Economics Sitemap - Page 2 2016-09-26

Nominal Interest Rates and Money Supply and Demand
This article explains how money supply and money demand come together to determine nominal interest rates in an economy.

Nominal Interest Rates and Money Supply and Demand
This article explains how money supply and money demand come together to determine nominal interest rates in an economy.

Nominal Interest Rates and Money Supply and Demand
This article explains how money supply and money demand come together to determine nominal interest rates in an economy.

Nominal Interest Rates and Money Supply and Demand
This article explains how money supply and money demand come together to determine nominal interest rates in an economy.

Nominal Interest Rates and Money Supply and Demand
This article explains how money supply and money demand come together to determine nominal interest rates in an economy.

Nominal Interest Rates and Money Supply and Demand
This article explains how money supply and money demand come together to determine nominal interest rates in an economy.

Nominal Interest Rates and Money Supply and Demand
This article explains how money supply and money demand come together to determine nominal interest rates in an economy.

The Natural Rate of Unemployment
This article explains what economists mean when they refer to the

Full Employment and the Natural Rate of Unemployment
Economics.

Economics
Economics.

Economics
Economics.

Economics
Economics.

Rivalry in Consumption and the Efficient Quantity of Output
This articles reviews what is meant by rivalry in consumption and how it affects the analysis of how much of a good is efficient for society.

The Dual Mandate of the Federal Reserve
This article explains what the Federal Reserve's

Economics
Economics.

Economics
Economics.

Economics
Economics.

Positive Versus Normative Analysis
This article explains the role of economics in public policy and explains the difference between positive and normative analysis.

Nominal Versus Real Quantities
This article explains the difference between nominal and real quantities and defines the appropriate context for each.

Introduction to Externalities
This article introduces the concept of externalities, or market side effects, and explains how they can arise in a market.

The Shut-Down Condition
This article explains when a company in a competitive market would choose to shut down in the short run rather than produce output.

The Shut-Down Condition
This article explains when a company in a competitive market would choose to shut down in the short run rather than produce output.

The Shut-Down Condition
This article explains when a company in a competitive market would choose to shut down in the short run rather than produce output.

The Shut-Down Condition
This article explains when a company in a competitive market would choose to shut down in the short run rather than produce output.

The Shut-Down Condition
This article explains when a company in a competitive market would choose to shut down in the short run rather than produce output.

The Shut-Down Condition
This article explains when a company in a competitive market would choose to shut down in the short run rather than produce output.

The Shut-Down Condition
This article explains when a company in a competitive market would choose to shut down in the short run rather than produce output.

The Shut-Down Condition
This article explains when a company in a competitive market would choose to shut down in the short run rather than produce output.

Introduction to Price Discrimination
This article explains what price discrimination is and outlines the conditions necessary for price discrimination to exist.

Introduction to Monopolistic Competition
This article gives an overview of the features of a monopolistically competitive market.

Statistical Measures of Unemployment
This article outlines the different ways in which the Bureau of Labor Statistics reports unemployment.

Economics
Economics.

Economics
Economics.

Introduction to Scarcity Value
This article defines the term scarcity value and explains the role that scarcity plays in economic value.

Economics
Economics.

Introduction to Supply
This article introduces the concept of economic supply.

Shifting the Supply Curve
This article explains when and how to shift a supply curve.

Shifting the Supply Curve
This article explains when and how to shift a supply curve.

Shifting the Supply Curve
This article explains when and how to shift a supply curve.

Shifting the Supply Curve
This article explains when and how to shift a supply curve.

Shifting the Supply Curve
This article explains when and how to shift a supply curve.

Introduction to Behavioral Economics
This article gives an introduction to the field of behavioral economics.

The Slope of the Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve Explained
This article explains why the short-run aggregate supply curve is shaped the way that it is.

Deriving the Rule of 70
This article explains what the rule of 70 is and discusses how it is relevant to studying economic growth.

Economic Growth and the Rule of 70
This article explains what the rule of 70 is and discusses how it is relevant to studying economic growth.

Using the Rule of 70
This article explains what the rule of 70 is and discusses how it is relevant to studying economic growth.

The Rule fo 70 Even Applies to Negative Growth
This article explains what the rule of 70 is and discusses how it is relevant to studying economic growth.

The Rule of 70 Applies to More Than Just Economic Growth
This article explains what the rule of 70 is and discusses how it is relevant to studying economic growth.

Price Elasticity of Demand and Revenue
This article explains the relationship between a firm's revenue and the price elasticity of demand that it faces.

Relationship Between Revenue and Price Elasticity of Demand
This article explains the relationship between a firm's revenue and the price elasticity of demand that it faces.

Price Elasticity of Demand and Revenue
This article explains the relationship between a firm's revenue and the price elasticity of demand that it faces.

Introduction to Seigniorage
This article explains what seigniorage is as it relates to the creation of currency and discusses when it makes sense for a government to create physical currency.

The Shape of the Marginal Cost Curve
This article outlines the relationship between average cost and marginal cost and shows intuitively why this relationship holds.

The Shapes of the Marginal Cost and Average Cost Curves
This article outlines the relationship between average cost and marginal cost and shows intuitively why this relationship holds.

Relationship Between Marginal & Average Variable Cost
This article outlines the relationship between average cost and marginal cost and shows intuitively why this relationship holds. Page 5.

Average Cost for a Natural Monopoly
This article outlines the relationship between average cost and marginal cost and shows intuitively why this relationship holds.

A Review of Average Cost vs. Marginal Cost
This article outlines the relationship between average cost and marginal cost and shows intuitively why this relationship holds.

A Helpful Analogy for the Average and Marginal Cost Relationship
This article outlines the relationship between average cost and marginal cost and shows intuitively why this relationship holds.

The Definition and Use of Instrumental Variables (IV)
As a method of estimation, instrumental variables (IV) are used in many economic applications to provide consistent estimates when they otherwise aren't available.

An Introduction to Endogenous Growth Models
Endogenous growth models stems from the like-named theory, the endogenous growth theory. Learn about the development of the theory and its growth models.

An Introduction to Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC)
The Akaike Information Criterion (commonly referred to simply as AIC) is a criterion for selecting among nested statistical or econometric models.

An Introduction to Options and Option Contracts
An option is a contract that gives the holder of the option the right, but not the duty, to make a specified transaction for a specified time in the future.

Screening Games in Economic Game Theory
A screening game is a two-player game used in game theory and economic modeling. Discover the features of screening games in principal-agent dilemmas.

The Definition and Use of a Mathematical Saddle Point
Saddle Point Defined - A Dictionary Definition of Saddle Point

What are Paradoxes: The Reality of Economic Paradoxes
In the field of economics, the term paradox is used in a very particular way. Learn what an economic paradox is and why they are important in the field.

What is Staggered Contracting in Economic Pricing Models?
Staggered Contracting Defined - A Dictionary Definition of Staggered Contracting

How Economists Define and Measure Treatment Effects
The term treatment effect is defined as the average causal effect of a variable on an outcome variable that is of scientific or economic interest.

What is Demography? A Look at Demographics and Economics
Demography is defined as the quantitive and scientific study of vital statistical information illuminates the changing structure of human populations.

The Definition and Significance of the Walrasian Auctioneer
A Walrasian auctioneer is defined as a market-maker who matches supply and demand to get a single price for a good. Discover its significance in economics​.

Elasticity of Demand Practice Problem
Learn how to calculate income, price, and cross-price elasticities with this three part elasticity of demand practice problem with explanations and answers.

Calculating Elasticity of Demand - Practice Problem
Calculating Income, Price, and Cross-Price Elasticities. Page 2.

An Elasticity of Demand Practice Problem
Calculating Income, Price, and Cross-Price Elasticities. Page 3.

Calculating Own Price Elasticity Practice Problem
Calculating Income, Price, and Cross-Price Elasticities. Page 4.

Economic Deflation And How To Prevent It
Deflation and Printing Money: Is the problem that there is more to printing money than printing money? Is in fact the way printed money gets into circulation, that the fed buys bonds, and thus get money into the economy? When the government prints money it causes inflation. Would printing more money cure deflation?

How to Prevent Economic Deflation
Deflation and Printing Money: Is the problem that there is more to printing money than printing money? Is in fact the way printed money gets into circulation, that the fed buys bonds, and thus get money into the economy? When the government prints money it causes inflation. Page 2.

How the Federal Reserve Controls Money Supply
Deflation and Printing Money: Is the problem that there is more to printing money than printing money? Is in fact the way printed money gets into circulation, that the fed buys bonds, and thus get money into the economy? When the government prints money it causes inflation. Page 3.

Lower Interest Rates and Their Effect on the Economy
Deflation and Printing Money: Is the problem that there is more to printing money than printing money? Is in fact the way printed money gets into circulation, that the fed buys bonds, and thus get money into the economy? When the government prints money it causes inflation. Page 4.

Definition of Asymptotic Variance in Statistical Analysis
The definition of the asymptotic variance of an estimator may vary from author to author or situation to situation. Learn about the concept in statistical study.

The Definition and Use of Autoregressive (AR) Models
In statistics, the acronym AR stands for

What Does Unity Mean in Mathematics?
The word unity carries many meanings and definitions in the English language. Learn what unity means in the world of mathematics and how it's used.

A Definition and Introduction to the Keiretsu System
In Japanese, the word keiretsu can be translated to mean

Introduction to Transaction Utility
This article explains the concept of transaction utility as described by behavioral economists and discusses how transaction utility contributes to irrationalities in decision making.

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Economics.

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The Definition of Natural Experiment in Economics
A natural experiment is defined as an empirical study in which the control and experimental variables are not artificially manipulated by researchers.

The Definition of Product Tying and Its Impact on the Market
Product tying is the practice of requiring customers of one product to also purchase another. The practice is generally illegal, but learn what economists say.

The Meaning of "s.t." or "Subject To" in Economics Equations
In economics, the letters

What is Volatility Clustering?
Volatility clustering is defined as the tendency of large changes in prices of financial assets to cluster together resulting in persistence of volatility.

The Meaning of National Accounts in International Economics
National accounting systems are methods of accounting used to measure the economic activity of a country. Discover the importance of national accounts.

How Do Economists Define Asymptotic Unbiasedness?
Unfortunately, there is no general agreement among statisticians and economists as to the precise meaning of asymptotic unbiasedness. Learn more here.

How Economists Define the Revelation Principle
The revelation principle is the fact that truth-telling, direct revelation mechanisms can generally be designed to achieve Bayesian Nash equilibrium.

How Economists Define an Offer Curve
In economics, an offer curve illustrates the quantity of a good an economic agent will export for the quantity of a different good that agent will import.

What is the Indirect Utility Function?
Indirect Utility Function Defined - A Dictionary Definition of Indirect Utility Function

How Do Economists Define Statistical Discrimination?
Statistical discrimination can be defined as an economic theory that attempts to explain racial and gender inequality.

What is National Debt?
Learn the definition of national debt and why it is distinct from the national deficit in the United States. Here's what national debt is and what it isn't.

What is a Plant in the Study of Economics?
In the study of economics, a plant is an integrated workplace usually all in one location. Plants are also commonly referred​ to as factories.

What is Marginal Revenue?
In microeconomics, marginal revenue is the increase in gross revenue a company gains by producing one additional unit. Learn to calculate marginal revenue.

The Meaning of FOB or "Free On Board"
F.O.B. / Free On Board Defined - A Dictionary Definition of F.O.B. / Free On Board

Introduction to the Two-Factor CES Production Function
CES stands for constant elasticity of substitution. Learn about the relevance of CES and the CES production function in the study of economics.

What is Panel Data?
Panel data is data that is derived from a number of observations over time on a number of cross-sectional units. Learn about panel data in economics.

What is Reduced Form?
Reduced Form Defined - A Dictionary Definition of Reduced Form

Pricing Kernels Defined in Relation to Asset Pricing
A pricing kernel, also called a stochastic discount factor, is the random variable that satisfies the function used in computing the price of an asset.

What is a Term Spread or Interest Rate Spread?
What is a term spread? Learn the definition of a term spread through its relationship to interest rates and bond yield curves.

Explore These Free Online Macroeconomics Textbook Resources
About.com's online macroeconomics textbook resources provide students with introductions to basic macroeconomics concepts and compelling discussions.

So What Exactly Do Economists Do?
In order to understand what economists do, we must first determine what an economist is. Here you can discover the diverse professional lives of economists.

The Rise of the Bretton Woods System in a Post-WWII World
The Bretton Woods System refers to the international system of monetary and exchange rate management established in the wake of WWII.

Economics
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Economics
Economics.

Social Norms and Market Efficiency
This article gives a number of examples of how

Economics
Economics.

Economics
Economics.

All About Surge Pricing
This article explains what surge pricing is, how companies use it, and how market participants feel about the practice.

Economics
Economics.

Economics
Economics.

Economics
Economics.

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Economics.

Economics
Economics.

Introduction to IInflation
This article explains what inflation is and why it is important to measure and track inflation.

Economics
Economics.

Introduction to Welfare Analysis
This article introduces the concept of welfare analysis that economists use to calculate how much value markets create for society.

Measures of an Economy's Income
This article defines various measures of an economy's output and income.

The Prisoners' Dilemma
This article introduces the prisoners' dilemma game and shows how to solve for the Nash equilibrium of the game.

The Prisoners' Dilemma
This article introduces the prisoners' dilemma game and shows how to solve for the Nash equilibrium of the game.

The Prisoners' Dilemma
This article introduces the prisoners' dilemma game and shows how to solve for the Nash equilibrium of the game.

The Prisoners' Dilemma
This article introduces the prisoners' dilemma game and shows how to solve for the Nash equilibrium of the game.

How and When to Shift the Demand Curve
This article explains when and how to shift a demand curve.

How and When to Shift the Demand Curve
This article explains when and how to shift a demand curve.

How and When to Shift the Demand Curve
This article explains when and how to shift a demand curve.

How and When to Shift the Demand Curve
This article explains when and how to shift a demand curve.

How and When to Shift the Demand Curve
This article explains when and how to shift a demand curve and also reviews the determinants of demand.

The Relationship Between Profit Maximization and Supply
This article shows to construct short-run supply curves for an individual firm and for a market of firms based on the profit-maximization rule used in competitive markets.

The Shut-Down Condition
This article shows to construct short-run supply curves for an individual firm and for a market of firms based on the profit-maximization rule used in competitive markets.

The Market Supply Curve
This article shows to construct short-run supply curves for an individual firm and for a market of firms based on the profit-maximization rule used in competitive markets.

The Short-Run Supply Curve
This article shows to construct short-run supply curves for an individual firm and for a market of firms based on the profit-maximization rule used in competitive markets.

How to Write an Econometrics Paper Using Okun's Law
Do you have an econometrics project due ASAP, but don't know where to begin? Get all the information and data you need right here. First topic: Okun's Law.

How Technological Advances Gave Birth to a New Economy
The 1990s brought about a wave of technologies that changed the U.S. economy forever. But with new technology comes new concerns. Discover its impact.

How Market Distortions Affect Supply and Demand
What happens when restrictions are placed on a market, preventing it from reaching natural equilibrium? Discover the effects of price ceilings and floors​.

Top 8 Economics Books Every Pro Sports Lover Should Own
For people interested in why sports salaries are so high or the economic impact of building a new stadium, here are 8 top economics books for sport lovers.

A History of American Economic Growth in the 20th Century
American economic growth in the 20th century was characterized by the rise of the American corporation and fall of the business barons of the past.

Econometrics Research Topics and Term Paper Ideas
Have an econometrics project, but don't know where to begin? Get all the information and data you need with these econometrics research topics and resources.

Introduction to Unemployment Insurance in the U.S.
In the U.S. unemployment insurance, also known as unemployment benefits, is a form of social welfare provided to unemployed workers by the state.

The Role of U.S. Government in Environmental Protection
Regulation of practices that affect the environment is relatively recent but is a good example of government economic intervention for a social purpose.

How Income Taxes Affect Economic Growth
What effect do income taxes have on economic growth? Will lower income tax rates lead to higher growth, or will they just line the pockets of the rich?

Government Spending on Three Key Areas
What effect do income taxes have on economic growth? Will lower income tax rates lead to higher growth, or will they just line the pockets of the rich? Page 2.

Essay on Marx's Theory of Money and Alienation
Comment on Marx's Theory of Money and Alienation: An essay for the 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 3.

References for Antidumping Information
Antidumping: A Villain in International Trade . The article is Sarut Wittayarungruangsri's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 5.

The Myth of the American Free Market Economy
Exactly how

Choosing the Best Economics Graduate Program For You
So your question is

Budget Line and Indifference Curve Practice Problems
Try your hand at these economics practice problems. Learn how to calculate budget lines and how they relate to indifference curves in decision-making. Page 2.

Budget Line and Indifference Curve Practice Problems
Try your hand at these economics practice problems. Learn how to calculate budget lines and how they relate to indifference curves in decision-making.

What is Mathematical Economics?
Much of the study of economics requires an understanding of mathematical and statistical methods, so what exactly is mathematical economics? Discover it here.

Read This Before Applying to an Economics PhD Program
Considering applying to a PhD program in Economics? Read this first.

How To Interpret Foreign Exchange Rate Charts
Learn how to interpret foreign exchange rate charts and understand the relationship between a given currency and the given base for comparison.

The Growth of the Early American Economy in the West
The U.S. economy was in growth mode in the 19th century. Learn more about the growth of the early American economy with this look at westward expansion.

Finding Conditions for Factor Returns and Scale Returns
You may be asked to find conditions so that a production function exhibits certain factor returns and returns to scale. Here's how to approach the problem.

The Early Years of the U.S. Labor Movement
Labor's rise did not come easily; the U.S. labor movement struggled for more than a century and a half to establish its place in the American economy.

What is the Dow Jones Industrial Average?
You have probably heard about what happened in

History of the U.S. Balance of Trade
Despite the fact that the U.S. has always been a major player in the global economy, the U.S. has suffered a trade deficit for the last several decades.

The History of Small Business in the United States
Americans have always believed in their land of opportunity, where anyone can prosper. Discover the history of small business in the United States.

The Economics of Farming: Farming as Big Business
U.S. agriculture has increasingly become an

A Brief History of Banking Reform After the New Deal
FDR's New Deal was his administration's answer to the US's grave economic issues of the era. When it came to the banking industry, FDR pushed for reform.

The Birth of the Constitution and US Economy
A great portion of the US Constitution was written to provide the basis for the new nation's economy, and continues to influence the economy today.

The Difference Between Corporate Ownership and Management
An examination of the ownership of U.S. corporations and corporate management. Learn how shareholders, boards of directors, and executives work together.

Definition of Aggregate Demand
Aggregate Demand Defined - A Dictionary Definition of Aggregate Demand

What is a Bank Run?
A bank run ensues when a bank's customers withdraw all of their funds out of fear for the bank's solvency. What was only a fear can lead to real crisis.

The Early Years of the Modern American Economy
The U.S. economy traces its roots European settlers' quest for economic gain in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. Discover the early American economy.

An Economics Student's Guide to Tulip Mania
Tulip mania, also known as tulipomania or the tulip bubble, was a period in Dutch history that is characterized by the rapid rise in tulip bulb prices.

Why Not Just Print More Money?
Article answers the question:

Why Can't the Government Just Print More Money?
Article answers the question:

What Is the Aggregate Demand-Aggregate Supply Model in Macroeconomics?
This article shows how the LM curve is constructed and what it represents.

The Formulation of the LM Curve
Economics.

Tracing Out the LM Curve
Economics.

Shifting the LM Curve
Economics.

What Is Antidumping and How Does it Affect International Trade?
Antidumping: A Villain in International Trade . The article is Sarut Wittayarungruangsri's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 2.

The US-Canada Softwood Lumber Trade Dispute
Learn about the history of the softwood lumber dispute, a trade dispute between the United States and Canada that has persisted for over 30 years.

The US-Canada Softwood Lumber Trade Dispute
The softwood lumber dispute is actually a number of disputes which have gone on for over 20 years between the United States and Canada. The heart of the softwood lumber dispute is the claim of the United States that Canada is unfairly subsidizing Canadian lumber production. Page 2.

Multivariate Econometrics Problems and Excel
This article shows students how to complete a multivariate econometrics project without spending many sleepless nights trying to get it done. A must read for anyone who has to complete a multivariate econometrics term paper.

How to Do a Painless Multivariate Econometrics Project
This article shows students how to complete a multivariate econometrics project without spending many sleepless nights trying to get it done. A must read for anyone who has to complete a multivariate econometrics term paper. Page 2.

How to Do a Painless Multivariate Econometrics Project
This article shows students how to complete a multivariate econometrics project without spending many sleepless nights trying to get it done. A must read for anyone who has to complete a multivariate econometrics term paper. Page 3.

Scottish Banking 1716-1845 - Legal Framework, Adam Smith
A Brief History and Analysis of Scottish Free Banking, 1716-1845. The article is Michael Crook's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 4.

Marx on How and Why Workers Are Alienated
Comment on Marx's Theory of Money and Alienation: An essay for the 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 2.

A Student's Guide to the Great Depression
An examination of the Great Depression aimed towards students.

What Caused The Great Depression?
An examination of the Great Depression aimed towards students. Page 2.

Income Taxes and Government Spending on Infrastructure
What effect do income taxes have on economic growth? Will lower income tax rates lead to higher growth, or will they just line the pockets of the rich? Page 3.

Cramming For Your Economics Exam
How To Study For Your Economics Exam. Tips on how to study for your economics exam that is a few weeks away as well as tips on how to cram the night before, if necessary. Page 2.

How To Study For Your Economics Exam
How To Study For Your Economics Exam. Tips on how to study for your economics exam that is a few weeks away as well as tips on how to cram the night before, if necessary.

Financial Contagion Explained
The Cause, Effects, and Implications of Financial Contagion. The article is Jonathan Lhost's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 3.

Monetary Policy Practice Question 1
This article contains practice problems related to monetary policy.

Question 5
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Question 6
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Question 6
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Question 3
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Question 3
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Question 4
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Question 4
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Question 5
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Question 1
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Question 2
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Question 2
Economics.

Kaldor-Hicks Criterion - Notion of Economic Efficiency
This article introduces the Kaldor-Hicks criterion and shows how it relates to the overall notion of economic efficiency.

Efficiency Gains Can Have Winners and Losers
Economics.

The Logic of the Kaldor-Hicks Criterion
Economics.

Future Implications of Financial Contagion
The Cause, Effects, and Implications of Financial Contagion. The article is Jonathan Lhost's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 5.

An Overview of Antidumping in International Trade
Antidumping: A Villain in International Trade . The article is Sarut Wittayarungruangsri's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 4.

Why Dumping Continues in International Trade
Antidumping: A Villain in International Trade . The article is Sarut Wittayarungruangsri's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 3.

Relationship Between Canadian Dollar and Oil Prices
In this article we examine if the Canadian-American Exchange rate moves in tandem with oil prices. We find that it does.

Is the Value of the Canadian Dollar related to Oil Prices?
In this article we examine if the Canadian-American Exchange rate moves in tandem with oil prices. We find that it does. Page 2.

An Essay Entry for the 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics
The Neoclassical Growth Model and Global Poverty. The essay is David Stone's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics.

The Neoclassical Growth Model and Global Poverty
The Neoclassical Growth Model and Global Poverty. The article is David Stone's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 2.

The Neoclassical Growth Model and Global Poverty
The Neoclassical Growth Model and Global Poverty. The article is David Stone's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 3.

An Essay on Marx's Theory of Money and Alienation
Comment on Marx's Theory of Money and Alienation: An essay for the 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 5.

Comment on Marx's Theory of Money and Alienation: An essay for the 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics
Comment on Marx's Theory of Money and Alienation: An essay for the 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics

An Essay for the 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics
Comment on Marx's Theory of Money and Alienation: An essay for the 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 4.

Third World Debt Crises - The Jamaican Experience
Third World Debt Crises - The Jamaican Experience

Debt Crises in Jamaica
Third World Debt Crises - The Jamaican Experience. Page 2.

Third World Debt Crises - The Jamaican Experience
Third World Debt Crises - The Jamaican Experience. Page 3.

Income Taxes - Government Spending on Social Programs
What effect do income taxes have on economic growth? Will lower income tax rates lead to higher growth, or will they just line the pockets of the rich? Page 4.

The Effect of Income Taxes on Economic Growth
What effect do income taxes have on economic growth? Will lower income tax rates lead to higher growth, or will they just line the pockets of the rich? Page 5.

Benefits and Costs of a Gold Standard
A look at what the gold standard was and how it differs from the fiat system of money today. A comparison of fiat money and the gold standard. Page 2.

The Gold Standard vs. Fiat Money
A look at what the gold standard was and how it differs from the fiat system of money today. A comparison of fiat money and the gold standard.

Ghana Democracy and Development - 8 Years of NDC Rule
Democracy and Development in Ghana: A Look at Eight Years of NDC Rule

Democracy and Development in Ghana: A Look at Eight Years of NDC Rule
Democracy and Development in Ghana: A Look at Eight Years of NDC Rule. Page 2.

Democracy and Development in Ghana: 8 Years of NDC Rule
Democracy and Development in Ghana: A Look at Eight Years of NDC Rule. Page 3.

Democracy and Development in Ghana: A Look at Eight Years of NDC Rule
Democracy and Development in Ghana: A Look at Eight Years of NDC Rule. Page 4.

Democracy and Development in Ghana: A Look at Eight Years of NDC Rule
Democracy and Development in Ghana: A Look at Eight Years of NDC Rule. Page 5.

Was Chinese Birth Planning Necessary?
The Economics of Chinese Birth Planning . The article is Austin Head-Jones's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 3.

A Brief History and Analysis of Scottish Free Banking, 1716-1845
A Brief History and Analysis of Scottish Free Banking, 1716-1845. The essay is Michael Crook's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics.

A Brief History and Analysis of Scottish Free Banking, 1716-1845
A Brief History and Analysis of Scottish Free Banking, 1716-1845. The article is Michael Crook's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 2.

A Brief History and Analysis of Scottish Free Banking, 1716-1845
A Brief History and Analysis of Scottish Free Banking, 1716-1845. The article is Michael Crook's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 3.

Innovations of Scottish Free Banking, 1716-1845
A Brief History and Analysis of Scottish Free Banking, 1716-1845. The article is Michael Crook's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 5.

Cause, Effects & Implications of Financial Contagion
The Cause, Effects, and Implications of Financial Contagion - The essay is Jonathan Lhost's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. (Part 3)

The Cause, Effects, and Implications of Financial Contagion
The Cause, Effects, and Implications of Financial Contagion. The article is Jonathan Lhost's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 2.

Future Implications of Financial Contagion
The Cause, Effects, and Implications of Financial Contagion. The article is Jonathan Lhost's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 4.

The Economics of Chinese Birth Planning
The Economics of Chinese Birth Planning. The article is Austin Head-Jones's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics.

Was Chinese Birth Planning Necessary?
The Economics of Chinese Birth Planning. The article is Austin Head-Jones's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 2.

The Economics of Chinese Birth Planning
The Economics of Chinese Birth Planning . The article is Austin Head-Jones's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 4.

The Economics of Chinese Birth Planning
The Economics of Chinese Birth Planning . The article is Austin Head-Jones's entry for The 2004 Moffatt Prize in Economics. Page 5.

An Overview of Antidumping in International Trade
Antidumping: A Villain in International Trade

Question 4
Economics.

Price Control Practice Problems 1 - Question 1
This articles provides some practice problems related to price controls.

Question 1
Economics.

Question 2
Economics.

Question 2
Economics.

Question 3
Economics.

Question 3
Economics.

Question 4
Economics.

Cost-Push Inflation vs. Demand-Pull Inflation
The general increase in the price for goods in an economy is called inflation. Here we take a closer look at cost-push inflation and demand-pull inflation.

What Is Microeconomics?
Like most definitions in the study of economics, there are plenty of ways to answer the question,

What Is Economics?
What is economics? Is it the study of money? Is it the study of resources? We provide expert answers to this surprisingly complex question.

What Are the Phases of the Business Cycle?
A business cycle is defined by four distinct phases of fluctuation in economic indicators like real GDP. Discover these phases to learn about our economy.

Economist Angus Deaton
This article gives a brief biography of Nobel-Prize-winning economist Angus Deaton

What Are The Three Types of Unemployment?
In the study of economics, there are three primary types of unemployment. Discover the different categories and how they reflect the health of the economy.

Introduction to Quantitative Easing
This article explains what quantitative easing is and what effect is has on the economy.

Introduction to Demand in Economics
This article introduces the concept of economic demand.

The Economi Costs of Inflation
This article outlines the economic costs of inflation.

The Arguments Against Free Trade (Debate)
This article outlines the arguments that people make against free trade and explains the flaws in the reasoning of each of the arguments.

Understanding the Meaning of 'Economics'
This article describes what economics is and what economics isn't.

The Federal Reserve System
This article explains what the Federal Reserve is and what function it serves in the economy.

Stock Prices and the Efficient Markets Hypothesis
This article introduces the random-walk hypothesis and discusses some of the evidence for and against the hypothesis.

Evidence of Momentum in Stock Prices
Economics.

Evidence of Mean Reversion in Stock Prices
Economics.

Evidence in Support of the Random-Walk Hypothesis
Economics.

What Is Prospect Theory?
This article introduces the prospect theory value function and discusses some of its features.

The Shape of the Prospect Theory Value Function
Economics.

The Creation of the Reference Point
Economics.

The Slope of the Prospect Theory Value Function
Economics.

Evidence of the Certainty Effect
Economics.

Another Hypothetical Economic Question
Economics.

A Note on the Evidence of Irrationality
Economics.

A Hypothetical Economic Question
Economics.

The Assumptions of Economic Rationality
This article introduces the certainty effect in prospect theory and illustrates how people exhibit this effect in their choices.

The Expected Utility Calculation
Economics.

An Instrumental Variables Example
Economics.

Natural Experiments and Instrumental Variables
Economics.

The Use of Instrumental Variables
Economics.

Data Analysis and the Correlation Versus Causation Problem
This article explains what an instrumental variable is and discusses how they are used in data analysis.

Awards and Honors for Economists
This article gives an overview of different awards and honors that are considered prestigious for economists.

The Expenditure Categories of Gross Domestic Product
This article outlines the different expenditure categories that are added up to calculate Gross Domestic Product.

The Slope of the Aggregate Demand Curve
This article explains why the aggregate demand curve slopes downwards.

Your Guide to a Painless Undergraduate Econometrics Project
We've created a step-by-step guide to undergraduate econometrics projects with data and instrictions that we wish we had when we were in school.

Your Guide to a Painless Undergraduate Econometrics Project
We've created a step-by-step guide to undergraduate econometrics projects with data and instrictions that we wish we had when we were in school. Page 2.

Your Guide to a Painless Undergraduate Econometrics Project
We've created a step-by-step guide to undergraduate econometrics projects with data and instrictions that we wish we had when we were in school. Page 3.

Should Banks Be Allowed to Fail?
In the aftermath of the 2007-2008 financial crisis, some are still asking,

Calculating Economic Equilibrium
This article shows how to find economic equilibrium using algebra.

Calculating Economic Equilibrium
This article shows how to find economic equilibrium using algebra.

Calculating Economic Equilibrium
This article shows how to find economic equilibrium using algebra.

Calculating Economic Equilibrium
This article shows how to find economic equilibrium using algebra.

Calculating Economic Equilibrium
This article shows how to find economic equilibrium using algebra.

The Economics of Price Gouging
This article outlines the economics involved in the scenario commonly referred to as price gouging.

The Economics of Price Gouging
This article outlines the economics involved in the scenario commonly referred to as price gouging.

The Economics of Price Gouging
This article outlines the economics involved in the scenario commonly referred to as price gouging.

The Economics of Price Gouging
This article outlines the economics involved in the scenario commonly referred to as price gouging.

The Economics of Price Gouging
This article outlines the economics involved in the scenario commonly referred to as price gouging.

Marginal Revenue and the Demand Curve
This article explains the relationship between the marginal revenue curve and the demand curve.

Marginal Revenue and the Demand Curve
This article explains the relationship between the marginal revenue curve and the demand curve.

Marginal Revenue and the Demand Curve
This article explains the relationship between the marginal revenue curve and the demand curve.

Marginal Revenue and the Demand Curve
This article explains the relationship between the marginal revenue curve and the demand curve.

Marginal Revenue and the Demand Curve
This article explains the relationship between the marginal revenue curve and the demand curve.

Marginal Revenue and the Demand Curve
This article explains the relationship between the marginal revenue curve and the demand curve.

Marginal Revenue and the Demand Curve
This article explains the relationship between the marginal revenue curve and the demand curve.

Marginal Revenue and the Demand Curve
This article explains the relationship between the marginal revenue curve and the demand curve.

Introduction to Interest and Interest Rates
This article gives an introduction to the concept of interest and interest rates and explains how interest is calculated.

Introduction to Interest and Interest Rates
This article gives an introduction to the concept of interest and interest rates and explains how interest is calculated.

Introduction to Purchasing-Power Parity
This article introduces the concept of purchasing-power parity and explains why purchasing-power parity might not hold in practice.

The Phillips Curve
This article introduces the Phillips curve, which shows the relationship between inflation and unemployment.

The Phillips Curve
This article introduces the Phillips curve, which shows the relationship between inflation and unemployment.

The Phillips Curve
This article introduces the Phillips curve, which shows the relationship between inflation and unemployment.

The Phillips Curve
This article introduces the Phillips curve, which shows the relationship between inflation and unemployment.

The Phillips Curve
This article introduces the Phillips curve, which shows the relationship between inflation and unemployment.

The Phillips Curve
This article introduces the Phillips curve, which shows the relationship between inflation and unemployment.

Introduction to Natural Monopoly
This article explains what a natural monopoly is and explains the market dynamics and policy implications of natural monopolies.

Introduction to Natural Monopoly
This article explains what a natural monopoly is and explains the market dynamics and policy implications of natural monopolies.

Introduction to Natural Monopoly
This article explains what a natural monopoly is and explains the market dynamics and policy implications of natural monopolies.

Introduction to Natural Monopoly
This article explains what a natural monopoly is and explains the market dynamics and policy implications of natural monopolies.

Introduction to Natural Monopoly
This article explains what a natural monopoly is and explains the market dynamics and policy implications of natural monopolies.

Income Elasticity of Demand
This article introduces the concept of income elasticity of demand and shows how it is calculated.

Income Elasticity and Normal and Inferior Goods
Economics.

Perfect Income Elasticity and Inelasticity
Economics.

Income Elasticity of Demand and the Supply and Demand Curves
Economics.

The Economic Concept of Elasticity
This article describes the distinction between point elasticity and arc elasticity.

The Basic Elasticity Formula
Economics.

The "Midpoint Method," or Arc Elasticity
Economics.

An Arc Elasticity Example
Economics.

Comparing Point Elasticity and Arc Elasticity
Economics.

When to Use Arc Elasticity
Economics.

Labor Supply and the Opportunity Cost of Leisure
Economics.

The Labor-Leisure Tradeoff
Economics.

The Labor Supply Curve
What is the labor supply curve and how is it constructed?

The Income Effect and The Supply of Labor
Economics.

Different Types of Technological Progress
Does all technological progress destroy jobs, as is commonly feared, or is there a different market dynamic at play?

The Prevalence of Types of Technological Progress
Economics.

Technological Progress and the Labor Demand Curve
Economics.

Wages and the Labor Supply Curve
Economics.

The Number of Potential Workers and the Labor Supply Curve
Economics.

Alternative Opportunities and the Labor Supply Curve
Economics.

The Taste for Leisure and the Labor Supply Curve
Economics.

The Effect of Labor Supply on Wages and Employment
Economics.

Comparative Statics and the Supply of Labor
Economists define the labor supply curve as the relationship between the wage and the amount of labor supplied in a market. So what causes the labor supply curve to shift?

The Effect of Moral Hazard on Total Surplus
Economics.

An Example of Moral Hazard
Economics.

The Effect of Moral Hazard on Consumer Surplus
Economics.

Asymmetric Information and Moral Hazard
Economists often explain what moral hazard is, but how does it lead to inefficiency in markets?

Ponzi Scheme: Definition and Description
A Ponzi scheme is a scam investment designed to separate investors from their money. It is named after Charles Ponzi, who constructed one such scheme at the beginning of the 20th century, though the concept was well known prior to Ponzi.

Fields of Economics and Economics Careers
This category gives an overview of a number of subfields within economics and discusses some careers one can have with an economics degree.

Measures of the Money Supply
This article outlines the different ways in order to measure the amount of money in an economy.

Features of Competitive Markets
This article explains how market outcomes differ under monopolistic competition as compared to perfect competition and outlines how such differences result in economic inefficiency.

Markup Over Marginal Cost Under Monopolistic Competition
This article explains how market outcomes differ under monopolistic competition as compared to perfect competition and outlines how such differences result in economic inefficiency.

Excess Capacity Under Monopolistic Competition
This article explains how market outcomes differ under monopolistic competition as compared to perfect competition and outlines how such differences result in economic inefficiency.

Multiple Points of Intersection Between Marginal Revenue and Marginal Cost
This article outlines the condition for maximizing profit.

Profit Maximization when Positive Profit Is Not Possible
This article outlines the condition for maximizing profit.

Profit Maximization with Discrete Quantities
This article outlines the condition for maximizing profit.

Profit Maximization When Marginal Revenue and Marginal Cost Don't Intersect
This article outlines the condition for maximizing profit.

Profit Is Maximized Where Marginal Revenue Is Equal to Marginal Cost
This article outlines the condition for maximizing profit.

Decreasing Profit by Increasing Quantity
This article outlines the condition for maximizing profit.

Increasing Profit by Increasing Quantity
This article outlines the condition for maximizing profit.

Profit Maximization Using Calculus
This article outlines the condition for maximizing profit.

Marginal Revenue and Marginal Cost
This article outlines the condition for maximizing profit.

Choosing a Quantity that Maximizes Profit
This article outlines the condition for maximizing profit.

The Beveridge Curve
This article explains what the Beveridge curve is and shows what factors change the curve.

The Beveridge Curve
This article explains what the Beveridge curve is and shows what factors change the curve.

The Beveridge Curve
This article explains what the Beveridge curve is and shows what factors change the curve.

The Beveridge Curve
This article explains what the Beveridge curve is and shows what factors change the curve.

The Beveridge Curve
This article explains what the Beveridge curve is and shows what factors change the curve.

Introduction to Utility Maximization
This article introduces the concept of utility and explains how economists model the consumer's decision-making process.

Introduction to the Ultimatum Game
This article describes the ultimatum game and discusses how actual behavior in the game deviates from what game theory predicts.

Behavioral Economics and the Ultimatum Game
Economics.

Game Theory and the Ultimatum Game
Economics.

Large Stakes Ultimatum Games
Economics.

Introduction to Game Theory
This article introduces the concept of game theory and explains some key concepts related to the topic.

The Fisher Effect
This article introduces the Fisher Effect and discusses the conditions under which it holds.

The Fisher Effect
This article introduces the Fisher Effect and discusses the conditions under which it holds.

The Fisher Effect as It Relates to Economics
This article introduces the Fisher Effect and discusses the conditions under which it holds.

The Fisher Effect
This article introduces the Fisher Effect and discusses the conditions under which it holds.

The Fisher Effect
This article introduces the Fisher Effect and discusses the conditions under which it holds.

The Size of a Shortage Depends on Several Factors
This article explain what a price ceiling is and shows how it affects a market it is placed on.

Binding Price Ceilings Create Shortages
This article explain what a price ceiling is and shows how it affects a market it is placed on.

A Binding Price Ceiling
This article explain what a price ceiling is and shows how it affects a market it is placed on.

A Non-Binding Price Ceiling
This article explain what a price ceiling is and shows how it affects a market it is placed on.

What Is a Price Ceiling?
This article explains what a price ceiling is and shows how it affects a market it is placed on.

Price Ceilings Affect Non-Competitive Markets Differently
This article explain what a price ceiling is and shows how it affects a market it is placed on.

Variations on Price Ceilings
This article explain what a price ceiling is and shows how it affects a market it is placed on.

Price Ceilings Affect Non-Competitive Markets Differently
This article explain what a price ceiling is and shows how it affects a market it is placed on.

The Size of a Shortage Depends on Several Factors
This article explain what a price ceiling is and shows how it affects a market it is placed on.

The Problem of Establishing Causality
This article explains how differences-in-differences analysis is used in economics.

Differences-in-Differences in Differences Form
Economics.

Applications of Differences-in-Differences Analysis
Economics.

The Logic of Differences in Differences
Economics.

A Differences-in-Differences Regression
Economics.

Tax Revenue and Aggregate Expenditure
This article explains the logic behind the tax multiplier and derives how the multiplier is calculated.

The Tax Multiplier as an Infinite Sum
Economics.

The Determinants of Aggregate Expenditure Components
Economics.

A Simplification of the Aggregate Expenditure Model
Economics.

Introduction to Economic Austerity
This article explains what the concept of fiscal austerity is and what implications it has for the health of an economy.

What Are Real Business Cycle Models?
Economics.

The Sources of Real Business Cycle Shocks
Economics.

The Basic Result of Real Business Cycle Models
Economics.

Economic Growth Versus Business Cycles
This article explains what real business cycle models are and discusses their strengths and weaknesses.

The Shocks that Cause Business Cycles
Economics.

Introduction to Libertarian Paternalism
This article explains what libertarian paternalism is and gives some background on its origins.

Collusion: When Companies Play Nice to be Naughty
What is collusion? Learn everything about collusion within the study of economics and market competition from its definition to historical examples.

The Many Economic Applications of Shadow Price
Simply put, a shadow price is any price that is not a market price, but defining the term within the context of real world applications is more complicated.

An Economist’s Introduction to Terms of Trade (TOT)
Terms of trade (TOT) is an index of the price of a country's exports in terms of its imports. While the concept is simple, its significance can be complex.

Liquidity Trap Defined: A Keynesian Economics Concept
A liquidity trap is marked by the failure of injections of cash by the central bank into the private banking system to decrease interest rates.

The Need for Economic Stabilization and the Rise of U.S. Fiscal Policy
In the 1930s, with the United States reeling from the Great Depression, the government first began to use fiscal policy to aid in economic stabilization.

Econometrics and the Use of Regression Functions
Regression analysis is a process of inferring relationships among variables through regression functions, which form the core of the study of econometrics.

An Introduction to United States Monetary and Fiscal Policy
U.S. economic policy since the Great Depression has involved a continuing effort by the government to find a mix of fiscal and monetary policies.

Why Pay Workers More? An Economist’s Guide to Efficiency Wages
The modern use of the term efficiency wages is in reference to the hypothesis that wages are not always based upon the process of market-clearing.

What are Schools of Economic Thought?
A school of economic thought is a group of economists or economic intellectuals who share (or shared) a perspective on how economies operate.

An Introduction and Guide to Real Business Cycle Theory
Real business cycle theory (RBC theory) is a class of macroeconomics models and theories that were first explored by American economist John Muth in 1961.

Essential Economics Terms: What Is a Kuznets Curve?
Economist Simon Kuznets once hypothesized that over the course of economic development, economic inequality first increases before it decreases.