European History Sitemap - Page 2 2016-09-26

Saint Benedict Biscop - A Profile
Saint Benedict Biscop - A Profile

King Henry I of France
France's first king Henry managed to keep the throne's royal power intact, despite a struggle to take it in the first place.

Philip I of France
Philip I of France, a man who managed upset the church and the church writers who recorded him.

Hugh Capet and the Origins of France
France evolved gradually out of a much older empire.

The Soldier by Rupert Brooke: Text and Analysis
Analysis of Rupert Brooke's poem The Soldier, which has been accused of idealizing death.

The Battle of Waterloo 1815: Part 2
An account of how the Battle of Waterloo was fought, the flashpoints and the decisions, concluding with whether the battle mattered.

The Battle of Waterloo 1815: Part 1
Part One of our account of the Battle of Waterloo looks at the context, battlefield and positions of the armies, explaining why there was a battle on this day.

The Battle of Ligny 1815
Napoleon nearly didn't need to fight Waterloo thanks to events at the Battle of Ligny.

The Battle of Quatre Bras 1815
Fought two days before Waterloo, the battle of Quatre Bras helped affect how and why Waterloo even happened.

An Overview of Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign
A narrative of Napoleon's failed Egyptian Campaign.

The September Massacres
While the French Revolution's brutal side is best known for the Terror, the September Massacres were first.

The Day of Tiles: Precursor to the French Revolution
The Day of Tiles happened a year before the French Revolution, but was oddly predictive...

The Affair of the Necklace
Despite being completely innocent, Marie-Antoinette came out of the Affair of the Necklace looking very bad...

The Tennis Court Oath
An oath taken in a tennis court... which would have a huge impact on the French Revolution and Europe as a whole.

The Battle of El Alamein (Second Battle)
El Alamein was a key battle on the North African Front of World War 2.

The Origins of World War Two in Europe Part 2
How did Europe become embroiled in World War 2? This explains the key points. Page 2.

The Origins of World War Two in Europe
How did Europe become embroiled in World War 2? This explains the key points.

Luddites
We still use the term Luddite, and its origins come from the industrial revolution in Britain.

Top 13 Historical Myths Debunked
Top historical myths debunked

Top 13 Historical Myths Debunked
Top historical myths debunked

The Early Modern Witch Hunts
Between 1450 an 1800 forty five thousand men and women were executed for witchcraft in Europe. This explains how and why.

The Early Modern Witch Hunts
Between 1450 an 1800 forty five thousand men and women were executed for witchcraft in Europe. This explains how and why. Page 3.

The Early Modern Witch Hunts
Between 1450 an 1800 forty five thousand men and women were executed for witchcraft in Europe. This explains how and why. Page 2.

Charles Martel: The Hammer
Although Charles 'the Hammer' Martel is a key figure in Europe's medieval history, the battle he's often cited for has been exaggerated for centuries.

Robert II of France / The Pious
Robert II was the second in the 'Capetian' dynasty of French kings.

Louis VII of France
Louis VII of France is mostly famous now for his first wife.

The Creation of St Petersburg - Founding of a former Russian capital in 1703
An examination of the creation of St. Petersburg, a former Russian Capital.

The Maginot Line: Creation and Purpose 1 (1922 - 1930)


Early Tudor Rebellions: Simnel and Warbeck
Simnel and Warbeck were focal points of rebellion against Henry VII of England, but while both failed one managed to survive.

The Wars of the Roses Part 4: Richard III
In the final part of our Wars of the Roses series, Richard III seizes power, then loses it.

The Wars of the Roses Part 3: Henry and Margaret Fail Again and Edward Wins
Edward IV stumbled in his quest to remain king and had to flee, but this installment sees Henry VI fail once more, and Edward secure the throne.

The Wars of the Roses Part 2: Henry and Margaret Fail the First Time
In this part, England falls into open warfare between the forces of Richard Duke of York and King Henry VI, but it's Edward IV who seems to triumph.

The Wars of the Roses Part 1: What Sort of War?
In this article we look at the start of the Wars of the Roses, including why King Henry VI of England failed so badly in keeping support.

The Counter Enlightenment
Counter Enlightenment is now applied to a whole host of movements which reacted against the Enlightenment.

Enlightenment Reform: Key Areas
A summary of the main reforms the Enlightenment led to being thought up and carried out.

The Encyclopédie
The Encyclopédie helped define the Enlightenment, and stands as one of the all time great written works.

Societies of the Enlightenment
Societies and friendship were key aspects of the Enlightenment, and this explains some of the major types.

The Wars of the Former Yugoslavia
A narrative history of the wars of the Former Yugoslavia, fought in the 1990s.

The Wars of the Former Yugoslavia - Part 2
The Wars of the Former Yugoslavia - Part 2. Page 2.

The Presidents of Ireland: From 1938 Until 2015
An annotated listing of the presidents of the Republic of Ireland.

The Sultans of the Ottoman Empire: c.1300 to 1924
A list of the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire with summaries of each.

The Sultans of the Ottoman Empire: c.1300 to 1924
A list of the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire with summaries of each.

The Sultans of the Ottoman Empire: c.1300 to 1924
A list of the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire with summaries of each.

The Sultans of the Ottoman Empire: c.1300 to 1924
A list of the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire with summaries of each.

Battles of the Wars of the Roses
A listing of the battles fought during the Wars of the Roses.

Battles of the Wars of the Roses
A listing of the battles fought during the Wars of the Roses.

Wars of the Roses Timeline
A timeline of the key events in the Wars of the Roses to accompany our articles.

King Henry VI of England
King Henry VI of England wasn't left in a great situation by his father, but his failures can't all be blamed on inheritance.

Margaret of Anjou
An important figure in England's Wars of the Roses, Margaret tried but failed to keep the throne for her family.

Warwick the Kingmaker
Warwick the Kingmaker or Warwick who wanted to be in control?

King Edward IV of England
Edward IV's reign had a shaky start, but his contribution to England's development is overlooked thanks to his brother's treachery.

Richard III of England
King Richard III is in the middle of a war of revisionism. Discover more about this treacherous monarch.

The Hundred Years War - History and Summary
A History of the Hundred Years War between England and France.

The Hundred Years War - The History of the Hundred Years War Page 2
The Hundred Years War - The History of the Hundred Years War. Page 2.

The Home Guard
Dad's Army kept the Home Guard in popular memory, but who were they really?

Who were the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks?
The Mensheviks and Bolsheviks in Russian History

Benito Mussolini - Biographical Profile
Benito Mussolini - Biography of Benito Mussolini

The North African Front of World War 2
A little outside Europe, but the North African front of World War 2 was a multi national battle between the Axis and the Allies.

The Nuremberg Trials
The Nuremberg Trials were the result of the difficult question: what to do with leading Nazis after the war?

The Nazi Concentration Camps
The Nazi's concentration camps didn't appear fully formed, they developed.

The Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals
The Nazi persecution of Homosexuality is a little more obscure than their other attacks.

Nazi Persecution of the Mentally and Physically Ill
Although the Nazis targeted the sick and disabled for extermination, they weren't the originators of the process.

The Nazi Persecution of Gypsies
The Nazis executed tens of thousands of Gypsies during their reign of persecutions.

A History of the Merovingians - A Post-Roman Dynasty
The Merovingians were the dominant rulers in western Europe in the centuries after Rome vanished in the west.

Listing of Key Events in French History with Summaries
France has a long and rich history, but we've broken it down into twenty six key events which span from c.800 BCE to the twentieth century.

Listing of Key Events in French History with Summaries
France has a long and rich history, but we've broken it down into twenty six key events which span from c.800 BCE to the twentieth century.

Listing of Key Events in French History with Summaries
France has a long and rich history, but we've broken it down into twenty six key events which span from c.800 BCE to the twentieth century.

The Carolingians
The Carolingians were a vitally important dynasty in early medieval Europe.

Charlemagne
Charlemagne is one of the great figures in Europe's history.

The Carolingian Renaissance
Europe wasn't a cultural wasteland in the middle ages, and the Carolingian Renaissance was a key period.

Emperor Louis I 'The Pious'
Charlemagne's empire was divided by the rule of his son, Louis I. Should he be blamed?

Nazi Genocide - The Nazi's Exterminations and Genocides
Nazi Genocide - The Nazi's Exterminations and Genocides

Nazi Anti-Semitism and the Holocaust Part 3
The last phases of the Holocaust involved Death Camps and the Execution of Six Million People

Nazi Anti-Semitism and the Holocaust Part 2
The Nazis came into power with an anti-Semitic agenda, and ramped things up as the years went by.

Nazi Anti-Semitism and the Holocaust Part 1
The Nazi's didn't start the anti-Semitism which led to the Holocaust. Part 1 of our account of the Holocaust explains the context.

Operation Mincemeat
A dead body and a clever deception made Operation Mincemeat one of the most successful Allied plots of World War 2.

The SS
The SS started as a bodyguard for Hitler and became a state within the Nazi empire, including the running of death camps.

Who was Erwin Rommel?
Erwin Rommel has the bizarre status of the most well regarded German commander of WW2.

Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery
Montgomery was a successful allied leader in World War 2, but upset many around him.

The Hundred Days: The War of the Seventh Coalition and Waterloo
An account of Napoleon's last campaign: the Hundred Days, the War of the Seventh Coalition and Waterloo.

Blog


Overview of The Seven Years War (1756 - 63)
The Seven Years War - The Seven Years War in Europe

The Seven Years War - The Seven Years War in Europe Part 2
The Seven Years War - The Seven Years War in Europe Part 2. Page 2.

Why Britain attempted to Tax American Colonists
Why Britain attempted to Tax American Colonists

Why Britain Taxed American Colonists
The attempts by Britain to tax its North American colonists led to arguments, war, the expulsion of British rule and the creation of a new nation. Page 2

Key Thinkers of the Enlightenment List
A listing of eighteen key thinkers of the Enlightenment from across Europe with biographical sketches for each.

Key Thinkers of the Enlightenment List
A listing of eighteen key thinkers of the Enlightenment from across Europe with biographical sketches for each.

The Effects of the American Revolutionary War on Britain
Britain and the American Revolutionary War

France in the American Revolutionary War
The American War of Independence and the critical role of France

The Battle of Kursk
Kursk was one of the largest battles of the Second World War.

The Treaty of Versailles and Hitler's Rise to Power
A look at a major controversy of twentieth century history: did the Treaty of Versailles contribute to Hitler's rise to power?

The Causes and Aims of World War One
A guide to the causes of World War One, what each of the major belligerents wanted from it.

Women and World War 1
Changing voting opportunity was just one way women were affected by World War One; this article looks at their multi-faceted experiences during the conflict.

Women and World War 1 Part 2
Changing voting opportunity was just one way women were affected by World War One; this article looks at their multi-faceted experiences during the conflict. Part 2. Page 2.

The Causes and War Aims of World War One - Part 2
The Causes and War Aims of World War One - Part 2. Page 2.

The Causes and War Aims of World War One
The Causes and War Aims of World War One - Who was to Blame? Page 3.

About the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
NATO - Information on NATO the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

A Biography of Napoleon Bonaparte
This biography of Napoleon Bonaparte condenses his life down to the essentials in three short pages, and links to extra material on his wars and government.

A Biography of Napoleon Bonaparte - Page 2
This biography of Napoleon Bonaparte condenses his life down to the essentials in three short pages, and links to extra material on his wars and government. On page 2, we look at the imperial phase of his military career.

A Biography of Napoleon Bonaparte - Page 3
This biography of Napoleon Bonaparte condenses his life down to the essentials in three short pages, and links to extra material on his wars and government. On page 3 we evaluate him and list his family.

The Consequences of the Norman Conquest
The Consequences of the Norman Conquest - how England was changed by the events of 1066 and after.

Biography of Spanish Dictator Francisco Franco
The life, career, personality and death of the Spanish Dictator Francisco Franco. A look at the Spanish Civil War

Elizabeth I of England Biography
Elizabeth I of England - Biography of Elizabeth I

The Arctic Convoys of World War Two
The most dangerous naval missions in Europe’s part of World War 2 were the Artic Convoys, which took allied supplies to the USSR.

Timeline of the French Revolution
French Revolution Timeline - A timeline of the French Revolution

D-Day: Operation Overlord and the Invasion of Normandy
D-Day opened up a 'Second Front' in the battle for continental Europe in WW2, although the Allied troops fighting in Italy might dispute the term!

Evacuees: The British Evacuations of World War 2
How and why millions of children were evacuated in Britain during World War 2.

The Battle of Britain 1940
How Britain and Germany Fought the Battle of Britain.

Rationing in Britain in World War Two
Why Did Britain Ration Food in World War 2?

The Fall of France in 1940
A narrative of how Nazi Germany defeated France in 1940, during World War 2.

Allied Strategic Bombing in World War Two
What is the Controversy about Allied Strategic Bombing in World War Two?

Was Adolf Hitler a Socialist? Debunking a Historical Myth
Hitler is often accused of being a socialist. This article explains why he wasn't.

Debunking The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

The Battles of Vimy Ridge and Arras 1917
An account of the World War 1 battles of Vimy Ridge and Arras 1917.

Public Health in the Industrial Revolution
How did Public Health develop during the Industrial Revolution?

British Poor Law Reform in the Industrial Revolution
Workhouses and Reform: The UK Poor Laws of the Industrial Revolution.

Key Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
A List of the Inventions which made the Industrial Revolution.

European Peoples - The History of European Peoples
Material on the many different peoples of Europe.

World War II - European Theater and Belligerents
World War Two in Europe - Overview of World War Two

World War Two in Europe - Overview of World War Two Page 2
World War Two in Europe - Overview of World War Two Page 2

European Scientists of Historical Note
A list of notable European scientists

European Scientists of Historical Note
A list of notable European scientists

Vikings Overview (Raids, Locations, Characteristics)
The Vikings - An Overview of the Vikings

Picts Tribe of Scotland (Origins and History)
Picts - A profile of the Picts. European History.

Biography of Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann - Biography of Adolf Eichmann

Background to the French Revolution Pre-1789
French Revolution Timeline - Pre 1789

Origins of the French Revolution in the Ancien Regime
A Discussion of the French Revolution and the Ancien Regime

History of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
This page summarizes the events of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and links to detailed narratives.

Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: Pre-1905
Russian Revolution Timeline - Timeline of Russia Pre-1905

King Henry VIII of England - Profile
King of England from 1509 – 1547, he is best known for having six wives and breaking the English church away from Roman Catholicism.

Key Events in the History of Spain and the Spanish
Key Events in Spanish History

Key Events in the History of Spain and the Spanish
Key Events in Spanish History

Key Events in the History of Spain and the Spanish
Key Events in Spanish History

The Visigoths - Historical Profile
The Visigoths - A profile of the Visigoths

31 Female European Historical Figures : 1500 - 1945
madame de sevigne josephine de beauharnais madame de maintenon artemisia gentileschi ada lovelace: 31 Women from European History 1500 to 1945 women womans ladies lady females womens history month

31 Female European Historical Figures : 1500 - 1945
madame de sevigne josephine de beauharnais madame de maintenon artemisia gentileschi ada lovelace: 31 Women from European History 1500 to 1945 women womans ladies lady females womens history month

31 Female European Historical Figures : 1500 - 1945
madame de sevigne josephine de beauharnais madame de maintenon artemisia gentileschi ada lovelace: 31 Women from European History 1500 to 1945 women womans ladies lady females womens history month

Timeline of the Russian Revolution of 1905
Russian Revolution Timeline - Timeline of the Russian Revolution of 1905

Key Events in Italian History (1848-1946)
Key Events in Italian History

Key Events in Italian History (1848-1946)
Key Events in Italian History

Key Events in Italian History (1848-1946)
Key Events in Italian History

Key Events in Italian History (1848-1946)
Key Events in Italian History

Timeline of World War 2 in Europe
A Timeline of World War 2 in Europe's Key Dates

The Invasion of Poland: 1939
An account of the Nazi and Soviet destruction of Poland in 1939.

An Explanation of the Origins of the Cold War in Europe
This examination of the origins of the Cold War in Europe starts in 1917 and proceeds through the pressures of World War 2 and the aftermath, explaining how much of the world could be facing mutually assured destruction.

Origins of the Cold War - An Explanation of the Origins of the Cold War in Europe - Page 2
This examination of the origins of the Cold War in Europe starts in 1917 and proceeds through the pressures of World War 2 and the aftermath, explaining how much of the world could be facing mutually assured destruction. Part 2. Page 2.

War Communism - European History
A quick explanation of war communism and its effect on countries today.

The Key Nazis
Snapshots of the most important Nazis, with links to longer bios.

A Brief Introduction to the Russian Revolution of 1917
Russian Revolution of 1917 - Introduction to the Russian Revolution of 1917

Russian Revolution of 1917 Part 2 - Introduction to the Russian Revolution of 1917
Russian Revolution of 1917 Part 2 - Introduction to the Russian Revolution of 1917. Page 2.

October Revolution of 1917 - The October Revolution of 1917
October Revolution of 1917 - The October Revolution of 1917. Page 3.

A Brief Biography of Stalin - From Exile to Dictator
Stalin - A biography of Stalin. European History.

World War 1 - A Short Timeline 1917
This page in our timeline of key events in World War One Timeline covers 1917.

The Troubled Succession of Charles V - Spain 1516-1522
Spain 1516 - 22 The Troubled Succession of Charles V

Spain and Charles V - Spanish Succession of Charles V Part 2
Spain 1516 - 22 The Troubled Succession of Charles V. Page 2.

Notable Authors and Writers From European History
Notable Writers from European History

Notable Authors and Writers From European History
Notable Writers from European History

The Terror of the French Revolution - 1793-1794
Timeline of the Terror in the French Revolution 1793 - 94

Key Events in Prehistoric Europe
Key Events in Prehistoric Europe

Key Events in Portuguese History - Portugal
Key Events in Portuguese History - Portugal

Key Events in Portuguese History - Portugal
Key Events in Portuguese History - Portugal

Key Events in Portuguese History - Portugal
Key Events in Portuguese History - Portugal

Key Historical Figures of World War I
World War 1 lasted just over four years, and included many belligerent nations. Consequently, there are a lot of famous names involved in this listing

Key Historical Figures of World War I
World War 1 lasted just over four years, and included many belligerent nations. Consequently, there are a lot of famous names involved in this listing

Key Historical Figures of World War I
World War 1 lasted just over four years, and included many belligerent nations. Consequently, there are a lot of famous names involved in this listing

Aircraft in World War 1 - Invention and Effects
Aircraft established themselves as a vital part of the military in World War 1.

The Nazis and Women: Kinder, Küche, Kirche:
An look at how the Nazis treated women during their years in power.

Britain and France - The French-Indian War in America
The French-Indian War - Britain and France in the The French-Indian War in America

The Railways in the Industrial Revolution
Railways burst into life during the Industrial Revolution. This is how.

Napoleon and the Italian Campaign of 1796-1797
This is an account of Napoleon and the Italian Campaign of 1796 – 7 in which he made his name and which underpinned his military and political challenge to the government of France.

The Iron Bridge - A History
What is the 'Iron Bridge' and why was it important?

Textiles during the Industrial Revolution
Did Cotton drive the Industrial Revolution, or are things more complicated?

The Development of Canals in the Industrial Revolution
Canals were at their height during the Industrial Revolution. This is how.

The Development of Roads in the Industrial Revolution
How did roads change during the Industrial Revolution?

Transport in the Industrial Revolution
How did roads, canals and rail develop in the Industrial Revolution?

The Industrial Revolution: Evolution or Revolution?
Was the Industrial Revolution pushed on by one industry or many?

French Revolution of 1789 - Timeline
French Revolution Timeline - 1789 - 1792

A biography of Hermann Goering / Göring
This biography narrates the life of air ace and Nazi Hermann Goering, whose failures would do so much to lead to allied victory in World War 2.

The Zimmermann Telegram - World War I History
This profile explains what the Zimmermann Telegram was, why it was sent and why the threat to the US was considered necessary, how it was revealed to the US public, and how their anger led to entry into World War 1. There is also the full translated text of the Telegram.

The Norman Conquest of 1066 in England
An examination of the Norman Conquest of 1066 which changed English history.

French Revolutionary Wars / War of the First Coalition
A narrative of the French Revolutionary Wars, which became the war of the First Coalition.

The Velvet Divorce in European History
Why and how Czechoslovakia was peacefully dissolved into two states in the 'Velvet Divorce'.

Communism, Democracy and Who Won World War 2 in Europe
Who Really Won World War 2 in Europe?

World War One - Fighting in the Trenches
The trenches remain one of the best known features of World War 1; this article examines them.

The Arrival of the Windrush - Britain 1948
The Arrival of the Windrush and how it encouraged multi-cultural Britain.

Steam in the Industrial Revolution
Was steam a key part of the Industrial Revolution, or was it only later that it changed the world?

Coal in the Industrial Revolution
How coal became the fuel of the Industrial Revolution.

Iron in the Industrial Revolution
How this key resource contributed to the industrial revolution.

Causes and Preconditions for the Industrial Revolution
What caused the Industrial Revolution, what was Britain like before it, and is there a set of pre-conditions?

Cold War Timeline From 1917 to 1949
This is the first part of the chronology of the Cold War. It includes the October Revolution, World War II, and the creation of NATO.

Cold War Timeline 2 - Chronology of the Cold War
Cold War Timeline 2 - Chronology of the Cold War. Page 2.

Cold War Timeline 3 - Chronology of the Cold War
Cold War Timeline 3 - Chronology of the Cold War. Page 3.

A History of the Eiffel Tower
A history of one of France's most famous structures, and a world breakthrough in construction.

Symptoms of the Black Death
Here you'll find out what happens if you catch the Black Death (and how you might have caught it.)

Clovis - The Great Merovingian King
Clovis was the man who really established the Merovingians as rulers of much of modern France.

Brunhild - An Early Merovingian Queen
Merovingian queen Brunhild managed to stay in power for a long time, but eventually lost her grip.

Fredegund - A Notorious Frankish Queen
Who was Fredegund, and is this Frankish queen remembered so negatively?

King of the Belgians - Kings of Belgium - Belgium and Kings
List of the Kings of Belgium - King of the Belgians

Sovdepia
Sovdepia. European History.

The Illyrian Movement - An Explanation
The Illyrian Movement - An Explanation

Free Companies - Definition
Free Companies. European History.

Misericorde / Misericord - Definition
Misericorde / Misericord - Definition

Cheka - Definition
Cheka - Definition. European History.

Kulak / Kulaks
Kulak / Kulaks. European History.

Zemstov - Definition
Zemstov - Definition. European History.

Soviet - Definition
Soviet - Definition. European History.

LADE
LADE. European History.

Tsar / Czar (female Tsarina / Czarina)
Tsar / Czar (female Tsarina / Czarina)

Military Revolutionary Committee
Military Revolutionary Committee

Proletariat - Definition
Proletariat - Definition. European History.

Sea Dart
Sea Dart. European History.

Yomping
Yomping. European History.

Red Guard
Red Guard. European History.

Nepmen - Definition
Nepmen - Definition. European History.

Government Codes and Cipher School
Government Codes and Cipher School

Communist Party of Yugoslavia
Communist Party of Yugoslavia. European History.

Scutage - A Definition
Scutage - A Definition. European History.

Okhrana
Okhrana. European History.

Fieldhouse, Admiral Sir John
Fieldhouse, Admiral Sir John . European History.

Gallipoli - World War One
An account of the ill feted Gallipoli campaign of World War One.

The Battle of Third Ypres - Passchendaele
An account of the battle which typifies the British national memory of World War One: Third Ypres - Passchendaele

The Battle of Verdun 1916
An account of the Battle of Verdun, one of the most cynical offensives of World War One.

The Battle of Verdun 1916 - Part 2
The Battle of Verdun 1916 - Part 2. Page 2.

The Battle of the Somme 1916
An account of the Battle of the Somme, 1916, a terrible day for the British army.

Key Battles of World War One
This list collects together the dates of all the key battles of World War One, and links where relevant to narratives.

The Battle of Amiens 1918
An account of the Battle of Amiens 1918, the World War One episode better known as the 'Blackest day of the German Army'.

The Battle of Cambrai 1917
An account of the Battle of Cambrai 1917, the World War One fight where tanks really made their name.

The Battle of Caporetto 1917
An account of the Battle of Caporetto 1917, which really broke the stalemate on the Italian Front of World War One.

The Battle of Jutland 1916
An account of the Battle of Jutland 1916, the largest naval battle of World War One. But who won?

The Battle of Messines 1917
An account of the Battle of Messines 1917, which was dominated by mines and a world record explosion.

The Battle of Mons 1914
An account of the Battle of Mons 1914, where British and German forces first met in World War One.

The First Battle of the Marne 1914
An account of the First Battle of the Marne in 1914, the days which saved France and doomed the war to years of fighting.

A History of the German Revolution of 1918 – 19
Although increasingly described as 'not a revolution', the German Revolution of 1918-19 turned Germany from an imperial Kaiserreich into a democratic republic.

A History of the German Revolution of 1918 – 19 Part 2
Although increasingly described as 'not a revolution', the German Revolution of 1918-19 turned Germany from an imperial Kaiserreich into a democratic republic. Part 2 covers Ebert's new state. Page 2.

The Dawes Plan of 1924
The Dawes Plan helped Germany's Weimar Republic tackle the problems and arguments over reparations. But it caused its own problems.

Gleischaltung - the Nazi Governance of Germany
An examination of the confusing way Nazi Germany was governed.

Guns or Butter - The Nazi Economy
The Nazis were outproduced by their enemies during World War 2, but how did the Nazis handle their economy?

The Hitler Youth and the Indoctrination of German Children
In order to create his perfect society, Hitler introduced a set of pseudo-military groups for children: the Hitler Youth.

The Nazis and Christianity
Of all aspects of German life, the churches proved one of the most resistant to Hitler. But there were many who joined in.

Hitler’s Rise to Power: Timeline
A ready reference for the dates of Hitler's Rise to Power.

The Harrying of the North 1069 – 70
The Harrying of the North was William I's attempt to subdue northern England, but how brutal was it?

Who was Franz von Papen?
This article explains Franz von Papen's role in the fall of Germany's Weimar government and Hitler's acquisition of power.

Who was Gregor Strasser?
This biography looks at early Nazi leader Gregor Strasser.

The Fall of Weimar and the Nazi Acquisition of Power
In this article we narrate the end of Weimar era Germany and explain how Hitler came to power.

The Fall of Weimar and the Nazi Acquisition of Power
European History. Page 2.

The Tripartite Pact
The Tripartite Pact was signed in 1940.

A History of the Great Fire of London of 1666
Although few people died in the Great Fire of London in 1666, a large area of city was devastated and over a hundred thousand made homeless.

A History of the Great Fire of London of 1666 Part 2
Although few people died in the Great Fire of London in 1666, a large area of city was devastated and over a hundred thousand made homeless. Page 2.

A History of the Great Fire of London of 1666 Part 3
Although few people died in the Great Fire of London in 1666, a large area of city was devastated and over a hundred thousand made homeless. Page 3.

A History of the Great Fire of London of 1666 Part 4
Although few people died in the Great Fire of London in 1666, a large area of city was devastated and over a hundred thousand made homeless. Page 4.

A biography of Joseph Goebbels
This biography introduces Joseph Goebbels, the propaganda genius who made the Nazis so effective at key times in their history.

The Creation of Hitler's Dictatorship
How Hitler went from being appointed Chancellor to ruling a one party dictatorship.

A biography of Joachim von Ribbentrop
Joachim von Ribbentrop was a leading Nazi diplomat.

A biography of Martin Bormann
Martin Bormann became one of the most powerful men in the twilight of Nazi Germany.

Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf was a book written by Hitler which explained some of his plans.

Who Supported Hitler and Why?
An examination of why many of the German people supported Hitler.

A biography of Albert Speer
A biography of the architect who rose to power in World War 2.

A biography of Rudolf Hess
This biography covers the slavish devotion of Hess to Hitler, and his bizarre and still not entirely understood flight to Britain in World War 2.

What did Hitler Believe?
A look at the confusing mixture of ideas which we believe drove Hitler.

What was Volksgemeinschaft?
Volksgemeinschaft was an ideal in Nazi ideology, and this explains what it wanted.

S - Glossary of the First World War
S - Glossary of the First World War

S - Glossary of the First World War
S - Glossary of the First World War. Page 2.

T - Glossary of the First World War
T - Glossary of the First World War

H - Glossary of the First World War
H - Glossary of the First World War

Enigma Machine
Enigma Machine. European History.

Natural Frontiers of France
Natural Frontiers of France. European History.

A Guide to Renaissance Humanism
An explanation of Renaissance Humanism and why it was important.

An introduction to the Northern Renaissance.
Not all the great artworks and developments of the renaissance occurred in or around Italy; this article discusses the 'Northern Renaissance'.

Girolamo Savonarola 1452 – 1498 - A Biography
Preacher and friar Girolamo Savonarola came to practically rule Florence before a fall from power and execution. This is a biography.

Profile of Erich Ludendorff
A profile of German World War 1 leader Erich Ludendorff.

Harald III Sigurdsson - 'Hardrada'
Harald Hardrada, the forgotten invader of England in the year 1066.

Chetnik - A History
Tracing the history of the twentieth century Chetniks.

The Battle of Hastings 1066
An account of the Battle of Hastings, 1066, which allowed the Norman Conquest of England.

The Donation of Constantine
What was the Donation of Constantine, how was the fraud discovered, and why did it last so long?

Napoleon's Hold on France
An examination of how Napoleon was able to rule and control France through so much war.

The Concordat of 1801
The Concordat of 1801 was between Napoleon's France and the Papacy, officially attempting to heal the wounds of the revolution.

Napoleon's Empire
An examination of the make up and extent of Napoleon's empire in Europe.

Gutenberg - Moveable Type and the Printing Press
How Gutenberg invented Moveable Type and the Printing Press and lost control.

The Angevin Empire
Where was the forgotten Angevin Empire, and why do we even call it that?

The Origins of Football - Soccer
A history of the early years of football / soccer.

1812 - Napoleon's Invasion of Russia
A narrate of the events of 1812, Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia.

The War of the Second Coalition 1799 – 1801
A narrative of the War of the Second Coalition against France (now led by Napoleon).

The War of the Third Coalition: the Austerlitz Campaign
Our narrative history of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars reaches the War of the Third Coalition.

The Peninsular War 1808 - 1814
A history of the fight between the Spanish, Portuguese and the British against the French and some Spanish during the Napoleonic Wars.

Napoleon and the War of the Fourth Coalition
Our narrative history of the Napoleonic Wars reaches the War of the Fourth Coalition.

The Napoleonic Wars - The War of the Sixth Coalition
Our narrative history of the Napoleonic Wars reaches the War of the Sixth Coalition.

Timeline of the Napoleonic and French Revolutionary Wars
This timeline of the Napoleonic and French Revolutionary Wars lists the key dates and events from 1792 to 1815.

Revolutionary France's Revolution in Warfare
An examination of how war changed in the 1790s during the French Revolutionary Wars.

The Victims of Jack the Ripper
The victims of Jack the Ripper - biographies of the five canonical victims.

Tito - Josip Broz
A biography of Tito, Josip Broz, the communist leader of Yugoslavia who successfully stood up to Stalin.

King Richard I of England - Biography
A biography of King Richard I of England, nicknamed the Lionheart and a crusader.

Josephine de Beauharnais - Bonaparte
The life of Napoleon's great love and good luck charm, Josephine de Beauharnais - Bonaparte

A Biography of Charles-Maurice Talleyrand.
The life of the diplomat, statesman and above all great survivor of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars.

The Creation of Britain’s Welfare State
This article explains how Britain created the 'Welfare State', a cradle to the grave system of social support.

Why Churchill Lost the 1945 Election
An explanation of why Winston Churchill lost the 1945 election in Britain.

Magna Carta - The Great Charter
What was Magna Carta and why is it considered a cornerstone of modern rights (despite initially failing.)

World War One's New Weapons - Gas and Tanks
World War One saw the invention or widespread use of new weapons; this page looks at gas and tanks.

The Anglo-German Naval Race
The Anglo-German Naval Race has been cited as a key factor in the start of World War 1. Here we explain what happened.

World War One at Sea
What happened at sea during World War One.

World War One - The Eastern and Italian Fronts
A history of the Eastern and Italian Fronts of World War One.

World War One - The Eastern and Italian Fronts Page 2
World War One - The Eastern and Italian Fronts Page 2

World War One - Salonika
A look at the forgotten Salonikan front of World War One.

Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points - Explanation and Text
Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points - an explanation and the full text.

Italy - History of Italy and the City States
Italian history - history of Italy and the city states

Scandinavia - History of Scandinavia
Information on Scandinavian history - Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

Wilfred Owen - A Biography
Wilfred Owen's war poetry helped define the World War One experience, for many still does. This biography looks at Owen's life.

Wilfred Owen - A Biography Part 2
The second of our two part Wilfred Owen biography. Page 2.

The Russian Civil War
A History of the Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War - A History of the Russian Civil War
The Russian Civil War - A History of the Russian Civil War. Page 2.

Lenin's New Economic Policy
An Explanation of New Economic Policy

Who were the Kadets?
The Kadets in Russian history. European History.

1918 Russian Revolution Timeline - Timeline of the Russian Revolution in 1918
Russian Revolution Timeline - Timeline of 1918

1917 Russian Revolution Timeline - Timeline of the Russian Revolution of 1917 Part 2
Russian Revolution Timeline 1917 Part 2

France's Republican Revolution of 1792
History of the French Revolution 5. France's Republican Revolution of 1792

History of the French Revolution 5. The Republican Revolution 1792
History of the French Revolution 5. The Republican Revolution 1792. Page 2.

The Events of Thermidor: 1794 - 95
History of the French Revolution 8. Thermidor 1794 - 95

History of the French Revolution
History of the French Revolution. Page 2.

A History of the French Revolution
A History of the French Revolution: Contents Page

Republican French Revolution 1792 - French Republican Revolution 1792
French Revolution Timeline - 1792

When Did Columbus 'Discover' The Americas? - A New Theory
When Did Columbus 'Discover' The Americas? - A New Theory

Letizia Bonaparte - biography of Letizia Bonaparte
Letizia Bonaparte - biography of Letizia Bonaparte

Letizia Bonaparte - biography of Letizia Bonaparte Page 2
Letizia Bonaparte - biography of Letizia Bonaparte Page 2

The Pontiac Rebellion and Smallpox as a Weapon - The Pontiac War and British use of Smallpox in America
The Pontiac Rebellion and Smallpox as a Weapon - The Pontiac War and British use of Smallpox in America

Tips for Writing a History Paper
Advice on Writing History Papers

Tips for Writing a History Paper - Advice on Writing History Papers Page 2
Tips for Writing a History Paper - Advice on Writing History Papers Page 2

Germans in the American Revolutionary War
Germans and the American Revolutionary War

The Christmas Truce of 1914
On Christmas Day 1914 something remarkable happened amongst troops stationed in the Western Front - soldiers from the rival sides met in the middle to exchange greetings, food and goodwill.

Who were the Doughboys of World War 1
Who were the Doughboys? What did they do and how did they get their name?

Countries Involved in World War 1- the British Empire
Countries involved in the First World War - the British Empire

The Western Front of World War One
This history of the Western Front covers the battle between Britain, France and their allies against Germany and their allies during World War One.

The Western Front of World War One Part 2
The Western Front of World War One Part 2. Page 2.

The Western Front of World War One Part 3
The Western Front of World War One Part 3. Page 3.

Countries Involved in World War 1 - the French Empire
Countries involved in the First World War - the French Empire

1916 - World War 1 Timeline
Our timeline of World War 1 reaches 1916.

1918 - World War 1 Timeline
The war closes in the 1918 page of our World War 1 Timeline.

1919 - 1920 World War 1 Timeline
Our World War 1 Timeline reaches the aftermath: 1919-20.

An Account of the Berlin Blockade
The Berlin Blockade was an early stress point in the Cold War and a clear victory for organized air power thanks to the West's airlift.

Vetus Latina - The Old Latin Bible
Vetus Latina - The Old Latin Bible

The Vulgate - A Profile of the Vulgate
Vulgate - St Jerome's Bible. European History.

Saving Private Ryan DVD
Saving Private Ryan DVD. European History.

What does BC mean?
BC - Before Christ - is a method of dating, with a religious foundation, that is still in use today. This article explains how and why.

Beginners quiz on european history
beginners quiz on european history: european history correct answer quiz

Quizzes on European History
Quizzes on European History: history quizzes world war one european history educational tool many things

This Day In European History - Index
What Happened On This Day In European History: births and deaths encyclopedia britannica sneak peek notable events european history

Rulers of Portugal - Portuguese kings emperors and presidents
Rulers of Portugal - Portuguese kings emperors and presidents

Aircraft Carriers - Definition
Aircraft Carriers - Definition. European History.

Bayonet - Definition
Bayonet - Definition. European History.

Britain - What is Britain
Britain - What is Britain. European History.

Hohenzollern - Definition
Hohenzollern - Definition. European History.

Landsknecht - Definition
Landsknecht - Definition. European History.

Morisco - Definition
Morisco - Definition. European History.

Whiteboys - Definition
Whiteboys - Definition. European History.

White Russians - Definitions
White Russians - Definitions. European History.

Central Powers - Definition
Central Powers - Definition. European History.

Dauphin - Definition
Dauphin - Definition. European History.

The Normans – An Overview of the Normans
The Normans – An Overview of the Normans

Religious Figures of Western-Christian Europe - Religous Figures
Notable Religious Figures of Western-Christian Europe

Henry V of England - Profile of Henry V
Henry V of England - Profile of Henry V

Stonehenge - A Profile of Stonehenge
Stonehenge - A Profile of Stonehenge

National Assembly - Defnition of National Assembly
National Assembly - Defnition of National Assembly

Legislative Assembly - Definition of Legislative Assembly
Legislative Assembly - Definition of Legislative Assembly

Bourgeois - Definition of Bourgeois
Bourgeois - Definition of Bourgeois

The Consulate - Definition of The Consulate
The Consulate - Definition of The Consulate

Gilded Youth - Defnition of Gilded Youth
Gilded Youth - Defnition of Gilded Youth

Venal Offices - Definition of Venal Offices
Venal Offices - Definition of Venal Offices

Index expurgatorius - Definition
Index expurgatorius - Definition

Prague Spring - Explanation of the Prague Spring
Prague Spring - Explanation of the Prague Spring

Six Wives of Henry VIII - Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Six Wives of Henry VIII

The best books on notable Russian individuals
The best books on notable Russian individuals

When did World War 1 Start - Start of World War 1
When did World War 1 Start - Start of World War 1

Books on Weimar and Nazi Germany
Weimar and Nazi Germany Books - best books on interwar German history

Assignat - Definition of Assignat
Assignat - Definition of Assignat

Teresa of Avila - Saint Teresa of Avila
Websites, discussions and pictures about Teresa of Avila.

Laura Bassi - Professor Laura Bassi
Websites, discussions and pictures about Laura Bassi.

The Reformation in Britain
The Reformation in Britain

economic history of europe - trade and travel
Information on the economic history of Europe, trading routes and how people traveled.

Vikings in Britain
Vikings in Britain

Ancient and Classical Blogs
Ancient and Classical Blogs

Early and modern European health - medicine and disease in Europe's history.
Early and modern European health - medicine and disease in Europe's history.

Blogs about archaeology.
Blogs about archaeology.

The Red Baron - Manfred von Richthofen
The Red Baron - Manfred von Richthofen

European Union History - History of the European Union
European Union History - History of the European Union

The Enlightenment - The Enlightenment in European history.
The Enlightenment - The Enlightenment in European history.

King Arthur - Resources on the Round Table and Arthurian Legends
King Arthur - Resources on the Round Table and Arthurian Legends

Modern History Blogs
Modern History Blogs

Crimean War - History of the Crimean War
Crimean War - History of the Crimean War

The Normans - Information and Sources
The Normans - Sources and Information

Revolutionary Socialist and Communist Russia - Russian history in the 20th century
Revolutionary, socialist and communist Russia Russia in the 20th century.

Britain in World War One
Britain in World War One

Ninon de Lenclos - Ninon de Lenclos
Websites, discussions and pictures about Ninon de Lenclos.

Lucrezia Borgia - The famous Lucrezia Borgia
Websites, discussions and pictures about Lucrezia Borgia.

Basques - The Basques of the Iberian Peninsular
Basques - The Basques of the Iberian Peninsular

1066 and the Norman Conquest (of England)
1066, the Battle of Hastings and the Normans in the UK

Aces and Aircraft of World War One - First and Great War Aviation
The aces and aircraft of World War One.

Anne of Austria - Regent of France Anne of Austria
Websites, discussions and pictures about Anne of Austria.

Australia in World War One – Australians in the First World War
Australia in World War One – Australians in the First World War

Austrian Hungarian Czechoslovakian history - Austria Hungary the Czechs and the Slovakians
Austrian, Hungarian and Czech-Slovak history.

Austria Hungary in the early modern and modern period – 19th and 20th century Habsburg history
Austria and Austro Hungary during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Elizabeth Bathory - Countess Erzebet Bathory
Websites, discussions and pictures about Countess Elizabeth Bathory.

Josephine de Beauharnais – Empress Josephine of France
Websites, discussions and pictures about Josephine de Beauharnais.

Bede - Resources for the Venerable Bede
Bede - Resources for the Venerable Bede

Belarusian history - the history of Belarus
Belarusian history - the history of Belarus

Blogs on European History
Blogs on European History

Brandenburg - Prussia in German History - Prussian History
Sources, documents and articles on the expansion, and nature, of the Prussian state.

Canada in World War One – Canadians in the First World War
Canada in World War One – Canadians in the First World War

The Celts - history of the celts
Resources on the Celts and Celtic Peoples of Europe.

Clothing and costume in European history – clothes and dress in early and modern Europe
Clothing and costume in European history – clothes and dress in early and modern Europe

Cold War History
Cold War History - The history of the Cold War

Cold War History
Cold War History - The history of the Cold War

Cossacks
Cossacks - the many Cossack peoples of Eastern Europe and Asia.

European crime and justice - criminals and law history.
Material on for crime and justice in history

Marie Curie - Marie Curie
Websites, discussions and pictures about Marie Curie.

Czech and Slovak lands - Czechoslovakian history
The Czech and Slovak lands.

Hungary and Czechoslovakia in the early modern and modern period – 20th century Austrian, Hungarian and Czechoslovakian history
Information on the former Austro-Hungarian Empire of Austria Hungary and Czechoslovakia during the 20th century.

Early Modern Blogs
Blogs on Europe in the Early Modern era.

Queen Elizabeth I - Queen of England
Websites, discussions and pictures on Queen Elizabeth I.

Elizabeth of Bohemia - Elizabeth Stuart of Bohemia
Websites, discussions and pictures about Elizabeth of Bohemia.

The English Civil War - Information on the English Civil War
The English Civil War - Information on the English Civil War

France in the Enlightenment and the Ancien Regime 17th and 18th century French
Comprehensive links for Enlightenment France and French History during 17th and 18th centuries.

Catalina de Erauso – the spanish warrior Catalina de Erauso
Websites, discussions and pictures about Catalina de Erauso.

Eating and drinking in European history – food and drink
Eating and drinking in European history

Food and Recipe Blogs
Food and Recipe Blogs

Gas and Chemical Weapons in World War One
Gas and Chemical Weapons in World War One

Culture and Lifestyle
Resources on the culture and ways of life experienced in Ancient Rome.

Blogs on General Military History
Blogs on General Military History

General sites on British history - history of England Scotland Wales and Ireland
Websites, discussions and pictures of British, English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish history.

General sites on World War One - the First and Great World War
Comprehensive links for websites, discussions and pictures of World War One

Artemisia Gentileschi - The Artist Artemisia Gentileschi
Websites, discussions and pictures about Artemisia Gentileschi.

Germanic Peoples
Germanic Peoples

Germany Post-1945 - Information on Germany Post-1945
Germany Post-1945 - Information on Germany Post-1945

Marie de Gournay - Marie de Gournay
Websites, discussions and pictures about Marie de Gournay.

Holy Roman Empire - Germany in the 16th 17th and 18th centuries
Information on the Holy Roman Empire and German history during the 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th centuries.

Hungarian history - the history of Hungary
Hungary and Hungarian history.

Isabella I – Isabella I of Spain and Castile
Websites, discussions and pictures on Isabella I of Spain and Castile.

Judith Leyster - the artist Judith Leyster
Websites, discussions and pictures about Judith Leyster.

Ada Lovelace - The mother of software Ada Lovelace
Websites, discussions and pictures about Ada Lovelace.

Rosa Luxembourg - Socialist Campaigner Rosa Luxembourg
Websites, discussions and pictures about Rosa Luxembourg.

Madame de Maintenon - Madame de Maintenon of France
Websites, discussions and pictures about Madame de Maintenon.

Margaret of Parma
Websites, discussions and pictures about Margaret of Parma.

Catherine de Medici - Catherine de Medici Queen of France
Websites, discussions and pictures about Catherine de Medici.

Medieval and Renaissance Blogs
Medieval and Renaissance Blogs

Maria Montessori - Maria Montessori and Education
Websites, discussions and pictures about Maria Montessori.

Multi-Subject Sites on the Vikings
Multi-Subject Sites on the Vikings

Nazi Germany - Information on Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany - Information on Nazi Germany

Nineteenth century Russian history – Russia in the 19th century
Russia in the 19th century.

Roman Picture Resources
Roman Picture Resources

Legal and Political history - the laws and politics from european history
Resources on the governments, laws and political views from European history.

Portuguese history - the history of Portugal.
Material on Portuguese history - the history of Portugal.