid. Page 10.

Printable Graph Paper - 8 lines per inch with 4x4 Grid and Centered X-Y Axis
Printable Graph Paper - 8 lines per inch with 4x4 grid and centered X-Y axis. Page 9.

Printable Graph Paper - 8 lines per inch
Printable Graph Paper - 8 lines per inch. Page 8.

Printable Graph Paper - 8 lines per inch with Centered X-Y axis
Printable Graph Paper - 8 lines per inch with centered X-Y axis. Page 7.

Printable Graph Paper - 10 lines per inch
Printable Graph Paper - 10 lines per inch. Page 6.

Printable Graph Paper - 5 lines per inch
Printable Graph Paper - 5 lines per inch. Page 5.

Printable Graph Paper - 10 lines per inch with Centered X-Y Axis
Printable Graph Paper - 10 lines per inch with centered X-Y axis. Page 12.

Visible Spectrum
This is a linear representation of the visible spectrum of light, which extends roughly from 400-700 nm wavelength. Page 7.

Color Wheel
This color wheel shows the visible spectrum of light, wrapped around to include the additive color, magenta. Page 6.

Flame Test
This chemistry teacher is performing a flame test in which the color of the fire can be used to help identify the chemical composition of a sample. Page 20.

Green Fire Flaming Jack-o-Lantern
This Halloween jack-o-lantern is filled with green fire produced by burning boric acid inside the pumpkin. Page 6.

Alum Crystal Pyramid
Alum crystals can be found in a few different shapes. This is an alum crystal pyramid. Page 3.

Alum Crystal
This is a crystal of alum, a kitchen spice. Alum crystals are easy to grow and can become quite large. Page 101.

Time Lapse Crystallization - Sodium Acetate Crystals
This is a photograph of sodium acetate crystallization. Page 83.

Time Lapse Crystallization - Sodium Acetate Crystals
This is a photograph of sodium acetate crystallization. Page 82.

Time Lapse Crystallization - Sodium Acetate Crystals
This is a photograph of sodium acetate crystals. Page 84.

Lead Flame - Blue Fire
The flame test for lead produces a blue-colored flame. Page 16.

Calcium Flame - Red Fire
The flame test for calcium results in a brick red flame. Page 15.

Antimony Flame - Green Fire
The flame test for antimony results in a pale green flame. The color of the flame is so light that it may appear white. Page 14.

Strontium Flame - Red Fire
The flame test for strontium produces a crimson colored flame. Page 13.

Potassium Flame Test - Purple Fire
Potassium produces a purple or lilac colored flame in the flame test. Page 12.

Green Fire Pinecone
All it takes to make a pinecone burn with a green flame is to sprinkle a little boric acid onto it. Page 2.

Violet Flames
The potassium chloride in salt substitute produces a violet flame. Page 7.

Lithium Flame - Red Fire
Lithium salts produce a characteristic red flame in a flame test. Page 18.

Arsenic Flame - Blue Fire
The flame test for arsenic results in a blue colored flame. Page 17.

Copper Sulfate Flame - Green Fire
Copper sulfate produces a green flame. Page 19.

Green Fire
Dr. Helmenstine demonstrates how easy it is to make green fire using boric acid. Boron has a characteristic green emission spectrum. Page 4.

Colored Fire Pinecone
All you need to do to make a colored fire pinecone is sprinkle the pinecone with a non-toxic colorant. Page 8.

Colored Fire Pinecone
It's easy to make colored fire pinecones. Page 3.

Red Fire
The red color of this fire comes from the emission spectrum of strontium nitrate. Page 9.

Green Fire Pumpkin
This jack-o-lantern is lit from within by green fire. Page 22.

Green Fire
Green fire is easy to make and doesn't require any hard-to-find chemicals. Page 5.

Green Fire and Ice
To make this photo, I mixed a little methanol and boric acid on a stoneware plate, set a glass 'icecube' in the center, and ignited the alcohol. Be careful! The green fire burns very hot. Page 11.

Sodium Carbonate Flame - Yellow Fire
Sodium displays its brilliant yellow emission in this flame test of sodium carbonate. Page 21.

Blue Fire
Blue fire can be produced by burning a fuel which produces a blue flame or by heating a chemical that produces blue fire, such as copper chloride. Page 10.

Salt Crystals in Space
This is a close-up of salt crystals (sodium chloride) in a water bubble within a 50-mm metal loop. The salt crystals were grown as part of an experiment aboard the International Space Satation. Page 72.

Salt Crystals
These are crystals of salt or sodium chloride displaying cubic crystal structure. The salt crystals are shown with a Euro cent for scale. Page 69.

Baking Soda Crystals
These are crystals of baking soda or sodium bicarbonate that have grown overnight on a pipecleaner. Page 102.

Sugar Crystals Close-Up
This is a close-up photograph of sugar crystals (sucrose). The area is about 800 x 500 micrometers. Page 65.

Potassium Alum Crystal
This is a crystal of potassium alum or potash alum. Food coloring was added to these crystals, which are clear when the alum is pure. Page 103.

Ammonium Phosphate Crystal - Simulated Emerald Crystals
This single crystal of ammonium phosphate grew overnight. The green-tinted crystal resembles an emerald. Ammonium phosphate is the chemical most commonly found in crystal growing kits. Page 104.

Yttrium Metal Crystal
This is a photo of an ultrapure (99.99%) crystal of yttrium metal. The yttrium crystal, which shows the crystal dendrites, is 3 cm long and has been cast in acrylic. Page 6.

Bismuth Crystals
Bismuth is a crystalline white metal, with a pink tinge. The iridescent color of this bismuth crystal is the result of a thin oxide layer on its surface. Page 2.

Cesium Crystals
Cesium Crystals. Chemistry. Page 7.

Europium Metal Crystals
This is a photo of europium in a glovebox under argon. The dendrites in the 300g crystalline sample are readily apparent. Europium is a metal that oxidizes instantly in air. Page 15.

Copper Crystals
Crystals of copper metal, with a penny to show scale. Page 13.

Magnesium Crystals
Crystals of elemental magnesium, produced using the Pidgeon process of vapor deposition. Page 9.

Gallium Crystals
Pure gallium has a bright silver color. These crystals were grown by the photographer. Page 8.

Niobium Crystals
These are crystals of the metal niobium. The central niobium crystal measures 7 mm. Page 16.

Tellurium Crystal
Tellurium is a brittle silver-white metalloid. This image is of an ultra-pure tellurium crystal, 2-cm in length. Page 5.

Thulium Crystals
This is a photo of ultrapure crystalline thulium which was prepared using sublimation. Thulium is a lustrous bright silvery-gray metal. Page 14.

Vanadium Crystal
This is a photo of bars of pure crystalline vanadium. Vanadium is a silverish gray transition metal. Page 10.

Silver Crystal
This is a photo of a crystal of pure silver metal, deposited electrolytically. Note the dendrites of the crystals. Page 3.

Silver Crystal
This is a photo of a crystal of pure silver metal, deposited electrolytically. Note the dendrites of the crystals. Page 105.

Gold Crystals
These are crystals of pure gold metal. Page 4.

Zirconium Crystal
This is a bar of crystalline 99.97% pure zirconium metal. Page 12.

Lithium Atom
This is a diagram of a neutral atom of lithium, with 3 protons, neutrons, and electrons. Page 7.

Helium Atom
This is a diagram of a helium atom, which has 2 protons, 2 neutrons, and 2 electrons. Page 5.

Protium Atom
Protium is the most common isotope of the element hydrogen. Protium has one proton and one electron, but no neutrons. Page 4.

Atom Diagram
This is a basic diagram of an atom, with protons, neutrons and electrons labeled.

Bohr Model of the Atom
The Bohr Model of the atom is a planetary model in which the electrons orbit around the atomic nucleus. Page 2.

Neptunium Atom
This is a diagram of the neptunium atom, showing the electron shell. Page 98.

Radium Atom
This is the electron shell diagram for a radium atom. Page 93.

Oxygen Atom
This diagram of an oxygen atom shows the electron shell. Page 13.

Hydrogen Atom
This diagram of the hydrogen atom depicts the electron shell of hydrogen. Page 3.

Osmium Crystals
This is a photo of crystals of ultrapure osmium metal. The osmium crystals were produced by chemical transport reaction in chlorine gas. Page 11.

Helium Atom
This diagram of a helium atom shows the electron shell of helium. Page 6.

Lithium Atom
This diagram of a lithium atom indicates its electron shell. Page 8.

Boron Atom
This diagram of a boron atom indicates the electron shell of boron. Page 10.

Beryllium Atom
This diagram shows the electron configuration of a beryllium atom. Page 9.

Carbon Atom
This diagram shows the electron shell of a carbon atom. Page 11.

Hafnium Crystals
These are crystal of hafnium, one of the transition metals. Page 17.

Gallium Crystal
This is a picture of pure gallium metal crystallizing from melted liquid gallium. Page 18.

Fluorine Atom
This diagram shows the electron shell of a fluorine atom. Page 14.

Nitrogen Atom
This diagram shows the electron shell of a nitrogen atom. Page 12.

Glowing Fluorescent Sign
You can make a glowing fake neon sign using plastic tubing and a black light. Page 29.

First Soviet atomic bomb test First Lightning or Joe-1
First Soviet atomic bomb test First Lightning or Joe-1. Page 21.

Glowing Banana
The spots of ripe bananas glow fluorescent blue under a black or ultraviolet lamp. Page 28.

Helium Atom
This is a diagram of a helium atom, which has 2 protons, 2 neutrons, and 2 electrons. Page 68.

Linear Equation Graph
This is a graph of a pair of linear equations or linear functions. Page 71.

Lithium Atom
This is a diagram of a neutral atom of lithium, with 3 protons, neutrons, and electrons. Page 70.

Amber Fluorescence Under Black Light
One of the ways you can distinguish real amber from fake amber is to shine an ultraviolet light on the amber sample. Real amber fluoresces. I've included a non-fluorescent mineral so you can see the difference in appearance. Page 18.

Glowing Highlighter 'Neon' Sign
You can make a glowing fake neon sign using plastic tubing and a black light. Page 2.

Emperor Scorpion Under Black Light
The Emperor Scorpion fluoresces blue-green under a black light. While the scorpion glows under black light, it is sensitive to injury from ultraviolet light, so it should not be exposed to black light for an extended length of time. The Emperor Scorpion is black or dark brown in normal light. Page 4.

Glowing Irish Spring Soap
Irish Spring soap glows a bright greenish-blue under a black light. Page 3.

Urine Glow in Black Light
Urine fluoresces or glows when exposed to black or ultraviolet light. Page 5.

Glowing Highlighter Ink
This radiation symbol is invisible in daylight, but glows brightly under a black light. It was made by coloring in a homemade stencil with a highlighter pen. Page 9.

Glowing Ice Ball in Black Light
This glowing ice ball was made by freezing tonic water and illuminating it with a black light. The sphere is deformed because it has melted a bit. This type of glowing ice is safe to eat or drink. Page 26.

Glowing Vaseline Under Black Light
Vaseline or other petroleum jelly glows when exposed to black or ultraviolet light. Page 6.

Tonic Water Glows Under Black Light
The quinine in tonic water causes it to grow bright blue under a black light. Page 13.

Glowing Laundry Detergent Under Black Light
Most laundry detergent glows bright blue under a black light. Page 12.

Glowing Neon Plastic Balls
Shining a black light on magic powerballs makes them glow brightly in vivid neon colors. Page 10.

Glowing Paper Airplane Under Black Light
This is just an ordinary paper airplane. Most white paper glows brilliant blue under black light. Page 17.

Glowing Lego Toys Under Black Light
These Lego Bionicle pieces glow under a black light. Many Lego parts glow, pretty much in all the colors of the rainbow. Page 14.

Mr. Clean in Black Light
Many cleaners are fluorescent. One example is Mr. Clean, shown here illuminated by a black light. Page 16.

Glowing Canola Oil Under Black Light
Canola oil is one type of vegetable oil that glows under black light. Page 15.

Glowing Black Light Drink
This is the glow you get from shining a black light on a mix of water and tonic water. Page 27.

Glow in the Dark Slime
This slime glows even without a black light, but most phosphorescent materials glow even more brightly when exposed to ultraviolet light. Page 20.

Glowing Fluorescent Dye
This fluorescent dye glows very brightly under a black light. Page 19.

Glowing Crystal Snowflake
This glowing crystal snowflake glows in the dark on its own, but it glows much more brightly when it is exposed to black light. Page 21.

Glowing Mentos Fountain
The quinine in this mentos fountain causes it to glow bright blue when it is exposed to black light. Page 22.

Glowing Bubble in Black Light
This phosphorescent bubble glows even more brightly when exposed to a black light. Page 8.

Glowing Gelatin Under Black Light
It's easy to make glowing gelatin. Just substitute tonic water for water in the recipe. You can cut it into shapes if you like. Ultraviolet light makes it glow, like from a black light. Page 23.

Glow in the Dark Punch
This festive punch glows in the dark under a black light. Page 24.

Glow in the Dark Alum Crystals
These easy-to-grow alum crystals glow, thanks to the addition of a little fluorescent dye to the crystal growing solution. The crystals glow even more brightly when exposed to black light. Page 25.

Fluorescent Minerals
This is a collection of fluorescent minerals, shown under black light. Page 7.

Glow in the Dark Pumpkin
This Halloween jack-o-lantern glows in the dark. It glows even more brightly when illuminated by a black light. Page 11.

Salt Bridge
This is a diagram of an electrochemical cell with a salt bridge. Learn how a salt bridge works and about the the types of salt bridges used with electrochemical cells. Page 73.

Lava Lamp
This is an original Mathmos

Benzene Molecular Model
This is a glass molecular model of benzene. Page 16.

Bisphenol A or BPA
This is the skeletal molecular structure of bisphenol A or BPA, which is used as a plastics additive and to make plastics. Page 17.

Borax Crystal Structure
This is a ball-and-stick model of the unit cell of a borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) crystal. Page 19.

Boric Acid Chemical Structure
This is the two-dimensional chemical structure of boric acid, also known as boracic acid or orthoboric acid. Boric acid is a weak acid that is used as a disinfectant, insecticide, and flame retardant, among other uses. Page 18.

Copper Sulfate Chemical Structure
This is a three-dimensional chemical structure of a unit cell of anhydrous copper (II) sulfate. Page 49.

Diethanolamine (DEA) Chemical Structure
This is the two-dimensional chemical structure of diethanolamine or DEA. Page 25.

Phthalate Chemical Structure
This is the general chemical structure for a phthalate. Page 49.

Sodium Benzoate Chemical Structure
This is the skeletal chemical structure for sodium benzoate. Sodium benzoate is commonly used as a food preservative. Page 37.

Sodium Cyclamate Artificial Sweetener Chemical Structure
This is the two-dimensional structure of sodium cyclamate, an artificial sweetener. Page 38.

SDS or Sodium Lauryl Sulfate or Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
This is the two-dimensional chemical structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate, which is also known as SDS or sodium lauryl sulfate. Page 40.

Trichloroanisole Chemical Structure
This is the two-dimensional chemical structure for 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole (TCA), the chemical responsible for cork taint of wine. Page 38.

Ibuprofen Chemical Structure
This is the two-dimensional chemical structure of ibuprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Page 2.

Ibuprofen 3-D Structure
This is the three-dimensional chemical structure of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen. Page 3.

Triacylglycerol General Chemical Structure
This is the general chemical structure of triacylglycerol, a triglyceride. Page 39.

Phosphatidylcholine - Example of a Lecithin and Phospholipid
This is the chemical structure of the phosphatidylcholine, palmitoyl-oleyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine. Phosphatidylcholine is an example of a lecithin, which is a type of phospholipid. Page 51.

Heme Group Chemical Structure
This is the chemical structure of the heme group, which consists of an iron ion surrounded by a porphyrin ring. Page 22.

Silver Nitrate Chemical Structure
This is the chemical structure of silver nitrate, which is also known as lunar caustic. Page 41.

Dextrin
This is the chemical structure of dextrin. Page 39.

Acetamide
This is the chemical structure of acetamide. Page 9.

Redox Half Reactions Diagram
This is a diagram that describes the half-reactions of a redox reaction or oxidation-reduction reaction. Page 64.

Redox Reaction Example
The reaction between hydrogen gas and fluorine gas to form hydrofluoric acid is an example of a redox reaction or oxidation-reduction reaction. Page 65.

Blue Periodic Table Closeup
This is a closeup of the periodic table of the elements, in blue. Page 10.

Periodic Table Closeup
This is a closeup shot of a typical periodic table. Page 9.

Lactose Chemical Structure
This is the chemical structure of lactose, a disaccharide found in milk. Page 45.

Sodium Polyacrylate
This is the chemical structure for sodium polyacrylate. Sodium polyacrylate is used in disposable diapers, fake snow, detergents, thickening agents, and many other products. Page 36.

Vesuvine or Bismarck Brown Y
This is the chemical structure of vesuvine or bismarck brown Y. Page 28.

Phosgene
This is the chemical structure of phosgene. Page 52.

Acetone
This is the chemical structure of acetone. Page 19.

Bacillomycin
This is the chemical structure of bacillomycin. Page 20.

Barbital
This is the chemical structure of barbital. Page 21.

Barbituric Acid
This is the chemical structure of barbituric acid. Page 22.

Behenic Acid
This is the chemical structure of behenic acid. Page 23.

Benomyl
This is the chemical structure of benomyl. Page 24.

Benzaldehyde
This is the chemical structure of benzaldehyde. Page 25.

Benzalkonium Chloride
This is the chemical structure of benzalkonium chloride. Page 26.

Benzamide
This is the chemical structure of benzamide. Page 27.

Benzanthrone
This is the chemical structure of benzanthrone. Page 28.

Benzethonium Chloride
This is the chemical structure of benzethonium chloride. Page 29.

Benzidine
This is the chemical structure of benzidine. Page 30.

Benzil
This is the chemical structure of benzil. Page 31.

Benzilic Acid
This is the chemical structure of benzilic acid. Page 32.

Benzimidazole
This is the chemical structure of benzimidazole. Page 33.

Benzisothiazolinone
This is the chemical structure benzisothiazolinone. Page 34.

Benzisoxazole
This is the chemical structure of benzisoxazole. Page 35.

Benzo[a]pyrene
This is the chemical structure of benzo[a]pyrene. Page 37.

Benzo[b]fluoranthene
This is the chemical structure of benzo[b]fluoranthene. Page 39.

Benzo[c]cinnoline
This is the chemical structure of benzo[c]cinnoline. Page 36.

Benzo[c]phenanthrene
This is the chemical structure of benzo[c]phenanthrene. Page 38.

Benzo[c]thiophene
This is the chemical structure of benzo[c]thiophene. Page 44.

Benzo[e]pyrene
This is the chemical structure of benzo[e]pyrene. Page 40.

Benzo[ghi]perylene
This is the chemical structure of benzo[ghi]perylene. Page 41.

Benzo[j]fluoranthene
This is the chemical structure of benzo[j]fluoranthene. Page 42.

Benzo[k]fluoranthene
This is the chemical structure of benzo[k]fluoranthene. Page 43.

Benzocaine
This is the chemical structure of benzocaine. Page 45.

Benzofuran
This is the chemical structure of benzofuran. Page 46.

Benzoin
This is the chemical structure of benzoin. Page 47.

Benzothiazole
This is the chemical structure of benzothiazole. Page 48.

Benzothiophene
This is the chemical structure of benzothiophene. Page 49.

Benzotriazole
This is the chemical structure of benzotriazole. Page 50.

Benzoxazole
This is the chemical structure of benzoxazole. Page 51.

Benzoyl Chloride
This is the chemical structure of benzoyl chloride. Page 53.

Benzyl Alcohol
This is the chemical structure of benzyl alcohol. Page 54.

Benzyl Chloroformate
This is the chemical structure of benzyl chloroformate. Page 55.

Cocaine - Benzoylmethylecgonine
This is the chemical structure of cocaine, also known as benzoylmethylecgonine. Page 52.

Benzhydrol - Diphenylmethanol
This is the chemical structure of benzhydrol. Page 94.

1,3-Butadiene
This is the chemical structure of 1,3-butadiene. Page 84.

2,2'-Bipyridine
This is the chemical structure of 2,2'-bipyridine. Page 61.

2-Bromo-1-chloropropane
This is the chemical structure of 2-bromo-1-chloropropane. Page 73.

2-Bromopropane
This is the chemical structure of 2-bromopropane. Page 79.

2-Butoxyethanol
This is the chemical structure of 2-butoxyethanol. Page 88.

Benzylamine
This is the chemical structure of benzylamine. Page 57.

Benzyldimethylamine
This is the chemical structure of benzyldimethylamine. Page 56.

Benzylidene Acetone
This is the chemical structure of benzylidene acetone. Page 58.

Betulin
This is the chemical structure of betulin. Page 59.

Biphenyl
This is the chemical structure of biphenyl. Page 60.

Bis(chloromethyl) Ether
This is the chemical structure of bis(chloromethyl) ether. Page 63.

Biuret
This is the chemical structure of biuret. Page 65.

Borneol
This is the chemical structure of borneol. Page 66.

Brassinolide
This is the chemical structure of brassinolide. Page 67.

Brilliant Cresyl Blue
This is the chemical structure of brilliant cresyl blue. Page 68.

Bromacil
This is the chemical structure of bromacil. Page 69.

Bromoacetic Acid
This is the chemical structure of bromoacetic acid. Page 70.

Bromobenzene
This is the chemical structure of bromobenzene. Page 71.

Bromobimane
This is the chemical structure of bromobimane. Page 72.

Bromocresol Purple
This is the chemical structure of bromocresol purple. Page 74.

Bromocyclohexane
This is the chemical structure of bromocyclohexane. Page 75.

Bromoform
This is the chemical structure of bromoform. Page 76.

Bromomethane
This is the chemical structure of bromomethane. Page 77.

Bromophenol Blue
This is the chemical structure of bromophenol blue. Page 78.

Bromothymol Blue
This is the chemical structure of bromothymol blue. Page 80.

Bromotrifluoromethane
This is the chemical structure of bromotrifluoromethane. Page 81.

Brucine
This is the chemical structure of brucine. Page 82.

Buspirone
This is the chemical structure of buspirone. Page 83.

Butadiene Resin
This is the chemical structure of butadiene resin. Page 85.

Butane Chemical Structure
This is the chemical structure of butane. Page 86.

1-Butene Chemical Structure
This is the chemical structure of 1-butene. Page 87.

Butyllithium
This is the chemical structure of butyllithium. Page 89.

Butynediol - 2-Butyne-1,4-diol
This is the chemical structure of butynediol. Page 90.

Butyraldehyde
This is the chemical structure of butyraldehyde. Page 91.

Butyrophenone
This is the chemical structure of butyrophenone. Page 92.

Butyryl Chloride
This is the chemical structure of butyryl chloride. Page 93.

1,8-Bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (Proton Sponge)
This is the chemical structure of 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (Proton Sponge). Page 62.

Vesuvine or Bismarck Brown Y
This is the chemical structure of vesuvine or bismarck brown Y. Page 64.

DABCO - 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane
This is the chemical structure of DABCO or 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane. Page 26.

DEET or Diethyltoluamide
This is the chemical structure of DEET or diethyltoluamide. Page 27.

Decaborane
This is the chemical structure of decaborane. Page 28.

Decabromodiphenyl Ether
This is the chemical structure of decabromodiphenyl ether. Page 29.

Decahydronaphthalene - Decalin
This is the chemical structure of decahydronaphthalene or decalin. Page 30.

Decane
This is the chemical structure of decane. Page 31.

Dehydroacetic Acid
This is the chemical structure of dehydroacetic acid. Page 32.

1,2-Dimethylbenzene - Ortho-Xylene
This is the chemical structure of ortho-xylene, also known as 1,2-dimethylbenzene. Page 88.

1,3-Dimethylbenzene - Meta-Xylene
This is the chemical structure of meta-xylene, also known as 1,3-dimethylbenzene. Page 90.

Dehydrocholic Acid
This is the chemical structure of dehydrocholic acid. Page 33.

Deltamethrin
This is the chemical structure of deltamethrin. Page 34.

Demeton
This is the chemical structure of demeton. Page 35.

3,3'-Diaminobenzidine - DAB
This is the chemical structure of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. Page 40.

DTBP - Di-tert-butyl peroxide
This is the chemical structure of DTBP or di-tert-butyl peroxide. Page 42.

Diacetylene
This is the chemical structure of diacetylene. Page 43.

Diaminomethanal - Urea
This is the space filled model structure of diaminomethanal, also known as urea. Page 45.

Putrescine or Diaminobutane
This is the chemical structure of putrescine, also known as diaminobutane. Page 41.

Urea - Diaminomethanal
This is the chemical structure of urea, or diaminomethanal. Page 44.

1,2-Dibromoethane
This is the chemical structure of 1,2-dibromoethane. Page 49.

1,2-Dichlorobenzene - Ortho-Dichlorobenzene
This is the chemical structure of 1,2-dichlorobenzene. Page 53.

1,3-Dichlorobenzene - Meta-Dichlorobenzene
This is the chemical structure of 1,3-dichlorobenzene. Page 52.

1,4-Dichlorobenzene - Para-Dichlorobenzene
This is the chemical structure of 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Page 54.

Diazinon
This is the chemical structure of diazinon. Page 48.

Dibucaine - Cinchocaine
This is the chemical structure of dibucaine, also known as cinchocaine. Page 50.

Dichloroacetic Acid (DCA)
This is the chemical structure of dichloroacetic acid. Page 51.

Dichlorobutane
This is the chemical structure of dichlorobutane. Page 55.

Dichlorodifluoromethane - Freon-12
This is the chemical structure of dichlorodifluoromethane, also known as Freon-12. Page 56.

Dichloromethanal or Phosgene - Space Filled Model
This is the space filled model of the chemical structure of dichloromethanal, also known as phosgene. Page 58.

Dichloromethanal - Phosgene
This is the chemical structure of dichloromethanal, also known as phosgene. Page 57.

Dimethyldichlorosilane
This is the chemical structure of dimethyldichlorosilane. Page 59.

1,2-Dichloroethane or Ethylene Dichloride (EDC)
This is the chemical structure of 1,2-dichloroethane or ethylene dichloride (EDC). Page 60.

1,3-diazole - Imidazole
This is the chemical structure of 1,3-diazole, also known as imidazole. Page 47.

1,2-Diazole - Pyrazole
This is the chemical structure of 1,2-diazole or pyrazole. Page 46.

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid
This is the chemical structure of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Page 63.

Dichlorofluoromethane
This is the chemical structure of dichlorofluoromethane. Page 61.

Dichlorophen
This is the chemical structure of dichlorophen. Page 62.

Dichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 123)
This is the chemical structure of dichlorotrifluoroethane. Page 64.

Dichlorvos - 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate or DDVP
This is the chemical structure of dichlorvos (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate or DDVP). Page 65.

Diclofenac - 2-(2,6-Dichloranilino)Phenylacetic Acid
This is the chemical structure of Diclofenac or 2-(2,6-dichloranilino)phenylacetic acid. Page 66.

Dicofol
This is the chemical structure of dicofol. Page 67.

Dicrotophos
This is the chemical structure of dicrotophos. Page 68.

Dicyclopentadiene - Exo-Dicyclopentadiene and Endo-Dicyclopentadiene
These are the chemical structures of exo-dicyclopentadiene and endo-dicyclopentadiene. Page 69.

Dieldrin
This is the chemical structure of dieldrin. Page 70.

Diethion
This is the chemical structure of diethion. Page 71.

Diethyl Aluminium Chloride
This is the chemical structure of diethyl aluminium chloride. Page 72.

Diethyl Ether
This is the chemical structure of diethyl ether. Page 76.

Diethylamine
This is the chemical structure of diethylamine. Page 73.

Diethylene Glycol
This is the chemical structure of diethylene glycol. Page 74.

Diethylenetriamine
This is the chemical structure of diethylenetriamine. Page 75.

Difluoromethane
This is the chemical structure of difluoromethane. Page 77.

Digitonin
This is the chemical structure of digitonin. Page 78.

Dihydrocortisone
This is the chemical structure of dihydrocortisone. Page 79.

Diisoheptyl Phthalate
This is the chemical structure of diisoheptyl phthalate. Page 80.

Diisopropyl Ether
This is the chemical structure of diisopropyl ether. Page 81.

Diketene
This is the chemical structure of diketene. Page 82.

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or Dimethicone
This is the basic chemical structure of polydimethylsiloxane. Page 83.

Dimethyl or Ethane
This is the chemical structure of dimethyl, also known as ethane. Page 84.

Dimethylacetamide
This is the chemical structure of dimethylacetamide. Page 86.

Dimethylamine
This is the chemical structure of dimethylamine. Page 85.

N,N-Dimethylaniline - DMA
This is the chemical structure of N,N-dimethylaniline. Page 87.

1,2-Dioxane
This is the chemical structure of 1,2-dioxane. Page 98.

Diacetyl or Butanedione Chemical Structure
This is the two-dimensional chemical structure of diacetyl, which is also known as butanedione or 2,3-butanedione. Page 118.

1,3-Dioxane
This is the chemical structure of 1,3-dioxane. Page 99.

1,4-Dimethylbenzene - Para-Xylene
This is the chemical structure of para-xylene, also known as 1,4-dimethylbenzene. Page 89.

1,4-Dioxane
This is the chemical structure of 1,4-dioxane. Page 100.

2,6-Di-tert-butylphenol
This is the chemical structure of 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. Page 109.

2,6-Di-tert-butylpyridine
This is the chemical structure of 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine. Page 111.

DCMU or 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea
This is the chemical sturcture of DCMU. Page 112.

Dimethyl Ether - DME
This is the chemical structure of dimethyl ether, also known as DME, or methoxymethane. Page 91.

Dimethyl Keytone - Acetone
This is the chemical structure of acetone. Page 94.

Dimethyldiethoxysilane
This is the chemical structure of dimethyldiethoxysilane. Page 93.

Dimethylformamide
This is the chemical structure of dimethylformamide. Page 92.

Dimethylglyoxime
This is the chemical structure of dimethylglyoxime. Page 95.

Dimethylmercury
This is the chemical structure of dimethylmercury. Page 96.

Dinoseb
This is the chemical structure of dinoseb. Page 97.

Dioxathion
This is the chemical structure of dioxathion. Page 101.

Dioxin Isomers
These are the chemical structures of the isomers of dioxin. Page 102.

Diphenylacetylene
This is the chemical structure of diphenylacetylene, also known as tolan. Page 103.

Diphenylmethanol
This is the chemical structure of diphenylmethanol, also known as diphenylcarbinol and benzhydrol. Page 104.

Diquat
This is the chemical structure of diquat. Page 105.

Direct Blue 1
This is the chemical structure of the dye direct blue 1. Page 106.

Disulfiram
This is the chemical structure of disulfiram. Page 107.

Dithranol
This is the chemical structure of dithranol. Page 108.

Divinylbenzene - DVB
These are chemical structures of isomers of divinylbenzene. Page 114.

Dodecane
This is the chemical structure of dodecane. Page 113.

Dodecylbenzene
This is the chemical structure of dodecylbenzene. Page 115.

Domperidone
This is the chemical structure of domperidone. Page 116.

Doxylamine Enantiomers
These are the chemical structures of enantiomers of doxylamine. Page 117.

Beta-Cyclodextrin
This is the three-dimensional structure of beta-cyclodextrin, the active ingredient in Febreze odor eliminator. Page 56.

Buckminsterfullerene - Carbon 60
This is the chemical structure of buckminsterfullerene. It is also known by the name