Composites / Plastics Sitemap - Page 13 2014-04-15

Crosshead Rate
The movable cross member speed of the universal tester relative to the fixed member, usually noted as inches/minute of Crosshead movement.

Cross Laminate
Pertaining to a laminate in which the reinforcing fibers in some layers are positioned at right angles with respect to the fibers in other layers.

Cross-linking
The establishing of chemical links between the molecular chains in polymers.

Cross-linking Agent
A substance that promotes or regulates intermolecular covalent bonding between polymer chains, linking them together to create a more rigid structure.

Cross-linking Index
The average number of cross-linked units per primary polymer molecule in the system as a whole.

Cross Ply
See also LAMINATE and CROSS LAMINATE.: laminate nbsp

Crosswise Direction
Refers to the cutting of specimens and to the application of load.

Crowsfooting
Type of film defect where small wrinkles occur (during wet processing) in a pattern resembling that of a crow's foot.

Crushing Tests
A radial compressive test to determine crushing strength (maximum load in compression).

Cryogenic
Pertaining to very low temperatures.: nbsp definition cryogenic temperatures space applications plastics evaluations

Cryogenic Grinding
Thermoplastics are difficult to grind to small particle sizes at ambient temperatures because they soften, adhere in lumpy masses and clog screens.

Crystalline Plastic
A polymeric material containing crystallites in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly three-dimensional configuration.

Crystalline Silica
See SILICA and AMORPHOUS SILICA.: crystalline silica amorphous silica nbsp

Crystallinity
In some resins a state of molecular structure denoted by uniformity and compactness of the molecular chains.

Core Depression
A term used to define any indentation in a core material such as honeycomb resulting from a gouge.

Core Nailing
The joining together of any number of honeycomb core sections by overlapping each piece and driving the upper section onto the lower one resulting in interlocking of the core cell structure.

Core Separation
The failure of the core-to-face-sheet bond line in honeycomb.

Core Splice
The joining together of any number honeycomb sections using an adhesive edge bond.

Core Stabilization
A process to rigidize honeycomb core materials to prevent distortion during machining or curing.

Core Yarn
The yarn used parallel to the braid axis in the core or between braided layers.

Cork
The outer bark of Quercus suber, a species of oak growing in Mediterranean countries.

Cork Composites
A composite consisting of ground cork, mixed with binders or plasticizers, and formed into bars, sheets, tubes, rods and other shapes.

Cork Dust
Very finely divided cork.: cork

Corona
A luminous discharge which occurs when the applied voltage is high enough (5000 volts or more) to cause partial ionization of the surrounding gas.

Corona Discharge Treatment
A method of rendering surfaces more receptive to adhesives or decorative coatings by subjecting them to a high voltage corona discharge.

Corona Resistance
The ability of insulation to withstand a specified level of field-intensified ionization to prevent its immediate, complete breakdown.

Corrodkote Test
An accelerated corrosion test for electro-deposits.

Corrosion
A term which is generally applied to metals and metallic degradation.

Corrosion Resistance
A broad term applying to the ability of plastics to resist the effect of environmental forces.

Corrugated Block
An intermediate processing step in some honeycomb core construction involving the conduction of flat sheets through toothed rolls to impress and pre-form desired angular shapes followed by the application of adhesive.

Corrugated
Core Single ply wavy core fabricated by pressing or forming a series of parallel and alternate grooves and ridges in appropriate sheet material which is used in sandwich construction.

Corundum
Natural aluminum oxide.: natural aluminum aluminum oxide abrasives corundum

Corweb
Fiber foam structural core (manufactured by C.: nbsp definition masland

Cotectic
The simultaneous crystallization (as a function of temperature, pressure, and composition) of two or more phases from a single liquid, without resorption.

Cotton
A natural material which can be woven into fibers having good heat resistance, flexibility and strength.

Cotton Linters
See LINTERS.: cotton linters nbsp definition

Count
(1) Fabric: Number of warp and filling yarns per inch in woven cloth.

Counter-Current Diffusion
An electroless process for the deposition of metal interlayers such as copper or silver within polymer films.

Count-Strength Product
See SKEIN-BREAK FACTOR.: nbsp product count

Couple
The joining of two molecules.: molecules

Coupled Reaction
One that involves two oxidants with a single reductant, a simpler reaction alone could be thermo-dynamically unfavorable.

Coupling
The linking of a side effect to a principal effect.

Coupon
A representative specimen of material attached to and/or cut from a production run which can be used to establish quality.

Covalence
The number of covalent bonds which an atom can form.

Cover
The outside layer of fibers that form the surface of a yarn.

Coverage
The surface area to be continuously covered by a specific quantity of material.

Cox Chart
A straight line graph of me logarithm of the vapor pressure plotted against a nonuniform temperature scale.

CP
Abbreviation for CHEMICALLY PURE.: abbreviation nbsp

CPI
Abbreviation for condensation-reaction polyimide.: nbsp definition condensation reaction cpi abbreviation

C-Process
See CRONING PROCESS.

CPS
Abbreviation for CENTIPOISE.: nbsp definition cps abbreviation

Cr
Chemical symbol for chromium.: nbsp definition chemical symbol chromium cr

Crack
(1) An actual separation of material (visible on opposite surfaces of the part, and extending through the thickness);[R]a fracture.

Cracking
Generally, the splitting of a coating or film, usually as a result of aging.

Cracking Resistance
The ability of a coating to resist breaks that extend through to the surface.

Crack Pinning
A mechanism proposed by Lange for halting advancing cracks in composites.

Crack Stopper
A method or material used or applied to delay or postpone the propagation of a possible or existing crack.

Crack Strength
The maximum value of the nominal (net-section) stress sustained by a specimen.

Crater
A small, shallow surface imperfection.: shallow surface imperfection

Craze
(1) Minute surface crack, sometimes hairline in size.

Crazing
The development of a multitude of very fine cracks in the matrix material, resulting from stresses which exceed the tensile strength of me plastic.

Constituent Materials
The individual materials that make up a composite material.

Constitutional Repeating Unit
The smallest constitutional unit whose repetition describes a regular polymer.

Constitutive Property
Any physical or chemical property that depends on the constitution or structure of the molecule.

Contact Adhesive
A liquid adhesive which dries to a film that is tack-free to other materials but not to itself.

Contact Angle Analysis
(1) A surface analytical technique for probing the first monolayer of a polymer.

Contact Fatigue
The cracking and subsequent pitting of surfaces subjected to alternating Hertzian stresses such as rolling contact or combined rolling and sliding.

Contact Laminating
See CONTACT PRESSURE MOLDING.: pressure molding nbsp

Contact Molding
See CONTACT PRESSURE MOLDING.: pressure molding nbsp

Contact Plating
A metal plating process without an external power source.

Contact Pressure Molding
Process for forming or molding reinforced plastics in which little or no pressure is applied during the forming and curing steps.

Contact Pressure Resins
Liquid resins which thicken or resinify on heating and, when used for bonding laminates, require little or no pressure.

Contact Resins
See CONTACT PRESSURE RESINS.: resins nbsp

Contact Scanning
A method of ultrasonic inspection in which the ultrasonic search unit is in contact with and coupled to the part with a thin film of coupling material.

Contaminant
An impurity or foreign substance present in a material which affects one or more properties of the material.

Continuous Filament
A single, flexible, small-diameter fiber of indefinite length.

Continuous Filament Yarn
Yarn formed by twisting two or more continuous filaments into a single, continuous strand.

Continuous Laminating
An automated technique in which chopped rovings and reinforcing fabric or mat are continuously passed through a resin and are brought together between flexible covering sheets as a lay-up.

Continuous Polymerization
A type of polymerization in which the monomer is continuously fed to a reactor and the polymer is continuously removed.

Continuous Pultrusion
An automated process in which continuous lengths of roving, tape, or narrow fabric are impregnated in a resin bath, the impregnated stock (or prepregged stock) is drawn through a die to set the shape and to control resin content, the shaped lay-up is cured by passing it through an oven, and the composite is cut to length as it emerges from the process line.

Continuous Roving
See ROVING.: nbsp definition

Continuous Weld
A weld that extends continuously from one end of the joint to the other.

Contracted Notation
A shorthand system for stress, strain and material constants such as elastic moduli and strength parameters.

Contraction
See MOLDING SHRINKAGE.: shrinkage contraction molding nbsp

Controlled Cooling
The cooling from an elevated temperature in a specified method for producing desired mechanical properties or microstructure.

Controlled-Strain Test
One in which the load is applied to produce a controlled amount of strain.

Controlled-Stress Test
One in which a specimen is subjected to stress at a controlled rate.

Conventional Base Unit of a Polymer
Base unit defined without regard to steric isomerism.

Convergence Zone
The braided area in which the interlaced strands are pulled tight in a final pattern.

Conversion Coating
A coating produced by a chemical or electrochemical treatment of the metal surface.

Cooling Channels
Passageways provided in molds or platens for circulating water or other cooling media, in order to control the surface temperature of the cavities.

Cooling Fixture
A fixture used to maintain the dimensional accuracy of a molding or casting (after it is removed from the mold) until the material is cool enough to retain its shape.

Coordination Catalysts
Catalysts comprising a mixture of (a) an organometallic compound such as triethylaluminum or a transition-metal compound, such as titanium tetrachloride.

Cope
The uppermost section of a mold or pattern, etc.: mold

Copolycondensation
The copolymerization of two or more monomers by the condensation polymerization process.

Copolymer
This term usually denotes a polymer of two chemically distinct monomers.

Copolymerization
The simultaneous polymerization of two or more monomers.

Copper Accelerated Salt Spray Test
An accelerated corrosion test for anodic aluminum coatings and some electrodeposits.

Copper-Refractory Metal Alloys
Aligned ductile composites consisting of refractory metal dendrites in a copper matrix.

Cops
The yarn carrier on the Maypole braider which also contains a round slotted track and a take-up device for producing braids.

Cordierite
Magnesium aluminum silicate.: aluminum silicate nbsp definition

Core
(1) The central member of a laminate to which the faces of the sandwich are attached.

Core Crushing
The distortion or collapse of core material such as honeycomb due to pressure or local compression.

Condition, Standard
The condition reached by a specimen in temperature and moisture equilibrium with a standard atmosphere.

Conditioning
Subjecting a material to standard environmental and/or stress history prior to testing.

Conductance
The measure of a material's ability to conduct electricity, expressed as the reciprocal of resistance.

Conductive Composites
Composite materials which have a volume resistively equal to or less than 500 ohm-cm.

Conductive Compounds
Materials used for electrostatic shielding, corona shielding and electrical connections.

Conductivity, Volume
The conductance of a unit cube of any material reciprocal of volume resistivity.

Conductor
An electrical path which offers comparatively little resistance.

Cone
Cone-shaped point of the penetrometer tip, upon which the end-bearing resistance develops.

Cone Core
In textiles, a yarn holder or bobbin of conical shape used as a core for a yarn package of conical form.

Configuration
See CONFORMATION.: conformation nbsp

Configurational Unit
A constitutional unit having one or more sites of defined stereoisomerism.

Conformal Coating
Thin layer of polymer material to provide a uniformly thick protective, conductive or insulation barrier on all surfaces and edges.

Conformation
(1) The overall spatial arrangement of the atoms and groups in a polymer molecule.

Conjugated Double Bonds
A chemical term denoting double bonds separated from each other by a single bond.

Conjugate Fibers
The extrusion of two different polymers through the same orifice to produce a bicomponent or biconstituent fiber.

Consistency
The resistance of a material to flow or permanent deformation when shearing stresses are applied to it; the term is generally used with materials whose deformations are not proportional to applied stress.

Consistometer
An instrument for measuring the consistency of semi-fluid substances.

Constantan
A copper-nickel alloy, wires of which are used in conjunction with wires of a different metal, such as iron, in thermocouples for measuring temperatures.

Composite Materials Glossary - O
Index for the Dictionary of[R]Composite Materials Technology - O

Composite Materials Glossary - Q
Index for the Dictionary of[R]Composite Materials Technology - Q

Composite Materials Glossary - V
Index for the Dictionary of[R]Composite Materials Technology - V

Composite Materials Glossary - X
Index for the Dictionary of[R]Composite Materials Technology - X

Composite Materials Glossary - Y
Index for the Dictionary of[R]Composite Materials Technology - Y

Composite Materials Glossary - Z
Index for the Dictionary of[R]Composite Materials Technology - Z

Centimeter
A measure of length equal to a hundredth part of a meter.

Butanedicarboxylic Acid
See ADIPIC ACID.: adipic acid nbsp

Butene-l,4-Diol
A liquid, used as an intermediate for alkyd resins and a cross-linking agent for resins.

Butenenitrile
See ALLYL CYANIDE.: nbsp

Butenes
See BUTYLENES.: nbsp definition

Butt
To meet without overlapping.

Buttering
A method of surfacing by providing a suitable transition weld deposit for subsequent completion of a butt weld.

Butt-Fusion
A method of joining forms of a thermoplastic resin wherein the ends of the two pieces are heated to the molten state and then rapidly pressed together to form a homogeneous bond.

Butt Joint
A type of edge joint in which the edge faces of the two adherends are at right angles to the other faces of the adherends.

Butt Line
Edge view of a vertical plane passing through a structure, on or parallel to the longitudinal plane of symmetry.

Butt Wrap
Tape wrapped around an object in an edge-to-edge condition.

Butyl Acetate
A colorless, ester solvent, used in the production of synthetic resins.

Butyl Acetate
A solvent for phenolics and alkyd resins.: alkyd resins butyl acetate sec butyl phenolics solvent

Butyl Alcohol
Colorless solvent used for resins and coatings, as a diluent-reactant in the manufacture of urea-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde resins, and as an intermediate in the production of butyl acetate, dibutyl phthalate and dibutyl sebacate.

Butyl Aldehyde
See BUTYRALDEHYDE.: nbsp definition butyl

Butylated Resins
Resins containing the butyl radical, C4H-9.: resins butyl

Butyl Borate
See TRIBUTYL BORATE.: butyl

Butylenes
The class of plastics based on resins synthesized by the polymerization of butene or copolymerization of butene with other unsaturated monomers.

Butyl Hydroperoxide
A highly reactive peroxy compound used as a polymerization catalyst.

Butyl Stearate
A mold lubricant and plasticizer.: emulsion polymerization butyl stearate flow properties plasticizer polystyrene

Butyl (Tetra) Titanate
Used as an adhesion promoter and catalyst.: adhesion promoter titanate butyl catalyst

Butyl Titanate
See TETRABUTYL TITANATE.: titanate butyl

Butyraldehyde
A liquid used in the manufacture of synthetic resins.

Butyrates
Name applied to esters of butyric acid, such as ethyl butyrate, etc.

Dictionary of Composite Materials Technology - Conversion
How the Dictionary of Composite[R]Materials Technology was converted from a book into an online[R]glossary.

Composite Materials Glossary - J
Index for the Dictionary of[R]Composite Materials Technology - J

Composite Materials Glossary - K
Index for the Dictionary of[R]Composite Materials Technology - K

BSI
Abbreviation for the British Standards Institution.

B-Stage
An intermediate stage in the reaction of a number of thermosetting resins in which the material swells when in contact with certain liquids and softens when heated, but may not entirely dissolve or fuse.

BTDE
Abbreviation for dimethylester of 3,3',4,4'-benzo-phenonetetracarboxylic acid.

BTX
Abbreviation for the mixture of solvents comprising BENZENE, TOLUENE and XYLENE.

Bubble
A spherical, internal void containing air or other gas trapped within a plastic.

Bubble Forming
A thermoforming process in which the plastic sheet is clamped in a frame suspended above a mold, heated, blown into a blister shape by air, then formed into shape by means of a plug descending into the mold.

Bubble Immersion Test
A leak test for a gas-containing enclosure.: bubble formation leak test immersion nbsp

Bubbler
A device inserted into a mold force, cavity or core which allows water to flow deep inside the hole into which it is inserted and to discharge through the open end of the hole, Uniform cooling of the molds and of isolated mold sections can be achieved in this manner.

Bubble Test
See BUBBLE IMMERSION TEST.: immersion nbsp

Bubble Tube Viscometer
See AIR BUBBLE VISCOMETER.: bubble tube viscometer air bubble nbsp

Bubbling
A film defect in which bubbles of air or solvent vapor, or both, are present in a material.

Buckling, Composite
A mode of failure characterized generally by an unstable lateral deflection due to compressive action on the structural element involved.

Bueche-Kelley
An equation for calculating the glass transition temperature using the expansion coefficient and volume fraction.

Buffing
Smoothing a surface by the application of a rotating flexible wheel which contains fine abrasive particles.

Bulk Density
The density of a molding material in loose form, granular, nodular, etc.

Bulk Factor
(1) The ratio of the thickness of uncured, prepreg materials to their thickness when fully cured.

Bulking
In the process of formulating coatings, the step wherein ingredient weights are converted to their volume equivalents.

Bulking Value
Reciprocal of apparent density.: nbsp

Bulk Modulus
The ratio of the hydrostatic pressure to the volume strain in psi.

Bulk Molding Compound
Thermosetting plastic resins mixed with stranded reinforcement, fillers, and other additives into a viscous compound for compression or injection molding.

Bulk Polymerization
The polymerization of a monomer in the absence of any medium other than a catalyst or accelerator.

Bulk Sampling
A portion of a material that is representative of the entire lot.

Bulk Specific Gravity
The specific gravity of a porous solid ,when the volume of the solid as used in the calculation includes both the permeable and impermeable voids.

Bulk Yarn
A type of yarn having a greater covering or apparent volume than conventional yarn of equal linear density with normal twist.

Bunch
Yarn defect characterized by a segment, not over 1/4 inch (6 mm) in length, that shows an abrupt increase in diameter caused by matted fibers.

Bundle
A general term for a collection of essentially parallel filaments.

Bundle Strength
Measurement of filament strength obtained from a test of a bundle of parallel filaments, with or without organic matrix, which is used in place of the more tedious monofilament test.

Burlap
Coarse, heavy, plain weave fabric from a coarse, single jute yarn.

Burn
(1) The heat treatment that refractory materials are subjected to in the firing process.

Burned
Showing evidence of excessive heating during processing or use of a plastic, as evidenced by blistering, discoloration, distortion or destruction of the surface.

Burning Behavior
The changes in a material exposed to specific ignition.

Burning Rate
A term describing the tendency of plastic articles to bum at given temperatures.

Burning Time
In flammability testing, it is the period required for a self-sustaining flame to travel a specified distance under specified conditions.

Burning Velocity
The speed of a two-dimensional flame front normal to its surface and relative to the unburned gaseous-and-fuel oxidizer mixture.

Burnishing
The smoothing of a surface by frictional contact with another material.

Burn-Off
The removal of volatile stearates from metal powder compacts by heating immediately prior to sintering.

Burnout
The firing of a mold at high temperature for the removal of residues.

Burr
A fragment of excess material or foreign particles adhering to the surface.

Burst Strength
(1) Hydraulic pressure required to burst a vessel of given thickness.

Bushing
An electrically heated alloy container encased in insulating material, used for melting and feeding glass in the forming of individual fibers or filaments.

Butadiene
A gas, obtained from the cracking of petroleum, from coal tar, benzene, or from acetylene.

Branched Polymers
A two-dimensional polymer in which the molecules have been formed by branching as opposed to a linear polymer.

Branching
The growth of a new polymer chain from an active site on an established chain, in a direction different from that of the original chain.

Brazilian Test
See SPLITTING TENSILE STRENGTH.: tensile strength nbsp

Brazing
A high-heat bonding method to join metallic parts utilizing added filler material melted to a temperature below the melting points being joined.

Breakdown
A disruptive discharge or arc through electrical insulation.

Breakdown Voltage
The voltage required, under specific conditions, to cause failure of an insulating material.

Breaker Plate
Perforated plate toward the rear of an extruder to support screens that block out foreign matter from the die.

Break Factor
In yarn testing, it is the comparative breaking load of a skein of yarn adjusted for the linear density of yarn expressed in an indirect system.

Breaking Extension
The elongation to cause rupture of the test specimen.

Breaking Factor
Breaking load divided by the original width of the test specimen, expressed in pounds per inch.

Breaking Length
(1) A measure of the breaking strength of yarn in inches.

Breaking Load
The maximum force applied to a tensile test specimen carried to rupture.

Breaking Load, Knot
The breaking load of a yarn or fiber specimen having a knot in the portion between the clamps.

Breaking Load, Loop
The breaking load of a specimen consisting of two lengths of an individual strand looped together so that one length has both of its ends in one clamp of the testing machine and the other length has both of its ends in a second clamp.

Breaking Strength
The applied force required to rupture a specimen in a tension test under specified conditions.

Breaking Tensile Stress
The final stress sustained by a specimen in a tension test (psi).

Break-Out
See SMASH.: nbsp

Breathable Film
A film which is at least slightly permeable to gases due to the presence of open cells throughout its mass or to perforations.

Breather
Porous material or fabric used to provide a gas evacuation flow path from the laminate to the vent port during cure.

Breather Cloth
A loosely woven material, such as glass fabric, which serves as a continuous vacuum path over a part by providing separation between the vacuum bag and part.

Breathing
The passage of air through a plastic film due to a degree of porosity.

Bridging
A condition where one or more plies of tape or fabric span a radius step or chamfered edge of core without fall contact.

Brightening Agents
Chemical agents used primarily in fibers, to overcome yellow casts and to enhance clarity or brightness.

Brine
Concentrated aqueous salt solutions.: sodium chloride salt solutions brine

Brinell Hardness
The hardness of a material as determined by pressing a hardened steel ball of 10 mm diameter into the specimen under a constant load for a specified time.

Bristle
A generic term for a short, stiff, coarse fiber.: generic term coarse fiber

British Thermal Unit
Used prior to the introduction of the SI system to define the quantity of energy required to raise the temperature of one pound mass of water 1 F, at atmospheric pressure.

Brittle
Easily broken when bent rapidly or scratched.: nbsp definition

Brittle Crack Propagation
The sudden propagation of a crack caused only by the elastic energy stored in the material.

Brittle Failure
A complete fracture of the specimen in a direction perpendicular to the direction of loading.

Brittleness
Tendency to crack or snap when subjected to deformation.

Brittleness Temperature
That statistically estimated temperature at which 50% of the specimens fail in a specified test.

Brittle Point, Brittle Temperature
Lowest temperature at which a material withstands an impact test under standardized conditions.

Broadgoods
Uncured preimpregnated materials wider than 12 inches.

Broken End
In woven fabrics, it is a void in the warp direction due to yarn breakage.

Broken Joints
Joints arranged as in a bond so that they do not fall on a straight line and weaken the part or structure.

Broken Pick
A discontinuous or missing filling yarn.: yarn nbsp

Broken Weave
See CRACK.: weave crack nbsp

Brookfield Viscometer
The Brookfield Synchro-Lectric Viscometer is an instrument used for measuring the viscosity of plastisols and other liquids of a thixotropic nature.

Brooming
Using a broom to embed a ply and ensure contact with the adhesive.

Brushability
The ability or ease with which a coating can be brushed.

Brush Plating
A plating technique using a pad or brush containing an anode to apply the plating solution.

B-Scan
The data presentation which provides a cross-sectioned view of the test piece.

BSCP
Abbreviation for British Standard Code of Practice.

Boiling Range
Range between initial and final boiling temperatures of a multi-component solvent.

Bolt
An externally threaded fastener with a preformed head on one end.

Bolt Preload
The high tension stress intentionally developed in a bolt during installation and assembly.

Bolus Alba
See KAOLIN.: bolus alba nbsp definition kaolin

Bond
(1) Adhesion between two materials, such as an adhesive and a given surface.

Bonded Fabric
A web of fibers held together by an adhesive medium which does not form a continuous film.

Bonded Joint
That location where two adherends are joined together with an adhesive.

Bonding
Angle The connecting angle of several plies of reinforcement and resin used to connect two parts of a laminate, usually at right angles to each other.

Bonding Resins
A term used for all resins used for bonding aggregates such as sand.

Bond Line
The line along which two surfaces are joined together.

Bond Strength
(1) As applied to plastics laminates, it is a measure of the interlaminar or ultralaminar strength.

Boomerang
A direct reading, single magnet, dry-film thickness gage.

Booster Ram
A hydraulic ram used as an auxiliary to the main ram of a molding press.

Borate Glass
Substance in which the essential glass former is boron oxide.

Borax Glass
Type of glass containing vitreous anhydrous sodium tetraborate.

Borescope
Inspection equipment for allowing visual access to the inside of a vessel or pipe.

Boric Acid Esters
Flame retardants and plasticizers, such as trimethyl, tri-n-butyl tricyclohexyl tridodecyl, and tri-p-cresyl borates.

Boron Fibers
Filaments produced by a chemical vapor deposition process.

Boron Nitride Fiber
An inorganic high strength fiber made of boron nitride.

Boron-Nitrogen Polymers
A polymeric material capable of being fiberized by a series of curing and pyrolysis reactions (developed by Ultrasystems).

Boron Polymers
Macromolecules formed by the polymerization of boron precursors and other elements.

Boron Resins
Esters derived from boric acids and polyhydric alcohols, which are characterized by their solubility in water.

Boron Trifluoro-Mono-Ethylamine
BF3MEA is used as an epoxy accelerator, also controls B-staging.

Borsic
Silicon carbide coated boron fibers (United Aircraft).

Boss
(1) A small prosection or protuberance provided to add strength, facilitate alignment during assembly or for attaching the article to another part.

Bottom Plate
A steel plate fixed to the lower section of a mold.

Boundary Conditions
Those physical and/or mechanical conditions existing around the surfaces and limits of a structural body.

Bourdon Gauge
A pressure gage consisting of a tube bent into an arc which straightens out under internal pressure actuating a pointer on a scale.

Bow
(1) A fabric condition that results when filling yarns or knitted courses are displaced from a line perpendicular to their selvages and form one or more arcs across the width of the fabric.

Bow, Filling
The greatest distance measured parallel to the selvages between a filling yarn and a straight line drawn between the points at which this yarn meets the selvages.

Bowing
The deviation from flatness.: flatness

Box Girder
A hollow beam with a cross section shaped like a box.

Boxing
Combining of two or more separate batches to one uniform batch.

Boyer-Beaman Rule
A statement of the relationship between the glass transition temperature and the melting temperature of a polymer.

Brabender Plastograph
An instrument which continuously measures the torque exerted in shearing a polymer or compound specimen over a wide range of shear rates and temperatures, including those conditions anticipated in actual plant practice.

Bracing
Material used to make a unit firm or rigid.

Braid
(1) Consists of two interlaced sets of tows.: composite reinforcements right angles mandrels tows filaments

Braiding
A weave in which two sets of continuous fibers are interwoven symmetrically about an axis.

Braiding Yarn
The angled yarn applied to the braid axis and interlaced with each other and axials.

Braid Pick
The point at which one strand or end of yarn in a braided tape crosses another.

Braid Pick Count
The number of crossovers of alternate endings in a given length of braid, counted parallel to the lengthwise direction of the braid.

Brale
A diamond penetrator of specified spheroconical shape used with the Rockwell hardness tester for hard metals.

Branched
Refers to side chains attached to the main chain in molecular structure of polymers, as opposed to linear arrangement.

Bivariant Equilibrium
A stable state among a number of phases equal to the number of components in a system and in which any two of the external variables (temperature, pressure or concentration) may be varied at will without necessarily causing a change in the number of phases.

Bivinyl
See BUTADIENE.: nbsp definition

Black Lead
Also known as graphite.: graphite

Blanc Fixe
A synthetic form of barium sulphate prepared by reacting barium ions with sulphate ions in aqueous solutions and precipitating the reactant.

Blank
A background value that is obtained when a specified component of a sample is absent during the measurement.

Blanket
(1) Plies which have been laid up in a complete assembly and placed on or in the mold all at one time (flexible bag process).

Blanking
The cutting of flat sheet stock to shape by striking it sharply with a punch while it is supported on a mating die.

Blanking Die
A metal die used in the blanking process.: blanking process

Blast Cleaning
Cleaning and roughening of a surface by the use of natural or artificial grit or fine metal shot which is projected against a surface by compressed air.

Blast Finishing
The process of removing flash from molded objects, and/or dulling their surfaces, by impinging media such as steel balls, crushed apricot pits, walnut shells or plastic pellets upon them with sufficient force to fracture the flash.

Bleed
(1) An escape passage at the parting line of a mold, similar to a vent but deeper, serving to allow material to escape or bleed out.

Bleeder Cloth
A nonstructural layer of material used in the manufacture of composite parts to allow the escape of excess gas and resin during cure.

Blemish
Any surface imperfection of a coating or substrate.

Blended Polymers
Polymer mixtures are not usually miscible.: polymer mixtures automotive market additional properties polymers blends

Blending
The thorough intermingling of powders to obtain a particular kind of quality.

Blending Resin
A blending resin is one of larger particle size and lower cost than the dispersion resins normally used, and which can be used as a partial replacement for the primary resin.

Blind Fastener
One that can be inserted and tightened without access to the inaccessible or blind side of the part.

Blind Hole
Hole which is not completely drilled through.: blind hole

Blister
(1) A dome-shaped elevation on the surface of a plastic article caused by a pocket of air or gas beneath the surface.

Blistering
A localized swelling and separation between any of the layers of a laminate.

Blistering Resistance
The ability to resist the formation of dome-shaped, liquid or gas-filled projections resulting from local loss of adhesion and lifting.

Block
A portion of a polymer molecule comprising many constitutional units that has at least one constitutional feature not present in the adjacent portions.

Block Copolymer
An essentially linear copolymer with chains composed of shorter homo-polymeric chains which are linked together.

Blocking
(1) An undesirable adhesion between layers of plastic such as that which may develop under pressure during storage or use.

Blocking Resistance
The ability of a material to resist sticking due to one or more of the effects of temperature, pressure or relative humidity.

Block Polymer
A polymer whose molecules consist of blocks connected linearly.

Block Press
A press used for the agglomeration of laminate squares under heat.

Bloom
(1) An undesirable cloudy effect or whitish powdery deposit on the surfaces of a plastic article caused by the exudation of a compounding ingredient such as a lubricant, stabilizer, pigment, plasticizer, etc.

Blooming, Fiber
A pultrusion surface condition exhibiting a fiber prominence which has a white or bleached color and a sparkling appearance.

Blooming, Undercure
A dull and bleached surface color in pultruded material not exposed to weather.

Blotch
An irregularly shaped off-color area.: nbsp definition

Blow Molding
This method for producing hollow articles such as bottles has been adapted for the manufacture of composite automotive parts such as seat backs and load floors by the incorporation of mica to increase strength and stiffness of HDPE at low and high temperatures.

Blowing Agent
Any substance which alone or in combination with other substances is capable of producing a cellular structure in a plastic.

Blueing
A mold blemish in the form of a blue oxide film on the polished surface of a mold resulting from the use of abnormally high mold temperature.

Blunging
A wet process of blending or suspending ceramic powdered material by agitation.

Blushing
The formation of a whitish discoloration on a freshly applied solution coating that occurs when fast evaporation of a solvent cools the film below the dew point of the surrounding atmosphere, causing moisture to condense on the wet surface.

BMC
Abbreviation for BULK MOLDING COMPOUND.: molding compound bmc abbreviation nbsp

BMI
Abbreviation for BISMALEIMIDE RESINS.: bismaleimide resins bmi abbreviation

Boat
A platinum or ceramic vessel for holding a substance for combustion analysis.

Bobbins
Spools made typically of plastic or paper for winding yarns.

Body
(1) A term used loosely to denote all-over consistency.

Bin Activators
Devices that promote the steady flow of granular or powdered plastic materials from storage bins or hoppers.

Binder
(1) The resin, cementing constituent, or plastic compound which holds the other components together.

Bingham Body
Material displaying plastic flow.: nbsp definition plastic flow

Bingham Liquid
Liquid exhibiting plastic flow.: plastic flow nbsp

Biocide
(1) A chemical agent capable of killing organisms responsible for microbiological degradation.

Biodegradation
The degradation of a plastic by living organisms such as bacteria, fungi and yeasts.

Biological Composites
A tremendous number of biological materials can be considered composites, e.

Bipolymer
A copolymer in which there is irregularity with regard to the relative locations within the polymer chain of two or three or more chemically different types of units.

Birdsmouth
A notch cut on the face of a piece of material in order to join another piece.

Birefringence
Property of anisotropic materials which possess different refractive indices according to the polarization of light passing through the material.

Birefringence, Fiber
The algebraic difference of the index of refraction of the fiber for plane polarized light vibrating parallel to the longitudinal axis of the fiber and the index of refraction for light vibrating perpendicular to the long axis.

Birefringent
Having more than one refractive index.: nbsp definition refractive index

Bis-
A prefix indicating double or twofold.: nbsp definition prefix

Bis (4-t-Butylcyclohexyl) Peroxy Dicarbonate
A catalyst of the organic peroxide family, used in reinforced plastics.

Biscuit
See PREFORM.: nbsp definition biscuit

Bismaleimide Resins
These addition-type polyimides or maleimide-based polyimides are used in high performance structural composites requiring higher temperature use and increased toughness.

Bisphenol A
A condensation product formed by reaction of two (bis) molecules of phenol with acetone (A).

Bis (Tri-n-Butyltin) Oxide
A liquid derived by the hydrolysis of tributyl tin chloride, used as an agent to control the growth of most fungi, bacteria and marine organisms in plastics.

Bis(2,2,4-Trimethyl-1,3-Pentanediol Monoisobutyrate) Adipate
A plasticizer.: adipate plasticizer

Bite
Ability of an adhesive or coating to penetrate or soften a previous coating or substrate.

Bitter Almond Oil, Synthetic
See BENZALDEHYDE.: bitter almond oil nbsp definition

Bitumen Composites
See ASPHALT COMPOSITES.: composites asphalt nbsp

Airframe
The main structure of an aircraft including fuselage, empennage and wings.

Air Gap
In the radio frequency heating of plastics, the space between the electrode and the surface of the material.

Air Jet
A type of sandblasting gun in which the abrasive is conveyed to the gun by a partial vacuum.

Air-Jet Loom
A loom using a jet of air to carry the yarn through the shed.

Air-Knife Coating
A knife-coating technique especially suitable for thin coatings such as adhesives, wherein a high pressure jet of air along with a metered quantity of material is forced through orifices in the knife to control the thickness of the material coating.

Airless Blast Deflashing
The process of deflashing molded parts by bombarding them with tiny nonabrading pellets which break off the flash by impact.

Abrasive Cutoff
A grinding process employing a thin, bonded abrasive wheel for cutting.

Airless Spraying
The process of atomization of a coating by forcing it through a small orifice at high pressure.

Air Lock
Surface depression on a molded part, caused by trapped air between the mold surface and the plastic material.

Air Loss
Loss in mass by a plastic or coating on exposure to air at room temperature.

Air Pollutants, Hazardous
Materials discharged into the atmosphere that have a proven relationship to increased human death rates.

Aerosol
A dispersion of solid or liquid particles in gaseous media.

Aerosol Coating
A material, such as a mold release, conveniently packaged in a sealed spray can.

Aerospace Quality
A material with proven suitability for meeting specialized aerospace industrial requirements, which is of high quality and guaranteed by closely controlled continuously inspected and proven manufacturing methods.

AES
Abbreviation for AUGER ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY.: electron spectroscopy abbreviation aes

Affinity
The attraction or polar similarity between two materials such as adhesive and adherend.

AFPB
Abbreviation for ASYMMETRIC FOUR-POINT BEND TEST.: abbreviation nbsp

AFSC
Abbreviation for Air Force Systems Command, United States Air Force.

Abrasion Coefficient
The resultant calculation based on an abrasion test using the falling sand abrasion tester.

After-Bake
Heating of fully cured pans to improve electrical properties and heat resistance.

Aftercure
A continuation of the process of curing after the cure has been carried to the desired degree and the source of heat removed-generally results in overcure and a product less resistant to aging than properly cured products.

Afterflame
The persistence of flame under specified test conditions after the ignition source has been removed.

Afterflame Time
The length of time for which a material continues to flame, under specified test conditions after the ignition source has been removed.

Afterglow
The glow in a material after removal of an external ignition source on after cessation, either natural or induced, of flaming.

Afterglow Time
The length of time that glowing persists after flaming or removal of the ignition source.

Aftermixer
In a reaction-injection-molding system, a section of the runner which creates turbulence within the liquid flow to ensure thorough mixing.

AFWAL
Abbreviation for Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories.

Ag
Chemical symbol for silver.: chemical symbol for silver nbsp definition

Age-Hardening
The hardening by aging usually after rapid cooling or cold working.

A
Symbol for area of a cross section and fatigue stress ratio.

Abrasion Cycle
Number of abrading revolutions to which[R]a specimen is subjected in an abrasion test such as with a Taber abrader.

Ageing
See AGING.: nbsp definition

Age Resistance
Resistance to deterioration with time.: deterioration resistance

Age Softening
The spontaneous decrease in strength and hardness that takes place at room temperature in certain strain hardened alloys, especially those of aluminum.

Agglomerate
A cluster of individual particles in which the particles are held together by surface forces.

Agglomeration
Condition in which particles become united into clusters of individual panicles.

Aggregate
Hard fragmented material used with an epoxy binder as a surfacing medium, or in epoxy tooling.

Aggressive Tack
See TACK, DRY.: nbsp

Aging
(1) The effect of environmental exposure on materials.

Aging Test
One in which materials are subjected or exposed to degradation factors.

Agitation
Process of mixing or stirring to achieve homogeneity, but not necessarily dispersion.

Abrasion Machine
A laboratory device for determining abrasive resistance.

Agitator
Mechanical device used for mixing or stirring.: agitator mechanical device

A Glass
An early reinforcing glass fiber.: tensile modulus e glass glass fiber tensile strength gpa

AIAA
Abbreviation for American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Aileron
A movable control surface or device located or attached to the trailing edge of an aircraft wing.

AIMA
Abbreviation for Acoustical and Insulating Materials Association.

AIME
Abbreviation for American Institute of Mechanical Engineers.

AIMME
Abbreviation for American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers.

Air, Dry
Air containing no water vapor.: nbsp definition water vapor

Abrasion Resistance
The ability of a material to withstand mechanical action such as rubbing, scraping, or erosion, that tends progressively to remove material from its surface.

Air, Saturated
A mixture of dry air and water vapor at its maximum concentration for the prevailing temperature and pressure.

Air Brush
The British term for SPRAY GUN.: spray gun fine spray air brush nbsp

Air Bubble Viscometer
An instrument used to measure the viscosity of resin solutions by matching the rate of rise of an air bubble in the sample liquid with the rate of rise in one of a series of standard liquids.

Air Bubble Void
Air entrapment within and between the plies of reinforcement.

Air Cap
Perforated housing for atomizing air at the head of a spray gun.

Air Classification
The separation of metal powders into panicle-size fractions using an air stream of controlled velocity.

Air Contamination
Foreign substances introduced into the air which make the air impure.

Air Content
The volume of air in the pore space of aggregate panicles usually expressed as a percentage of total volume.

Air Cure
Room temperature cure utilizing fast-acting accelerators.

Air-Dry Loss
The decrease in sample mass due to solvent loss.

Abrasive
Any agent which, by a process of grinding down, tends to remove material from a surface.

Air Drying
See DRY.: air drying nbsp

Air Ducts
Pipes that carry warm or cold air.: air ducts cold air pipes

Air Entrapment
Inclusion of air bubbles in coatings and adhesives.

Air Flotation
A process used to separate light from-heavy panicles by a strong current of air which carries the finer particles away and allows the larger and heavier ones to fall back to be re-ground.

Adhesive, Solvent Activated
Dry adhesive rendered tacky just prior to use by application of a solvent.

Adhesive, Warm Setting
See also ADHESIVE, INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SETTING.

Adhesive-Assembly
The process of joining two or more plastic parts other than flat sheets (for which the term laminating is used) by means of an adhesive.

Adhesive-Bonded
Bonding is accomplished by adding an adhesive coating to the surface of the component, then joining and curing the adhesive.

Adhesive Dispersion
Two-phase adhesive system in which one phase is suspended in a liquid.

Adhesive Film
A thin, dry film of resin, usually a thermoset, used as an interleaf in the production of laminates such as plywood.

Adhesiveness
The property defined by the adhesion stress A = F/S where F is the force perpendicular to the bond line and S is the surface area of the bond.

Adhesive Tape Test
See TAPE TEST.: adhesive tape nbsp

Adhesive Wear
Due to material transfer between two surfaces or loss from either surface between contacting bonded surfaces.

Adiabatic
Denoting a process in which no heat is deliberately added or removed or there is no gain or loss of heat from the environment.

Abrasiometer
One of the many devices used to test abrasion of a coating by using an air blast to drive an abrasive against the test film, or by rotating a film submerged in an abrasive, or by simply dropping a stream of abrasive onto the film.

Adiabatic Extrusion
A process in which the sole source of heat is the conversion of the drive energy through viscous resistance of the plastic mass in the extruder.

Adipates
Esters of adipic acid.: adipic acid esters

Adiponitrile
An intermediate used in the manufacture of nylon 6/6.

Adsorbate
Material retained by the process of adsorption.: nbsp definition

Adsorbent
A substance offering a suitable active surface, upon which other substances may be adsorbed.

Adsorption
The adhesion of the molecules of gases, dissolved substances, or liquids in more or less concentrated form to the surfaces of solids or liquids with which they are in contact--a concentration of a substance at a surface or interface of another substance.

Adsorption Chromatography
The analytical separation of a chemical mixture (gas or liquid) by passing it over an adsorbent bed that adsorbs different compounds at different rates.

Adsorption Isobar
A graph indicating the variation of adsorption with a parameter such as temperature while holding pressure constant.

Adsorption Isotherm
The relationship between the gas pressure and the amount of gas or vapor taken up per gram of solid at constant temperature.

Abrasion
Wearing away of a surface in service by action such as rubbing, scraping, or erosion; or the damage caused by scraping or rubbing against a rough, hard surface.

Advanced Composite
High-structural-strength materials created by combining one or more stiff, high-strength reinforcing fibers with a compatible resin system.

Aeolotropy
See ANISOTROPY.: anisotropy nbsp

ACS
Abbreviation for American Chemical Society.: nbsp definition american chemical society acs abbreviation

Activate
To put into a state of increased chemical activity.

Activated Materials
Substances treated to exhibit absorptive, adsorptive, or catalytic properties.

Activating
A treatment which renders nonconductive material receptive to electroless deposition.

Ablation
An orderly heat and mass transfer process in which a large amount of thermal energy is expended by sacrificial loss of surface region material.

Activation
The treatment of a substance by heat, radiation, or a chemical reagent to produce a more rapid physical and/or chemical change.

Activator
An additive used in a small proportion to promote the curing of matrix resins and reduce curing time, an accelerator.

Active Oxygen
A measure of the oxidizing power of a substance expressed in terms of oxygen with a gram-equivalent weight of 8.00.

Activity, Catalyst
The measure of the rate of a specific catalytic reaction.

ACTP
Abbreviation for advanced-composite thermoplastics.

Actuators
Devices that control the movement of mechanical action of a machine indirectly rather than directly or by hand.

Acylation
Formation or introduction of an acyl radical in or into an organic compound.

Acyl Groups
Radicals derived from carboxylic acids by removal of an OH group.

ADA
Abbreviation for ADIPIC ACID.: adipic acid ada abbreviation nbsp

Adams and Walrath Test
A mechanical test method for composites employing double-cantilever beam type loading.

Ablative Coatings
Thick materials used for missiles and reentry rockets which absorb heat and are designed to char and sacrifice themselves while protecting the metal substrate underneath.

Adaptive Control
A method by which input from sensors automatically and continuously adjusts in an attempt to provide near optimum processing conditions.

Addition Polymer
Polymer made by addition polymerization.: addition polymerization polymer addition

Addition Polymerization
A chemical reaction in which simple molecules (monomers) are added to each other to form long-chain molecules (polymers) without by-products.

Additive
A substance such as plasticizers, initiators, light stabilizers, catalysts, flame retardants, etc.

Additive Reaction
Chemical reaction in which two components join together to form a single reaction product.

Adduct
A chemical addition product, such as the cyclic product of the addition of a diene with another unsaturated compound (as maleic anhydride).

Adduct Curing Agent
A cross-linking agent.: agent definition

Adhere
To cause two surfaces to be held together by adhesion.

Adherence
The degree of adhesion of two surfaces.: adherence surfaces

Adherend
A body which is held to another body by an adhesive.

Ablative Material
A term applied to any polymer or resin with low thermal conductivity which pyrolyzes layer-by-layer when its surface is heated, leaving a heat-resisting layer of charred material which eventually breaks away to expose virgin material.

Adherometer
An instrument which measures the strength of an adhesive bond.

Adhesion
The state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which may consist of valence forces or interlocking action or both.

Adhesion, Mechanical
Adhesion between surfaces in which the adhesive holds the pans together by interlocking action.

Adhesion, Specific
Adhesion between surfaces which are held together by valence forces of the same type as those which promote cohesion.

Adhesion Failure
The separation of two bonded surfaces at an interface by the application of force.

Adhesion Promoter
A substance which is applied to a substrate to improve the adhesion of a coating to the substrate.

Adhesion Strength
The force required to cause a separation of two bonded surfaces.

Adhesive
Substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment.

Adhesive, Cold-Setting
Adhesive which sets at temperatures below 20 C.: temperatures

Adhesive, Contact
An adhesive which requires that for satisfactory bonding, the surfaces to be joined shall be no farther apart than about 0.1 mm.

ABL Bottle
An internal pressure test vessel about 18 inches in diameter and 24 inches long, used to determine the quality and properties of the filament wound material used to fabricate the vessel.

Adhesive, Edge Jointing
Adhesive used to bond strips of veneer together by their edges in the formation of larger sheets.

Adhesive, Heat Activated
A dry adhesive film that is rendered tacky or fluid by application of heat and/or pressure.

Adhesive, Hot Melt
An adhesive applied in a molten state to form a bond on cooling.

Adhesive, Hot-Setting
Adhesive which requires a temperature at or above 100 C to cure.

Adhesive, Multiple Layer
An adhesive film that is usually supported with a different adhesive composition on each side for bonding dissimilar materials such as the core to face bond of a sandwich composite.

Adhesive, Pressure Sensitive
A viscoelastic, solvent-free, permanently-tacky material which adheres spontaneously to most solid surfaces with a slight application of pressure.

Adhesive, Room Temperature Setting
An adhesive that sets in the temperature range 20 to 30 C.

Adhesive, Separate Application
An adhesive consisting of two parts.: adherent

Adhesive, Solvent
An adhesive containing a volatile, organic liquid as the vehicle.

Abrading Equipment
A type of equipment which fires a gas propelled stream of finely graded abrasive particles through a precise nozzle against a work surface.

Chapters Contents of MIL-HDBK-23A
List of chapters in MIL-HDBK-23A, the[R]Military Handbook on Structural Sandwich Composites.

Chapters Contents of MIL-HDBK-23A
List of chapters in MIL-HDBK-23A, the[R]Military Handbook on Structural Sandwich Composites.

Chapters Contents of MIL-HDBK-23A
List of chapters in MIL-HDBK-23A, the[R]Military Handbook on Structural Sandwich Composites.

Chapters Contents of MIL-HDBK-23A
List of chapters in MIL-HDBK-23A, the[R]Military Handbook on Structural Sandwich Composites.

Chapters Contents of MIL-HDBK-23A
List of chapters in MIL-HDBK-23A, the[R]Military Handbook on Structural Sandwich Composites.

Chapters Contents of MIL-HDBK-23A
List of chapters in MIL-HDBK-23A, the[R]Military Handbook on Structural Sandwich Composites.

Chapters Contents of MIL-HDBK-23A
List of chapters in MIL-HDBK-23A, the[R]Military Handbook on Structural Sandwich Composites.

Chapters Contents of MIL-HDBK-23A
List of chapters in MIL-HDBK-23A, the[R]Military Handbook on Structural Sandwich Composites.

Chapters Contents of MIL-HDBK-23A
List of chapters in MIL-HDBK-23A, the[R]Military Handbook on Structural Sandwich Composites.

Chapters Contents of MIL-HDBK-23A
List of chapters in MIL-HDBK-23A, the[R]Military Handbook on Structural Sandwich Composites.

Chapters Contents of MIL-HDBK-23A
List of chapters in MIL-HDBK-23A, the[R]Military Handbook on Structural Sandwich Composites.

MIL-HDBK-23 A Cover Page
Cover page for MIL-HDBK-23A, the[R]Military Handbook on Structural Sandwich Composites.

Notation Used in MIL-HDBK-23A
Notation used in MIL-HDBK-23A, the[R]Military Handbook on Structural Sandwich Composites. Includes[R]conversion factors from U.S. Customary to SI units.

a
Abbreviation for ATTO-.: nbsp definition abbreviation

Abietates
Esters or salts of abietic acid, a principal constituent of ordinary rosin from which the products of commerce are derived, no attempt being made to separate abietic acid from the other acids which rosin is likely to contain.