European History Sitemap - Page 1 2016-09-26

The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand 1914
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914 was the excuse used to start World War One. This article narrates what happened.

World War I Timeline: 1914, The War Begins
This part of our World War 1 timeline covers the year the war began, 1914, when Europe finally realised warfare had entered a new era.

America in World War 1 – America in World War 1
The US in World War One – America in the First World War

Battles of World War One
Battles of World War One. European History.

War and Weaponry in Europe - European Wars and Weapons
War and Weaponry in Europe - European military history.

World War 1 - History of World War 1 in Europe
World War 1 - History of World War 1 in Europe

The Norman Conquest 1066
The Norman Conquest 1066. European History.

The Wars of the Roses
Articles on the Wars of the Roses.

World War 1 - A Short Timeline of 1915
The second year of World War One, 1915, saw the deployment of chemical weapons, the Gallipoli disaster, and the arrival of Haig.

An Overview of the Declaration of Pillnitz
The Declaration of Pillnitz failed utterly in its aims as its subtlety was lost on the revolutionaries.

Revolutionary and Soviet Russia
Articles on Revolutionary and Soviet Russia.

Causes of the Russian Revolution Part 2
Continuing our look at the causes of the Russian Revolutions of 1917, including the church, the military and a certain Great War.

Causes of the Russian Revolution Part 1
These were the long term causes of the Russian Revolution, the factors which eroded the Tsarist government in the run up to 1917.

Who Is the Longest Reigning British Monarch?
In 2015 Queen Elizabeth II became the longest reigning British monarch ever and is stretching the record with every year.

A.D to C.E.: Common Dating Terms in European History
A look at the two main dating systems in European history, one using two eras called AD and BC, and a newer, more controversial one.

Primary and Secondary Sources: Their Meaning in History
A guide to the use and meanings of secondary and primary sources for historians (things are different in science).

A Summary of Italian History
Italy has one of the greatest histories in the world, but spent most of the last two thousand years divided.

European History: Your Resource to Europe’s Past
Explore Europe’s fascinating history with articles, biographies, and timelines about everything from prehistory to the European Union.

The Best Books on Early Modern European History
Perhaps surprisingly, the 'early modern' period of history starts c.1500 and goes to c. 1789.

The Best Books on Early Modern European History
Perhaps surprisingly, the 'early modern' period of history starts c.1500 and goes to c. 1789.

What was the Red Terror?
The Red Terror was a persecution carried out by the Bolshevik's during the Russian Civil War.

What was Order Number 1?
An explanation of the order which gave the Russian military so much trouble in the days of the 1917 revolution.

World War 1: A Short Timeline
A timeline of World War 1 covering all the key dates with explanatory text.

What Was Absolutism?
An introduction to Absolutism in European History, including whether it ever really existed...

Russia and Ukraine - History of Russia and Ukraine
Material on the history of Russia and Ukraine.

The Rulers of Portugal: From 1128 Until 2000
This listing of Portugal's rulers begins in 1128 and journeys through several houses and then a republic.

Ostpolitik: West Germany Talks to the East
Ostpolitik was a foreign policy of the Cold War designed to get the divided Germany talking to each other.

The Creation of St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg might be a great Russian city and former capital, but it was conceived and created from scratch.

The Ustasha: Terrorists and War Criminals
A History of the Ustasha, terrorists turned war criminals turned ghosts.

Portugal - The History of Portugal
Portugal - The History of Portugal

Containment: America's Plan to Contain Communism
An explanation of the US policy of Containment, and how it affected Cold War Europe (and the world).

The Suez Crisis 1956 Part 4: The Failed Invasion of Suez
This final part narrates how Britain and France's invasion of Suez in 1956 went terribly wrong for them.

Population Growth and Movement in the Industrial Revolution
Britain's population changed rapidly in the industrial revolution, in terms of size and location (as cities expanded greatly).

The Consequences of the French Revolution on France and Europe
A discussion of the changes caused by the French Revolution on France and Europe. You could argue the birth of the modern world...

The Causes of the Renaissance - A Guide
This discussion of the causes of the Renaissance looks at seven key factors which helped thes era defining movement begin and develop.

Community Charge / Poll Tax - Definition and Information
The 'Poll Tax' helped end the rule of Margaret Thatcher, but why was the 'community' charge called a poll tax?

6 Key European Dictators from the Twentieth Century
The middle of the twentieth century was marred by European dictators, and these are the most important to know.

The History of Europe - European History
Material that discusses Europe as a whole.

The Euro Currency
The 'Euro' is one of the biggest currencies in the world; this is how and why it was created.

How Napoleon Became Emperor of France
How did Napoleon persuade France to allow him to become Emperor? This article explains why.

A Beginner's Guide to the Renaissance
This page explains the key elements of the most famous renaissance, c. 1400 - 1600, and links to greater detail.

Aftermath and Effects of the Hundred Years War
The Hundred Years War didn't appear to have definitely ended in 1453, and had many effects on Britain and France.

What Was the Duma in Russia? - 1906 - 1917
What was Russia's Duma, and how did it fail everyone, the people and Tsar combined?

France - A Historical Profile
France has a long and rich history and this page offers a starting point.

The Brezhnev Doctrine
An Explanation of the Brezhnev Doctrine, a Soviet policy to control their Eastern European empire.

Cold War History - History of the Cold War
Cold War History - The history of the Cold War

Biography of Rupert Brooke: Poet-Soldier
Rupert Brooke is one of the leading poets of World War One, the conflict that caused his early death.

The Marshall Plan - Rebuilding Western Europe after WW2
Did the Marshall Plan of US aid save Western Europe in the aftermath of World War 2, or is it overstated?

An Introduction to the Cold War in Europe
This profile of the Cold War explains how it began after World War 2, why it was 'Cold', what happened in Europe and how it ended peacefully.

In Which Order Should You Read Horatio Hornblower Novels?
There are two orders in which you can read the Horatio Hornblower novels, and this lists them for your easy reference.

The Other Reichs: The First and Second Before Hitler's Third Reich
An explanation of the three 'German' Reichs and how they relate, from Charlemagne to Adolf Hitler's Third Reich.

Twentieth Century Resources - History of the Twentieth Century
Twentieth Century Resources. European History.

The Best Books on World War I - The Great War
The literature about World War One is vast, but I feel these are the best books for a range of readers.

The Best Books on World War I - The Great War
The literature about World War One is vast, but I feel these are the best books for a range of readers.

What was the Continental System?
Did the Continental System, Napoleon's attempt to cripple Britain economically, work?

Russian Revolutions Timeline (1914 - 1916)
In this part of our timeline of the Russian Revolution we come to the years of the First World War, and the collapse of Tsarist power.

A Timeline of the European Union - A timeline of European Union Dates
A Timeline of the European Union - A timeline of European Union Dates

The European Union - History of the European Union Part 2
The European Union - History of the European Union Part 2. Page 2.

The History of the European Union (EU)
A History of the European Union - The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union between European countries.

Did Medieval People Believe in a Flat Earth?
Did Medieval People Believe in a Flat Earth? (Spoiler: no they didn't, but here's why we think they did.)

Who were the Populists?
Russia's Populists were nineteenth century socialists who believed rural villages must be saved from industrialization.

Who were the Social Revolutionaries?
The Social Revolutionaries were an early, often rural group of socialists in Russia.

A Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: Introduction
This introduces our timeline of the Russian Revolutions (1905 to 1818) and lists the books used.

The Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth is an association of 53 independent nations, all but one former British colonies, with substantial economic ties and a shared history.

Culture and Health
Resources on the culture and lifestyle history of Europe.

Colonialism
Resources for colonial and imperial history, including colonies and the British and Spanish empires.

Key Dates in Renaissance History (Timeline)
This timeline of the Renaissance contains key dates in cultural history alongside political developments and links to discussions.

World War I: A Short Timeline Pre-1914
This part of our World War 1 timeline looks at events relevant to the war pre-1914.

A Beginner's Guide to the French Revolution
This brief account of the French Revolution explains all the key events, links to a larger narrative history, and explains the consequences.

The History of Venice
A history of Venice, the great trading city and mixing pot for many people from Europe, Asia and the Middle East.

The French Revolution 2: The 1780s Crisis and the Causes of Revolution
In this part of our history of the French Revolution we look at the events of the 1780s which destabilized France and led to the revolution starting.

The Suez Crisis 1956 Part 2: Egypt Nationalises the Suez Canal
Britain was upset when Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal, and ignored the fact it wasn't actually illegal... war would follow.

The Suez Crisis 3: Arguments, Diplomacy, Lies and Plans
In the third part of our history of the Suez Crisis Britain, France and Israel plot some top secret skullduggery, and do a fair bit of covering up.

Margaret Thatcher - Prime Minister of Britain
A biography of the most controversial Britain of her generation.

An Explanation of the Truman Doctrine
An explanation of the Truman Doctrine, which shaped the Cold War.

Pre-Revolutionary France: Context for the Revolution
What was France like before the French Revolution? This article explains the country and the context.

Top 10 Best World War II Documentaries
A selection of the best documentaries about Europe and World War 2.

Top 10 Best World War II Documentaries
A selection of the best documentaries about Europe and World War 2.

Where is Mozart's Grave and was he Buried a Pauper?
Mozart is often said to have been buried in a pauper's grave but this is why that isn't true.

A Jumping Off Point for Discussion on World War One
This article gives an overview of the effects the First World War on the world, as a companion to our '101' introduction.

World War I 101 - Introduction and Overview
World War 1 was arguably the key event of the twentieth century, setting in motion revolutions and wars which would created the contemporary world.

The Industrial Revolution - An Overview
The Industrial Revolution completely changed the world. This page introduces the concepts and links to in depth explanations.

The Terror - History of the French Revolution
The Terror is the most infamous era of the French Revolution: when the leaders of the country decided to rule through Terror and mass killing.

The French Revolution - The Revolution in France
Material for Revolutionary France and French History during the late 18th century.

The Estates General and the French Revolution of 1789
In page 3 of our History of the French Revolution we explain how the Estates General met in 1789, and how the revolution began.

A Beginner's Guide to the Enlightenment
The Enlightenment was the era of history which really produced the modern, secular age, and which set the scene for the good and bad to come.

Origin of the word Protestant
The Protestant religion was first established in the sixteenth century, but how did it develop that name?

Did Mussolini get the Trains Running on Time?
You might have heard the phrase 'Mussolini got the trains running on time'. The reality is more complicated.

Did 300 Men hold Thermopylae? The Truth Behind the Legend
Thanks to a film (and a comic book), many people know the story of 300 and the Spartans. But there's a problem, and that's own to pro-Spartan PR.

The Best Books on the Spanish Civil War
The best books on the Spanish Civil War, as chosen by your Guide.

The Best Books on the Spanish Civil War
The best books on the Spanish Civil War, as chosen by your Guide.

The Best Books on the French Revolution
This is our selection of the best books on the French Revolution, for both students and interested readers.

The Best Books on the French Revolution
This is our selection of the best books on the French Revolution, for both students and interested readers.

A list of the countries involved in World War 1
A complete list of the many countries involved in World War 1 including a map and different ways of presenting the information.

Elizabeth Bathory: Mass Murderer or Victim?
Was Elizabeth Bthory really a serial killer? Or has she been falsely accused? This is her real history.

Napoleon and the Siege of Toulon 1793
At the Siege of Toulon in 1793 the world saw the start of the ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte, later French Emperor. This is what he did.

World War One - The Major Alliances
How Europe divided in 1914 at the start of World War One, and why these alliances had been formed.

The Black Death: The Worst Event in European History
What was the Black Death? Did it really kill a third of Europe's population? What makes it the worst event in European history?

Reformation 101 - The Protestant Reformation in Europe
This summary presents an outline of the Protestant Reformation of the 16 century, the religious schism which split western Christianity.

Consequences and Aftermath of World War I
A look at the major consequences of World War One, from redrawing the map to creating myths that would contribute to a second great war.

An Overview of The Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles ended World War One and has been accused of starting World War Two.

Pictures from the French Revolution - LouisXVI - Pictures and Images from the French Revolution - Louis XVI
Pictures from the French Revolution - LouisXVI - Pictures and Images from the French Revolution - Louis XVI

Farewell of Louis XVI Picture - Picture of Fairwell of Louis XVI
Farewell of Louis XVI Picture - Picture of Fairwell of Louis XVI. Page 11.

Charlotte Corday Picture - Picture of Charlotte Corday
Charlotte Corday Picture - Picture of Charlotte Corday. Page 14.

Marie Antoinette Picture - Picture of Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette Picture - Picture of Marie Antoinette. Page 12.

Robespierre gives a speech Picture - Picture of of Robespierre gives a speech
Robespierre gives a speech Picture - Picture of of Robespierre gives a speech. Page 16.

The Jacobins Picture - Picture of the Jacobins
The Jacobins Picture - Picture of the Jacobins. Page 13.

The Terror Picture - Picture of the Terror
The Terror Picture - Picture of the Terror. Page 15.

Thermidorian Reaction Picture - Picture of the Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction Picture - Picture of the Thermidorian Reaction. Page 17.

A Mob Confronts the King Picture - Picture of the French mob confronting Louis XVI
A Mob Confronts the King Picture - Picture of the French mob confronting Louis XVI. Page 8.

March of the Women to Versailles Picture - Picture of the March of the Women to Versailles
March of the Women to Versailles Picture - Picture of the March of the Women to Versailles. Page 6.

The Guilllotine Picture - Picture of the Guilllotine
The Guilllotine Picture - Picture of the Guilllotine. Page 10.

The National Assembly Reshapes France - Picture of the National Assembly
The National Assembly Reshapes France - Picture of the National Assembly. Page 4.

The Royal Family is caught at Varennes Picture - Picture of the Royal Family caught at Varennes
The Royal Family is caught at Varennes Picture - Picture of the Royal Family caught at Varennes. Page 7.

Picture of the The Sans-culottes - The Sans-culottes Picture
Picture of the The Sans-culottes - The Sans-culottes Picture. Page 5.

The September Massacres Picture - Picture of the The September Massacres
The September Massacres Picture - Picture of the The September Massacres. Page 9.

The Storming of the Bastille Picture - Picture of the Storming of the Bastille
The Storming of the Bastille Picture - Picture of the Storming of the Bastille. Page 3.

Picture of the Tennis Court Oath
This artwork depicts the Tennis Court Oath, taken at the start of the French Revolution in 1789. Page 2.

Pictures from the French Revolution
Pictures from the French Revolution - Pictures and Images from the French Revolution

Pictures from the French Revolution
Pictures from the French Revolution - Pictures and Images from the French Revolution

Biography
Biographies and resources on famous (and infamous) individuals.

The Falklands War - Overview
A History of the Falklands War / Malvinas War between Britain and Argentina.

The Falklands War / The Malvinas War 2
The Falklands War / The Malvinas War 2. Page 2.

The Falklands War / The Malvinas War 3
The Falklands War / The Malvinas War 3. Page 3.

The Seven Years War and the Diplomatic Revolution
The Diplomatic Revolution - The Seven Years War and the Diplomatic Revolution

The Directory - Timeline of the Directory in the French Revolution 2
The Directory - Timeline of the Directory in the French Revolution 1795 - 1799. Page 2.

Timeline of the Directory in the French Revolution
The Directory - Timeline of the Directory in the French Revolution 1795 - 1799

The Bastille, and its Role in the French Revolution
The Reality and Fall of The Bastille

Historical Myths - Index of Historical Myths
Taking common historical myths and revealing the truth.

The Directory, Consulate & End of the French Revolution
History of the French Revolution 9. The Directory, the Consulate and the End of Revolution 1795 - 1802

History of the French Revolution 9. The Directory, the Consulate and the End of Revolution 1795 - 1802
Read about the history of the French Revolution, from end of the Directory, the Consulate, Napoleon's rise to power, and end of Revolution in 1802. Page 2.

History of Yugoslavia - Overview
Key events in the history of the now vanished Yugoslavia.

History of Spain - Overview
History of Spain - Information on the History of Spain

History of Portugal - Overview
History of Portugal - Information on the History of Portugal

Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: 1917
Russian Revolution Timeline - Timeline of 1917 Part 1

Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: 1906 - 1913
Russian Revolution Timeline - Timeline of the Russian Revolution 1906 - 1913

Robert Graves - a Biography
Robert Graves - a biography of Robert Graves

Robert Graves - a biography of Robert Graves Page 2
Robert Graves - a biography of Robert Graves Page 2

A Brief History of the City of Rome
The Italian city of Rome was the center of two great empires: one the military dominion of the Roman Republic and Empire, and then the ideology of the Christian Papacy.

Coal Miners' Conditions During the Industrial Revolution
Coal was vital to the Industrial Revolution, but miners faced many problems.

Debunking Ring a Ring a Roses
Ring a Ring a Roses and the Plague - debunking the link between Ring a Ring a Roses and the Plague. Alternately called

The Rise and Fall of Weimar and the Rise of Hitler
A contents page for our narrative of Germany from 1919 to 1934.

Arthur Zimmermann - Profile
Arthur Zimmermann - A profile of Arthur Zimmermann, sender of an infamous WW1 telegram.

The Tudors - The Tudor Dynasty of England
The Tudors are the most famous royal dynasty in the English speaking world. This introduction tells you who they were, and what happened to them.

Stalin's Death: He did not Escape the Consequences of his Actions
Did Stalin die unaffected by the years of terror and death he had inflicted on Russia? No, he might have suffered consequences after all...

The Suez Crisis 1956: Britain and France's Imperial Folly
When looking at how the Suez Crisis of 1956 occurred you have to go back nearly a hundred years, and enter into the world of colonial Britain and France.

World War Two: The Western Front Part 1
Part 1 of our Narrative History of WW2's Western Front

World War Two: The Eastern Front Part 2
The story of the Eastern Front in World War 2 from the start of Nazi invasion of the USSR to the defeat at Moscow.

Are Codes Hidden in Statues of Horses and Riders?
Raised horse legs and crossed legs: do the legs on statues reveal if someone died in battle or went on crusade? Find out the truth behind this urban legend.

Bernard Cornwell's Sharpe Books in Chronological Order
Bernard Cornwell's Sharpe books come recommended, but there's a lot of them and they can be read in the order of historical events. This is that order.

A History of the Berlin Wall
This profile of the Berlin Wall explains why the Cold War caused it's creation, how it divided the city of Berlin, and how it finally came to be pulled down.

Britain and Ireland - History of Britain and Ireland
Material on the history of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.

Science and Inventions - History of Science and Inventions in Europe
Resources on scientific discoveries, inventions and the technology people used at different points in history.

The Norman Conquest 1066
The Norman Conquest 1066. European History.

William the Conqueror
A biography of William the Conqueror, Norman Duke and English King via the Norman Conquest.

The Mystery of the Amber Room - An Historical Profile
The Amber Room - A Profile of the Amber Room

The History of 'Keep Calm and Carry On'
The History of the British ‘Keep Calm and Carry On’ poster, which was never used in World War 2.

The First Computer - Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine
Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine has a great claim on being the first computer. This explains who he was, and what it was.

Napoleonic Code / Code Napoleon - A History
A description of the Napoleonic Code / Code Napoleon and why it is so important and influenced so much of the world.

The Belle Époque ("Beautiful Age") in France
The Belle poque was the 'Beautiful Age', the moment when the industry revolution produced modern consumerism and a change in culture the wealthy could enjoy.

What was the 'Third Estate'?
The 'Third Estate' helped start the French Revolution, but what where they, and what were the other two?

The Early Years of the Weimar Republic
Born out of a failed war, the Weimar Republic was the unified Germany's first experience of democracy. But the fault lines which allowed the rise of the Nazis were present from the start.

The Early Years of the Weimar Republic - Part 2
Born out of a failed war, the Weimar Republic was the unified Germany's first experience of democracy. But the fault lines which allowed the rise of the Nazis were present from the start. Page 2.

Early Years of the Weimar Republic - Political and Economic Problems
Born out of a failed war, the Weimar Republic was the unified Germany's first experience of democracy. This article discusses Stresemann, the Golden Age, and more problems of Weimar. Page 3.

European History by Country - The History of European Countries
The history of the countries of Europe.

France - The History of France
Material on the history of France and dependant territories.

Germany and Prussia - History of Germany and Prussia
Material on German and Prussian history.

European History by Era - Eras of European History
Material on European history ordered by era.

Reference and Reviews for European History - Reference and Reviews
Reference material for European history

British and Irish Buildings and Monuments - British and Irish Buildings and Places
Articles on buildings, such as the Tower of London, places, such as Whitby and monuments like Stonehenge.

Napoleonic and Imperial French history - France and Napoleon in the 19th century
Material for the First and Second Empires and French History during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Nazi Germany
Information on Germany 1933 - 45

Ancient Europe - Ancient European History
Material on the ancient history of Europe.

Information on Marie Antoinette - Marie Antoinette of France
Websites, discussions and pictures about Marie Antoinette - Marie Antoinette of France.

Bede - Resources for the Venerable Bede
Bede - Resources for the Venerable Bede

Napoleon Bonaparte - Resources on Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte - Resources on Napoleon Bonaparte of France

Reviews on Books about European History - Book Reviews
Advice and reviews on books about European history

DVD and Film - European History DVD and Film Resources
Reviews and recommendations on films, documentaries and other DVD releases on European History.

Elizabeth I of England - Information on Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I of England - Information on Elizabeth I

Gaming Resources - European History Themed Gaming
Information and reviews on games with a European history flavour.

Henry VIII of England - Information on King Henry VIII
Henry VIII of England - Information on King Henry VIII

Henry V of England - Information on Henry V of England
Henry V of England - Information on Henry V of England

Jack the Ripper - Information on Jack the Ripper
Jack the Ripper - Information on Jack the Ripper

Wilfred Owen - Information on Wilfred Owen
Wilfred Owen - Biography and Poems

Rupert Brooke - Information on Rupert Brooke
Rupert Brooke - Information on Rupert Brooke

Samuel Pepys - Information on Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys - Information on Samuel Pepys

Stalin - Resources on Stalin
Stalin - Resources on Stalin. European History.

Margaret Thatcher - Biography of Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher - Biography of Margaret Thatcher

The Enlightenment - Enlightenment in European History
The Enlightenment - Enlightenment in European History

Long Nineteenth Century - History of Long Nineteenth Century Europe
The ‘Long’ Nineteenth Century - History of Nineteenth Century Europe

World War 2 - History of World War 2
World War 2 - Information and links about World War 2

European Wars in North America - Wars by Europe in North America
European Wars in North America - Wars by Europe in North America

Mikhail Gorbachev - Profile of Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev - Profile of Mikhail Gorbachev

The Seven Years War - The Seven Years War in Europe
The Seven Years War - The Seven Years War in Europe

Francisco Franco - Spanish Dictator Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco - Spanish Dictator Francisco Franco

Benito Mussolini - Biography of Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini - Biography of Benito Mussolini

Vlad the Impaler - Information on Vlad the Impaler - Dracula
Vlad the Impaler - Information on Vlad the Impaler - Dracula

Catherine the Great - Empress Catherine II of Russia
Websites, discussions and pictures on Catherine the Great.

Robert Graves - Biography of Robert Graves
Biography of Robert Graves. European History.

Greece - History of Greece
Greece - History of Greece. European History.

Adolf Hitler - Information on Adolf Hitler
Resources on Adolf Hitler. European History.

Poland - The History of Poland
The history of Poland - Polish history

Quizzes on European History - History Quizzes
Quizzes on European History

Religon and Thought in Europe - European Religions and Philosophies
Material on the religions, philosophies and ideologies of European history, including the Reformation.

Spain - Information on the History of Spain
Material on Spanish history - the history of Spain

Book Reviews on European History - Full Books Reviews
Book Reviews on European History

World War One Poetry - Poets and Poetry of the World War One
World War One Poetry - Poets and Poetry of the World War One

Guy Fawkes and The Gunpowder Plot - History of Guy Fawkes and The Gunpowder Plot
Guy Fawkes and The Gunpowder Plot

Recommended Reading - Recommended Reading on European History
The Best European History Books and Reading Lists

Treaty of Versailles - The Treaty of Versailles
Resources on the Treaty of Versailles.

Women in World War 1 - Women and World War 1
Women in World War 1. European History.

Book Reviews - European History Book Reviews
European History Book Reviews

Cold War Germany
Germany from 1945 to the end of the Cold War.

Weimar and the Rise of the Nazis
Information on Germany 1918 - 1933

Articles about WW2 on the vitally important Eastern Front.
World War 2 in Europe began on the Eastern Front, and was decided there.

Articles about World War 2 in Western Europe, including France and Italy.
The Western Front of World War 2 began in 1939 with the Phoney War and ended in 1945.

Low Countries - History of the Low Countries
The history of the Low Countries - Holland Belgium and Netherlands.

Medieval History - Medieval Resources
Information and resources for Medieval History

Ottoman and Balkan history - The Ottoman Empire and the Balkans
Ottoman Turkish Balkan history - The Ottoman Empire Turkey and the Balkans

Renaissance and Reformation - History of the Renaissance and Reformation
Information on the Renaissance of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and the Reformations.

Glossaries on European history - Glossaries
Glossaries on European history.

The Napoleonic Wars - History of the Napoleonic Wars
Information on The Napoleonic Wars.

Reformation - The European Reformation in History.
European Reformation - the Reformation in history

Hundred Years War - History of the Hundred Years War
Hundred Years War - History of the Hundred Years War

Industry and Agriculture in Europe - History of Industry and Agriculture
Information on the historical industry and agriculture of Europe including the Industrial and Agricultural Revolutions.

Government and Law - Law and Government
Information on the governments of Europe and issues relating to law.

A Selection of the Best PC Games by Genre
Recommended PC games split into different genres - war, empire building, first person shooter, building sims, and other.

Best Boardgames
Best Boardgames about European History

The Best Boardgame Wargames with a European History Theme
A selection of great boardgames that allow you to play European History themed wargames.

When did the French Revolution End?
This article explores the end dates of the French Revolution, and why there are several possibilities that no one agrees on.

- By Category
An index of categories in the

How Long Does a Guillotined Head Remain Alive?
The guillotine was invented during the French Revolution, and soon after began the claim the head of a victim remains briefly alive after. Does it?

What Was the Sussex Pledge of 1916?
Breaking their 'Sussex Pledge' meant Germany induced the USA to enter World War One. But what was the pledge about?

What Was the Iron Curtain?
The phrase The Iron Curtain became a way of describing a Cold War division of the world, but dates back a lot further.

Horned Helmets - Viking Myths and Facts
We see images of Vikings wearing horned helmets all over popular culture, but there's a small problem: they didn't wear them.

The Long Telegram of George Kennan: The Birth of Containment
The Long Telegram of George Kennan was a message sent from the US Embassy in Moscow to Washington concerning the plans of Soviet Union. It helped shape US policy for the next decades.

Did Marie Antoinette say "Let Them Eat Cake"?
Marie Antoinette has been lambasted by history for her ignorance of everyday life, culminating in her saying

William Shakespeare Part 2
William Shakespeare is the greatest playwright of all time. This biography narrates his life and mystery. Page 2.

William Shakespeare 1564 - 1616
William Shakespeare is the greatest playwright of all time. This biography narrates his life and mystery.

The Rulers of England
An annotated list of all the English kings and queens (and a few people you also need to know about.)

The Rulers of England
An annotated list of all the English kings and queens (and a few people you also need to know about.)

The Rulers of England
An annotated list of all the English kings and queens (and a few people you also need to know about.)

The Rulers of England
An annotated list of all the English kings and queens (and a few people you also need to know about.)

The Rulers of England
An annotated list of all the English kings and queens (and a few people you also need to know about.)

The Rulers of England
An annotated list of all the English kings and queens (and a few people you also need to know about.)

The Rulers of England
An annotated list of all the English kings and queens (and a few people you also need to know about.)

The Schmalkaldic League: Reformation War
The Schmalkaldic League was an alliance of Protestants against the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor and allies.

The Schmalkaldic League: Reformation War Part 2
The Emperor managed to tear the league apart off the battlefield, and then defeat them on it. But was it a Pyrrhic victory? Page 2.

The Oprichnina of Ivan the Terrible
There was a black clad, quasi religious army causing terror long before the SS: the oprichniki of Ivan the Terrible.

The Oprichnina of Ivan the Terrible: Part
Ivan the Terrible's oprichnina was a vast region of fear, patrolled by black clad soldier-police. Page 2.

The Oprichnina of Ivan the Terrible: Part 3 -
The oprichnina may be infamous for terror, but its creator Ivan the Terrible stayed in power beyond abolishing it. Page 3.

The Maginot Line: France's Defensive Failure
The Maginot Line defenses were built after World War One, when France was looking for a way to stop German aggression and stop a similar war.

The Maginot Line: France's Defensive Failure
The line of defenses known as the Maginot Line failed when Hitler bypassed them in World War 2. But what were they? Page 2.

The Monarchs and Presidents of Italy: From 1861 Until 2014
An annotated list of the monarchs and presidents of the unified Italy.

The Monarchs and Presidents of Italy: From 1861 Until 2014
An annotated list of the monarchs and presidents of the unified Italy.

When did World War 2 End?
You'd think the end of World War Two would be simple. In fact there are two end dates in Europe.

The Warsaw Pact
The Warsaw Pact claimed to be founded on friendship; it was based on no such thing.

Glossary of Historical Terms
A handy reference for the terms history students get asked about.

The Best Books on the Dutch Republic
Our recommendations for books on the Dutch Republic, from politics to art.

The Best Books on the Dutch Republic
Our recommendations for books on the Dutch Republic, from politics to art.

The Rulers of France: From 840 Until 2015
The rulers of France number some of the most famous monarchs (like Louis XIV,) emperors (like Napoleon) and presidents, like de Gaulle, in world history. This is a listing with links to biographies.

A History of the Elgin Marbles - Parthenon Sculptures
The Elgin Marbles are some of the most controversial items in a British museum, chiefly because Greeks don't want them in a British museum at all, but in Greece.

The Death of Catherine the Great: Debunking the Horse Myth
This entry in our historical myths series examines two legends about the death of Catherine the Great: one involving horses and one toilets.

Wars - Information on the Wars of Europe
Wars - Information on the Wars of Europe

Major Events in European History
major events european history french revolution industrial revolution russian revolution

A Short Biography of Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)
This quick introduction to German dictator Adolf Hitler traces his life from obscure artist, paramilitary leader, rise to power and starting World War 2, through to his ultimate defeat and suicide.

Grigory Rasputin
Rasputin was a Russian mystic who not only conned a royal family, but helped cause their destruction.

The New Monarchies
There's a theory about monarchy at the end of the medieval period and the start of the early modern: New Monarchy.

The Eleven Plus Exam
A generation of British children had to take the Eleven Plus exam, which could change their lives.

The Best Books on the Napoleonic Wars
The wars which bear Napoleon Bonaparte’s name have captivated the world. Here is a selection of the best literature on this historical period.

The Best Books on the Napoleonic Wars
The wars which bear Napoleon Bonaparte’s name have captivated the world. Here is a selection of the best literature on this historical period.

Who were the Sans-culottes?
The Sans-culottes were a key group in the history of the French Revolution.

Destalinization / De-Stalinization
No one was expecting Nikita Khrushchev to stand up and start a campaign against Stalin, but he launched Destalinization anyway.

The Best Boardgame Wargames with a European History Theme
A selection of great boardgames that allow you to play European History themed wargames.

The Best Books on General European History
A selection of books which deal with Europe on a continent wide basis rather than nation states.

The Best Books: The Battle of Waterloo
The best books on the battle of Waterloo, 1815, which marks the end of an era of warfare.

The Best Books: The Battle of Waterloo
The best books on the battle of Waterloo, 1815, which marks the end of an era of warfare.

Biography of Lenin
Biographical information on Lenin, the Russian revolutionary.

Biography of Lenin Part 2- Biographical information on Lenin
Biography of Lenin Part 2- Biographical information on Lenin. Page 2.

An Introduction to the Jack the Ripper Mystery
Jack the Ripper is one of the most enduring mysteries in British history, a serial killer who was never caught, and who was the first mass adopted by a panicking modern media.

The Tower of London Ravens and a Legend of Doom
The Tower of London doesn't just keep ravens for fun: it keeps them because of a legend.

A Brief History of the Tower of London
A history of the Tower of London, one of Britain's most famous landmarks.

The Schlieffen Plan and World War One
What was the Schlieffen Plan of World War One? And was it really a proper plan at all?

Was Napoleon Bonaparte Short?
Was Napoleon Bonaparte Short? - The Height and Possible Myth of the Short Napoleon Bonaparte

Casualty Figure Chart for World War 1
World War 1 saw casualty figures in the millions, and this chart lists the totals mobilized, killed, wounded and a percentage calculation.

Napoleon on Elba
A short account of Napoleon's first exile... and why it failed.

The Louisiana Purchase: What and Why
The Louisiana Purchase saw France sell a huge amount of land to the US, rather than face an Anglo-American alliance.

Strategy and Tactics of the Hundred Years War
Historians have identified two key phases in the strategy of the Hundred Years War.

The Development of Banking in the Industrial Revolution
How did the development of banking and finance help the industrial revolution?

Joan of Arc - The Maid of Orleans
A history of Joan of Arc, the woman around whose legend the French built their comeback in the Hundred Years War.

C - Glossary of the First World War
Explanations for many terms beginning with 'C' in our Glossary of the First World War.

Glossary of the First World War: C
Read the Glossary of the First World War with the letter C, starting from the Cook's Tour to the Czech Legion. Page 2.

The Union of England and Scotland in 1707: Part 2
England and Scotland, two countries with an enmeshed but often bloody history, united in 1707. Read about the contemporary reasons for and against the Union. Page 2.

A History of the Union of England and Scotland in 1707
England and Scotland, two countries with an enmeshed but often bloody history, united in 1707. This is how and why.

History of the French Revolution 4. Recreating France 1789 – 91
Read about the history of the French Revolution, from Recreating France 1789, to the constitution of 1791 and a new France. Page 2.

The events of the French Revolution 1789 – 91 when so much was swept away.
History of the French Revolution 4. Recreating France 1789 – 91

The Gregorian Calendar - Introduction of the Gregorian Calendar
This article explains the introduction and adoption of the Gregorian Calendar, from problems with the Julian Calendar, to the reforms of Pope Gregory XIII.

The Gregorian Calendar - Adoption of the Gregorian Calendar
The Gregorian Calendar - Introduction and Adoption of the Gregorian Calendar. Page 2.

The Historical Development of the Nazi Party
This article examines the early years of the Nazi Party, the influence of Mein Kampf, and takes the story of Hitler up to the late 1920s. Page 2.

The Early Development of the Nazi Party
This article examines the early years of the Nazi Party, and takes the story of Hitler up to the late 1920s.

A Biography of Vlad the Impaler / Vlad III Dracula
Vlad the Impaler - Information on Vlad the Impaler - Dracula - Tepes

Vlad the Impaler 2 - Information on Vlad the Impaler - Dracula - Tepes
A biography of Vlad the Impaler, from his noble birth in the Dracul family in 1429, his rule over and Wallachia, his reputation, and death. Page 2.

Mikhail Gorbachev - Biography
Mikhail Gorbachev - Biography of Mikhail Gorbachev

The November Criminals
The November Criminals were nothing of the sort, but the Germans who negotiated their nations surrender in World War One. So why did they get that name?

The Girondins
The Girondins were a political faction involved in the French Revolution, but they fell out with their former allies and were destroyed.

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare and How it Lost World War 1
Unrestricted submarine warfare: one of the greatest strategic mistakes of the 20th century.

Who were the Axis Powers?
The Axis Powers were one of the sides in World War Two, and this tells you who they were.

The Best Books on Modern Germany
Recommendations for the best books on post-war German history.

Outdoor Relief
An explanation of the concepts of outdoor and indoor relief of poverty,

Henry Garnet and the Gunpowder Plot Jesuits
Jesuits were partly blamed for the Gunpowder Plot, but they were drawn in against their will.

Henry Garnet and the Gunpowder Plot Jesuits - Henry Garnet and the Jesuits in the Gunpowder Plot Page 2
Henry Garnet and the Gunpowder Plot Jesuits - Henry Garnet and the Jesuits in the Gunpowder Plot Page 2

Biography of Gilles de Rais 1404 - 1440
Was Gilles de Rais a medieval serial killer or was something more political going on?

Was the Gunpowder Plot Terrorism?
Although a famed plot to blow up the English parliament and kill the king looks like terrorism all these years later, it was actually far more than that.

A Profile of the Domesday Book
The Domesday Book: one of the greatest surviving documents of UK history is a land survey that still informs us.

Carlo Buonaparte Biography
Carlo Buonaparte was the buccaneering father of Napoleon Bonaparte, who took a French version of the family name.

Timeline of the Hundred Years War
A timeline of the Hundred Years War with all the key dates.

Edward III of England’s Claims to the French Throne
Why did Edward III claim the French throne in the Hundred Years War, and why did it stick?

Edward the Black Prince 1330 - 1376
With a nickname we don't remember the origin of, the Black Prince established a martial reputation but died before becoming King of England.

King John of England - A Biography
A biography of King John of England, a man with a very poor reputation to this day.

The Best Books on Austrian and Hungarian History
A selection of books on one of Europe's great lost empires.

The Best Books on Austrian and Hungarian History
A selection of books on one of Europe's great lost empires.

Best Books on the Hapsburg Dynasty
The Habsburgs are probably Europe's greatest dynasy, dominating so much of the continent for so long.

The Best Books on the Ottoman Empire
A selection of the best books on a state that dominated Europe's south east: the Ottoman Empire.

The Best Books on the Ottoman Empire
A selection of the best books on a state that dominated Europe's south east: the Ottoman Empire.

Best Sharpe Books (and some Similar Recommendations)
A list of the best Sharpe books and some similar recommendations. Sadly this list is missing one really great book whose title or author I can’t remember.

Best Sharpe Books (and some Similar Recommendations)
A list of the best Sharpe books and some similar recommendations. Sadly this list is missing one really great book whose title or author I can’t remember.

The Black Hand
There really was a group called the Black Hand, and they played a huge role in the history of twentieth century Europe.

Spanish History - The Best Books on Spain
This list recommends books on Spanish history, from the Visigoths to the modern day.

Spanish History - The Best Books on Spain
This list recommends books on Spanish history, from the Visigoths to the modern day.

The Best Books on Imperial Russia
A selection of the best books on Imperial Russian history.

The Best Books on Imperial Russia
A selection of the best books on Imperial Russian history.

The Best Books on Revolutionary and Modern Russia
A selection of the best books on revolutionary and modern Russia, from the end of the Tsars to Putin.

The Best Books on Revolutionary and Modern Russia
A selection of the best books on revolutionary and modern Russia, from the end of the Tsars to Putin.

King Edward III of England: Warlord
Edward III managed to seize power and wield it in new ways, but it is the Hundred Years War he is most remembered for.

The Battle of Poitiers: 1356
The Black Prince led the English to victory at the Battle of Poitiers, but why did a large part of the French army walk off without fighting?

The Battle of Crécy: August 26th 1346
The Battle of Crcy was the only time in the entire Hundred Years War that the kings of each side, English and French, met on the field of battle.

Charles III / the Simple
Charles III was a ruler in western Europe in the transition from the Carolingian Empire to France.

Pauline Bonaparte Biography
Pauline Bonaparte / Borghese was the racier sister of Napoleon, but had no interest in conquering countries.

Buonaparte - Relationship of Bonaparte and Buonaparte
Why did the famous emperor Napoleon change his surname from Buonaparte to Bonaparte?

The Creeping Barrage of WW1: Theory and Practice
The creeping barrage was a key tactic of World War One, but what was it meant to do, and how was it new?

Venerable Bede - A Profile of Bede
The Venerable Bede was a giant of medieval scholarship, and a historian of great importance. He was also a seventh century monk.

A History of the Guillotine 5 - After the Revolution
The guillotine might be best associated with the French Revolution, but it was used for a long time after that, and in many places. We also discover the fate of Dr Guillotin. Page 5.

A History of the Guillotine in Europe
On this page in our history and discussion of the guillotine we look at machines for decapitation which pre-date the French Revolution.

A History of the Guillotine 2 - Dr Guillotin's Legislation
At this point in our history of the guillotine we meet a certain Dr Guillotin who, worried about the lack of equality in execution, made some legal proposals. Page 2.

A History of the Guillotine 3 - Invention and Adoption
Dr Guillotin abandoned his plans for a killing machine, but France took them up and the machine was developed and adopted. Page 3.

History of the Guillotine 4 - The Terror
On this page our history looks at how the guillotine became a key instrument of the Terror, indeed how it has been blamed for the Terror, and how it entered into culture. Page 4.

Samuel Pepys and the Great Fire of London
Samuel Pepys' Account Of The Great Fire of London - Diary Excerpt

Samuel Pepys Account Of The Great Fire of London - Page 2
Samuel Pepys Account Of The Great Fire of London - Page 2

Samuel Pepys Account Of The Great Fire of London - Page 3
Samuel Pepys Account Of The Great Fire of London - Page 3

Samuel Pepys Account Of The Great Fire of London - Page 5
Samuel Pepys Account Of The Great Fire of London - Page 5

Samuel Pepys Account Of The Great Fire of London - Page 4
Samuel Pepys Account Of The Great Fire of London - Page 4

The Gunpowder Plot 2: A Cellar under Parliament
The Gunpowder Plot 2: A Cellar under Parliament. Page 2.

The Gunpowder Plot 1: Catesby's Gunpowder Plot
The Gunpowder Plot 1: Catesby's Gunpowder Plot

The Gunpowder Plot 3: The Plotters Expand
The Gunpowder Plot 3:The Plotters Expand. Page 3.

The Gunpowder Plot 4: Failure
The Gunpowder Plot 4: Failure. European History. Page 4.

The Gunpowder Plot 5: Aftermath
The Gunpowder Plot 5: Aftermath. European History. Page 5.

What Is a Monarchy - European Monarchy
Information on European monarchy.

Phrygian Cap / Bonnet Rouge
Did America get the symbol of the Phrygian Cap / Bonnet Rouge from France or vice versa?

Anschluss
There was a lot of history behind the idea of the Anschluss, most forgotten after Hitler came along.

The European Overseas Empires - Overview
The European Overseas Empires - An Introduction

Overview of Historical European Overseas Empires
The European Overseas Empires - Overview. Page 2.

World War One's Mitteleuropa
In World War One, Germany came up with the idea for their own empire to rival the British: Mitteleuropa.

Beefeaters and Yeomen Warders
The history behind tourist magnates the Beefeaters / Yeomen Warders of The Tower of London

Mutually Assured Destruction
Something called Mutually Assured Destruction probably stopped, well, mutual destruction.

The Borgias - Infamous Family of Renaissance Italy
The Borgias - A History of the Borgias

The Borgias - History of the Powerful Italian Family
The Borgias 2 - A History of the Borgias. Page 2.

Causes of the American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War and Britain, France, and Germany

Europe and the American Revolutionary War - The American Revolutionary War and Britain France and Germany
Europe and the American Revolutionary War - The American Revolutionary War and Britain France and Germany. Page 2.

The Early Years of Marie-Antoinette
A Biography of Queen Marie-Antoinette. Page 1.

Marie-Antoinette - Biography of Marie-Antoinette Page 2
Marie-Antoinette - Biography of Marie-Antoinette Page 2

Marie-Antoinette - Biography of Marie-Antoinette Page 3
Marie-Antoinette - Biography of Marie-Antoinette Page 3

F - Glossary of the First World War
Our Glossary of the First World War reaches words beginning with F.

B - Glossary of the First World War
B - Glossary of the First World War

B - Glossary of the First World War
This page in our Glossary of the First World War looks at 'B' words. Page 2.

Pointe du Hoc - The Sixth D-Day Landing
The tale of the sixth D-Day landing contains as much drama as the others, including a case of missing guns...

Pointe du Hoc - The Attack
The tale of the sixth D-Day landing contains as much drama as the others, including a case of missing guns... Page 2.

Pointe du Hoc - The Guns
The tale of the sixth D-Day landing contains as much drama as the others, including a case of missing guns... Page 3.

Pointe du Hoc - The Wait and The Aftermath
The tale of the sixth D-Day landing contains as much drama as the others, including a case of missing guns... Page 4.

Samuel Pepys' Diary
Samuel Pepys' Diary - A vital source on London

A History of Women and Work in World War 1 - Page 2
World War One gave women the chance to do many jobs they'd previously been barred from, but did the war really make much of a long term difference? Some historians think: no. Page 2.

An Overview of Women Entering the Workforce During WW1
World War One affected women's employment opportunities greatly, but only in the short term. In page one we examine what these wartime changes were,.

A - Glossary of the First World War
A - Glossary of the First World War

A - Glossary of the First World War Page 2
A - Glossary of the First World War Page 2

Scholasticism: An Explanation
What was Scholasticism, and why is it crucial in understanding the medieval mind?

Top 11 Books: Women in the First World War
Recommended reading on women in the First World War, including books on Britain, France, Germany and the US.

King Edward III of England 1312 - 1377
In part one, we look at how Edward III's father was deposed, and how Edward then had to depose his own mother.

The Best 11 Books on Prussian History
Interested in Prussian history? Read these books to kick off your study.

The Battle of Sluys 1340
Sluys helped end plans for a French invasion of England in the Hundred Years War.

The Battle of Agincourt: 1415
One of the iconic English vs French battles, this time won by weather, longbows and social convention.

The Chevauchée: Organised Medieval Murder
The chevauche was a brutal and cynical way of waging war in the medieval period.

Indulgences and their Role in the Reformation
Indulgences were important in the start of the Reformation; this explains what they were.

Rulers of the Netherlands / Holland
This annotated list of the rulers of Holland goes back to the stadholders and up to 2015.

Rulers of the Netherlands / Holland
This annotated list of the rulers of Holland goes back to the stadholders and up to 2015.

Kings and Queens - Heads of State
An index of our lists of the kings, queens, presidents, emperors and popes of Europe's history.

Katyn Massacre - Introduction to the Katyn Massacre
The Katyn Massacre was the Soviet Union's mass execution of Polish Troops in World War 2.

Books on French History
Recommended reading for French history, including reviews, lists and suggestions.

The Best Books on Pre-Revolutionary France
Recommended reading on Pre-Revolutionary France.

Top 12 Books: The Holy Roman Empire
Recommendations for books on the Holy Roman Empire, from 800 to 1806.

Saint Pope John Paul II / Karol Wojtyla 1920 - 2005
Pope John Paul II became one of the fastest people to be declared a saint in the modern era.

Pope John Paul I / Albino Luciani
Pope John Paul I was in power for just 33 days, and his death still causes controversy.

The Top 10 Best Books on Balkan History
The Best Books on Balkan History

Best World War 2 Films - Western Front
Best World War 2 Films - Western Front

Best PC Games for "Empire Building" in European History
This list of the best PC Empire Building games with a European flavor.

Scandinavian History Library - The Best Books on Scandinavian History
Scandinavian History Library - The Best Books on Scandinavian History

Top WW1 DVD and Video
The best First World War related DVD and Video

The Best Books on Modern France
The Best Books on Modern France

The Best Books on Europe between The World Wars
The Best Books on Europe between The World Wars

Swedish History Library - The best books on Swedish History
Swedish History Library - The best books on Swedish History

The best pc war games with a European history theme.
There are a lot of games for the PC which have drawn on Europe's rich history, and many of them use the waging of war as the source of interaction. This is a list of the best.

The First Person Shooter PC Games involving European History
The best first person shooters for the pc with a European History twist.

Best World War 2 Films - Eastern Front
This selection of recommended films deal with the eastern front in World War 2.

The Best PC Building Sims set in European history.
The best PC building sims which use European history as the world you're creating in.

Henry V of England - Biography - Legend
Henry V of England - Biography - Legend. Page 5.

Henry V of England - Biography - King of England
Henry V of England - Biography - King of England. Page 3.

Henry V of England - Biography - Prince of Wales
Henry V of England - Biography - Prince of Wales. Page 2.

Henry V of England - Biography - Childhood
Henry V of England - Biography - Childhood

Henry V of England - Biography - Heir of France
Henry V of England - Biography - Heir of France. Page 4.

Queen Elizabeth II of Britain
A Biography of Queen Elizabeth II of Britain.

Rulers and Leaders - Key Leaders in European History
Key Leaders in European History

Rulers and Leaders - Key Leaders in European History
Key Leaders in European History

People of Europe - Biographies and Country Histories
People of Europe - Biographies of People in European History and Country Histories.