Composites / Plastics Sitemap - Page 13 2014-03-09
Coefficient of Plastic Viscosity
See VISCOSITY, PLASTIC.: viscosity coefficient nbsp
Coefficient of Reflection
See REFLECTIVITY.: coefficient of reflection nbsp definition reflection coefficient
Coefficient of Thermal Conductivity
The rate at which heat is transferred by conduction through a unit cross-sectional area of material when a temperature gradient exists perpendicular to the area.
Chemical Vapor Deposition
A method which can be used for coating fibers or generating ceramic matrices involving the conversion of an applied coating or the reaction of the fiber with its environment.
Chemical Vapor Infiltration
A chemical vapor deposition type process used for the preparation of ceramic matrix composites such as alumina-alumina, in which a chemical vapor consisting of AlCl3-H2-CO2 is deposited onto porous alumina fibers or preforms.
A chemical adsorption process in which weak chemical bonds are formed between gas or liquid molecules and a solid surface.
The science which studies the viscoelastic behavior of reacting systems.
A term denoting the variations in viscosity induced by chemical reactions.
Chevron Notch Test
Used to measure fracture toughness of fibers.: fracture toughness chevron fibers notch
The fractographic pattern of radial marks appearing in a herringbone pattern and typically found on metal pans surfaces with a much greater width than thickness.
(1) To cool a mold by circulating water.: air blast molding chill mold
A self-contained system comprised of a refrigeration unit and a coolant circulation mechanism consisting of a reservoir and a pump.
See p-BENZOQUINONE.: nbsp definition
An area along an edge or comer where the material has broken off.
In synthetic fibers it is the staple fibers that are together in a unit.
The removal of excessive metal.: removal
Minor damage to a pultruded surface where material is removed without a crack or craze.
A crystalline powder chlorinated alicyclic acid used in fire-retardant polyester resins and plasticizers.
A di-functional acid anhydride used in the form of a white crystalline powder as a hardening agent and flame retardant in epoxy, alkyd and polyester resins.
Powerful solvents which include such members as chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, ethylene dichloride, methylene chloride, tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene.
A family of liquids produced by chlorinating a paraffin oil.
Chlorinated Paraffin Wax
Ordinary paraffin wax can be chlorinated to yield products which assume definite resinous characteristics.
A corrosion-resistant crystalline thermoplastic obtained by polymerization of the monomer chlorinated oxetane (oxetane is derived from pentaerythritol) to a high molecular weight (250,000-350,000).
A prefix describing organic chlorine compounds.: chlorine compounds nbsp definition prefix
A solvent and an intermediate in the production of phenol.
Polymers prepared from monomers containing chlorine, fluorine, hydrogen and carbon only.
A clear colorless, volatile liquid used as a solvent.
Oils derived by chlorinating naphthalene which are used as plasticizers and flame retardants.
See EPICHLOROHYDRIN.: nbsp definition
Strands of glass filament cut to desired length from roving.
A type of glass fiber reinforcement consisting of strands of individual glass fibers which have been chopped into short lengths and bonded together within the strands so that they remain in bundles after chopping.
Chopper guns, long cutters, and roving cutters cut glass into strands and fibers to be used as reinforcements in plastics.
verb--To employ chromatography for separation.: nbsp definition chromatography
The process of selective retardation of one or more components of a fluid solution as the fluid uniformly percolates through a column of finely divided substance, or through capillary passageways.
A hydrated magnesium ortho-silicate, the chief constituent of the serpentine type of asbestos.
A mechanical holding device for a part to allow for rotation of it during machining or grinding.
CIL Flow Test
A test developed by Canadian Industries Limited for measuring rheological properties of thermoplastics.
Abbreviation for computer integrated manufacturing.
Abbreviation for COLD ISOSTATIC PRESSING.: cold isostatic abbreviation nbsp
In filament winding, one complete traverse of the fiber feed mechanism of the winding machine.
An electrically conducting foil (laminated to an insulating material) which is etched in a pattern to produce an electric circuit.
A braiding machine containing carriers that move in a serpentine manner around a circle, half in each direction, and then cross paths frequently to give interlacing patterns such as one-over-one and two-over-two as they form a tube.
Circular Braiding Machine
The most commonly used braiding machine for composites ranging in size from 16 to 144 carriers and producing fabrics from 1 cm to 1 m in diameter.
In filament wound reinforced plastics, a winding with the filaments essentially perpendicular to the axis (90 degrees or level winding).
Chemical symbol for chlorine.: chemical symbol for chlorine nbsp definition
Inorganic nonmetallic materials characterized by high melting points, high compressive strength, good strength retention at high temperatures (1650 C) and excellent resistance to oxidation.
A coined term for reinforced thermoplastics, containing ceramic or mineral particles which have been dispersed in the polymer melt to their ultimate size and encapsulated in a band of resin in which there is a gradient in modulus between that of the filler and that of the polymer.
A class of particle-strengthened composite materials consisting of two components, one of which is an oxide, carbide, boride or similar inorganic compound and the other is a metallic binder.
A written declaration stating that a material or product complies with stated criteria.
Certified Test Report
An approved document containing sufficient data and information to verify results of required test.
Abbreviation for CARBON FIBERS.: carbon fibers abbreviation nbsp
Means continuous filament glass yarn which is used in braiding, in making glass fabric and glass thread.
Abbreviation for carbon or graphite fiber reinforced plastic.
Abbreviation for 100 feet.: nbsp definition abbreviation
Abbreviation for center of gravity.: nbsp definition center of gravity abbreviation
A special type of glass used as a fiber reinforcement, made and applied specifically for high chemical resistance.
Abbreviation for the French name Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures, the international group that developed the system of weights and measures for worldwide use.
Centimeter-gram-second system which has been replaced by SI units.
The surface fatigue initiated by rubbing against another material.
(1) The length of the stretched linear macro-molecule.
Repetitions of units in the molecule to form extended lengths, and large surfaces.
The breaking of a molecular bond causing the loss of a side group or shortening of the overall chain.
Agent An agent used in polymerization, which has the ability to stop the growth of a molecular chain by yielding an atom to the active radical at the end of the growing chain.
(1) A soft white mineral consisting essentially of calcium carbonate, which occurs naturally as the remains of sea shells and minute marine organisms.
The formation of a powdery dry, chalk-like appearance or deposit on the surface of a plastic--the result of degradation.
A beveled or canted surface cut symmetrically on a sharp edge.
The metal support holding a core in place within a mold.
(1) noun--Carbonaceous material formed by pyrolysis or incomplete combustion.
Measurement or weight of material used to load a kettle, mold, or other batch processing equipment at one time or during one cycle.
Charpy Impact Test
A destructive test of impact resistance, consisting of placing the specimen in a horizontal position between two supports, then applying blows of known and increasing magnitude until the specimen breaks.
The main body or the mold which contains the molding cavity (cavities or cores) and the mold pins (guide pins or bushings).
A novel technique for the production of short, metal, composite fibers.
An imperfection.: imperfection
A defect in composites manifested by slight breaks in the surface that do not penetrate to the underlying surface;[R]the break should be called a crack if the underlying surface is visible.
Rough surface due to fine cracks from weathering.: rough surface weathering cracks checks
A supply of glass fiber wound into a cylindrical mass.
A chemical substance which is used in metal finishing to control or remove undesirable metal ions.
See CHEMISORPTION.: chemical absorption nbsp definition
Chemical reaction or solvent effect causing failure or deterioration of plastic materials.
An instrument of method that is calibrated based on chemical standards.
That branch of physical chemistry concerned with the mechanisms and rates of chemical reactions.
Chemically Precipitated Metal Powder
A powder produced by the reduction of a metal from a solution of its salts.
Without impurities detectable by analysis.: impurities geneva
A technique for the removal of metal applicable to metal fibers in MMCs.
The method for improving metal surface luster by a chemical treatment.
The tendency of two or more chemicals to form one or more products.
The ability of a plastic to withstand exposure to acids, alkalis, solvents and other chemicals.
Resistance to chemical damage due to internal or external reactions.
The formation of chemical compounds.: chemical synthesis chemical compounds
One hundredth of a poise, the old CGS unit of viscosity.
One one-hundredth of a stokes, which is the unit of kinematic viscosity and is equal to the viscosity in poises divided by the density of the fluid in grams per cc.
An axis lying within a plane and passing through the centroid of the area.
A high production technique for producing thermoplastic or thermosetting cylindrical composites, such as pipe, in which chopped strand mat is positioned inside a hollow mandrel designed to be heated and rotated as resin is added and cured.
A process similar to centrifugal casting, except that the materials employed are dry, sinterable powders which are fused by the application of heat to the rapidly rotating mold.
(1) The geographical center of a plane area.: point of intersection center of gravity geographical center resultant axes
The line joining the centroid of each cross section along the length of an axial member such as truss diagonal.
A ceramic composite material or cermet containing iron compounds with zirconium diboride and sintering.
Continuous fibers of metal oxides or refractory oxides which are resistant to high temperatures (2000-3000 F).
Ceramic Matrix Composites
A reinforced ceramic material such as an aluminum oxide matrix reinforced with silicon carbide fibers.
A type of weave used to form cylindrical composites in which the fibers are oriented in the radial, circumferential and axial or meridional directions.
Composites Fabricators Association
The Composites Fabricators Association was formed in 1979 to provide education and support for composites fabricators in the successful operation of their businesses.
CFA Composites Fabricators Association
Abbreviation for Composites Fabricators Association.
Carbon Fiber Management Council
Trade association formed to cover issues of importance to the carbon fiber industry.
CFMC Carbon Fiber Management Council
Complex Viscosity of a Fluid
A frequency-dependent viscosity function determined during forced harmonic oscillation of shear stress.
(1) Abbreviation for CENT!-, CENTIMETER and cubic.
(1) Chemical symbol for CARBON.: chemical symbol coulomb circumference abbreviation nbsp
Chemical symbol for calcium.: nbsp definition chemical symbol calcium
Abbreviation for circa, approximate.: nbsp definition abbreviation
The acronym for COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN.: computer aided design acronym nbsp
A heat and light stabilizer, used when good clarity is desired.
Used for the determination of bursting strength with specific equipment.
Abbreviation for COMPRESSION AFTER IMPACT.: abbreviation nbsp
Any material containing calcium or calcium compounds.
Another name for calcium oxide.: nbsp definition calcium oxide
The process of subjecting absorptive mineral to prolonged heating at fairly high temperature, resulting in the removal of water, and an increase in the hardness, physical stability and absorbent properties of the material.
China clay (kaolin) that has been heated until the combined water is removed and the plastic character of the clay is destroyed.
Calcium Silicate, Natural
White acicular particles found in metamorphic rocks and characterized by high flatting action.
A non-toxic stabilizer and lubricant.: calcium stearate epoxides stabilizers stabilizer lubricant
A family of stabilizers based on compounds and mixtures of compounds of calcium and zinc.
The process of forming thermoplastics sheeting by squeezing heated, viscous material between two or more counter-rotating rolls.
A reference material used for calibration.: nbsp definition reference material calibration
To determine the characteristics of a measuring instrument.
One whose response has been directly compared with a standard instrument.
The process of comparing a standard or instrument with one of greater accuracy or smaller uncertainty to obtain: (1) quantitative estimates of the actual value of the standard being calibrated; (2) deviation of the actual value from a nominal one; or (3) the difference between the value indicated and the actual one.
See CAULK.: nbsp definition
Crystals with at least one microscopic or submicroscopic dimension.
A means of data presentation which provides a view of the material and the discontinuities therein.
Abbreviation for Chemical Specialities Manufacturers Association.
Final stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins in which the material is relatively insoluble and infusible.
Abbreviation for COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY.: nbsp definition abbreviation
Abbreviation for carboxylterminated butadiene acrylonitrile.
Abbreviation for COMPOSITE TAPE LAYING.: abbreviation nbsp
Chemical symbol for copper.: chemical symbol for copper cu cu
(1) A rejected material or product.: transfer molding molding machine mold
Waste or broken glass, which is suitable for remelting as an addition to a new batch.
(1) The process of securing the growth of fungi or other microorganisms upon artificial media.
A liquid, alkyl, aromatic hydrocarbon used as a solvent and intermediate for the production of phenol, acetone and alpha-methylstyrene, and as a catalyst for acrylic and polyester resins.
A colorless liquid derived from an oxidized solution or emulsion of cumene, used as a polymerization catalyst.
Cumulated Double Bond
Two double bonds on the same carbon atom.: double bonds carbon atom double bond
Polymer intermediates based on cumylphenol, diluted with appropriate aromatic hydrocarbon.
Cup Flow Test
A British Standard Test for measuring the flow properties of phenolic resins.
To change the properties of a plastic or resin by chemical reaction, for example by condensation, polymerization, or addition.
The time period--under specified conditions--that a thermosetting material is scheduled to obtain a specified property level.
Cure Stress Residual Internal Stress
A residual internal stress produced during cure cycle because dissimilar materials, e.g., aluminum and titanium, of a bonded lay-up have different coefficients of thermal expansion.
Temperature at which a material is subjected to curing.
The magnetic transformation temperature.: curie temperature transformation temperature alloy
The overall transformation from a low molecular weight resin/hardener system to a cross-linked network by chemical reaction.
Curing Agent Blush
A blushing, blooming or sweating caused by applying amine cured epoxies under conditions of high humidity.
Substances or mixtures of substances added to a polymer composition to promote or control the curing reaction.
The time required for curing.
(1) The period of time during which a part is subjected to heat and/or pressure, to cure the resin.
Refers to excessive warping of sheet goods, or distortion of uneven shrinkage.
Substrate to be coated passes through a falling sheet (curtain) of resin.
See SAGGING.: nbsp definition curtaining
The geometric measure of the bending and twisting of a plate.
(1) The number of 100-yard lengths of fiber per pound.
In laminated plastics, a condition of the surface in which cut edges of the surface layer or lower laminations are revealed.
In compression molding, the line where the two halves of a mold come together.
A thin abrasive wheel for severing or slotting.: abrasive wheel wheel
See BROKEN PICK.: nbsp definition
The breaks or cuts that occur in the selvage only.
Ability of a material to withstand mechanical pressure without separation.
A fluid used for metal cutting to reduce friction and improve finish, dimensional accuracy or tool life.
Abbreviation for CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION.: chemical vapor deposition abbreviation nbsp
Abbreviation for CHEMICAL VAPOR INFILTRATION.: chemical vapor infiltration abbreviation nbsp cvi
High performance resins used for synthesis of thermosetting resins.
A hydrocarbon derivative in which all the hydrogen atoms are replaced by the CN group.
(1) The series of sequential operations entering into a process or part of a process.
Organic ring structures such as benzene, the simplest cyclic compound, consisting of a single ring.
See ALICYCLIC.: nbsp definition
See ALICYCLIC.: nbsp definition cycloalkane
(1) A fully saturated six-membered, cyclic hydrocarbon, constituent of certain crude petroleums.
Fabric defect evidenced by a break, line or mark, generally caused by a sharp fold.
(1) The spool and its supporting structure on which continuous strands or rovings of reinforcing material are wound; used in the filament winding process.
(1) Permanent deformation resulting from prolonged application of a stress below the elastic limit.
Spontaneous spreading of a liquid on a surface.
The ratio of initial applied stress to creep strain.
A transient stress-strain condition in which the strain increases concurrently with a decay in stress.
The rupture of a plastic under a continuously applied stress at a point below the normal tensile strength.
Multiple kinks that can affect the fiber cohesion by resisting dislocation.
Cresyl Diphenyl Phosphate
A plasticizer with a high degree of flame resistance.
Corrosion which occurs within or adjacent to a crevice formed by contact with another piece of material.
The maximum pressure at which two phases can exist.
The maximum temperature at which two phases can exist.
The waviness of a fiber.: waviness crimps fibers waves extent
The measure of the ability of a yarn to return to its original crimped state after being subjected to tension.
A term used for describing a part or load approaching point of failure.
Critical Condensation Temperature
A determination of the sublimation temperatures of the sublimand.
Critical Cooling Rate
The rate of continuous cooling required to prevent undesirable transformation.
The density of a substance at its critical temperature and pressure.
Critical Longitudinal Stress, Fiber
The longitudinal stress expressed in psi necessary to cause internal slippage and separation of a spun yarn.
In an heterogeneous equilibrium diagram, it is the specific value of composition, temperature and pressure at which the phases are in equilibrium.
The physical and thermodynamic properties of materials at the critical point.
Stress That stress required to cause slip in a designated slip direction on a given slip plane.
The strain at yield point.: yield point
Critical Surface Tension
That value of surface tension of a liquid below which the liquid will spread on a solid expressed in dynes/cm.
(1) The temperature above which the vapor phase cannot be condensed to liquid by an increase in pressure.
The voltage at which a gas ionizes (or breaks down) and corona occurs.
An imperfection in the form of a multitude of fine surface fractures.
Either synthetic or natural iron oxide which is the basis of the rouge used in many fine polishing and buffing operations.
An iron-oxide coated abrasive cloth, used as a polishing agent after most of the work has been done with emery or aluminum oxide.
A shell molding technique utilizing a phenolic resin binder.
A pattern in which the fibers and other longitudinal elements deviate from a line parallel to the sides of the piece.
A device which receives a molten stream of plastic emerging from an extruder, diverts the direction of flow (usually 90 degrees from the axis of the extruder screw), and forms the extrudate into a shape.
The movable cross member speed of the universal tester relative to the fixed member, usually noted as inches/minute of Crosshead movement.
Pertaining to a laminate in which the reinforcing fibers in some layers are positioned at right angles with respect to the fibers in other layers.
The establishing of chemical links between the molecular chains in polymers.
A substance that promotes or regulates intermolecular covalent bonding between polymer chains, linking them together to create a more rigid structure.
The average number of cross-linked units per primary polymer molecule in the system as a whole.
See also LAMINATE and CROSS LAMINATE.: laminate nbsp
Refers to the cutting of specimens and to the application of load.
Type of film defect where small wrinkles occur (during wet processing) in a pattern resembling that of a crow's foot.
A radial compressive test to determine crushing strength (maximum load in compression).
Pertaining to very low temperatures.: nbsp definition cryogenic temperatures space applications plastics evaluations
Thermoplastics are difficult to grind to small particle sizes at ambient temperatures because they soften, adhere in lumpy masses and clog screens.
A polymeric material containing crystallites in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly three-dimensional configuration.
See SILICA and AMORPHOUS SILICA.: crystalline silica amorphous silica nbsp
In some resins a state of molecular structure denoted by uniformity and compactness of the molecular chains.
A term used to define any indentation in a core material such as honeycomb resulting from a gouge.
The joining together of any number of honeycomb core sections by overlapping each piece and driving the upper section onto the lower one resulting in interlocking of the core cell structure.
The failure of the core-to-face-sheet bond line in honeycomb.
The joining together of any number honeycomb sections using an adhesive edge bond.
A process to rigidize honeycomb core materials to prevent distortion during machining or curing.
The yarn used parallel to the braid axis in the core or between braided layers.
The outer bark of Quercus suber, a species of oak growing in Mediterranean countries.
A composite consisting of ground cork, mixed with binders or plasticizers, and formed into bars, sheets, tubes, rods and other shapes.
Very finely divided cork.: cork
A luminous discharge which occurs when the applied voltage is high enough (5000 volts or more) to cause partial ionization of the surrounding gas.
Corona Discharge Treatment
A method of rendering surfaces more receptive to adhesives or decorative coatings by subjecting them to a high voltage corona discharge.
The ability of insulation to withstand a specified level of field-intensified ionization to prevent its immediate, complete breakdown.
An accelerated corrosion test for electro-deposits.
A term which is generally applied to metals and metallic degradation.
A broad term applying to the ability of plastics to resist the effect of environmental forces.
An intermediate processing step in some honeycomb core construction involving the conduction of flat sheets through toothed rolls to impress and pre-form desired angular shapes followed by the application of adhesive.
Core Single ply wavy core fabricated by pressing or forming a series of parallel and alternate grooves and ridges in appropriate sheet material which is used in sandwich construction.
Natural aluminum oxide.: natural aluminum aluminum oxide abrasives corundum
Fiber foam structural core (manufactured by C.: nbsp definition masland
The simultaneous crystallization (as a function of temperature, pressure, and composition) of two or more phases from a single liquid, without resorption.
A natural material which can be woven into fibers having good heat resistance, flexibility and strength.
See LINTERS.: cotton linters nbsp definition
(1) Fabric: Number of warp and filling yarns per inch in woven cloth.
An electroless process for the deposition of metal interlayers such as copper or silver within polymer films.
See SKEIN-BREAK FACTOR.: nbsp product count
The joining of two molecules.: molecules
One that involves two oxidants with a single reductant, a simpler reaction alone could be thermo-dynamically unfavorable.
The linking of a side effect to a principal effect.
A representative specimen of material attached to and/or cut from a production run which can be used to establish quality.
The number of covalent bonds which an atom can form.
The outside layer of fibers that form the surface of a yarn.
The surface area to be continuously covered by a specific quantity of material.
A straight line graph of me logarithm of the vapor pressure plotted against a nonuniform temperature scale.
Abbreviation for CHEMICALLY PURE.: abbreviation nbsp
Abbreviation for condensation-reaction polyimide.: nbsp definition condensation reaction cpi abbreviation
See CRONING PROCESS.
Abbreviation for CENTIPOISE.: nbsp definition cps abbreviation
Chemical symbol for chromium.: nbsp definition chemical symbol chromium cr
(1) An actual separation of material (visible on opposite surfaces of the part, and extending through the thickness);[R]a fracture.
Generally, the splitting of a coating or film, usually as a result of aging.
The ability of a coating to resist breaks that extend through to the surface.
A mechanism proposed by Lange for halting advancing cracks in composites.
A method or material used or applied to delay or postpone the propagation of a possible or existing crack.
The maximum value of the nominal (net-section) stress sustained by a specimen.
A small, shallow surface imperfection.: shallow surface imperfection
(1) Minute surface crack, sometimes hairline in size.
The development of a multitude of very fine cracks in the matrix material, resulting from stresses which exceed the tensile strength of me plastic.
The individual materials that make up a composite material.
Constitutional Repeating Unit
The smallest constitutional unit whose repetition describes a regular polymer.
A species of atom or group of atoms present in a chain of a polymer or oligomer molecule.
Any physical or chemical property that depends on the constitution or structure of the molecule.
A liquid adhesive which dries to a film that is tack-free to other materials but not to itself.
Contact Angle Analysis
(1) A surface analytical technique for probing the first monolayer of a polymer.
The cracking and subsequent pitting of surfaces subjected to alternating Hertzian stresses such as rolling contact or combined rolling and sliding.
See CONTACT PRESSURE MOLDING.: pressure molding nbsp
See CONTACT PRESSURE MOLDING.: pressure molding nbsp
A metal plating process without an external power source.
Contact Pressure Molding
Process for forming or molding reinforced plastics in which little or no pressure is applied during the forming and curing steps.
Contact Pressure Resins
Liquid resins which thicken or resinify on heating and, when used for bonding laminates, require little or no pressure.
See CONTACT PRESSURE RESINS.: resins nbsp
A method of ultrasonic inspection in which the ultrasonic search unit is in contact with and coupled to the part with a thin film of coupling material.
An impurity or foreign substance present in a material which affects one or more properties of the material.
A single, flexible, small-diameter fiber of indefinite length.
Continuous Filament Yarn
Yarn formed by twisting two or more continuous filaments into a single, continuous strand.
An automated technique in which chopped rovings and reinforcing fabric or mat are continuously passed through a resin and are brought together between flexible covering sheets as a lay-up.
A type of polymerization in which the monomer is continuously fed to a reactor and the polymer is continuously removed.
An automated process in which continuous lengths of roving, tape, or narrow fabric are impregnated in a resin bath, the impregnated stock (or prepregged stock) is drawn through a die to set the shape and to control resin content, the shaped lay-up is cured by passing it through an oven, and the composite is cut to length as it emerges from the process line.
See ROVING.: nbsp definition
A weld that extends continuously from one end of the joint to the other.
A shorthand system for stress, strain and material constants such as elastic moduli and strength parameters.
See MOLDING SHRINKAGE.: shrinkage contraction molding nbsp
The cooling from an elevated temperature in a specified method for producing desired mechanical properties or microstructure.
One in which the load is applied to produce a controlled amount of strain.
One in which a specimen is subjected to stress at a controlled rate.
Conventional Base Unit of a Polymer
Base unit defined without regard to steric isomerism.
The braided area in which the interlaced strands are pulled tight in a final pattern.
A coating produced by a chemical or electrochemical treatment of the metal surface.
Passageways provided in molds or platens for circulating water or other cooling media, in order to control the surface temperature of the cavities.
A fixture used to maintain the dimensional accuracy of a molding or casting (after it is removed from the mold) until the material is cool enough to retain its shape.
Catalysts comprising a mixture of (a) an organometallic compound such as triethylaluminum or a transition-metal compound, such as titanium tetrachloride.
The uppermost section of a mold or pattern, etc.: mold
The copolymerization of two or more monomers by the condensation polymerization process.
This term usually denotes a polymer of two chemically distinct monomers.
The simultaneous polymerization of two or more monomers.
Copper Accelerated Salt Spray Test
An accelerated corrosion test for anodic aluminum coatings and some electrodeposits.
Copper-Refractory Metal Alloys
Aligned ductile composites consisting of refractory metal dendrites in a copper matrix.
The yarn carrier on the Maypole braider which also contains a round slotted track and a take-up device for producing braids.
Magnesium aluminum silicate.: aluminum silicate nbsp definition
(1) The central member of a laminate to which the faces of the sandwich are attached.
The distortion or collapse of core material such as honeycomb due to pressure or local compression.
The condition reached by a specimen in temperature and moisture equilibrium with a standard atmosphere.
Subjecting a material to standard environmental and/or stress history prior to testing.
The measure of a material's ability to conduct electricity, expressed as the reciprocal of resistance.
Composite materials which have a volume resistively equal to or less than 500 ohm-cm.
Materials used for electrostatic shielding, corona shielding and electrical connections.
The conductance of a unit cube of any material reciprocal of volume resistivity.
An electrical path which offers comparatively little resistance.
Cone-shaped point of the penetrometer tip, upon which the end-bearing resistance develops.
In textiles, a yarn holder or bobbin of conical shape used as a core for a yarn package of conical form.
See CONFORMATION.: conformation nbsp
Configurational Repeating Unit
The smallest set of one, two or more successive configurational base units that prescribes configurational repetition at one or more sites of stereoisomerism in the main chain of a polymer molecule.
A constitutional unit having one or more sites of defined stereoisomerism.
Thin layer of polymer material to provide a uniformly thick protective, conductive or insulation barrier on all surfaces and edges.
(1) The overall spatial arrangement of the atoms and groups in a polymer molecule.
Conjugated Double Bonds
A chemical term denoting double bonds separated from each other by a single bond.
The extrusion of two different polymers through the same orifice to produce a bicomponent or biconstituent fiber.
The resistance of a material to flow or permanent deformation when shearing stresses are applied to it; the term is generally used with materials whose deformations are not proportional to applied stress.
An instrument for measuring the consistency of semi-fluid substances.
That which is permanent or invariable.: nbsp definition
A copper-nickel alloy, wires of which are used in conjunction with wires of a different metal, such as iron, in thermocouples for measuring temperatures.
Composite Materials Glossary - O
Index for the Dictionary of[R]Composite Materials Technology - O
Composite Materials Glossary - Q
Index for the Dictionary of[R]Composite Materials Technology - Q
Composite Materials Glossary - V
Index for the Dictionary of[R]Composite Materials Technology - V
Composite Materials Glossary - X
Index for the Dictionary of[R]Composite Materials Technology - X
Composite Materials Glossary - Y
Index for the Dictionary of[R]Composite Materials Technology - Y
Composite Materials Glossary - Z
Index for the Dictionary of[R]Composite Materials Technology - Z
A measure of length equal to a hundredth part of a meter.
See ADIPIC ACID.: adipic acid nbsp
A liquid used as an intermediate for alkyd resins.
A liquid, used as an intermediate for alkyd resins and a cross-linking agent for resins.
See ALLYL CYANIDE.: nbsp
See BUTYLENES.: nbsp definition
To meet without overlapping.
A method of surfacing by providing a suitable transition weld deposit for subsequent completion of a butt weld.
A method of joining forms of a thermoplastic resin wherein the ends of the two pieces are heated to the molten state and then rapidly pressed together to form a homogeneous bond.
A type of edge joint in which the edge faces of the two adherends are at right angles to the other faces of the adherends.
Edge view of a vertical plane passing through a structure, on or parallel to the longitudinal plane of symmetry.
Tape wrapped around an object in an edge-to-edge condition.
The radical C4H-9. It exists only in combination.: butyl
A colorless, ester solvent, used in the production of synthetic resins.
A solvent for phenolics and alkyd resins.: alkyd resins butyl acetate sec butyl phenolics solvent
Colorless solvent used for resins and coatings, as a diluent-reactant in the manufacture of urea-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde resins, and as an intermediate in the production of butyl acetate, dibutyl phthalate and dibutyl sebacate.
See BUTYRALDEHYDE.: nbsp definition butyl
A white solid, most widely used as an antioxidant for plastics.
Resins containing the butyl radical, C4H-9.: resins butyl
See TRIBUTYL BORATE.: butyl
Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether.: butyl carbitol glycol
The class of plastics based on resins synthesized by the polymerization of butene or copolymerization of butene with other unsaturated monomers.
A highly reactive peroxy compound used as a polymerization catalyst.
A mold lubricant and plasticizer.: emulsion polymerization butyl stearate flow properties plasticizer polystyrene
Butyl (Tetra) Titanate
Used as an adhesion promoter and catalyst.: adhesion promoter titanate butyl catalyst
See TETRABUTYL TITANATE.: titanate butyl
A liquid used in the manufacture of synthetic resins.
Name applied to esters of butyric acid, such as ethyl butyrate, etc.
A hygroscopic, colorless liquid obtained by the dehydrogenation of 1,4-butanediol.
Dictionary of Composite Materials Technology - Conversion
How the Dictionary of Composite[R]Materials Technology was converted from a book into an online[R]glossary.
Composite Materials Glossary - J
Index for the Dictionary of[R]Composite Materials Technology - J
Composite Materials Glossary - K
Index for the Dictionary of[R]Composite Materials Technology - K
Abbreviation for the British Standards Institution.
An intermediate stage in the reaction of a number of thermosetting resins in which the material swells when in contact with certain liquids and softens when heated, but may not entirely dissolve or fuse.
Abbreviation for dimethylester of 3,3',4,4'-benzo-phenonetetracarboxylic acid.
Abbreviation for BRITISH THERMAL UNIT.: british thermal unit btu abbreviation nbsp
Abbreviation for the mixture of solvents comprising BENZENE, TOLUENE and XYLENE.
A spherical, internal void containing air or other gas trapped within a plastic.
A thermoforming process in which the plastic sheet is clamped in a frame suspended above a mold, heated, blown into a blister shape by air, then formed into shape by means of a plug descending into the mold.
Bubble Immersion Test
A leak test for a gas-containing enclosure.: bubble formation leak test immersion nbsp
A device inserted into a mold force, cavity or core which allows water to flow deep inside the hole into which it is inserted and to discharge through the open end of the hole, Uniform cooling of the molds and of isolated mold sections can be achieved in this manner.
See BUBBLE IMMERSION TEST.: immersion nbsp
Bubble Tube Viscometer
See AIR BUBBLE VISCOMETER.: bubble tube viscometer air bubble nbsp
A film defect in which bubbles of air or solvent vapor, or both, are present in a material.
A mode of failure characterized generally by an unstable lateral deflection due to compressive action on the structural element involved.
An equation for calculating the glass transition temperature using the expansion coefficient and volume fraction.
Smoothing a surface by the application of a rotating flexible wheel which contains fine abrasive particles.
The increase of the diameter of a cylindrical shell or the expansion of the outer walls of a straight shell or box.
The density of a molding material in loose form, granular, nodular, etc.
(1) The ratio of the thickness of uncured, prepreg materials to their thickness when fully cured.
In the process of formulating coatings, the step wherein ingredient weights are converted to their volume equivalents.
Reciprocal of apparent density.: nbsp
The ratio of the hydrostatic pressure to the volume strain in psi.
Bulk Molding Compound
Thermosetting plastic resins mixed with stranded reinforcement, fillers, and other additives into a viscous compound for compression or injection molding.
The polymerization of a monomer in the absence of any medium other than a catalyst or accelerator.
A portion of a material that is representative of the entire lot.
Bulk Specific Gravity
The specific gravity of a porous solid ,when the volume of the solid as used in the calculation includes both the permeable and impermeable voids.
A type of yarn having a greater covering or apparent volume than conventional yarn of equal linear density with normal twist.
Yarn defect characterized by a segment, not over 1/4 inch (6 mm) in length, that shows an abrupt increase in diameter caused by matted fibers.
A general term for a collection of essentially parallel filaments.
Measurement of filament strength obtained from a test of a bundle of parallel filaments, with or without organic matrix, which is used in place of the more tedious monofilament test.
Coarse, heavy, plain weave fabric from a coarse, single jute yarn.
(1) The heat treatment that refractory materials are subjected to in the firing process.
Showing evidence of excessive heating during processing or use of a plastic, as evidenced by blistering, discoloration, distortion or destruction of the surface.
See FIRING.: nbsp definition
The changes in a material exposed to specific ignition.
A term describing the tendency of plastic articles to bum at given temperatures.
In flammability testing, it is the period required for a self-sustaining flame to travel a specified distance under specified conditions.
The speed of a two-dimensional flame front normal to its surface and relative to the unburned gaseous-and-fuel oxidizer mixture.
The smoothing of a surface by frictional contact with another material.
The removal of volatile stearates from metal powder compacts by heating immediately prior to sintering.
The firing of a mold at high temperature for the removal of residues.
A fragment of excess material or foreign particles adhering to the surface.
(1) Hydraulic pressure required to burst a vessel of given thickness.
An electrically heated alloy container encased in insulating material, used for melting and feeding glass in the forming of individual fibers or filaments.
A gas, obtained from the cracking of petroleum, from coal tar, benzene, or from acetylene.
A two-dimensional polymer in which the molecules have been formed by branching as opposed to a linear polymer.
The growth of a new polymer chain from an active site on an established chain, in a direction different from that of the original chain.
See SPLITTING TENSILE STRENGTH.: tensile strength nbsp
A high-heat bonding method to join metallic parts utilizing added filler material melted to a temperature below the melting points being joined.
Surface opening that extends into or through the fabric.
A disruptive discharge or arc through electrical insulation.
The voltage required, under specific conditions, to cause failure of an insulating material.
Perforated plate toward the rear of an extruder to support screens that block out foreign matter from the die.
In yarn testing, it is the comparative breaking load of a skein of yarn adjusted for the linear density of yarn expressed in an indirect system.
The elongation to cause rupture of the test specimen.
Breaking load divided by the original width of the test specimen, expressed in pounds per inch.
(1) A measure of the breaking strength of yarn in inches.
The maximum force applied to a tensile test specimen carried to rupture.
Breaking Load, Knot
The breaking load of a yarn or fiber specimen having a knot in the portion between the clamps.
Breaking Load, Loop
The breaking load of a specimen consisting of two lengths of an individual strand looped together so that one length has both of its ends in one clamp of the testing machine and the other length has both of its ends in a second clamp.
The applied force required to rupture a specimen in a tension test under specified conditions.
Breaking Tensile Stress
The final stress sustained by a specimen in a tension test (psi).
See SMASH.: nbsp
A film which is at least slightly permeable to gases due to the presence of open cells throughout its mass or to perforations.
Porous material or fabric used to provide a gas evacuation flow path from the laminate to the vent port during cure.
A loosely woven material, such as glass fabric, which serves as a continuous vacuum path over a part by providing separation between the vacuum bag and part.
The passage of air through a plastic film due to a degree of porosity.
A condition where one or more plies of tape or fabric span a radius step or chamfered edge of core without fall contact.
Chemical agents used primarily in fibers, to overcome yellow casts and to enhance clarity or brightness.
Concentrated aqueous salt solutions.: sodium chloride salt solutions brine
The hardness of a material as determined by pressing a hardened steel ball of 10 mm diameter into the specimen under a constant load for a specified time.
A generic term for a short, stiff, coarse fiber.: generic term coarse fiber
British Thermal Unit
Used prior to the introduction of the SI system to define the quantity of energy required to raise the temperature of one pound mass of water 1 F, at atmospheric pressure.
Easily broken when bent rapidly or scratched.: nbsp definition
Brittle Crack Propagation
The sudden propagation of a crack caused only by the elastic energy stored in the material.
A complete fracture of the specimen in a direction perpendicular to the direction of loading.
Tendency to crack or snap when subjected to deformation.
That statistically estimated temperature at which 50% of the specimens fail in a specified test.
Brittle Point, Brittle Temperature
Lowest temperature at which a material withstands an impact test under standardized conditions.
Uncured preimpregnated materials wider than 12 inches.
In woven fabrics, it is a void in the warp direction due to yarn breakage.
In multifilament yarns, these are discontinuities in one or more filaments.
Joints arranged as in a bond so that they do not fall on a straight line and weaken the part or structure.
A discontinuous or missing filling yarn.: yarn nbsp
See CUT SELVAGE.: nbsp definition
See CRACK.: weave crack nbsp
The Brookfield Synchro-Lectric Viscometer is an instrument used for measuring the viscosity of plastisols and other liquids of a thixotropic nature.
Using a broom to embed a ply and ensure contact with the adhesive.
The ability or ease with which a coating can be brushed.
A plating technique using a pad or brush containing an anode to apply the plating solution.
The data presentation which provides a cross-sectioned view of the test piece.
Abbreviation for British Standard Code of Practice.
Range between initial and final boiling temperatures of a multi-component solvent.
An externally threaded fastener with a preformed head on one end.
The high tension stress intentionally developed in a bolt during installation and assembly.
See KAOLIN.: bolus alba nbsp definition kaolin
(1) Adhesion between two materials, such as an adhesive and a given surface.
A web of fibers held together by an adhesive medium which does not form a continuous film.
That location where two adherends are joined together with an adhesive.
Angle The connecting angle of several plies of reinforcement and resin used to connect two parts of a laminate, usually at right angles to each other.
A term used for all resins used for bonding aggregates such as sand.
The line along which two surfaces are joined together.
(1) As applied to plastics laminates, it is a measure of the interlaminar or ultralaminar strength.
A direct reading, single magnet, dry-film thickness gage.
A hydraulic ram used as an auxiliary to the main ram of a molding press.
Substance in which the essential glass former is boron oxide.
Type of glass containing vitreous anhydrous sodium tetraborate.
Inspection equipment for allowing visual access to the inside of a vessel or pipe.
Boric Acid Esters
Flame retardants and plasticizers, such as trimethyl, tri-n-butyl tricyclohexyl tridodecyl, and tri-p-cresyl borates.
Filaments produced by a chemical vapor deposition process.
Boron Nitride Fiber
An inorganic high strength fiber made of boron nitride.
A polymeric material capable of being fiberized by a series of curing and pyrolysis reactions (developed by Ultrasystems).
Macromolecules formed by the polymerization of boron precursors and other elements.
Esters derived from boric acids and polyhydric alcohols, which are characterized by their solubility in water.
BF3MEA is used as an epoxy accelerator, also controls B-staging.
Silicon carbide coated boron fibers (United Aircraft).
(1) A small prosection or protuberance provided to add strength, facilitate alignment during assembly or for attaching the article to another part.
A steel plate fixed to the lower section of a mold.
Those physical and/or mechanical conditions existing around the surfaces and limits of a structural body.
A pressure gage consisting of a tube bent into an arc which straightens out under internal pressure actuating a pointer on a scale.
(1) A fabric condition that results when filling yarns or knitted courses are displaced from a line perpendicular to their selvages and form one or more arcs across the width of the fabric.
The greatest distance measured parallel to the selvages between a filling yarn and a straight line drawn between the points at which this yarn meets the selvages.
The deviation from flatness.: flatness
A hollow beam with a cross section shaped like a box.
Combining of two or more separate batches to one uniform batch.
See SHUTTLE MARK.: shuttle nbsp
A statement of the relationship between the glass transition temperature and the melting temperature of a polymer.
An instrument which continuously measures the torque exerted in shearing a polymer or compound specimen over a wide range of shear rates and temperatures, including those conditions anticipated in actual plant practice.
Material used to make a unit firm or rigid.
(1) Consists of two interlaced sets of tows.: composite reinforcements right angles mandrels tows filaments
A weave in which two sets of continuous fibers are interwoven symmetrically about an axis.
The angled yarn applied to the braid axis and interlaced with each other and axials.
The point at which one strand or end of yarn in a braided tape crosses another.
Braid Pick Count
The number of crossovers of alternate endings in a given length of braid, counted parallel to the lengthwise direction of the braid.
A diamond penetrator of specified spheroconical shape used with the Rockwell hardness tester for hard metals.
Refers to side chains attached to the main chain in molecular structure of polymers, as opposed to linear arrangement.