About Experts Sitemap - Group 11 - Page 3 2014-04-15

Chemicals: Fragrances and Chemicals, organic molecule, harsh chemicals
organic molecule, harsh chemicals, noxious fumes: Thank you for the follow-up; I m sorry to hear that the fragrances don t smell too good any more. As I said in the above answer, I think that any change in smell is not likely to be due to direct contamination, because of the storage conditions, and so...

Chemicals: H Bomb, nuclear fusion reaction, h bomb
nuclear fusion reaction, h bomb, heat and energy: Hi there, and thanks for your question. Could you give me a little more detail as to what you want to know? The h-bomb is a fusion weapon in which the force and temperature of a conventional nuclear bomb is used to set off a nuclear fusion reaction, releasing...

Chemicals: Hydrogen Peroxide, hydrogen peroxide to lighten hair, hair stylist
hydrogen peroxide to lighten hair, hair stylist, strange symptoms: Hi there, and thank you for your question. Before I give my answer, I should say I m in no way a hair stylist or anything like that, so I would always advise checking with a professional before actually carrying out any procedure. I will do my best to...

Chemicals: Permanent ink, dry cloth, black expo
Chemicals: Permanent ink, dry cloth, black expo

Chemicals: Hydrogen sulfide gas, hydrogen sulfide gas, true physics
hydrogen sulfide gas, true physics, vacuum fittings: Unfortunately, I know very little of the particular chemical environment in your water4gas.com scenario. For example, the purity of the water being used, dissolved solids or salts in solution, chemical composition of the anodes, fittings, so on and so forth....

Chemicals: ISP project, caffeine in energy drinks, dietician nutritionist
caffeine in energy drinks, dietician nutritionist, independent study project: Hi Christine, I appreciate your consideration for this ISP project, but I am not the best expert to answer or address your hypothesis. You should consider at least two or more experts in your interviews. Also, such individuals should have backgrunds in...

Chemicals: Permanent ink, nail polish remover, benzene toluene
nail polish remover, benzene toluene, grade polycarbonate: I certainly will not purport to be an expert at answering this question. I do not know of a commercially available (or advertised) permanent ink removal chemical or product (that would be safe on your CD/DVD s). BUT!!! If you GOOGLE removing permanent...

Chemicals: acid to deteriorate flesh of leaf, electroplating process, paper towels
electroplating process, paper towels, electroplate: It could be several things including sulfuric acid. realscience.breckschool.org/upper/fruen/files/research/1999/ElectroCu.doc http://www.pwista.com/LABs/electroplate%20leaf.pdf Sulfuric acid is very dangerous. You may not be able to buy concentrated,...

Chemicals: Random Noxious Fume Creation?, throat constriction, laundry detergent
throat constriction, laundry detergent, sinus headaches: One other thing to keep in mind in that this bottle of detergent may have sat in a hot warehouse too long or something similar. To really test this to completeness, you would have to buy another bottle from a different store. I have to ask this since I...

Chemicals: Testing Water, grade 11 chemistry, water treatment company
grade 11 chemistry, water treatment company, chemistry student: Sorry hit the wrong button. There are no easy tests that can be done n a high school lab. You really need a kit. The best place to find these is at a pet store that sells fish, a pool store, or a water treatment company. With the kits you can test...

Chemicals: candlesticks and lead, brass candlestick, internet searching
brass candlestick, internet searching, silly question: Not to worry, a candle would never get that hot. More likely would be the candle could be contaminated ()hasn t happened in several years), so buy good candles. If cleaning, make sure hands are washed or gloves worn and don t let small children handle since...

Chemicals: Geiger counter, geiger counter, surplus sale
geiger counter, surplus sale, gm: Unfortunately, it will depend on the model. Unless you are looking at one that can be demonstrated as working, I would avoid it. Parts are no longer available so fixing it will be almost impossible. These guys agree. If you are looking at a surplus one,...

Chemicals: Re: Random Noxious Fume Creation, washing soda, baking soda
washing soda, baking soda, sticky residue: Many chemicals irritate the nose and not the skin. Start with black pepper. At this point, my only guess is that you have a bad bottle of detergent or what is in the box in not baking soda. If washing soda does not cause this problem, baking soda will not....

Chemicals: reaction, mold and mildew, growing mold
mold and mildew, growing mold, tongue and groove: Thinking about your situation for a couple of days. Two things stuck out. You mention in your other shed things are not half as bad . That would rule out almost anything related to the building materials itself. It may be possible that you are growing...

Chemicals: 3 layer liquid that won't mix, vinegar and salt, ml water
vinegar and salt, ml water, household level: Thank you for your follow-up. There are two problems with the vinegar-salt idea; 1) Vinegar is mostly water, so in essence, all you do when you add salt is to make a solution of salt in water. You re not saturating the solution, because to saturate vinegar,...

Chemicals: oil's densities, density of oil, oil molecules
density of oil, oil molecules, funsci: Hi, and thanks for the follow-up. Firstly, it makes no difference if the solute is solid or liquid; the same principle of a limited power to dissolve still stands. And if you just mix oil with something else, you don t create a new compound - it s just...

Chemicals: capilary action, hydrogen bonds, gravity balances
hydrogen bonds, gravity balances, capillary tube: Hi there, thank you for the follow-up. Firstly, the relative hydrogen bonding abilities of the three compounds are not absolute; there is not a definite figure to place by each one; it is a relative not an absolute thing. What you need to do is consider...

Chemicals: capilary action, polarity of water, capillary action
polarity of water, capillary action, delocalized electrons: Hi there, and thanks for your question The problem with your idea is that capillary action does not depend on a flow of electrons; it s a balance between gravity (which tends to pull a liquid down a tube) and the surface tension of a liquid. Surface tension...

Chemicals: capillary action, hydrogen bonding water, polarity of water
hydrogen bonding water, polarity of water, hydrogen bonds: Hi there, no problem, as I said, this is a weird topic. Firstly, the glass is not important at all in the process except as a container for the column of water; other materials work equally well. The curve in the water was the bit I waffled on about...

Chemicals: Fragrance Care Question, decomposition temperature, household storage
decomposition temperature, household storage, water boiler: Hi there, and you re very welcome for any assistance I can give you. From what you ve said, you may have dislodged a securing ring or a cosmetic part of the cover; as long as the spritzer keeps functioning as normal, you shouldn t have a problem. Any...

Chemicals: Fragrances and Lurking Odors, fragrance molecules, nerve impulse
fragrance molecules, nerve impulse, pint glass: Hi there, lovely to hear from you again, and I hope you are well? When a fragrance is released, it doesn t normally pick up air, what happens is that it diffuses amongst the gas molecules that make up the air in the room. Diffusion is a well-known...

Chemicals: muratic burn, fragile layer, mineral acids
fragile layer, mineral acids, finger and thumb: Hi there, and thanks for your question. I m sorry to hear about your injury, especially having sustained chemical burns myself on a couple of occasions! The main thing I would say is that you need to seek medical treatment asap. Acid burns (especially...

Chemicals: NAIL POLISH AND NAIL POLISH REMOVER, nail polish remover, nail varnish
nail polish remover, nail varnish, polish removers: Hi there, and thank you very much for your question. I hope your daughter is ok and that she understands the reason that you are taking this sensible precaution. The first thing to say is that in general terms, it is assumed that both nail-polish and...

Chemicals: Purifying lead with wax, alchemy website, homework question
alchemy website, homework question, wax coating: Hi there, and thanks for the follow-up; hope the work is going ok? I think the new project title sounds great, and should give you scope to do a lot of interesting research :-) A couple of points that may guide you on your way; 1) Make sure you are...

Chemicals: Using nanomaterials to purify heavy metals, incinerator emissions, fly ash
incinerator emissions, fly ash, heavy metals: Hi again, and thank you for the follow-up! I hope the project goes ok; seems to have been sprung on you a bit! I ll discuss the question of recovery and sale of lead first, and then give links a bit of general background information about nanomaterials...

Chemicals: vikane gas, fumigators, fumigator
fumigators, fumigator, doors windows: Hi, and thank you very much for your question. I provide a link below which is from the makers of Vikane which covers most of the points you enquired about: http://www.dowagro.com/ppm/vikane/questions.htm My own knowledge of Vikane is not comprehensive,...

Chemicals: water-softening chemicals, sodium tripolyphosphate, dishwasher detergent
sodium tripolyphosphate, dishwasher detergent, sodium metasilicate: Hello there, and thank you for your question. I m sorry to hear you re having problems; our water here is quite hard and we have similar trouble with washing glassware. Calgon and similar products all work by capturing the metal ions responsible for...

Chemicals: Assy & Potency, solvent free basis, volatiles
solvent free basis, volatiles, formulae: Im sorry for the delay- I naswered this question last week but must not have sent it correctly Assay is the analytical results of a said parameter- potency is the effectiveness of the parameter. They may be the same in some cases. If the assay is more...

Chemicals: Chemical reaction, solvent solute, acetone water
solvent solute, acetone water, sodium chloride: Hi there, and thanks for your question. There is no chemical reaction occurring when acetone and water mix; being polar, the acetone simply dissolves in water. There are two immediately possible causes of the bubbles you saw; 1) When you pour one...

Chemicals: Evaporating liquid, cold water bath, water droplets
cold water bath, water droplets, injection mold: Thank you for the follow-up, and for the further information. Whilst I can t, of course, guarantee, that any particular method would work, I can suggest a possible area of research for your company to look in to further. A solution of ethanol in water...

Chemicals: Assy & Potency, optical isomer, target system
Chemicals: Assy & Potency, optical isomer, target system, biological system

Chemicals: Phytoestrogens, vegetable products, common foods
vegetable products, common foods, vegetarian diet: Hi there, and thanks for your question. The first thing I would say is not to worry, there is no evidence that soy products causes dementia; that report was based on a flawed study over ten years ago. A balanced vegetarian diet is the healthiest possible...

Chemicals: Potassium Permanganate, sodium oxalate, specific gravity
sodium oxalate, specific gravity, accurate result: You can only use the SG if the solution is pure Potassium Permanganate and contains no other chemicals- even then it is a very inaccurate way to do this. The solution should be titrated against known Sodium Oxalate or equivalent to get an accurate result...

Chemicals: Sodium Hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, oven cleaner
sodium hydroxide, oven cleaner, follow ups: Hi there, and thanks for your question. 98% Sodium Hydroxide is as close to pure as is available, and works well for soap-making (which is a hobby of mine too :-). Remember, you re going to be tipping your Sodium Hydroxide in to water as part of the procedure,...

Chemicals: Carbonated drinks, petroleum refineries, ammonia production
petroleum refineries, ammonia production, carbon dioxide in soda: Hi Allaina CO2 is often recovered from the synthesis gas in ammonia production, or from petroleum refineries or natural springs and wells. In small amounts it can be made by adding an acid to a carbonate containing material. Best Regards Joh...

Chemicals: chemistry, theoretical question, oxygens
theoretical question, oxygens, methylene: I suspect this may be a theoretical question with two Oxygens adjacent to and pumping charge into the methylene may well produce a potentilly H+ ( curly arrow Chem) OR maybe the acetyl is hydrolysed off as acetic acid leaving the hydroxy propanone. ...

Chemicals: Carbonated drinks, slow addition, sodium carbonate
Chemicals: Carbonated drinks, slow addition, sodium carbonate, organic base

Chemicals: lead released into air, watt bulb, volatiles
watt bulb, volatiles, art teacher: Hi Stephanie Dont know about the microwave question- at the risk of being politically incorrect you may have to try it to see for yourself- but do it carefully!!!! The Lead glaze should have already been heated to a very high temperature to sinter the...

Chemicals: naoh sol., caustic soda solution, usefull tip
Chemicals: naoh sol., caustic soda solution, usefull tip, goggles

Chemicals: Rust, cupboard, propriety
Chemicals: Rust, cupboard, propriety, hardware store

Chemicals: naoh sol., sodium hydroxide solution, ml water
sodium hydroxide solution, ml water, oven racks: It was probably a 3 to 5% solution i.e 3grams per 100 ml water. Try this and if it doesnt work then increase the level of sodium hydroxide slightly. However- be warned- sodium hydroxide soltuions are extremely alkaline and will seriously burn on contact...

Chemicals: Rust, cabinet door hinges, cloudy ammonia
cabinet door hinges, cloudy ammonia, ammonia smell: Hi Thanks for your query. The rust will either be caused by previously existing dampness or possibly an ammonia based chemical-is one of the cleaners cloudy ammonia?- Is there an ammonia smell in the cupboard? If not that sort of corrosion will only...

Chemicals: pool chemicals, sodium hypochlorite, sulfur mustard
sodium hypochlorite, sulfur mustard, chlorine gas: No. Mustard gas is 1,5-dichloro-3-thiapentane which means you have a carbon source and a sulfur source. You had neither. Believe it or not, the visible fumes were most likely water vapor. There may have been chlorine gas mixed in. 2 H+ (aq) + OCl−...

Chemicals: chemical byproducts, sodium ascorbate, chemical byproducts
sodium ascorbate, chemical byproducts, snowball bush: Sodium ascorbate + Hypochlorous acid ----- Dehydroascorbic acid + Sodium chloride + water The levels formed will have no impact on plants. The Vitamin C analog will probably act as food. The salt formed will be much much less than is already in the...

Chemicals: science experiement on clean pennies, wet dirt, greasy fingers
wet dirt, greasy fingers, u s mint: I think you are on the right track. Check the years of the pennies and see if there is a pattern. If not, you may be looking at two different kinds of dirt. You can have soil type dirt which should clean and you could have oil/finger handling dirt which...

Chemicals: 99.9% Sodium Hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, caustic soda
sodium hydroxide, caustic soda, dessicator: Thank you for your question. Firstly, purity indicators don t usually include solvents, so you can have a solution of 99% pure NaOH: this means that the NaOH that was used to make the solution was 99% pure. If your NaOH is in solid form, it s probably...

Chemicals: Acids and Bases, acids and bases, equilibruim
acids and bases, equilibruim, h ion: This is a good question. First is is considered neutral. Why? When water is by itself in a container is exists as this: H20 H+ and OH-. Thus the pH of the water is 7.0. This chemical reaction is in equal balance, i.e., the H+ ion is considered an acid...

Chemicals: Acids and Bases, dill pickle, vinegar solution
dill pickle, vinegar solution, acids and bases: I am not sure if a dill pickle is an acid or base, but if it is indeed pickled then it would be an acid. Why? Cucumbers are soaked in a type of salt solution for pickling. Table salt and something called Alum are used, after that they are placed in a vinegar...

Chemicals: Acids, ginger ale, chemistry question
ginger ale, chemistry question, basic chemistry: It s a good basic chemistry question. I would not classify ginger ale as an acid, but it does contain some. Acids are classified in several different ways based on their strength. Ginger ale contains phosporic acid which is classed as a weak acid. It s formula...

Chemicals: Alcohol, oxygen atoms, propyl alcohol
oxygen atoms, propyl alcohol, carbon hydrogen: Hi, and thanks for your question. Chemically, isopropyl alcohol and the alcohol in beer (ethanol) are similar, but not identical: they both contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms, but ethanol contains them in the ratio C2H5OH, wheras isopropyl contains...

Chemicals: Alum Powder, alum powder, jt baker
alum powder, jt baker, growing crystals: Nancy, Alum is also known as aluminum sulfate. I don t bake, so I didn t know what was in baking powder. Found this website http://users.rcn.com/sue.interport/food/bakgsoda.html#bakingpowder The only sources I know of pure aluminum sulfate would...

Chemicals: Analytical Methods, ferrous sulphate tablets, potassium iodate
ferrous sulphate tablets, potassium iodate, chemistry degree: Ryan, I regret to inform you that my expertise is in chemical applications, rather than analytical chemistry. In my short effort to search for this on the internet, I was unsuccessful. Perhaps a reference text book from a professor may be your next...

Chemicals: Application methods, aatcc, dye solution
aatcc, dye solution, colorists: Gordon, I do not have a copy of the specific steps and equipment needed. I can offer the referral of the American Association of Textile Chemical and Colorists (AATCC) and this website in particular for a specific answer. www.aatcc.org/tcc%5Findex/oct92/o92p36.htm...

Chemicals: acid, science fiction story, earths crust
science fiction story, earths crust, perchloric: Yes there are such acids. Hydrofluroic and perchloric for example. The problem is that it isn t practical, or of course miners would use them. The cost is extremely high, application is difficult, it isn t a clean process, and the safety is a real problem....

Chemicals: acid, sodium hydroxide, caustic soda
sodium hydroxide, caustic soda, alkali: Thanks for your question. I ve never come accross the term caustic acid : caustic usually refers to an alkaline material that is corrosive. For example, caustic soda refers to the alkali Sodium Hydroxide. Hope this is useful to you, but if not, please...

Chemicals: acid, solid steel, e mail
solid steel, e mail, acids: In a word: Yes Depends on the type of rock, and how quick you wanna eat through it. But i personally have seen nitric acid eat through solid steel nails in under 2 mins (This was 10M stuff), but fair to say, that will melt through anything you want! ...

Chemicals: what is "activity"?, mole fractions, mole fraction
mole fractions, mole fraction, ionization of water: Activity is really the mole fraction of each component (compared to total = 1) available for the equilibrium in question. In ideal dilute solutions, the activity of things like H+ and OH- equals the concentration in question. For the H2O, that mole fraction...

Chemicals: americium, atomic energy commission, 7th grade science
atomic energy commission, 7th grade science, google search: From a simple google search. http://www.uic.com.au/nip35.htm Smoke detectors/ alarms are important safety devices, because of their obvious potential to save lives and property. There are two types of smoke detector commonly available in many countries....

Chemicals: amount of gas, displacement vessel, water displacement
displacement vessel, water displacement, accurate measure: Hi, and thank you for your question. The answer is, it depends on the nature of the gas and the work you re doing. Observation is not an accurate measure of amounts of gas, and can only be used for coloured vapours (e.g. iodine), or a reaction in solution...

Chemicals: anti-perspirant, aluminum chlorohydrate, aluminum chlorhydrate
aluminum chlorohydrate, aluminum chlorhydrate, aluminum chloride: aluminum chloride = AlCl3 aluminum chlorohydrate = [Al2(OH)5Cl]x-2H20 aluminum dichlorohydrate = [Al2(OH)4Cl2]x-xH20 The later two are polymers of aluminum formed in the presence of water and chlorine. AlCl3 can be turned into the latter...

Chemicals: atomic, atomic number of hydrogen, nucleus of an atom
atomic number of hydrogen, nucleus of an atom, hydrogen atom: The atomic number of an element stands for the amount of protons in the nucleus of an atom. For example: The atomic number of hydrogen is 1 because the nucleus of a hydrogen atom consists of 1 proton and 1 electron. I hope this answers your question,...

Chemicals: Are azeotropes flammable., school level education, organic liquids
school level education, organic liquids, azeotrope: Hello, Subbiah. Is it possible to vent/ignore the vapors of the liquid? Is it the flammability of the liquid or the vapor that is concerning you? If you use a liquid with water in it, the vapor will also contain water, which will decrease the...

Chemicals: Fire Colors, reaction proceeds, car batteries
reaction proceeds, car batteries, reactive metal: Thank you for the follow-up. Re: copper - the colour of the copper flame depends on the flame temperature, so the flame is a mix of blue and green, changing randomly. There is no common chemical that produces a pure blue flame when burned (think of how...

Chemicals: Best option to lower the freezing point of water, calcium magnesium acetate, freezing point of water
calcium magnesium acetate, freezing point of water, sodium bicarbonate: Thank you for your question. Any soluble salt will lower the freezing point, but (having done a quick experiment in my freezer!) I would suggest you looked at using baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) - non-toxic, cheap and it works. The only time that this...

Chemicals: Binder for Textile Pigment printing, acrylic binder, textile chemistry
acrylic binder, textile chemistry, double bonds: Acrylic binders are transparent to UV light, and butadiene binders have double bonds, and so they can easily oxidize. This would mean that Acrylics tend to last longer - in general This is the biggest difference between the two. Butadiene and Acrylics...

Chemicals: Bleach, tile surface, boring question
tile surface, boring question, doing laundry: Bleach is an oxidant. It can react (oxidize) with stains to discolor or remove them, but it can also oxidize the surface the stain is on. Just like when doing laundry for example. If you bleach ink on a shirt, the bleach doesn t know the difference between...

Chemicals: Bleach, dishwasher detergent, initial question
dishwasher detergent, initial question, bleach: Look, it is up to you. In the course of this discussion, you probably could have purchased dishwasher detergent. It is up to you to decide if it OK to put bleach into the dishwasher. I am a chemist not a dishwasher expert. You initial question was,...

Chemicals: Boiling, expansion ratio, liquid water
expansion ratio, liquid water, atmospheric pressure: Hi, Thanks for your question. At atmospheric pressure, the expansion ratio between Liquid water and Steam is about 1:1700, so 1 litre of liquid water will produce about 1700 litres of steam when it is boiled. Again, at atmospheric pressure, 1700 litres...

Chemicals: Bonding Energy, kj mol, bond energy
kj mol, bond energy, bond energies: The problem you have is that the statement/question is incomplete. You can describe bond energies as the energy released/needed when FORMED or the energy released/needed when BROKEN. The bond energy can be described as high negative or high positive and...

Chemicals: Brine expansion/diesel tank, diesel tank, secondary containment
diesel tank, secondary containment, pulling my leg: Information Needed and Suggestions What is the brine level versus the alarm set level and what kind of alarm is it? Why is the diesel hot and why isn t the brine already that temperature? Is this underground or above ground? Underground, if the brine...

Chemicals: is bleach an acid?, hydrogen peroxide, grade 11 chemistry
hydrogen peroxide, grade 11 chemistry, permanent waves: The problem is the word bleach which has no specific meaning other than something that removes color . There are many types and formulations that can be called bleach. Most are oxidants such as chlorine or peroxide and in pure form are acidic, but many...

Chemicals: bleach, clorox bleach, concentrated bleach
clorox bleach, concentrated bleach, iodine test: Bleach can last for months if not years, depending on storage conditions, but to know its exact strength requires a test. The test is about $30-50, for which you can buy many new bottles of bleach. As for the marker, I would not expect bleach to remove it....

Chemicals: blown ceiling cleaning, dirt stains, ceiling cleaning
dirt stains, ceiling cleaning, bleach: This is a very touchy job to do correctly without the ceiling falling off. You could try bleach but at your own risk. Bleach may also react with the ceiling depending on what it is made from. I wouldn t try it. Nobody to sue if you screw up. Also, that...

Chemicals: a bout ... theory, ruels, bohr theory
ruels, bohr theory, thaks: If you are referring to the Bohr Theory about the behaviour of electrons on atoms then you will find some info on this site: http://www.bcpl.net/~kdrews/bohr/bohr.html Otherwise I m afraid I do not know what you mean with Bor theory. I hope this...

Chemicals: buying organosilane products, advanced polymer, industerial
advanced polymer, industerial, dow corning: Mr. Ershad, I do not know the answer to your specific questions, but I can refer you to Dow Corning - www.dowcorning.com and to Advanced Polymer Incorporated, in Carlsdadt, NJ. Both companies sell silanes in the US. Good luck with your search. ...

Chemicals: Canada Balsam, canada balsam, microscopic slides
canada balsam, microscopic slides, batch numbers: Thank you for your question. (this is a second copy). Although we currently use a different brand of cement, I have used Canada Balsam in the past. One of the problems that you may have in this case is that CB is very similar chemically to its inferior...

Chemicals: Carbon Dioxide, dry ice, carbon dioxide
dry ice, carbon dioxide, grocery stores: CO2 extinguishers will have an oil residual in the spray. It will be a very small amount, but I would not use it for food. It would also not work for very long. Why not just buy some dry ice and put it in a cooler? Call your local compressed gas dealer...

Chemicals: Carbon Fiber Strands, carbon fiber sheets, fiber strands
carbon fiber sheets, fiber strands, nylon threads: Thanks for a great question, and I m really glad to meet another Mr Wizard fan! I m sure that it s possible to make some form of carbon fiber without being in a factory, but the thing is that (although there s carbon all around us) its the way carbon is...

Chemicals: Ceramic material, ceramic material, peals
ceramic material, peals, mail: Unique question, never been asked that one before. As for the answer, i feel certain that it does actually wear down gradually. Being ceramic it will last for a long time due to the nature of the compound being used. Hope this answers your question! If...

Chemicals: CHEMISTRY, anwer, aswell
anwer, aswell, chlorine: Well, if i understand it correctly and the eqution you have given me is the whole equation, and you don t what would happen if the reaction would take place, then this is how i did it: NaC1 balances fine. All you need to do is worry about the oxygen, you...

Chemicals: Chemical Attributes, chemistry equipment, google search
chemistry equipment, google search, commerce student: Do a google search using many combinations of key words first, so you can get your question out of the extremely general category. Also look at http://www.itt.edu/staff/boyter/links/index.html under chemistry equipment, chemistry analytical, and chemistry...

Chemicals: Chemical Reaction, fish life, aquarist
fish life, aquarist, water down: Yes you would get HCl fumes in addition to the CO2. Probably a little hydrogen also. It wopuld be hard to predict how much. Not only that, it would be nasty in your house and would be a safety issue. Two questions, CO2 is very insoluble. Is there not...

Chemicals: Chemical Reactions, sodium hypochlorite bleach, ammonia and bleach
sodium hypochlorite bleach, ammonia and bleach, nacl h2o: Hi, and thank you very much for your question; apologies for the delay in answering. It s never a good idea to mix bleach with anything, as it will decompose to form chlorine gas in contact with acids. However, the case of bleach and ammonia is slightly...

Chemicals: Chemical reactions, sodium bicarbonate, previous question
sodium bicarbonate, previous question, h20: Sodium bicarbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid: NaHCO3 (s) + H+(aq) == Na+(aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l) You see 3 products of the reaction, the Na+ dissolves in the H20, and the CO2 is the visible part of the reaction; in the solution bubbles of...

Chemicals: Chemicals in the brain, chemicals in the brain, hypothalamus
chemicals in the brain, hypothalamus, bloodstream: There are too many different chemicals released from the brain, most of them coming from the center called the hypothalamus. They are complex molecules which are kind of beyond chemistry and more into biology. I hope this answers your question With kind...

Chemicals: Chemicals Makeup, chemical makeup, beauty aid
chemical makeup, beauty aid, synthetic oils: Sorry, I hit the wrong button the first time and you may get a reject of your question. If all you have is an unknown liquid and you know zero about it, then it is almost impossible to test. If you took it to a lab, they would ask $10,000-$25,000 to start....

Chemicals: Chemistry, acs education, chemisrty
acs education, chemisrty, activity web: I m not sure if you mean elementary as in simple or as in Grades 1-6. Look at the education links at http://www.itt.edu/staff/boyter/links/index.html and the ACS education page http://www.chemistry.org/portal/a/c/s/1/acsdisplay.html?DOC=educationindex.htm...

Chemicals: Chemistry, aluminium sulfate, experimental steps
aluminium sulfate, experimental steps, coe: I m not sure what procedure you have now, so I m not sure what controls you already have in place. Here are several procedures to start with. Control comes from doing things slower and with purer materials. One thing to try is to grow crystals, dissolve...

Chemicals: Chemistry hon, homogeneous mixture, spaghetti sauce
homogeneous mixture, spaghetti sauce, liquid water: To be homogeneous, you have to not be able to see distinct different parts in the solution. With spaghetti sauce, you can look at it and pick out meat, onions, peppers, and even just places where it is thicker and these are not completely uniform throughout...

Chemicals: Chemistry Molecules, atomic mass of hydrogen, relative molecular mass
atomic mass of hydrogen, relative molecular mass, h20 molecules: Hi there, and thank you for your question. Quick answer: 1 American gallon (3.785 litres) contains about 126650305555555555555555556. water molecules 1 British gallon (4.546 litres) contains about 152088955555555555555555556. water molecules Long...

Chemicals: Chemistry ph strips, vinegar solution, ph strips
vinegar solution, ph strips, stomach acid: Close. Weigh and add potions of the ground material until you get a certain pH. You may need to try different portions. It is weight you need first, not number of tablets. You then tranlate back to number of tablets and report both. Ask your instructor...

Chemicals: Chemistry: Solubility Characteristics, magnesium hydroxide, solubility of solids
magnesium hydroxide, solubility of solids, specialist equipment: Hi, and thank you for your question. As far as I know, the solubility of solids rule (e.g. more soluble with increasing temperature) applies to magnesium hydroxide. However, Mg(OH)2 is almost insoluble in water (0.0012 g is the maximum amount that...

Chemicals: Chemistry, alpha particles, uranium
alpha particles, uranium, alot: Sorry, you ve got the wrong place for this question. This one is a physics question! I ve done a bit of physics in my time, but the question your asking is gonna depend on alot of things, and i m sure your aware, U = Uranium, which is radio active, so is forever...

Chemicals: Chlorinated Water, pool chemical, hypochlorite
pool chemical, hypochlorite, chlorine: From what I have read the boiling point of hypochlorite, which is the source of chlorine for water boils at 100C (212F). So it does not appear to boil off before water. It will start to decompse before that temperature is reached. If you have access...

Chemicals: CO2 in a 2 liter container., co2 level, bitter debate
co2 level, bitter debate, excess air: I don t think it makes a difference. He is correct that the CO2 level in the cola will stay higher if there is no air. But once the bottle is open in either case, it will quickly come to equilibrium with the atmosphere. There may be a difference, but I...

Chemicals: Compounds, oxygen atoms, oxygen gas
oxygen atoms, oxygen gas, carbon atom: Elemental substances are substances made up of only 1 element. So for instance oxygen gas, O2, only consists of oxygen atoms and is therefore an elemental substance. On the other hand, compounds are made up of 2 or more different elements. CO2 is made up...

Chemicals: Compressing CO2 gas, plant flower, green house
plant flower, green house, www2: Peter, Have you checked with any plant/flower catalogs? They might have something small for a greenhouse. Also, some of the scientific supply companies we use may have what your looking for. Try: http://www.wardsci.com/ https://www2.carolina.com/ ...

Chemicals: Corrosion, aluminum alloy wheels, correct weights
aluminum alloy wheels, correct weights, aluminum wheels: Couple of things. 1. You should have coated lead weights on the wheels which do no hurt the aluminum. 2. If the corrosion is not limited to the area directly around the lead, then it is not the lead. This is from a wheel manufacturers website. http://www.enkei.co.jp/en/t_know_03.html...

Chemicals: canned ether, speech language pathologist, industrial research labs
speech language pathologist, industrial research labs, chemistry research: I assume you mean diethyl ether. Ether is still used in chemistry research and industrial research labs. It may still be used by vets, but I have no first hand knowledge of that. It could have been obtained from the above locations by theft. Meth and coke...

Chemicals: chem, physiologic importance, enzyme catalysed reactions
physiologic importance, enzyme catalysed reactions, sugar units: Hi, and thank you for your question. Disaccarides (two sugar units joined together) are very common in the human body. The specific importance of disaccharides depends on their individual structures, but generally they perform the role of most sugars: they...

Chemicals: chemical, 55 gallon drums, benzalkonium chloride
55 gallon drums, benzalkonium chloride, ammonium salt: Benzalkonium Chloride is a common quaternium ammonium salt that is also a disinfectant. It keeps bacteria from growing. Formaldehyde (aka Formalin) does the same thing. It may be cheaper, and available in pharmacies. Ask a pharmacist. The only source...

Chemicals: chemical bonding, spectator ions, shell electrons
spectator ions, shell electrons, noble gases: 1. Some examples of elements that are non-reactive would be the noble gases. Why? Due to their octect-8 electrons in there outer shell. While they can react it is not common. 2. Electrostatic forces comprise 3 types of attracton: a. Hydrogen bonding...

Chemicals: chemical composition, sodium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide
sodium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide, sodium percarbonate: sodium percarbonate/sodium carbonate mix which is a stabilized mix of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide with extra sodium carbonate thrown in. Hydrogen peroxide is released when you add it to water. Sanitize? For food, I doubt it has been approved...

Chemicals: chemical compounds, chemical compounds, chemical science
chemical compounds, chemical science, grade 6: Around 20 million not counting sequences. Around 5 million commercially available. http://www.cas.org/cgi-bin/regreport.pl Remember, these are just the ones registered with CAS. Many more have been made that are never registered because they were never...

Chemicals: chemical elements in the human body, elements in the human body, chemical elements
elements in the human body, chemical elements, schoolwork: Define simple and complex , they have no common meaning with elements so the question can not be answered as you have stated. What is the background of your question? Also, note that in the instructions for posting, I am NOT available for schoolwork...

Chemicals: chemical that gives a burnt electrical wire smell, burnt rubber, copper wire
burnt rubber, copper wire, electrical wire: Larry, More that not, the smell you refer to is probably the conduit or sheathing that covers the copper wire. It may not be melting but getting hot. It is also any plastic that may be getting hot. I don t know of any metal that smells like burnt rubber....

Chemicals: chemical makeup of water purchased in a plastic container, t fal, chemical makeup
t fal, chemical makeup, gooey substance: Unless you try the water in another pot, don t jump to conclusions. It could be that the kettle took this time to lose something. Other odd things I ve seen are loose tea bag pieces left in the kettle, childrens plastic toys, leftover cleaning soap that...

Chemicals: chemical name, beta hydroxy acid, supplier websites
beta hydroxy acid, supplier websites, nfm: Short answer is that it isn t one thing. It is a description. Sort of like saying flavoring or saying Coke when you mean any soda. They normally mean salicylic acid since that is the main one used (maybe the only one). Here are some links. http://www.s-t.com/daily/09-97/09-14-97/e12li235.htm...

Chemicals: chemical process to manufacture boron triflouride, thermoplastic resin, b2o3
thermoplastic resin, b2o3, boron: There may be new syntheses used industrially that are not public domain. The old lab way to make it was NaBF4 + B2O3 + H2SO4 = BF3 + NaHSO4 + H2O or start with NH4BF4 Honeywell has a good webpage, but they don t give a synthesis. http://www.honeywell.com/sites/sm/bf3...

Chemicals: chemical reaction, little sand, table salt
little sand, table salt, chemical reaction: http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/mats05/mats05033.htm A couple of things you could try. 1. Do a life-saver for comparison 2. Try a little table salt and/or a little sand (the silica mentioned in the link). No matter what, do it outside...

Chemicals: chemical reactions in nuclear power, animals birds, npcil
animals birds, npcil, photography student: See the folloowing. The data being sited is old and faulty. http://www.world-nuclear.org/co2&nfc.htm http://science.kennesaw.edu/~mhermes/nuclear/nc-07.htm http://www.npcil.nic.in/nupower_vol12_4/indis_role1n.htm Your interesting link suggests...

Chemicals: chemical reactions, chemistry textbook, bread rise
chemistry textbook, bread rise, halpert: Hannah, A chemical reaction takes place when 2 or more chemicals are combined to create something that is chemically different than the starting materials, and the process cannot be reversed. An example of a chemical reaction is when you make a cake...

Chemicals: chemical, pool chemicals, chemical ingredient
pool chemicals, chemical ingredient, commercial versions: Keep buying the commercial product. The chemical ingredient listed is a family not a specific chemical. Deformulating their mixture would be expensive. Even if it was a single chemical, the cost to buy the pure chemical would be very expensive and you may...

Chemicals: chemicals - smoke detector., mop buckets, chemical vapors
mop buckets, chemical vapors, scienceblog: Chemical vapors will set them off. A university dorm I know kept having alarms during the day. They finally traced it to cleaning staff filling their mop buckets with hot water and ammonia type products. They would move them into the halls, every once in...

Chemicals: Are the chemicals in tea harmful when combusted?, wacky weed, major ingredients
wacky weed, major ingredients, smoking a joint: There would be cyanide, ammonia, amines, aldehydes. Cigarettes have over 400 ingredients present in the smoke. Tea would be similar as would most cellulose based materials. The exact chemicals would require a study which I doubt has been done. Look up...

Chemicals: chemicals and usage, chemistry class, school labs
chemistry class, school labs, untrained person: You should not touch any chemicals if you are not qualified. High school labs contain many high hazardous materials and kids can get hurt if handled by untrained personnel. Your school should be ashamed for putting an untrained person in a chemistry class....

Chemicals: chemicals, flame source, cold surface
flame source, cold surface, dry ice: Let s take the different situations. Nitrogen under pressure is dangerous (but rarely). If the container fails, it could split or crack and send fragments into the air. like the popping of a ballon. Also, if nitrogen under pressure is released it will...

Chemicals: chemistry, aerobic degradation, activated sludge
aerobic degradation, activated sludge, chemical structure: Normal aerobic degradtion in activated sludge does give CO2 within 5 days(29.2%). Chemosphere 1985, 14(10) 1589-1616. Anaerobically, you get phenol as an intermediate. Different specialized bacteria give varous intermediates depending on the culture...

Chemicals: chemistry., elements and compounds, carbon dioxide gas
elements and compounds, carbon dioxide gas, coco cola: HI, and thank you for your question. Mixture is the name we give to any substance where two or more elements are present, but are not chemically bonded together. Milk is a mixture of fatty droplets and water; it is a special sort of mixture called a...

Chemicals: chemistry, barium sulphate, barium chloride
barium sulphate, barium chloride, copper carbonate: Hi, and thanks for your questions. 1) The reaction is: CaCO3 - CaO + CO2 The equation is balanced, so one mole of CaCO3 forms one mole of CaO. One mole of CaCO3 is 100g, and one mole of CaO is 56g. I worked out this using the RAM numbers for each...

Chemicals: chemistry history, history of the atom, discovery of the electron
history of the atom, discovery of the electron, chemistry history: Experiments leading to the discovery of the electron: this site leads you through the history of the atom and its particles (including electrons) http://www.aip.org/history/electron/jjhome.htm At the moment there are 118 elements in the periodic table....

Chemicals: chemistry, natural diamonds, synthetic diamonds
natural diamonds, synthetic diamonds, atomic level: I will try to answer the questions as good as i can: 1) If you mean natural and synthetic diamonds: the purity of the crystal structure is much greater in natural diamonds, and they can occur in larger sizes (more carats) 2) Iron is a common metal found...

Chemicals: cleaner, oxygen tank, oxyclean
oxygen tank, oxyclean, soda pop: Oxygen is a very poor oxidizer. Oxyclean is peroxycarbonate which is CO2 and peroxide. Peroxide is a better oxidizer. Using oxygen would be very dangerous (compressed gas andflammability problems) and not be very useful in the long run. You can also only...

Chemicals: coating of epoxy, crosslinker, plasticizer
crosslinker, plasticizer, cognis: DBP is a plasticizer that volatalizes relatively quickly. As it leaves the film, the film becomes more brittle. I think it would be best for the long term if you used a more flexible epoxy crosslinker, rather than adding a plasticizer. You could call...

Chemicals: coca cola and sodas, frozen water, sodas
frozen water, sodas, carbon dioxide: 1. Release of carbon dioxide from the solution of cola due to formation of bubbles around the ice. 2. Either trapping of air in the bottle or same as #1. 3. Release of pressurized CO2 from cola solution. Last one - release of trapped air or non-frozen...

Chemicals: cold chemistry, scitoys, cream ice cream
scitoys, cream ice cream, dry ice: You don t have many choices. You can freeze water that contains different levels of salts to get to -20 to -30 C. That is what makes ice cream making work. Anything else that you freeze like ethanol has the bad property of melting chemical and flammability....

Chemicals: colours, thick layer, thin layer
thick layer, thin layer, basic knowledge: If you mean orange in color,what happens is this (most likely). It is only orange when you have a thick layer because it has little actual orange in it. When you spread it on, you create a very, very thin layer that is almost transparent and the color of...

Chemicals: compounds of mercury, hydrogen burns, hydrogen sulfide
hydrogen burns, hydrogen sulfide, mercury compounds: Thanks for the follow-up Re: the build-up of concentration: the build - up occurs through the whole food chain. A single fish will eat 50 -100 small fish or plankton every few days, and if each one of those has 1mg of mercury, you re very quickly up in...

Chemicals: copper, copper salts, copper pipes
copper salts, copper pipes, copper pipe: Dylan, Yes your pH is too low. What you probably need is a water neutralizer. This will raise your water pH to 7.0 to a max of 8.5. Also, you will probably need a water softner since the resins (calcite) also harden the water. The green, blue stains you...

Chemicals: creating rust, creating rust, dark reddish brown
creating rust, dark reddish brown, bleach solution: Carolyn, What kind of metal do you have? If it is galvanized metal, aluminum, or stainless steel it may never work. Conditions you need: High salt, High Humidity, High Oxygen/Oxidizer, and Warm to Hot Temperature. How much time did you give each treatment?...

Chemicals: crisco label, cottonseed oil, definition of trans fat
cottonseed oil, definition of trans fat, crisco: Partially hydrogenated equals cis fat plus trans fat plus conjugated partially hydrogenated fat. I suspect in the new Crisco, it is cis fat. Also, look at the FDA pages and see that 0 trans doesn t mean 0.0000. If means less than a certain amount (0.5g)...

Chemicals: Denatured Alcohol, denatured alcohol, aerospace corp
denatured alcohol, aerospace corp, chemcials: That is greatly going to depend on the board and type of flux used. I believe that only in-house testing will give you the answer. You also have to be careful to examine what the alcohol is denatured with, since those chemcials can sometimes be a safety...

Chemicals: Denatured alcohol, what is denatured alcohol, ethyl alcohol
what is denatured alcohol, ethyl alcohol, propyl alcohol: Hi Mark, I m not in the USA either. Denatured Alcohol is 95% ethyl alcohol (same as you find in beer) with 4% methyl alcohol (highly toxic) and 1% pyridine (to make it taste vile). This is to stop people trying to drink it; it s absolutely deadly. Rubbing...

Chemicals: Dextrose and Saline, sodium chloride solution, alkali chemicals
sodium chloride solution, alkali chemicals, acid salts: Hi, and thank you for your uestion. You re correct in saying that both saline and dextrose soltions are used at different pH s. Taking saline as an example - pure sodium chloride solution is neutral (pH 7). However, it s possible to add acid or alkali chemicals...

Chemicals: Different, protons electrons and neutrons, number of protons electrons and neutrons
protons electrons and neutrons, number of protons electrons and neutrons, number of protons: Thank you for your question. Element and Atom refer to different things: are you sure that it s these two that you re meant to be comparing? An atom is the basic unit that makes up all known materials. An atom is made up of three different types...

Chemicals: Disposal of hydrochloric acid, otc pain relievers, stomach acid
otc pain relievers, stomach acid, red devil: Two ways. Dilute it with water to a pH of 5-9 with water and put down the drain. Dilute with water solution of red devil lye (not Drano) to a similar pH and put down the drain. At this range of pH, this is safer to put down the drain than milk, coke,...

Chemicals: Dissolving Copper Chloride, methylated spirits, aqueous copper
methylated spirits, aqueous copper, copper chloride: Hi, thank you for your question, and I m really sorry for the delay in answering. In the past, I ve used either pure ethanol or methylated spirits with success in this type of experiment. I wouldn t advise heating a) because it won t increase the solubility...

Chemicals: DRINKS, math problem, detailed explanation
math problem, detailed explanation, whisky: I have reviewed your comments. Note that you did not ask for a detailed explanation, you did note post again asking for one, and the question you have asked really nothing to do with chemistry but is a general math problem. Your comments were unfair, especially...

Chemicals: Drinking Water, alkali metals, aluminium poisoning
alkali metals, aluminium poisoning, water chlorination: Thanks for the follow-up. Uranium and Lead are examples of heavy metals that I mentioned earlier in my first answer - so-called because they have dense nuclei. As I said, location is the key: for example the water in London is unlikely to have heavy...

Chemicals: Drugs, dronabinol marinol, tetrahydrocannabinol thc
dronabinol marinol, tetrahydrocannabinol thc, robitussin ac: Sian Jones, I found them all at http://chemfinder.cambridgesoft.com/: Since marijuana is a plant product with millions of compounds in it I choose one of the psychoactive ingredients, THC: tetrahydrocannabinol [1972-08-3] Synonyms: THC; Dronabinol;...

Chemicals: Dry Ice, sport injuries, dry ice
sport injuries, dry ice, true thanks: Dry ice is carbon dioxide. It is cooled to the point of sublimation, i.e. normally a gas it bypasses the liquid phase and goes to solid phase. It is extremly cold and can cause serious burns if coming in contact with skin. I am not sure if you can use it...

Chemicals: Dry ice and fog machine, fog machine, oxygen level
fog machine, oxygen level, dry ice: This could be very dangerous to your machine AND guests. Dry ice could break the machine, it could burn anyone touching it, and most of all dry ice vapor displaces the air in the area reducing the oxygen level and possibly causing your guests to get light...

Chemicals: decomposition of cynide, sodium hypochlorite, nitrogen compounds
sodium hypochlorite, nitrogen compounds, cynide: Hi, and thanks for your question. If you re trying this for real, make sure you re supervised by an experienced member of staff - cyanide salts don t leave much room for error. The mormal procedure is to add hypochlorite to the cyanide solution in a...

Chemicals: Earth water, comets asteroids, molten ball
comets asteroids, molten ball, space debris: I m not sure if there is one theory on where water came from. I know one theory is that comets, asteroids, contained ice - those objects when impacting the Earth transfered the water to our planet. Also, condensation from Earths atmosphere could also be...

Chemicals: Effect of impurities on b.p.t and m.p.t, salt ions, hydrogen bonding
salt ions, hydrogen bonding, water molecules: Let me give you a very simple explanation and you can read about Raoult s Law on your own. http://members.aol.com/profchm/raoult.html Boiling happens when the vapor pressure equals the outside pressure. Adding things to solutions lowers the vapor pressure...

Chemicals: Effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in young children, reverse osmosis filtration system, reverse osmosis filtration
reverse osmosis filtration system, reverse osmosis filtration, second floor apartment: Sounds good. You are probably the one in ten thousand or more households that takes such precautions. Good job. On your well. Be sure to do more than the minimum testing required (usually just bacteria depending on the state). At least do primary USEPA...

Chemicals: Electrochemical cell, electrochemical cell, kind reply
electrochemical cell, kind reply, salt bridge: 1. Are sure the concentrations are close to 1M? 2. Ensure your salt bridge is wet if using filter paper or ensure it is still there? 3. Is your electrodes clean; Cu and/or Mg. Looking at the data it is not all that off. You report a percent error...

Chemicals: Electron Configuration, electron configuration, atomic structure
electron configuration, atomic structure, electrons: This website provides a clear view on electron configuration, with a good description of how sub-levels are filled with electrons: http://www.webchem.net/notes/atomic_structure/electron_configuration.htm I hope this answers your question With kind regards,...

Chemicals: EQUALITATIVE AND EQUANITATVE, numerical description, proper answer
numerical description, proper answer, e mail: They are not english words and the second should be equanTitative. I would really need the context to give you a proper answer. Possibilities are: #1. QUALITATIVE - non-numeric description as in this water contains large amounts of iron QUANTITATVE...

Chemicals: electrolysis, sulfur ions, dirt particles
sulfur ions, dirt particles, washing soda: Hi there, and thank you for your question. I don t have enough evidence to say this method doesn t work , but it sounds a bit suspect to me: I can t see how the manufacturer could generate a gentle positive magnetic field , and generating a magnetic field...

Chemicals: What elements are food made of?, element hydrogen, peach pits
element hydrogen, peach pits, nitrogen and phosphorus: Yes, you are eating the element hydrogen. It is just not in its elemental form. Look at this structure for sugar. http://web1.caryacademy.org/chemistry/rushin/StudentProjects/CompoundWebSites/1999/Sucrose/structur.htm There are many atoms of the element...

Chemicals: empirical formula, molar ratios, molar ratio
molar ratios, molar ratio, tin iodide: Hi, and thanks for your question. I ll outline the basics of Empirical formulae below, but to apply it to a specific example, I ll need the experimental information that came with the question: you can t calculate empirical formulae without experimental...

Chemicals: epoxy resin and hardener, paint strippers, epoxy resin
paint strippers, epoxy resin, epoxy resins: Epoxy resins, when crosslinked, are very resistant to solvents. This is one of the reasons that people choose epoxy resins, as opposed to other resins. If you want an adhesive that is more easy to remove with a solvent, use a water based adhesive. The...

Chemicals: Fat, grease fire, fuel tablets
grease fire, fuel tablets, fatty meat: Hi, and thanks for your question. The usual way of doing this is to melt some fat in a pan, and pour the liquid fat in to a tin with a string wick in it: the fat then solidifies in to a big candle , which is then used for heating. However, there are...

Chemicals: Filtration method for soil solution, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, heavy metal ions
atomic absorption spectrophotometer, heavy metal ions, using atomic absorption spectrophotometer: You need to define what you are trying to measure since what you describe is called extractable metals and there are various ways to fo it. A common method would follow the soluble metals procedure found in EPA Method 3005A which just calls for the use...

Chemicals: Fire, fire and smoke, combustion
fire and smoke, combustion, particles: It depends on what you are burning, how you do it, and your definitions of fire and smoke. You can not generalize. You really need to talk about charring and combustion. If you use the following definition and say fire=combustion, smoke - a hot vapor...

Chemicals: Fire, flamable, writing a novel
flamable, writing a novel, edu staff: Either will do, except formaldehyde 37% is either mixed with water/methanol (48/15%) (fp=50C for mix) or not used anymore due to its cancer causing properties. Methanol itself is fp 11C. Do a google.com search for flash point of the chemical you are interested...

Chemicals: Format of the Periodic table, chemical elements, letter symbol
chemical elements, letter symbol, vertical columns: Hi, and thanks for the follow-up. Element abbreviations are never written vertically for two reasons. 1) They re abbreviaions, like A.M: the two letters have to follow on from each other for it to make sense. In your example, Au is used to represent...

Chemicals: Foul smelling liquid, ounce bottles, stray cats
ounce bottles, stray cats, wooded area: Use the commercial mix. Other chemicals may be cheaper per unit, but you will need to buy gallons of them to get them. Also, anything else will be harmful if you spill, breath, or get it on you. Spilling them may also be illegal. I think you need a higher...

Chemicals: Free databases of transition metals and their compounds, transition metals, free databases
transition metals, free databases, strem: http://www.strem.com/code/index.ghc http://www.alfa.com/alf/index.htm http://chemfinder.cambridgesoft.com/ (although the site is down currently) You didn t mention what data you wanted. If you want syntheses, that will not be on the web in free database...

Chemicals: Freezing matter, ethyl alcohol, freezing point
ethyl alcohol, freezing point, melting point: Riaan Pretorius, The information you seek is the melting point/freezing point of each of these substances. I travelled over to www.chemfinder.com and found these values in C. To change these values to other scales of temperature go to www.convert-me.com....

Chemicals: Freezing temp., freezing point depression, ucalgary ca
freezing point depression, ucalgary ca, thermodynamic stabilities: The freezing temperature of solid salts is just related to the different thermodynamic stabilities of the liquid and solid states. If you are talking the freezing of water containing salts it has to do with the disruption of the process by the salt (google...

Chemicals: Freezing water, water pipes, freezing water
water pipes, freezing water, water freeze faster than cold water: Unless there is blockage in the pipe that ice can form on, cold should freeze faster, but not so that you would notice unless you were really watching. You may have different insulation around the hot versus cold water pipes is a more reasonable explanation....

Chemicals: Fuses, spray glue, google search
spray glue, google search, paint spray: This is not my area at all so these are guesses in the MacGyver mold. Nail polish, spray paint, spray glue, melted caramel, dense sugar water, etc. It will all depend on the type of fuse. There are some fuses that you can cut a section out and they don...

Chemicals: Alum Powder, alum powder, spice section
Chemicals: Alum Powder, alum powder, spice section, walmart

Chemicals: Bleach, clorox, dishwasher
Chemicals: Bleach, clorox, dishwasher, bleach

Chemicals: Boiling, math
Chemicals: Boiling, math

Chemicals: bleach, chlorine gas, hypochlorite solution
Chemicals: bleach, chlorine gas, hypochlorite solution, small quantities

Chemicals: Chemistry: Solubility Characteristics, magnesium hydroxide, solubilities
Chemicals: Chemistry: Solubility Characteristics, magnesium hydroxide, solubilities, solubility

Chemicals: creating rust, rust
Chemicals: creating rust, rust

Chemicals: Denatured alcohol, windshield washer fluid, denatured alcohol
Chemicals: Denatured alcohol, windshield washer fluid, denatured alcohol, types of alcohols

Chemicals: Dextrose and Saline, specialist audiences, acidbase
Chemicals: Dextrose and Saline, specialist audiences, acidbase, neutral water

Chemicals: flame colors, energy level, higher energy
Chemicals: flame colors, energy level, higher energy, electrons

Chemicals: Hydrochloric Acid Stains on Kitchen Sink, time consuming, pledge
Chemicals: Hydrochloric Acid Stains on Kitchen Sink, time consuming, pledge

Chemicals: Iodine
Chemicals: Iodine

Chemicals: Making Layered Mocktails, cream soda, party beverage
Chemicals: Making Layered Mocktails, cream soda, party beverage, allrecipes com

Chemicals: Mobil Process., chain upto, carbon atoms
Chemicals: Mobil Process., chain upto, carbon atoms, mobile number

Chemicals: Neoprene, occupational health and safety administration, neoprene gloves
Chemicals: Neoprene, occupational health and safety administration, neoprene gloves, latex gloves

Chemicals: Oxygen, hydrogen atoms, carbon atom
Chemicals: Oxygen, hydrogen atoms, carbon atom, water vapor

Chemicals: Pepsi and fun explosions, surface tension, coz
Chemicals: Pepsi and fun explosions, surface tension, coz, bubbles

Chemicals: polyvinylidene fluoride coating, kynar 500, hylar
Chemicals: polyvinylidene fluoride coating, kynar 500, hylar, pvdf

Chemicals: propylene glycol & ivermectin
Chemicals: propylene glycol & ivermectin

Chemicals: Separating Mixtures, iron fillings, magnet
Chemicals: Separating Mixtures, iron fillings, magnet, safety goggles

Chemicals: Sodium Sulfite, photography shops, sodium thiosulfate
Chemicals: Sodium Sulfite, photography shops, sodium thiosulfate, aquarium supply

Chemicals: Solubility of caffeine, myth and reality, loose leaf
Chemicals: Solubility of caffeine, myth and reality, loose leaf, tea

Chemicals: Sulfuric acid and bleach, sulfur dioxide so2, pungent odor
Chemicals: Sulfuric acid and bleach, sulfur dioxide so2, pungent odor, fresh air

Chemicals: Triprotic acids, protic acid, hydrogen
Chemicals: Triprotic acids, protic acid, hydrogen

Chemicals: fire retardant treatment of feather beds, propane torch, flame retardants
propane torch, flame retardants, feather beds: The feathers may not be treated at all. Treated feathers would not actually burn, just smolder. The age on the bed would be very important to know, since there are many flame retardants that were used. It could be as simple as a salt treatment. Only testing...

Chemicals: flame colors, energetic atoms, chloride calcium
energetic atoms, chloride calcium, calcium chloride: Hi, and thanks for the follow up. Spectroscopy is the main use of this weird property of metal compounds. It s important to note that the atoms themselevs don t split up: what s happening is that the compound (two or more atoms joined together, like...

Chemicals: flash point of some chemicals, chemical factories, msdss
chemical factories, msdss, aniline: Do your search by xylene MSDS for example. It is on the MSDSs you will find them. Also note, it is Para-xylene . Also go to http://chemfinder.cambridgesoft.com/ and http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/Local/SA_Splash.html and https://www1.fishersci.com...

Chemicals: freezing point, freezing point depression, room temperature water
freezing point depression, room temperature water, heating coils: Thanks for the clarification. I don t have the facility to test down to -26 degrees centigrade, but I m carrying out a few very basic tests on available antifreezes down to -18 degrees centigrade, and I ll let you know the results if they re of interest to...

Chemicals: freezing water, mpemba effect, controlled experiment
mpemba effect, controlled experiment, explination: The answer is really it depends on the conditions of the experiment. Comparing hot water and cold water is really similar to comparing gasoline to alcohol. First when you try it at home, they have different components, different amounts, and different volumes....

Chemicals: General, gaseous state, mothballs
gaseous state, mothballs, naphthalene: Mothballs contain substances like naphthalene which evaporate under room temperature. This means they sublime directly from the solid to the gaseous state without melting during the phase change. So they decrease in mass because the gas spreads across the...

Chemicals: Grapefruit, sodium bicarbonate powder, bicarbonate soda
sodium bicarbonate powder, bicarbonate soda, sodium bicarbonate: This is something you could even try out at home, by using sodium bicarbonate (or bicarbonate / soda / whatever you want to call it). This powder reacts with acids (such as lemon juice) by producing harmless CO2. Just take some grapefruit juice, and pour...

Chemicals: gas emission, co alarm, co detector
co alarm, co detector, best thought: A couple of possibilities. It don t think it is the aluminum itself. 1. A gas range puts out CO if operating normally. It is the result of the burning process and is not dangerous, unless you have a faulty oven. If the CO detector is too close, or too...

Chemicals: gas, types of freon, liquid propane
types of freon, liquid propane, hydrogen gas: The gas that is used in air conditioners and refrigerators are types of FREON. These are flurochlorocarbon organics that stay cold. This just means they contain atoms of fluorine, chloride, and carbon in different numbers. There are many types, depending...

Chemicals: gases, chemical reaction, initial volume, buret
initial volume, buret, exact method: One way is to use a buret. You would fill it with water record the initial volume, run the reaction and measure the final volume. Find the difference of readings and this is the volume produced. Another device is a manometer which will measure pressures...

Chemicals: H2O2 reaction, gas formation, ferric chloride
gas formation, ferric chloride, fecl3: If you want me to say zero is produced, I couldn t. I don t see a very favorable path to get it, especially since the reaction would favor the ferric chloride. Now NaOCl will react with ferric chloride to give chlorine. I would think HCl gas formation would...

Chemicals: H2O2, hydrogen peroxide solution, h202
hydrogen peroxide solution, h202, reason 3: Hi, and thank you for your question. Easy answer: they re the same! Vol and % are just different ways of measuring concentration. 3% Hydrogen Peroxide solution has 3 parts Hydrogen Peroxide to 97 parts water. However, because hydrogen peroxide decomposes...

Chemicals: Hi Henry, I saw someone using..., drainage pipes, hibachis
drainage pipes, hibachis, hibachi: We have to use the same terms. Cast iron and steel are part of the same family of alloys with iron, carbon, and silicon. There are hundreds of members of this family that have many different properties, so I think your general statement is very suspect....

Chemicals: Hiya sir i need some help..., edge of three, atomic radius
edge of three, atomic radius, bromide ion: Try this, especially if you have a small brother or sister. Steal their blocks and start stacking them (or use anything similar). When the innermost block is covered, you will see that if an atom sits on a corner of that block, it is also part of the corner...

Chemicals: Hydrates, potassium chromate, sodium acetate
potassium chromate, sodium acetate, acetate ion: Andrew, One way to approach this problem is too break it down into analysis for anions and/or cations. You can run some preliminary tests for the anions. You can test them all against concentrated sulfuric acid. If you get a white, milky precipitate chances...

Chemicals: Hydrochloric Acid Stains on Kitchen Sink, acid stains, stainless steel sink
acid stains, stainless steel sink, polished metal: Thank you for your question. If the damage has been caused by acid, this means that the material has been attacked and eaten away on the surface, not just stained. You therefore have two options: If the sink is not highly polished, you could use steel...

Chemicals: Hydrochloric Acid, dow chemicals, lab chemicals
dow chemicals, lab chemicals, specific gravity: Hi, and thank you for your question. It sounds like the initials you quote are details of purity or grade of chemical. Without knowing the company who issues the catalogue I can t be sure, but the GL and PL look very similar to the RG ang AG that Dow...

Chemicals: Hydrogen buring, carbon element, explosive mixture
carbon element, explosive mixture, soda bottle: Thank you for the follow up. You re quite right that, in a pure eviornment, Hydrogen and Oxygen will only produce steam, and in any case, steam is the majority product. The small amounts of CO2 (and other decomposition gases) ar a result of the fact...

Chemicals: Hydrogen, hydrogen molecule, oxygen molecules
hydrogen molecule, oxygen molecules, electrolysis of water: Hydrogen forms as H2 (by the way, nitrogen is N2, not N3). This is a good page to see what happens and shows what the hydrogen can do. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrolysis_of_water More info here http://www.theodoregray.com/PeriodicTable/Stories/001.1/...

Chemicals: h2o, stable compounds, complete combustion
stable compounds, complete combustion, inflamable: 1. Oxygen is NOT inflammable. 2. Water is the result of complete combustion (adding of oxygen) of a fuel (H2). Products of complete combustion can have no more O2 added to them and so are nonflammable. No more oxygen can be added to form more stable compounds...

Chemicals: Are these harmful?, human brain cells, methylchloroisothiazolinone methylisothiazolinone
human brain cells, methylchloroisothiazolinone methylisothiazolinone, shampoo ingredients: From a google search http://www.news-medical.net/?id=6719 Not that the one study that was done exposed rat brain cells DIRECTLY to high levels of the chemicals. There is no evidence that it can get to your brain or that it effects human brain cells....

Chemicals: holding tank water, pool supply stores, swimming pool supply
pool supply stores, swimming pool supply, holding tank: The viscosity will change little unless you have to add a ton of chemical. If it is municipal water there may be enough chlorine to fight the algae for a while. Unless you test it, you will not know which chemicals to add and they can be expensive. Treat...

Chemicals: Does the human body need glycerol?, essential amino acids, digestion of fats
essential amino acids, digestion of fats, non essential amino acids: Thank you for the follow-up. Taking extra glycerol / amino acids won t normally have any effect at all, because the digestive system either destroys them or converts them in to other substances: in the case of glycerol, it would probably be broken down...

Chemicals: hydrated lime vs 50% caustic, wastewater treatment plant, hydrated lime
wastewater treatment plant, hydrated lime, ph adjustment: The water is dependent on what you are buying. Most lime is 90-95% Ca(OH)2. It is not a hydrate. You will need to look at the specs you are buying under. Also, when you make this switch, note that Ca(OH)2 is not totally soluble in water where the caustic...

Chemicals: hydrogen stuff, h ion, two waters
h ion, two waters, surrounded by one: Both of these compounds would be extremely unstable and probably only exist under special circumstances. You might be thinking about H5O2(+1) which is nothing but H+-H2O-H2O, a form of the acid H+ ion (surrounded by two waters). Another form is H3O(+1)....

Chemicals: Internal Frosting of Incandescent Bulbs, mercury lamps, frosted bulbs
mercury lamps, frosted bulbs, incandescent bulbs: Sorry I confused what your question was asking. Incandescent bulbs were normally etched while some new ones have glass containing niobium (or other rare earths) that make the glass appear frosted. The etched ones will have a frosting of glass left from the...

Chemicals: Iodine, window panes, constant hope
window panes, constant hope, cold window: Thanks very much for your question. The easiest way to understand this process is to make a cup of coffee! If you boil a kettleful of water, you ll notice a vapour escaping from the spout: as soon as the temperature inside the kettle reaches 100 degrees...

Chemicals: Iodine, solid carbon dioxide, gaseous products
solid carbon dioxide, gaseous products, magnesium oxide: Hi, and thank you for your question. Heating up a substance is a physical process, and so it doesn t directly affect the mass of the substance. The only time that mass will change is if the substance is heated to the point where it boils, decomposes or...

Chemicals: Isopropyl vs. Denatured Alcohol, gorilla glue, model paints
gorilla glue, model paints, denatured alchol: Denatured alcohol is ethanol (drinking alcohol or grain)that has been contaminated so you can t drink it. They are not the same thing. They can be interchanged in most cases but not all. For glue, isopropyl probably will not work as easily as ethanol, but...

Chemicals: An interesting incident happened..., aluminum powder, scraps of paper
aluminum powder, scraps of paper, plastic containers: Hello, Jeri. This is one of my favorite reactions. When you combine Ferric Oxide (FeO3 ~ rust) with aluminum powder, you have thermite. When this is ignited, it produces liquid iron, slag, and a LOT of heat. [FeO3(s) + Al(s) - AlO3(s) + Fe(l) + HEAT]...

Chemicals: invention, new invention, glass mirror
new invention, glass mirror, sheet glass: I think a doped glass or quartz mirror will do it. The dopant will scatter the laight so much it is not reflected. The other alternative would be to do a glass, polarized sheet, glass, opposite polarized sheet, reflective back. The opposite polarized...

Chemicals: K and reaction, hydrogen sulfide gas, equilibrium mixture
hydrogen sulfide gas, equilibrium mixture, equilibrium constant expression: The first question: The mass action expression is calculated as followed: Reaction: A + B - C + D K = (C + D) / (A + B) but with an important remark: all elements in the solid state (s) do NOT count in this formula. So if you have H2(g) + S(s)...

Chemicals: Lather?, bubles, recipiant
bubles, recipiant, white glass: Hello, Sarah. When you look at the lather, you re not actually seeing a bunch of white bubbles. The bubles themselves are much to thin to give much color at all; they re transparent. They simply reflect and refract light that hits them. This means...

Chemicals: Liquid Nitrogen, hartford union high school, public transportation system
hartford union high school, public transportation system, great leaps: You will notice that the current train versions are either very short track systems or demo models. Long term, the viability of the tracks is really in question. This is because of $$$$$. If it were not for massive government spending, they wouldn t get...

Chemicals: LN2, liquid nitrogen, banana
liquid nitrogen, banana, few minutes: Liquid nitrogen is EXTREMELY dangerous and should only be handled by trained professionals. A flower put in LN2 for just a few minutes will freeze solid and be extremely brittle and can be shattered. If bare skin touches it an extremely bad burn may occur...

Chemicals: lab safety, lab experiment, lab safety
lab experiment, lab safety, safety questions: What is the context of the questions and what type of lab are we talking aboput? Here are the short answers. 1. Depends on what you are doing at the time. It can range from hitting the emergency cutoff and leaving or just leaving. 2. No. 3. Depends...

Chemicals: lab safety, lab experiment, lab safety
lab experiment, lab safety, safety questions: 1) You should ask your teacher what has been agreed on, probably it is either alert the teachter or assistant or do not switch any lights on or off or make open fire, determine where the gas is coming from and close the leak, if you can t close it leave...

Chemicals: laundry, explaination, culprits
explaination, culprits, detergents: 1. Your wife is always correct. 2. Depends on the heat of your dryer and the fabric. Most do not operate at a temperature any higher than the machines the fabric was manufactured on. Could be an odd fabric. 3. Another possible explaination is that...

Chemicals: laundry, hydrogen peroxide, soap soap
hydrogen peroxide, soap soap, oil and grease: H2O2 at a level that would do any good for laundry is a dangerous chemical and can damage clothes. It should only be handled by professionals (not clear on your experience). It only works on some types of stains and not others. You still need the detergent....

Chemicals: looking for a specific material, high density polyethylene, waterproof bag
high density polyethylene, waterproof bag, halpert: I am not a plastics engineer, but I would think that high density polyethylene or polypropylene would work if you could make the product uniformly 1 micron. I think the problem is in the engineering, not the chemistry. Both of these plastics will hold...

Chemicals: Making Layered Mocktails, density of water, distinct layers
density of water, distinct layers, water and salt: It would work, but there would be so much you would have to add it would taste terrible. Think fresh water and salt water. You could try powdered milk or honey, but whatever you try, it will change the taste, so you have to use something tasty. Here s a...

Chemicals: Mayonnaise, egg yolk, mayonnaise dressing
egg yolk, mayonnaise dressing, additives in food: HI, and thanks for your question. The key difference between regular and low-cholesterol mayo is (as you said) that the first one uses egg yolks and the second one uses egg whites. Depending on the brand, there are a couple of ways that manufacturers...

Chemicals: MgS, advance lab, 10th grade
advance lab, 10th grade, drug store: Theoretically you could electrically or chemically oxidize it, but first you have to get it into solution with strong acid. That will produce H2S, a gas, which can be trapped. http://www.h2o2.com/applications/industrialwastewater/sulfideoxidation.html...

Chemicals: Mixing chemicals, windshield washer reservoir, harmful fumes
windshield washer reservoir, harmful fumes, paint job: Here are some online recipes. http://www.budget101.com/recipes/id182.htm http://www.newschannel5.com/tott/recipes/hcr.htm http://www.cdkitchen.com/recipes/recs/609/WindshieldWasher_Fluid61200.shtml http://www.cfra.com/its-your-money/index.asp ...

Chemicals: Mobil Process., satisfactory answers, search engines
satisfactory answers, search engines, methanol: I don t know the formula, and that is because it is not a single homogeneous compound. Is is made from aluminum and silicon that exists in a solid matrix http://chemelab.ucsd.edu/methanol/memos/ZSM-5.html Here is how to make it. Because it is heterogeneous,...

Chemicals: Mold, phd chemist, toxic fungicides
phd chemist, toxic fungicides, black mold: The studies that started that were for surfaces made of Douglass Fir. Other studies show that chlorine does the best of anything you can buy as a homeowner. Others are more toxic fungicides that should only be applied by professionals. http://www.homemoisture.org/mold/mold-lesson.htm...

Chemicals: magnesium + steam, liquid state, activation energy
liquid state, activation energy, mail: The usual reason why some chemicals don t react with other is that they require and activation energy , this is probably the case in that water in the liquid state does not have the sufficient energy to form a bond or break the bonds within the magnesium....

Chemicals: material, chemical profiles, urethane
chemical profiles, urethane, polyurethane: Urethane has three definitions that you have to know the context to figure out which one to use. 1. A specific chemical 2. A chemical containing the urethane base 3. A urethane polymer (polyurethane) Polyurethane - a polymer containing urethane...

Chemicals: microwave combine with smoke detector, microwave radiation, outer walls
microwave radiation, outer walls, little hole: There would be no commercial detector that would work. First CO2 is present all the time and popping will make no real difference in the level. Any other chemical detections would require special equipment and computer control. Even if you had that, you...

Chemicals: mint flavor, mint flavor, goodhealth
mint flavor, goodhealth, google: Check out http://goodhealth.freeservers.com/MentholColdReceptorsCalcium.htm http://www.abc.net.au/science/k2/moments/s537539.htm http://www.sciam.com/askexpert_question.cfm?articleID=0002C1D9-61B4-1C72-9EB7809EC588F2D7&catID=3 Found by conducting...

Chemicals: molecular mass of 2,6- dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP), sodium salt, molecular mass
sodium salt, molecular mass, salt 2: Duncan Grassie, I travelled on over to www.chemfinder.com and found this for you: 2,6-Dichlorophenolindophenol Sodium [620-45-1] Synonyms: Sodium 2,6-dichloroindophenol; 2,6-Dichloroindophenol sodium salt; 2,6-dichloro-4-[(4-hydroxyphenol)imino]-2,4-Cyclohexadien-1-one,...

Chemicals: moth balls, moth balls, paradichlorobenzene
moth balls, paradichlorobenzene, napthalene: These will just be guesses since I really can t see how your house is set up. First, there is nothing to neutralize it. You might could put a stronger odor in, but my guess is that they would just mix, giving you a bigger problem. My only thought is to...

Chemicals: muriatic acid/ oxygen displacement, niosh idlh, osha confined space
niosh idlh, osha confined space, industrial hygiene: It could have been lack of O2, the HCl (muriatic acid) itself, or less likely the HCl could have reacted to produce Cl2 gas. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/idlh/intridl4.html http://www.ucc.ie/academic/chem/dolchem/html/comp/hcl.html All of this is covered...

Chemicals: muriatic acid, chemical burns, medical attention
chemical burns, medical attention, best wishes: Sounds nasty. Basic answer = get medical attention. If there s still a chance that there s some acid in the nail, rinse the finger with water for 10 minutes -. Don t try to neutralise the burn, and don t put on cream or ointment. Cover the burn with a sterile,...

Chemicals: Na + Cl = ???, salt crystals, dental floss
salt crystals, dental floss, sodium chloride: The activation energy is too high. That is the enrgy that it takes to get over the hump to where you are going. Look that up on google. It can be done in the gas phase (not easy). In water, both Na and Cl2 (note Cl is not the natural state) would rather...

Chemicals: NaOH; HCl; bromothymol blue, doe and ingalls, naoh hcl
doe and ingalls, naoh hcl, litmus paper: NaOH is sodium hydroxide, also known as caustic or caustic soda. Reagent grade would be available from any lab supply company. In New England, you could call Doe and Ingalls (Medford, MA, I believe). Add NaOH to water. Not the other way around. 1:60...

Chemicals: Neoprene, phd chemist, type iv allergic reaction
phd chemist, type iv allergic reaction, latex allergy: Latex and neoprene are different, but related. Neoprene is a synthetic rubber that has a similar but different structure from latex. This is a quote from the following website. http://www.immune.com/rubber/nr3.html#synthetic Even with synthetic rubbers,...

Chemicals: Nicotine, chemistry library, university chemistry
chemistry library, university chemistry, dear henry: You will probably need to go to a university chemistry library and do a search there (books, journals, and databases). This type of data will probably not be on the web. You could try calling to see if they would do the search for you. Be ready to explain...

Chemicals: Nuked Soap?, www chemistry, water vapor
www chemistry, water vapor, gases: Soap contains water, both in the form of water vapor inside trapped air bubbles (particularly important in the case of Ivory)and water that is caught up in the matrix of the soap itself. The effect is caused by the heating of the water that is inside the...

Chemicals: All natural or not, nasty chemicals, natural relaxer
nasty chemicals, natural relaxer, plants and animals: Yes, it is possible. The term all natural usually has no meaning, but in this case they just mean derived from plants and animals. Whether it straightens the hair, you will have to test. If it works 90% as good as the normal formulations, is that a...

Chemicals: Oil slick hazard, biarritz france, car upholstery
biarritz france, car upholstery, oil residue: A probablity type answer would cost much time and thousands of dollars. A more practical approach is this. THere are no absolutes. You can not remove 100% of anything once it is on your clothes. Do you throw your clothes/shoes away when you spray a bug...

Chemicals: Oil/Water Separation, oil water separation, oil on the water
oil water separation, oil on the water, stopcock: Maryann, One simple way to separate the two would be by using their densities. You know that water has a density of 1.0g/ml. Depending upon what kind of oil, (I m thinking since you discovered it while eating it is consumable, such as vegatable oil, etc.)....

Chemicals: Oxidizing Ti, mineral acids, titanium oxide
mineral acids, titanium oxide, titanium case: Hi, Titanium Oxide does exist....but it s VERY VERY hard to form! It requires a LOT of heat input and a lot of oxygen. Titanium is fairly unreactive and strong, which is why it is used for such things...but it s expensive (as you know!)... It can be attacked...

Chemicals: Oxygen, convection currents, fuel gases
convection currents, fuel gases, oxygen gas: Hi, and thanks for your question. Yes, you ve got the right idea with the forming CO2 thing. Fire -as in the flames themselves- are just areas of hot fuel and oxygen gas reacting and giving out energy. The oxygen has to combine with the fuel in order...

Chemicals: Why oil and water separate., oxygen atom, carbon chains
oxygen atom, carbon chains, hydrogen bonding: It has to do with their chemical make-up which affects their physical behavior. Oil is made up of long carbon chains, these long and large molecules usually only contain carbon and hydrogen. They are considered non-polar. This means they behave like a neutral...

Chemicals: Getting back original metals, copper zinc alloy, copper tin
copper zinc alloy, copper tin, oil and vinegar: The way to do it is to first dissolve the metal object in strong acid (very dangerous unless trained). This converts the metals to their salts (Zn to Zn+2 for example). The salts are easily separated from each other by chemical reactions. Then you covert...

Chemicals: oxidation of metals underwater, oxidation of metals, using steel
oxidation of metals, using steel, oxidize: Hi, Sounds an interesting project! When you say placed together, does that mean placed together in a tube etc? Or does it mean melted together (combined)? As far as i am aware, Aluminium does not oxide underwater, neither does brass, this is the same case...

Chemicals: oxygen concentration of water, oxygen concentration, oxygen content
oxygen concentration, oxygen content, fraw: There is no simple method in the two kinds of DO tests. The easiest is of course the membrane electrode and meter. But very expensive for an aquarium owner. The others are titrations which require special chemicals and have many inteferences, so any chemicals...

Chemicals: Paint removal, paint thinner, paint removal
paint thinner, paint removal, soap and water: You can buy paint removal which are normally available in the market. If not available in your place, you can use a stronger solvent like MEK to remove it. If you need any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me. Thank you for your kind...

Chemicals: Pepsi and fun explosions, fizzy drinks, pepsi bottles
fizzy drinks, pepsi bottles, carbon dioxide gas: Hi, and thanks for your question. This is a great demo / experiment, and works with most fizzy drinks. The other ingredient(s) are Mentos, those small minty candies. Mentos are covered with lots of little cracks on the surface so when you put them in the...

Chemicals: Pet urine & sauteed onions, root nodules, root vegetables
root nodules, root vegetables, biological health: Thank you for your (highly original) question. I think it s probable that the tear gas was simply from the onion. Onions contain sulfur-based compounds in the root nodules, and when you chop and heat the vegetable, these compounds are released. When they...

Chemicals: PH levels Effect on iron and copper, devil lye, copper oxide
devil lye, copper oxide, expirement: These will corrode at almost any pH. The key is time. Lower pHs will do it faster. Some may be days, some years. Also, don t confuse dissolving of the metal in acid with corrosion. Corrosion is the formation of iron and copper oxide by reaction with oxygen...

Chemicals: PH levels Effect on iron and copper, oxidation state, electrical grounds
oxidation state, electrical grounds, lightening strikes: iron will corrode at any pH, all its needs to go be converted to +2 oxidation state to +3 to turn into rust. There are many causes of corrosion of copper; low pH (acidic), high DO, CO2, TDS and chlorides content, bacteria, constant recirculation on the...

Chemicals: Polyester fiber residue, polyester fiber, disposable gloves
polyester fiber, disposable gloves, querry: It can depending on the processing. It will normally be a type of oil similar to detergents (very very thin layer). But even if all is removed, the polyester itself could be slightly irritating. Only an allergist can tell you for sure. If you are handling...

Chemicals: Prices for chemicals, sigma aldrich, customer service reps
sigma aldrich, customer service reps, dimethyl ether dme: Thanks for your question. The answer depends on a range of things, including the purity of the methanol you buy and of the DME you sell. Your best bet would be to go to the Sigma-Aldrich website: www.sigmaaldrich.com and browse their online catalogues...

Chemicals: Propellants, aerosol cans, liquefied petroleum gas
aerosol cans, liquefied petroleum gas, ozone layer: Hi, and thanks for your question. Normal standard aerosols use LPG -usually butane- as a propellant because it s cheap, unreactive and doesn t deplete the ozone layer like the CFC s that were previously used. However, LPG isn t a very good solvent for...

Chemicals: paint hardner, abrasion resistance, weather resistance
abrasion resistance, weather resistance, paint formulation: Hi Imran, It is difficult for me to answer your question because I do not know what is your definition for good topcoat. What is the main requirement for the topcoat, is it the gloss, hardness, abrasion resistance, chemical resistance, weather resistance,...

Chemicals: paint removal, enamel paint, spray cans
enamel paint, spray cans, paint removal: Go to Lowes or Home Depot. You may need to go to a janitorial supply. They sell graffiti removal mixes (spray cans). You need a mix since you don t know the source (paint, ink, wax?). Because of the chemicals involved, don t try to mix your own. CAUTION:...

Chemicals: pepsi and sweettarts and bottle caps the candy, nooks and crannies, sweettarts
nooks and crannies, sweettarts, bottle caps: This reaction is a physical one and not chemical. Soda is mostly water, the water produces a interconnected network of molecules and a surface tension is produced. When this is disturbed by something like candy it will bubble and fizz. The surface tension...

Chemicals: perchloric acid, density and specific gravity, ec number
density and specific gravity, ec number, ml water: The calculation I gave you did give volume (mL). You will need to adjust for the 70.5%. This table is on the internet 9I found after I replied), but you still need to know how to do the calculation. See if you get the same answer. http://delloyd.50megs.com/about.htm...

Chemicals: periodic table of elements., protons electrons and neutrons, periodic table of elements
protons electrons and neutrons, periodic table of elements, convenience sake: Hi, and thanks for your question. Actually, there shouldn t be a gap : it s just for convenience sake that we draw the table like that. Hydrogen and Helium are both unusual elements, in that they contain very few protons, electrons and neutrons. Hydrogn...

Chemicals: petroleum ether, county fire dept, stoddard solvent
county fire dept, stoddard solvent, aromatic hydrocarbons: The term ether just means volatile, from the Greek work for ignite. Since ether is a mixture like gasoline,kerosene, or Stoddard solvent, it has many IUPAC names. The mixture will depend on the boiling range. From the website http://www.faqs.org/faqs/sci/chem-faq/part6/section-1.html...

Chemicals: pH, copper sulfate solution, hydrogen ions
copper sulfate solution, hydrogen ions, indicator papers: Hi, and thanks for your question. Summary: it s uncertain because the indicator is at the turning point between colours, and slight variations it surroundings (other than pH) can affect the point at which the change occurs. An indicator, like phenolpthalein,...

Chemicals: pH/Buffer System, product mixture, buffer system
product mixture, buffer system, ph buffer: You were adding a buffer with citric acid also. Citric acid is a well known buffer. Buffers are resistant to acid or base. Just keep adding a STRONG acid or base in the direction you want to go. Note that this addition may cause you other problems depending...

Chemicals: pH, organic solvents, ph paper
organic solvents, ph paper, ph papers: It really depends on the pH paper. Most organic solvents such as hexane will not effect old fashioned red/blue pH paper. Water solutions between 6-8 pH, change it so slightly, it really just looks wet. At pH 7, there is not change. There are pH papers...

Chemicals: plastic electric kettles = exposure to chemicals?, plastic taste, harmful chemicals
plastic taste, harmful chemicals, personal preference: My suggestion would have been to wash and dry the kettle two or three times before use and boil 10 pots of water before you ever drank any. If you didn t you may taste some plastic taste. Some people say they taste metal from a metal kettle. It is really...

Chemicals: pmma, plastic food containers, crude oil products
plastic food containers, crude oil products, flexible piping: Thanks for the follow-up. Perspex uses fall in to two categories: 1) Where you re using its translucency e.g. Making covers for signs, lights and similar. Making lenses for cameras etc. Making some types of window (e.g. aircraft windows) Making...

Chemicals: poisonous fumes, cigar wrapper, copper pipe
cigar wrapper, copper pipe, pretty colors: Burning any type of plastic or rubber in a fire can create smoke that contains toxic chemicals. What you describe is not a good idea. Ask your neighbor to take some cut up garden hose, put it in a cigar wrapper and smoke it. I doubt they will (and don t...

Chemicals: polyvinylidene fluoride coating, elf atochem, resin manufacturer
elf atochem, resin manufacturer, liquid coatings: PVDF coating is the coating based on PVDF (Polyvinylidine Fluoride) resin. PVDF is one of the chemistry strongest molecular bonds which demonstrates remarkable resistance to environmental aging. This coating is normally used to provide outstanding aesthetics...

Chemicals: potassium permanganate, potassium permanganate solution, other search engines
potassium permanganate solution, other search engines, manganese dioxide: The following is taken from this given website. Permanganate is very sensitive to several types of decomposition. www.chem.ubc.ca/faculty/wassell/CHEM415MANUAL/Experiment5/415E5Ref3.htm Potassium permanganate is not a primary standard. It is...

Chemicals: propylene glycol & ivermectin, propylene glycol, heartworm prevention
propylene glycol, heartworm prevention, pg dip: It makes perfect sense not to dilute it in water if it carries with it surfactants, buffers, and stabilizers. I have had a problem with a cholesterol standard I bought with the same sort of added things. So, I had to make my own in my own solvent in order...

Chemicals: ques, mineral water bottle, proper storage
mineral water bottle, proper storage, storage container: Hi Heather, It would depend on the material of plastic bottle and also the type of thinners. I assume that the bottle would be made for PE or PET material. It would be difficult to answer you since I do not know the exact type of thinner but basicly the...

Chemicals: question, potassium chlorate, sodium chlorate
potassium chlorate, sodium chlorate, aluminium powder: Thanks for the follow up. You really don t want to be putting flash-powder in a tube: if confined, then as little as 10 grammes can cause a bang big enough to take off various fingers etc. The best bet is to have a small pile on an open surface (e.g. piece...

Chemicals: question?? answer =], electronic fields, surfactants
electronic fields, surfactants, pesticides: Elements can not be polar since that requires two atoms. Lead in ion form is polarizable meaning it can be effected by electronic fields. Most lead compounds would be polar. Pesticides are a different matter. They can be very large molecules sometimes...

Chemicals: question, ebay sellers, aluminum powder
ebay sellers, aluminum powder, aluminum metal: Hi, and thanks for your question. Aluminum powder is simply aluminum metal that s been grinded down in to fine grains. It s a bit difficult for a private individual to source, because it undergoes some hazardous reactions (e.g. slowly gives of Hydrogen...

Chemicals: quicklime, michael crichton, calcium hydroxide
michael crichton, calcium hydroxide, carmel indiana: A chemical compound with the formula CaO which is a whitish, odorless solid that does not dissolve well in water. It will, however, react with water (H20) to form calcium hydroxide (CaOH, a base). It has a melting point of 2614 degrees Celsius and a boiling...

Chemicals: Relaxing elastic, laundry detergent, clothing manufacturers
laundry detergent, clothing manufacturers, running shorts: The elastic in rubber is heat sensitive, but freezing it will not effect it. The heat oxidizes the rubber so it is not as elastic. The soaps in laundry detergent may also help to accelerate the degredation of the elasticity. The reduction in elasticity...

Chemicals: reactions, necessary step, entropy
necessary step, entropy, molecule: It happens all the time. It is called an equilibrium. A + B = C + D There is nothing that says that A and B break up and can t go back to A and B. The most famous would be H2O = H+ + OH- If nothing else is present, the units just go back and...

Chemicals: removing ink with water, prune juice, red cabbage
prune juice, red cabbage, ink paint: Two thoughts. Not clear to me if you want the color to appear or disappear in the water. 1. Try red cabbage, beet or prune juice. You may need to make the water slightly acid (vinegar) or basic (baking powder) before you add to the paper or the water...

Chemicals: rubbing alcohol and water, lynn brunelle, rubbing alcohol
lynn brunelle, rubbing alcohol, graduated cylinder: The difference you should see is small. Unless you are using a very good graduated cylinder you may not see it. You mom s cup measurer from the kitchen would not be good enough. Second, were you using pure rubbing alcohol? If not you may also not see it....

Chemicals: Science, products of combustion, breakdown products
products of combustion, breakdown products, candle wax: CO2 and water of course, but it is candle dependent. The wax is a high weight polymer in most cases and there may be hundreds of breakdown products. A few years ago, some off shore candles were contaminated with lead that was released when they were burned...

Chemicals: Science - Metals Present In A Compound., hydrogen sulfide gas, metal sulfide
hydrogen sulfide gas, metal sulfide, flame test: Hi, and thanks for your question. To be honest, a flame test is probably the best generalised approach to identifying metals. The only other common method of identifying metals (in solution) is to pass hydrogen sulfide gas through them and identify the...

Chemicals: Science, copper ions, copper compounds
copper ions, copper compounds, google: Depends on what you mean by by itself . Copper compounds can be treated with strong acid to produce copper ions in solution. If these ions are electroplated, solid copper can form. http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/1410/lab-Project-08.html...

Chemicals: Separating Mixtures, separating mixtures, mixture components
separating mixtures, mixture components, filter paper: First determine what the mixture components are soluble in. For example you know that salt is soluble in water, so you can dissovle it some water. Since sand is insoluble in water, you can filter it. The sand will be in the filter paper the salt will have...

Chemicals: Sodium Hypochlorite Water Treatment, chlorine demand, water treatment operator
chlorine demand, water treatment operator, sodium hypochlorite: First, in such a situation, you should be talking to your employer about the lack of ventillation and how to improve it. If you are having symptoms, you should go to your doctor for evaluation. If you feel you are in danger, but don t get a response from...

Chemicals: Sodium Sulfite, high school chemistry, laboratory chemist
high school chemistry, laboratory chemist, sodium sulfite: Debbie, How about a local Science Teacher, or Laboratory Chemist? I imagine you are a teacher and can easily get connected to a High School Chemistry Teacher, they might even make up the solution for you. Connecting with other scientists is usually the...

Chemicals: Solubility of caffeine, tea leaves, hand knowledge
tea leaves, hand knowledge, british soldiers: No first hand knowledge, but sound like poor science but could be true. 20-30 seconds does not sound long enough. I would stick with already decaffinated tea based on the note on this website http://www.dilmahtea.com/Faq/faq.html that 80% is extacted during...

Chemicals: Solvents, sticky glue, chemistry lessons
sticky glue, chemistry lessons, pvc pipe: The first two to try are rubbing alcohol and fingernail polish remover. There is also a product at hardware stores called Goo-Gone for different types of glue from the other two. These three work for most things so try these first. Also try the label aisle...

Chemicals: Soot, carbon soot, blue flame
carbon soot, blue flame, yellow colour: Hi, and thank you for your question. Most solid combustibles are carbon-based (e.g. paper, coal, wood etc), and when they burn, the carbon reacts with the oxygen in the air to form carbon dioxide. However, particularly with solids, there is often not...

Chemicals: Source for chemical, auto supply stores, muriatic acid
auto supply stores, muriatic acid, black sands: Try these http://www.sciencecompany.com/home.cfm http://www.cynmar.com/ If they sell it to you, be darn careful. If HCl (muriatic acid) will work, you can buy that at Home Depot. Sulfuric can be gotten at auto supply stores (battery acid). Henry...

Chemicals: Stain Removal, colourimetry, reply thanks
colourimetry, reply thanks, absorbance spectroscopy: Hi, and thanks for the question. Right off, it s goinig to be difficult to calculate an actual percentage number: stains are caused by very small amounts of a substance, and often a stain involves a chemical change in the material that s stained. It...

Chemicals: Sterling salt shaker sealed by salt., sterling salt, salt crystals
sterling salt, salt crystals, washing soda: Thank you for your question. In solving this problem, it s important to appreciate that a seal caused by damp salt is merely a physical blockage caused by unusual crystalisation of the salt. If an actual chemical reaction has occured, the silver will be...

Chemicals: Suggested resources?, world of chemistry, food chemistry
world of chemistry, food chemistry, lab experiments: Kelsey, You can try the web site below for more information. It is the American Chemical Society s web page. It may link you to other sources. Try http://www.acs.org Also,http://www.wardssci.com http://www.chemistry.org/portal/a/c/s/1/home.htm...

Chemicals: Sulfuric acid and bleach, sodium hypochlorite, bleach
sodium hypochlorite, bleach, chlorine: Under the correct conditions, the sulfuric acid can cause more chlorine released from the bleach (sodium hypochlorite) than you normally smell through the production of hypochlorous acid. If you breathed too much and have an symptoms, you should see your...

Chemicals: s, chemical dyes, ink stain
chemical dyes, ink stain, floor wax: Inks and chemical dyes can be difficult to remove. I would recommend rubbing some bleach directly from the bottle. Let it stand for a while and see if that works. If that does not work, you may want to try a little acetone. This solvent can be purchased...

Chemicals: s, mr clean magic eraser, rubbing alcohol
mr clean magic eraser, rubbing alcohol, clean magic eraser: This summarizes what I would try first http://www.doityourself.com/stry/floorlinoleum If these methods don t work and you want to risk discoloring, try Mr. Clean Magic Eraser or rubbing alcohol and I have seen reference to use Deep Woods Off which...

Chemicals: salt crystals, salt crystals, salt crystal
salt crystals, salt crystal, stove top: Mark, I clipped out the good things to try from your question: saturate salt in a hot solution of water, seed it when it gets cold with a couple of undissolved crystals, allow it to evaporate This will have you on your way to some great salt crystals....

Chemicals: science, iron hydroxide, iron oxide
iron hydroxide, iron oxide, rust: Physical would be something you can see. For example, an ice cube melts. A chemical change is something you can see as well but the substance is no longer the same. For instance the rusting of a nail, you can see the rust(physical) however a chemical change...

Chemicals: silver polish, sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate
sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, aluminium foil: HI, and thanks for our question. I m not quite sure which experiment you mean, but I hope the following helps: In commercial silver polish, Sodium Bicarbonate neutralises acidic residue (e.g. from finger marks, atmospheric pollution and so on), removing...

Chemicals: sodium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite, acid molecules
sodium hypochlorite, acid molecules, micro organism: From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_hypochlorite Hydrolysis is just the reaction with water. The sodium hydroxide is a stronger base than hypochlorous is an acid, so you get a basic solution. Like all hypochlorites, sodium hypochlorite is a...

Chemicals: sodium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite, e mail
sodium hypochlorite, e mail, bleach: Hello, I am slightly unsure as to what you are asking. Do you want to know what happens to the bleach when a substance is added (gas given off etc), or what gases are given off when this it made. Cl2 + 2NaOH -- NaOcl + NaCl + H2O + Heat (This is the...

Chemicals: sublimation, genchem, c123
genchem, c123, cact: Look at http://wine1.sb.fsu.edu/chm1045/notes/Forces/Phase/Forces06.htm http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch14/phase.html http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/c123/phasesdgm.html and other pages found by searching www.google.com...

Chemicals: no-suds non-slippery dishwash fluid, soda option, washing soda
soda option, washing soda, household materials: Thank you for your question. The bubbles in washing-up liquid don t actually take part in the cleaning - manufacturers add foaming agents to the detergent so that people can see the product working, but it s the rest of the formula that actually does...

Chemicals: sufactant, sigma aldrich, chemical structure
sigma aldrich, chemical structure, segment: Dorte, I searched http://www.sigma-aldrich.com and found this: http://www.sigma-aldrich.com/structureimages/A/27/274348.GIF (tween 20) and this: http://www.sigma-aldrich.com/structureimages/F/85/85544.GIF (sorbitane monolaurate) _|/\$()|...

Chemicals: sulfuric acid, lead acid battery, prolonged period
lead acid battery, prolonged period, sulfates: No matter how old the battery, the sulfur will be present in some form (probably sulfates and oxides in years old discarded) and can be extracted in some way. It can t go anywhere. A really hard way to get sulfur. In the USA, just buy sulfur at a drug store...

Chemicals: Thermo question..., ualberta ca, rvgs
ualberta ca, rvgs, google: See if these two websites give some clarification. You are correct that chemists can confuse the two, but they are very similar. For example, we will say the enthalpy of a reaction (H), when we mean the change in enthalpy (delta H). http://www.chem.vt.edu/RVGS/ACT/notes/Extra_notes_on_thermo.html...

Chemicals: Triprotic acids, h3po4, protic
h3po4, protic, citric acid: Triprotic acids. Well, i must admit i d never come in contact with them, i find di-protic acids seem to do the job for me. Though i am aware of an example you did not list, this being citric acid (C6H8O7). Apart from that, i m afraid i cannot answer the question....

Chemicals: What is thinner?, exact composition, paint system
exact composition, paint system, thinner: Dear Mohsen, Would you kindly advise the type of paint because different paint system would need different thinner. Even a same paint system can have different thinner (solvent composition). The easiest way would be to analyse the thinner in the laboratory...

Chemicals: Vinegar, malt vinegar, dilute solution
malt vinegar, dilute solution, barley malt: Thanks for your question. All vinegar, no matter what the name is, is a dilute solution of acetic acid (modern name = ethanoic acid), the normal concentration being about 4%. The Distilled refers to removing impurities from the vinegar by distillation,...

Chemicals: vitamin e, soluable, natural vitamin
soluable, natural vitamin, basf: It appears that what you really want is the form already prepared to dissolve in oil. The powder version has a binder that has to be removed chemically before it can be dissolved. If you have a shot, try an oil or an alcohol. Water is out. The literature...

Chemicals: Water + ?? = Heat, computer issue, water in the air
computer issue, water in the air, water heat: There is really no such chemical because of your restriction of safe used in the context of absolutely no harm no matter what even for children . Think about it this way, if it reacts with liquid water, it will react with water in the air. If you can...

Chemicals: Water/Hydrogen/Oxygen, water hydrogen, room atmosphere
water hydrogen, room atmosphere, small quantities: Water is only formed when a spark is applied to oxygen and hydrogen. It doesn t happen without the extra energy. When the water is initially formed, it is also in the gaseous state. If you do it at low pressure or in very small quantities, no liquid water...

Chemicals: Water to Solid, sodium polyacrylate, laws of thermodynamics
sodium polyacrylate, laws of thermodynamics, wood pulp: Thank you very much for your question. In short, I don t think it s ever really possible to convert water in to a form which cannot be turned back to liquid water. The nearest technology I can think of involves absorbing liquid water in to a solid,...

Chemicals: Water, acidity of water, stomach acid
acidity of water, stomach acid, acid ph: Had to think how to explain this. Water is so slightly acidic as compared to your stomach acid (pH=2), the acidity of the water is not causing stomach burn. Anything else that people commonly drink are many, many times more acidic than water. Now there...

Chemicals: Website, analytical chemistry, highschool student
analytical chemistry, highschool student, organic chemistry: This site has some information: http://library.thinkquest.org/10429/index.html as well as this site: http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/index.shtml Subject-specific: Organic Chemistry: http://www.chem.uic.edu/web1/OCOL-II/WIN/HOME.HTM Analytical...

Chemicals: Weird substance that reacts with wood, wooden splints, teahcer
wooden splints, teahcer, splint: If they didn t tell you, they had a reason. I imagine, the main being safety, which is the same reason I m not going to tell you (some schools have rules against giving this information). I have to respect their decision. Besides, it could be 20 or 30 things...

Chemicals: Wood Paints, old paint, wood surface
old paint, wood surface, auto response: Hi Victor, Since you are doing refinished for only one guitar, I will not give you the standard procedure used in industry. What you have to do is to make sure that all the old paint is taken off and then do the fine sanding. Make sure that you clean...

Chemicals: If water has a chemical in it will it change its freezing point, freezing point of pure water, water freeze
freezing point of pure water, water freeze, degree centigrade: Hi, and thanks for your question. Pure water at atmospheric pressure always freezes at O degree centigrade. If you add salt, sugar or any other substance that dissolves in water, the freezing point is lowered. The freezing point of a water-based solution...

Chemicals: water in oil, tiny droplets, oil valves
tiny droplets, oil valves, storage tanks: Thank you for your question. The third phase you mention isn t a solution (if it was, you d have to distill the mixture to seperate water and oil). It s actually an emulsion - tiny droplets of oil suspended in water,or vice-versa. One of the easiest...

Chemicals: water, little water, craters
little water, craters, clear glass: You are observing the the boundary between the glass and water and the air and water. The water is colorless, but the light intersecting the boundaries is changed so your eyes can see the phenomenon. As a side note, the majority of water is not colorless,...

Chemicals: how to, oil water separator, coffee filter
oil water separator, coffee filter, paper filter: 1. Filter the mixture through a paper filter (coffee filter) or fine strainer to separate the sand. The next part depends on the type of oil you have. 2. If the oil is not miscible or soluble in the oil, just pour off the oil (the upper layer normally)....

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): 1.The atomic number of oxygen..., corrosion of iron, component atoms
corrosion of iron, component atoms, number of protons: Hi, I m going to give hints for solving all the questions. 1. The atomic number of any atom is the number of protons present in the atom or the number of electrons in the neutral atom. 2. A balanced equation is the one which has equal number of atoms...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): H2O + and H2O-, h3o, h2o
h3o, h2o, molecule: I m not sure if H2O+ or H2O- can exist. Maybe what you saw was actually OH2+ or H2O- denoting that there s a positive centre and a negative one in the molecule but not full charges. Also, maybe what you saw was H3O+ which is the correct way to denote H+ since...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): amino acids, protein molecules, sources of protein
protein molecules, sources of protein, amino acids: Hi Mikhail, Beans are an excellent source of protein (molecules made up of amino acids). However, there are far more than 8 amino acids! There are 9 amino acids (I m going to call them AAs from now on) that humans need to eat in their food, they are called...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): analytical chemistry, literature procedures, trace metals
literature procedures, trace metals, trace concentrations: Hi Bukky, I think your best bet here is to find a procedure from a published paper. It should give you a list of the equipment and procedures necessary for this measurement. I m not a metals chemist, but in oceanography a lot of people are interested...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Biochemistry, definition of fermentation, chemisty
definition of fermentation, chemisty, organic carbon: Hi Javed, I ve been thinking about your question because I m not entirely sure what you mean. Fermentation is fermentation. It is the process by which organic carbon is anaerobically oxidized to carbon dioxide. This process is exothermic - that is, it...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Blood, blood chemistry, ph units
blood chemistry, ph units, internet search: According to a quick internet search, the pH of blood is just on the basic side of neutral, it is 7.35 pH units. There are a series of compounds, called buffers, present in blood that keep the pH at this value. I m not an expert in blood chemistry, so you...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): biochemistry, acidic solutions, ph scale
acidic solutions, ph scale, reactants: Hi Lily, The pH scale is a well known measure of pH, with acidic solutions having low values (pH 7) and basic solutions having high values (pH 7). But many people don t know how the scale was derived - so you have a very good question and one many people...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): bleach and calcium chloride, calcium chloride, slippery nature
calcium chloride, slippery nature, rock salt: Although the bleach may make things worse, the slippery nature of the calcium chloride is well known. http://www.lelandpaper.com/usefulinfo.html It is the reaction of the calcium chloride and water that is the culprit. Put some of the snow salt in a...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): bohr diagram, discrete energy levels, electron shell
discrete energy levels, electron shell, elemental state: A Bohr Diagram is a representation of an atom which places electrons in discrete energy levels (represented by rings) around the nucleus. It is useful in determining whether an atom will give atoms away or grab electrons from another atom if and when it reacts...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): buffers, strong acids and bases, acids and bases
strong acids and bases, acids and bases, weak acids and bases: Hi Meg, The yes-or-no answer to your question is no. But more importantly, the reason that it won t be an efficient buffer is that HCl is a strong acid and NaOH is a strong base. Buffers need to be made of weak acids and bases. Buffers are solutions...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Chemistry, stable atom, electron shell
stable atom, electron shell, chemistry question: Hi Rose, I m not a geologist - but I can take a stab at the first question. I can definitely answer the second question. If mica and clays are only in the crust (and I do not know this to be true - I am only guessing here) I would assume that it is...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Colloids and its charge, electrical double layer, adsorbtion
electrical double layer, adsorbtion, colloids: Hi Sharon, I m sorry to have taken a bit to get back to you - I wrote out a request for explanation and thought I had sent it, but apparently not. I can t help you without knowing what a sol particle is - I m not familiar with that term. I m also...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): capillary action, glass capillary tube, ethylene glycol
glass capillary tube, ethylene glycol, capillary action: Hi Adam, Capillary action is controlled by a number of things, not simply viscosity. I had to review this myself, but it appears that the height of the column is directly related to surface tension and the cosine of the contact angle, and indirectly related...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): chemical reactions, sulfur trioxide gas, carbon dioxide gas
sulfur trioxide gas, carbon dioxide gas, sodium ion: Hi Liz, This question is asking you to do a few things. First it wants you to write the species listed as chemical symbols (e.g., carbon dioxide gas = CO2(g) ). The second thing you need to do is to balance the equation. This is a redox equation, so...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): chemistry, poor conductors, conductors of heat
poor conductors, conductors of heat, properties of metals: Hi Nicolette, There are many ways of characterizing metals and non-metals. Chemically, metals lose electrons to form metallic bonds with other metals, or to form ionic bonds with non-metals. Non-metals have a variety of chemical behaviors, so there is...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): chemistry, sulfur atoms, sulfur atom
sulfur atoms, sulfur atom, aum: Hi Nikki, This is a common type of problem, and you will encounter many like this in studying chemistry. One of the best ways to approach these is to use the units to make sure that you are getting the right answer. First, set up the problem: 1 Sulfur...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Enery Problem., energy problem, o3
energy problem, o3, 2o: Hi Hillary, I think this is an example of a question where they give you too much info to try and trick you! You are right, the 2O doesn t come into play in any of the other equations given, and unless it is stated to use all the reactions (in which case...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): FLUORINE AND CHLORINE, chlorine gas, water exit
chlorine gas, water exit, fluorine and chlorine: Hi Matthew, Quick hint - take off the caps lock, some people might mis-interpret that as yelling! What your friend told you about chlorine is more or less correct. If you have very chlorinated water and you leave it out exposed to the air, some of the...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): biochemistry, h3o, ph 7
Chemistry (including Biochemistry): biochemistry, h3o, ph 7, oh ions

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Ozone molecule, gases in the atmosphere, uniform solution
Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Ozone molecule, gases in the atmosphere, uniform solution, surface of earth

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Trans Fats vs. Hydrogenated Plant Oils, community doctors, reading labels
Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Trans Fats vs. Hydrogenated Plant Oils, community doctors, reading labels, trans fats

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): fractional crystallization, fractional crystallization, solubility of compounds
fractional crystallization, solubility of compounds, melting point: Hi Ann, I don t think that mass would be very helpful. But if you can determine the density of your crystals that might help some, if the different types of crystals have very different densities. The best way is to determine the melting point of your...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): half equations and redox, oxidation state, number of electrons
oxidation state, number of electrons, aa bb: Hi Tanieka, We know that FeSO4 must change into Fe2(SO4)3. What happens to the iron in this half reaction - is it reduced or oxidized? (Calculate the oxidation state of Fe in each form.) Also, if you notice the ratio of SO4 to Fe increases from the...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): iodoform test, carbonyl carbon, carbonyl group
carbonyl carbon, carbonyl group, 2 propanol: Hi Sharon, It sounds like you have this correct. The iodoform test is testing for the presence of a CH3-CO- group in a compound (it can also work for some alcohols, like ethanol and 2-propanol, that can be oxidized to this form). In the presence of...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): London dispersion force, london dispersion forces, london dispersion force
london dispersion forces, london dispersion force, nucleus of an atom: Hi Angela, For simplicity, I m going to use atoms to describe this phenomenon, but the same thing applies to molecules (i.e., just add or molecules after every atom ). London dispersion forces exist because electrons are not always symmetrically dispersed...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): What liquid is lighter than water?, flammability, sry
flammability, sry, vegetable oil: Hi Mark, I m trying to think of a liquid that will meet your description. Lighter than water = less dense than water, but the ones that come to mind are all quite flammable, and none are especially easily available (due to their flammability and/or their...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Molecular shape, x ray crystallography, bond angles
x ray crystallography, bond angles, degree angles: Hi Angela, Sorry that it has taken a bit for me to get back to you. Your question deserves a thorough answer, and I had to wait for a bit of time to write. Many molecules have a bent shape , very few atoms are strung together at 180 degree angles....

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Ozone molecule, ozone molecule, oxygen molecule
ozone molecule, oxygen molecule, uv waves: Ozone is destroyed in the stratosphere before it would sink. Prior to the emissions of CFCs, and other anthropogenic (human produced) ozone destroying compounds, the rate of ozone destruction was balanced by the rate of ozone production, and the earth maintained...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Redox Chemistry versus Acid-Base Chemistry, acid base chemistry, reduction oxidation
acid base chemistry, reduction oxidation, oxidation reactions: Hi Catherine, The difference between redox and acid-base chemistry is fairly straightforward. Redox reactions, or reduction/oxidation reactions, occur when two chemicals exchange electrons. An example is photosynthesis: CO2 + H2O - CH2O + O2 In...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Salts present in natural water, natural mineral water, sodium bicarbonate
natural mineral water, sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate: Anna, Mineral water is a very broad term. There are thousands of commercially available brands of mineral water plus many more not commercially sold. The minerals and salts in each water source will vary depending on the rocks that it passes through before...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Seperating NaCl, calcium source, high school science
calcium source, high school science, inert atmosphere: Sodium is made by taking a mixture of NaCl (40%) and calcium chloride, CaCl2 (60%) and melting at about 580‹C. This has to be done in inert atmosphere and no water can be present. cathode: Na+(l) + e- ¨ Na (l) anode: Cl-(l) ¨ 1/2Cl2 (g) + e- ...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Spectrometry, absorption spectra, excited state
absorption spectra, excited state, energy levels: The fluorescence and absorption spectra of a molecule are closely related. The fluorescence spectrum is produced by the emission of energy from a molecule in an excited state. The energy comes from electrons falling from the excited energy levels to the...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): science, carbon compounds, carbon atoms
carbon compounds, carbon atoms, permutations: Hi Ryan, I can think of a few reasons. One, carbon is relatively abundant on earth. Two, and perhaps most importantly, carbon is capable of creating 4 bonds, and so there are many permutations in which it can bond with other atoms (including other carbon...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Trans Fats vs. Hydrogenated Plant Oils, hydrogen atoms, trans fats
hydrogen atoms, trans fats, unsaturated fats: Hi William, You basically have this correct. When we hydrogenated unsaturated fats, trans-saturated fats are created. I m not sure exactly how the processed food companies manage to remove the trans fats from their products, but I can guess they do it...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Balancing Redox Equations, balancing reactions, KClO3
balancing reactions, KClO3: Hi McKenna, I ll try and help you. First thing is to decide what is oxidized and what is reduced. We can eliminate K from this, because it is a counter ion in both the reactants and products (it doesn t change oxidation state). O and H do not change...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): CHEM272 Concept, acid base chemistry, conjugate base
acid base chemistry, conjugate base, buffering capacity: Hi Daryl, It isn t clear to me what you mean by having trouble incorporating molarity. I ll explain buffering capacity as best as I can, and hopefully that will cover the area where you are having difficulties. Buffering capacity measures how resistant...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): chemistry, protons neutrons and electrons, protons and neutrons
protons neutrons and electrons, protons and neutrons, molecular orbitals: Hi Yvonne, The protons and neutrons do not change. The electron orbitals shift to form water s molecular orbitals, from hydrogen and oxygen s molecular orbitals (assuming you are considering hydrogen and oxygen in their molecular form as starting materials)....

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): EAS, bromination of anisole, aromatic compound
bromination of anisole, aromatic compound, electrophile: The bromination of a benzene normally occurs with a bromo-iron catalyst which helps to create a electrophilic halogen species that is reactive with benzene. Upon formation, this species reacts with the benzene to produce the brominated aromatic compound....

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Hydrogen gas, ml to mmol, ml to liters, hydrogen gas
ml to liters, hydrogen gas, mols: Hi Hein, I think this is a case where you need to assume that H2 will behave as an ideal gas, and use the ideal gas law: PV = nRT P is the pressure V is the volume (your mL) n is the number of moles of gas, it sounds like this changes for you with...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): ionic compounds, salt molecule, cl ions
salt molecule, cl ions, salt nacl: Hi Liz, I m not sure I understand you correctly. Let s compare an ionic compound (salt - NaCl) with a covalently bonded chemical (water - H2O). To break apart salt we can crush it, cleave it, cut it, and even dissolve it in water! All these processes...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Moth balls and dog urine, moth balls, mothballs
moth balls, mothballs, permanent solution: My only concern would be urine on the deck will remove the sealant on the deck and cause places where rotting wood could start. Typical moth balls are not a concern if you have not had trouble before, just from the smell. The urine will not react in such...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): SOLUTIONS, solvent, solute
solvent, solute, ionic: Hi Gail, I think I can help you. First, though, I wanted to let you know that in online communications all caps is the same as yelling. I don t think that was your intention, so I just wanted to let you know for the future. In a solution the solvent...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Synthesizing copper (II) hydroxide, sodium citrate dihydrate, sodium tungstate dihydrate
sodium citrate dihydrate, sodium tungstate dihydrate, sodium tartrate: Hi Julie, The easiest method is to find some weathered, green copper. This green patina is actually copper hydroxide. So, the easiest (though not the fastest) way is to leave a piece of copper metal outside in wet conditions and let the environment do...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Writing Empirical formulas, tin iodide, c8h18
tin iodide, c8h18, empirical formulas: An empirical formula is ratio of the atoms in a molecules - it is not necessarily the same as the molecular formula. For example, octane (C8H18) is C4H9. In this case you are not given the product. Tin and iodine react to form two products, tin(IV) iodide...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Amount of substance, reagent problem, limiting reagent
reagent problem, limiting reagent, mole ratio: I mis-typed the rough answer there, sorry! You should get 0.0134mol MgCO3, which is (molar mass = 84.32g/mol) 1.13g MgCO3 in the 1.25g sample, which is [(1.13g/1.25g)(100%)] 90.4% by mass. You may get slightly different answers depending on how closely...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): biochem, dilution problems, dilution
dilution problems, dilution, molarity: First of all, I just want to clarify. Some questions: You re trying to make up 100mL, or 1.00mL? What is this 10xZ ? What is the identity of the stock solution? Is it 14.3M of each of those different chemicals? The general way to solve dilution...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): blending odors, chemistry classes, chemical makeup
chemistry classes, chemical makeup, chemistry class: Hi Terry, I m afraid that I won t be able to help you with this. If you can smell something, then it is volatile. If you can t smell it, then you can assume it isn t volatile enough. The problem, though, is that smell sensors are not well understood...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): boiling water, boiling
boiling: It is definitely possible to boil 100% pure water. When you heat a liquid, its vapor pressure increases. When the vapor pressure equals the pressure above the liquid (room pressure), the liquid boils. It s as simple as that. I m not sure why you would...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Chemistry Help, unit analysis, concentrations
unit analysis, concentrations: Hi Heather. Sure, all you need to learn here is how to get the units to help you. You want a volume in mLs. You know that you have a solution with a concentration (in mg/mL) and a required mass (in mg). Now, how can you combine the two numbers that...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Chemistry Ionic Equations and Finding the Solid, net ionic equation
net ionic equation: The order the compounds (cation + anion pair) themselves are in doesn t matter. But it definitely matters to match up the correct cation(s) and anion(s) *within* each compound. One Mg(2+) ion requires two OH(-) ions to cancel out the positive charge, so...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Covelant Bonding?, covalent bond, ionic bond
covalent bond, ionic bond, potential energy: Hi Abigail, It seems that some of these may be homework questions, so I will try to help you think about them and get you on the right track. For the first question, it depends on how close the H atoms started to begin with. Since you said 2 H atoms,...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): chemistry, Kc and Kp
Kc and Kp: For the first problem, those equations are equivalent (it s the same reaction - the coefficients are just halved). The value of Kp (or Kc) is not affected by the way the reaction is written - it s determined experimentally. For the second problem, the...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): chemistry help, SN2, SN2 rates
SN2, SN2 rates: A good illustrated explanation of the SN2 reaction mechanism is here: http://www.chemhelper.com/sn2.html Basically, a nucleophile (CN:-) approaches a carbon that has a leaving group (LG, in this case Br-) attached to it, and displaces the LG. The nucleophile...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): chemistry question, mole ratio
mole ratio: The first thing you need to do here is balance the given equation: H2 + N2 --- NH3 The ratio of N:H in the product, NH3, is 1:3. Therefore, the ratio of N:H on the left side of the equation must also be 1:3. Hence: 3H2 + N2 --- 2NH3 ...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): chemistry question, limiting reactant, mole rato
limiting reactant, mole rato: First, write out the balanced chemical equation: SCl4 + 2H2O --- SO2 + 4HCl Notice that you are given amounts of both reactants - it is likely that this is a limiting reactant problem, where some of one of the reactants (the one that isn t limiting)...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): electrolysis of water, electrolysis of water
electrolysis of water: In the electrolysis ( lysis- is Greek for loosening ) of water, charged electrodes induce molecules of H2O to split apart. At the negatively charged electrode (anode), water molecules produce oxygen gas (O2), hydrogen ions (H+), and electrons. The electrons...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Does the expansion of solvent dilute the solute concentration (i.e. by gentle heating)?, volumetric flask, volumentric flask
volumetric flask, volumentric flask, solute concentration: A couple of things you have left out. Is the solute volatile? If so you can not heat the solvent since you would not know what evaporated. If not volatile, you should heat the solution to dissolve, cool and return the level to the volumetric line. Any...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Covelant Bonding?, nucleus
Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Covelant Bonding?, nucleus

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): fractional distillation, fractional distillation
fractional distillation: If the goal is to completely separate the ketone from the water, it s better to use fractional distillation rather than a simple distillation because the boiling points of the ketone and the water can be similar. With increasing length of the ketone, solubility...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Hybridization, atomic orbitals, hybrid orbitals
atomic orbitals, hybrid orbitals, hybridization: You can find a complete, illustrated version of this explanation here: http://pages.towson.edu/ladon/carbon.html Usually when you re considering hybridization (the combination of atomic orbitals into hybrid orbitals), you re talking about carbon. So,...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): hydrocarbon, iupac name, double bonds
iupac name, double bonds, lewis structure: You re close! It s actually: buta-1,2,3-triene Alkenes with more than one double bond have the suffix -diene, -triene, etc. In this case, if you said butatriene people would know what you were talking about (there s no alternative way to place the...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): hydrocarbon, butene, hydro carbon
butene, hydro carbon, double bond: The structure you drew is just 2-butene. Just like butane, the hydrogens are understood and not named. The 2 indicates the double bond is after the 2nd carbon. Note there is no 3-butene or 4-butene, since these are just 1- and 2-, just name from the other...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Ionic Bonding?, iron hydroxides, electron shell
iron hydroxides, electron shell, oxidation states: Hi Abby, Here are the answers to your question: 1) Yes. 2) Before the electron was lost from Na it was in the outermost electron shell. After the transfer to Cl it is in Cl s outermost electron shell. 3) One element can form different numbers...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Organic Chemistry, atomic size, ionic size
atomic size, ionic size: Hi Bridget, The volume of an atom or ion depends on the configuration of its electrons. THis is because the nucleus is super small compared to the size of the electron cloud . Even though almost all the mass of an atom is in the nucleus, the space is...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): physical chemistry, egg physics, egg experiment
egg physics, egg experiment: Evolution has resulted in the chicken egg having a unique shape that confers mechanical strength (resistance to mechanical force) to it beyond that of a perfect sphere. It has two axes ( directions ) that you will need to measure. The axis of rotational...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Reduction potentials, atoms and molecules, balanced fashion
atoms and molecules, balanced fashion, reduction potentials: Let s take a look at some. They are representatives of how atoms and molecules lose or gain electrons in reactions. A reduction potential can not stand alone. There has to be two of them to have a reaction. I m using the list at http://www.jesuitnola.org/upload/clark/refs/red_pot.htm...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Repulsion, shampoo, soap
shampoo, soap, dissolve: Hi Shawash, I think that I may not understand your question. Therefore, I m going to describe what shampoo is, and how it works, and hope that I answer your question in the process. If I do not, feel free to follow up. Shampoo is just a form of soap....

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Weak base kb problem, Kb, Ka
Kb, Ka: Using the standard pH/pOH equations: pH = -log[H+] and [H+] = 10^(-pH) pOH = -log[OH-] and [OH-] = 10^(-pOH) pH + pOH = 14 Ka = Kw / Kb where Kw = 1 x 10^(-14) We first calculate the pOH of this solution, and from that we can get...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): water and evaporation, vapor pressure, evaporation
vapor pressure, evaporation: Tyler, That is a good question. To begin to understand it, we need to think about the water on a molecular level. When it is solid (ice) the molecules are tightly bound to each other. When it is liquid the molecules are much more loosely bound. They interact...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): atomic make up of phosphorus, shape of protons, neutrons
shape of protons, neutrons: Hi Hannah, It sounds like you could have some fun with this. Beads was definitely a good idea. How about going with something kind of similar - but edible? (I love anything edible, it just adds so much to any project!) There are all sorts of candies...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): atoms, molecular electron, electron cloud
molecular electron, electron cloud, ionic bonds: Hi Umayr, Sure. Metallic bonding is probably the most abstract bonding concept, so it isn t surprising that you haven t found an explanation that works for you yet. I ll try to help. As I said previously, in metals the electrons are delocalized. This...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): bonding, conjugate base, polar covalent
conjugate base, polar covalent, molecule: Hi Mukul, Yes, as long as you do not have an ion, in a covalently bonded molecule the overall charge will be zero. However, covalently bonded ions are, of course, charged. For example, acetate is the conjugate base of acetic acid, and it is a negatively...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Chemistry, colligative properties, density
colligative properties, density: Colligative properties are properties of a solution that depend on the number of particles in a given volume of solvent, not on the identity of the particles themselves. Density depends on both of these things, since density is defined as mass/volume. ...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Chemistry Molecular Shapes/Polarity, molecular geometry, molecular polarity
molecular geometry, molecular polarity: You ve got most of those right, with the following exceptions: HBr is linear; all two atom molecules are linear, since there s only one bond to be considered in the molecular geometry. You re right that it s polar. CH3NH2 has two central atoms, the...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): chemistry, mole ratio, molar mass
mole ratio, molar mass, homework problem: Since this is a homework problem, I will give you the general approach. You are asked to produce 10L of Cl2 at STP (273K and 1atm), and from this you can use the ideal gas law (PV = nRT) to calculate moles of Cl2. The chemical equation gives you the mole...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): dissolving sugar cube in sugar solution, dissolving sugar, order glass
dissolving sugar, order glass, sugar cube: There s no reason that the dissolving rate *should* be any different for any of those solutions, since you re nowhere near the solubility limit (at room temperature you can make up to a 65% solution by mass.) I would say that the variation you re seeing is...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): electron rich lewis structures, hypervalence
hypervalence: Good question! Your Lewis structure should have two lone pairs on the central I atom, in addition to the three single bonds to the fluorines. This is a phenomenon called hypervalence. It s possible for atoms in the THIRD row of the periodic table and...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): No Fog Mirrors, anti-fog coatings
anti-fog coatings: I can certainly tell you about the science behind it. I don t know what was on your mirror, but anti-fog coatings don t usually last very long, no matter what the advertising says. For an anti-fog coating to be effective, it has to have a very clean and...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): greek prefixes, ionic naming
ionic naming: You never use the greek prefixes when doing ionic naming (unless it s part of a polyatomic ion s name - but technically that s covalent naming). You sometimes do use roman numerals, though, to indicate the charge on the metal cation. If the metal can form...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): hot water freezes, mineral deposits, pipes freezing
mineral deposits, pipes freezing: It would seem that way, wouldn t it, since the water in the cold pipe is closer to freezing temperature. I m not sure how the pipes are laid out on your property, but it probably has something to do with that. When pipes freeze it s usually because a length...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Isomers, shape differences, formation of the earth
shape differences, formation of the earth, isomers: You can make isomers that are different in isotopes, but that is done intentionally and is very hard. The isotopes made of earthly sources however had the isotopes randomized during the formation of the earth, so that will not explain the differences. These...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Milk and Litmus paper, MSDS, litmus paper toxicity
MSDS, litmus paper toxicity: First of all, I wouldn t recommend ingesting *anything* that s seen the inside of a chemical laboratory, even a low-level undergraduate one. The level of cleanliness is dependent on how careful the lab workers (students) are - and we all know that varies...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Minerals - Blossite, blossite
blossite: In general, most minerals are useful to humans as ores, i.e., raw material for producing pure precious metal(s) or other element(s). Sometimes the minerals themselves have special physical properties that make them useful to humans, like diamond (very hard...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): medicine at 10%, density of water, mass density
density of water, mass density, 100ml: Container 1: 100mL of 10% Container 2: 100mL of 50mg/mL Question: Which container has more doses per mL? At 50mg/mL, the second container is roughly 5% medicine by mass: density of water is about 1g/mL 1g = 1000mg (50mg medicine / 1000mg solution)(100%)...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): organic chemistry, nitrogen atom, hydrogen atoms
nitrogen atom, hydrogen atoms, bond angle: Hi Denny, Water is a bent molecule. The hydrogen atoms attach to the oxygen at an angle of ~104.5 degrees. NO2 and SiO2 are completely different molecules, but SiO2 forms tetrahedral structures. Since water also forms tetrahedral structures, these are...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): pH, pH, temperature dependence
pH, temperature dependence, dissociation constant: Hi Brian, The pH of water can change with temperature, and the reason is that the dissociation of water is temperature dependent. The dissociation of water is: H2O - H+ + OH- And this reaction is always in equilibrium. So, even in your glass of...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Sunscreen Project, uva and uvb, making dilutions
uva and uvb, making dilutions, standard curve: What a great idea for a project! By definition, a control (or set of controls for a standard cure, even better) for that experiment would involve solutions containing the UV-absorbing compound(s) in known concentrations. These wouldn t be available over...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): stoichiometry, polyprotic acid, neutralization
polyprotic acid, neutralization: Hi Denny, The answer is 3, citric acid is a triprotic acid. But I m unsure of how you are supposed to get to this answer - are you supposed to use the stoichiometry? (I happen to know that citric acid is a triprotic acid, but I don t think that is what...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): titrations, titration, acid-base titration
titration, acid-base titration: In a standard acid-base titration, you have an acid sample and you want to figure out how many moles of acid are in it. You do this by reacting the sample with base until the pH=7, at which point the moles of base added equals the moles of acid in the sample....

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): buffer solution, sodium ions, conjugate base
sodium ions, conjugate base, sodium acetate: Ann, Your assumption is correct. A buffer is made of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid. So neither HCl nor NaOH will be a component in a buffer; they are both strong. An example of a buffer is acetic acid (a weak...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Chemistry, limiting reagent, standard curve
limiting reagent, standard curve, theoretical number: Hi Josh. The theoretical number is calculated from the amount of starting materials you have and the stoichiometry of the reaction. The actual yield is what you measure once the reaction is complete. For instance: A + 2B - C If you have 10 moles...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): calcium flouride, oxygen atoms, number of electrons
oxygen atoms, number of electrons, calcium fluoride: Vince, That is partially correct. The larger the molecules become, the less it can be thought of as donating and receiving electrons. In this case, the oxygen atoms would like to receive 2 electrons each and the phosphorous atoms can donate 5 each. Even...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): chemical formula, strong acids, chemical formula
strong acids, chemical formula, molecular structure: Hi Jae, Yes, in this case it seems that they want you to use what you ve learned about how molecular structure effects reactivity to judge which will be more acidic (more willing to give up a proton). I can t give you the answer, but I can give you a...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): chemistry, elements on the periodic table, molecular mass
elements on the periodic table, molecular mass, c2h5oh: Sade, The molecular mass is just the sum of the individual masses of the elements. On the periodic table there is a number that represents the mass of the element. The mass of C is 12.01, H is 1.01 and O is 16.00. To get the molecular mass we add up 2...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): chemistry lab techniques, organic chemistry lab, glass capillary
organic chemistry lab, glass capillary, organic syntheses: Hi Daniel, I believe that you are referring to determining a substances melting point. Personally, I have only done this with one method. Crystals are placed in a small glass capillary which is placed in a piece of equipment that has a heating unit attached...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): What exactly are "flames"?, oxygen molecules, electron cloud
oxygen molecules, electron cloud, nitrogen gas: Hi Green, You ve asked a number of questions here, and I ll do my best to answer them. Flames are actually burning gas. Heat increases volatility and so helps things to catch fire. The heat from a fire comes from the combustion of a fuel - candle wax,...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): gas volumes, copper carbonate, cu2o
copper carbonate, cu2o, cuo: Loma, STP stands for standard temperature and pressure, which is generally used to refer to 0 degrees C and 1 atm. The ideal gas laws can be used in most gas experiments. One of the things that the ideal gas law states is that the pressure multiplied by...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): gas volumes, copper carbonate, homework questions
copper carbonate, homework questions, cu2o: Hi Loma, In answer to a previous question on trying to find out how much carbonation was in a bottle of soda I suggested balloons. You can look in the old questions for that description. But I think there may be a better way to figure our which equation...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Molarity & Molarity, high school chemistry, concentration units
high school chemistry, concentration units, thought experiment: Hi Julie, Molality and molarity are both mole-based concentration units. Molality equals moles per kilogram: Molality = mol/kg Molarity equals moles per liter: Molarity = mol/L So for the same solution the difference between molality and molarity...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): phas shifts, opposite of sublimation, cold temperatures, liquid phase
cold temperatures, liquid phase, water vapor: Feiv, Yes, the transformation of a gas to a solid (without the intermediate liquid phase) does occur. The process is known as deposition. A good example is the frost that occurs in cold temperatures. The water vapor in the air undergoes deposition to solid...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): titration?, naoh solution, molarity
naoh solution, molarity, number of moles: Hi Jae, Let me start by helping you with the moles of NaOH used. If 15 mL of a 0.150 M NaOH solution was used how many moles were used? (The answer is not 10.) Remember, molarity is equal to moles/liters, so don t forget to convert your mL to L before...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): 3rd grade activity: atoms & molecules-Part 2, salt molecule, atoms molecules
salt molecule, atoms molecules, model water: Hi Susan, Yes - I remember this activity well. I think it sounds like a great activity for 3rd graders. The forces that keep molecules together are probably a bit to complicated for this age, so I think you have a good idea of just explaining it more...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): alcohol evaporation, flavor components, bar glass
flavor components, bar glass, alchohol: Hi Sue, As a wife who occasionally argues with her husband over matters like these I am afraid to tell you that your husband is correct. :) If you had a glass with a whisky in it and left it on the counter both the alcohol and the water would evaporate....

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Biochemistry- Spectrophotometry/ Fluorimetry, first order kinetics, energy state
first order kinetics, energy state, fluorescing molecules: Hi Phoebe, Fluorescence occurs when a molecule absorbs a photon at one wavelength which causes it to emit a photon at a different wavelength. What happens is that the absorption of the original photon causes an electron to shift to a higher energy state....

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): CHEMISTRY, significant figures, orders of magnitude
significant figures, orders of magnitude, subtraction: Hi Josh, I think you may want to revisit this one. Your use of significant figures is not quite right. I would review the rules of when zeroes are significant. Also - I would check your math, but I don t know what operation you are performing! (I assume...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Chemistry, limiting reagent, elemental mass
limiting reagent, elemental mass, carbon atoms: Hi Kat, I think by this you mean the theoretical yield. This is when you get total conversion of reactants to products in reaction. It is controlled by the stoichiometry of the reaction and the limiting reagent. The stoichiometry of the reaction describes...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Definition confusion, google image search, aldehyde ketone
google image search, aldehyde ketone, hemiacetal: Hi Daniel, I had to review this myself. A hemiacetal is the adduct formed from the addition of an alcohol to an aldehyde/ketone. It is halfway (hence the prefix hemi ) to an acetal which is the addition of two alcohols to an aldehyde/ketone. The hemiacetal...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Electricity and DNA, radio waves, electromagnetic spectrum
radio waves, electromagnetic spectrum, sun lamp: They are very different energies. UV is fairly high energy, while radio waves are very low energy. There is doubt that radio penetrates at all. A sun lamp will burn your skin, your i-pod will not. Cell phones are the worst case being studied of electricity...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Gas and heat question, body temp, evaporation of water
body temp, evaporation of water, high schooler: In the hottest part of summer in the tropics, it can feel hotter. The wind temperature has to be hotter than you body temp. Normal wind however is doing two things. The friction the molecules will make with your skin or the heat transfer will increase the...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Law of Chemistry, examples of compounds, concise name
examples of compounds, concise name, generic reaction: Hi Robert, I don t know of a concise name for this other than the generic, reaction . The fact that different chemicals have different properties is part of their definition, no law is necessary to restate this. I m afraid this is all the help that I...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Who made the Discovery, protons neutrons and electrons, valence bond
protons neutrons and electrons, valence bond, maxwell planck: Hi Brian, I m afraid that the answer I m going to give might not be very satisfying. Like so many things in science this concept was not developed by an individual but pieced together by a number of people over the past 100-150 years. The people who developed...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Question regarding saltwater battery, hydrogen peroxide solution, copper electrode
hydrogen peroxide solution, copper electrode, 250ml beaker: Hi Pravin, That sounds really cool! I ll have to remember it as a fun experiment for the future. Here is what is happening. When you set up a battery you produce a current of electrons flowing through the wire from one electrode to the other. What...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Science Question., water molecule, water molecules
water molecule, water molecules, science question: Hi Jake, Yup, you are in the right category. :) A phase change is when something goes from a solid to a liquid, or a liquid to a gas, or even a solid to a gas - and every other combination! What determines this is basically how the molecules move -...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Separation, organic impurities, viniger
organic impurities, viniger, acetic acid: Hi Daniel, Vinegar is a weak solution of acetic acid. There are probably a few ways to separate the acid from the water, but the three that immediately come to mind are reverse osmosis, distillation and some sort of resin. Reverse osmosis can be used...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Avrogadro's Number, x ray crystallography, carbon atom
x ray crystallography, carbon atom, pressure and volume: Christopher, Avogadro did not determine the number that is attributed to his name. He is best known for developing Avogadro s Law which states that two containers of gas at the same temperature, pressure and volume will contain the same number of molecules....

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Balancing Equations??, sodium bicarbonate, oxygen atoms
sodium bicarbonate, oxygen atoms, nahco3 h2o: Hi, Dear, Firstly the equation you have mentioned is incorrect. Secondly you have asked number of atoms in each compound. The number of each atom is mentiond at the bottom of it s base for example NaHCO3 has 1 Na, 1 H and 1 C atom and Three oxygen atoms....

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Balancing Equations??, sodium bicarbonate, nahco3 h2o
sodium bicarbonate, nahco3 h2o, word equations: Hi again Bella, I can t give you the answer straight out. But, let me help you out with your notation, then I ll give you some hints to help solve. Since you are looking at sodium bicarbonate write the sodium first (Na) then the bicarbonate (HCO3):...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): bleach, reactive oxygen species, oxygen bleach
reactive oxygen species, oxygen bleach, chlorine bleach: Hi David, It probably depends to some degree on both the strength of the bleach and the type of dye used. In both cases you generate a reactive oxygen species that can attack pigments. I guess the one generated in oxygen bleach is more specific for...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Balancing Equations??, coefficients, h2o
Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Balancing Equations??, coefficients, h2o, elements

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Glow-In-The-Dark, compact fluorescent light bulbs, fluorescent light bulbs
compact fluorescent light bulbs, fluorescent light bulbs, exothermic reactions: Hi John, What you are describing is called bioluminescence. It is biology s way of harnessing chemoluminescence. Chemoluminescence is a chemical reaction that produces light. Light is a form of energy, so really, these reactions are simply exothermic...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): hemolysis!!!, science publisher springer, chlorinated hydrocarbons
science publisher springer, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polar substance: Dear, Hope that you will be fine. First of all accept my apologies to respond you late. In fact, i was trying to find the details of following articles but i couldn t. If you can get detailed paper/article of the following, then these will surely provide...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Ions, number of electrons, electrons and protons
number of electrons, electrons and protons, force of attraction: Daniel, Before I answer let me make sure I am understanding your question. When you refer to first, second, third, etc. are you referring to the chart at the top of the Wikipedia page? If so, those numbers refer to the number of electrons removed, not what...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Polymers, starch granule, plastic polymer
starch granule, plastic polymer, monomers: Polymers are large molecules made up of repeating units called monomers. There are many different polymers, and their properties depend on both the monomers included and the way that those monomers are put together. There really isn t any way to describe...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): question about titration, equilibrium constants, carbonate buffer system
equilibrium constants, carbonate buffer system, mathematical relationships: HI Israa, You are asking about a complicated system - I hope you are ready for a more complicated answer than I would normally give on this site! Please keep in mind that the following explanation is only to help answer your question - it is not a thorough...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Rate of reactions, reactant, rate of reaction
reactant, rate of reaction, reactants: Hi Shay, k is the rate constant of the reaction. It is always the same for a given reaction at a specific temp and pressure. It is simply a constant that is multiplied by the concentration of the reactant(s) to get the rate of the reaction. This shows...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Science Question, number of electrons, chemical reactivity
number of electrons, chemical reactivity, discovery of the electron: Hi Bella, I m going to assume that you understand how the number of electrons in the outer shell of an atom determines its chemistry. If this is a bad assumption and you need more information on this topic refer to some of my previous answers were I explain...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): stoichiometry, monoatomic ions, polyatomic ion
monoatomic ions, polyatomic ion, stoich: Hi Eric, I had to investigate the bridge method- it looks like a good way to solve problems! Polyatomic ions can be solved for just like anything else. In some cases they are actually easier, since often the ion sticks together in reaction. For instance:...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Valence Number, atomic orbitals, chemical reactivity
atomic orbitals, chemical reactivity, ionic bonds: Hi Calla, A valence number describes the maximum number of bonds an atom can form. Chemical reactivity depends on this important aspect of an atom -so it is a good thing to ask about. All atoms want to be in the most stable state possible. Having...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): the water / air / finger experiment, surface tension of water, water displacement
surface tension of water, water displacement, lab balance: Hi Anne, Well, I thought this was a pretty great experiment, but wasn t entirely sure of my knowledge on the topic - it is more Newtonian physics then chemistry. So I sent it around to a few friends with my hypothesis to hear their ideas. One of my friends...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Acyl Acetyl difference?, carbon chain, acyl group
carbon chain, acyl group, carboxylic acid: Hi David. An acyl and acetyl are closely related. An acyl is a carbon chain where the last carbon is double-bonded to an oxygen. We write it as: R-C(=O)- The final dash indicates that the carbon has another bond to something else, in a carboxylic...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Alcohol & electrolytes, pubmedcentral, effects of alcohol
pubmedcentral, effects of alcohol, fcgi: Dear hermoz parsa, Following are the web pages which will provide detailed effects of Alcohol on electrolytes. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0847/is_n3_v13/ai_8193360 http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=424987 http://www.chemcases.com/alcohol/index.htm...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): alkyl hallides, alkyl halides, carbon hydrogen
alkyl halides, carbon hydrogen, alkyl halide: Hi Tanay, I m afraid I don t know if you can import images into these text boxes, so I m just going to describe alkyl (I assume that is what you meant based on the subject line) halides. Alkyl halides are a group of molecules that are composed of carbon,...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): biochemistry, phosphate dehydrogenase, red blood cells
phosphate dehydrogenase, red blood cells, human red blood cells: Dear sidra tareen, GAPDH is exclusively responsible for reduction of Arsenate in human erythrocytes and the enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase works as an arsenate reductase in human red blood cells and rat liver cytosol. So there should be...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Calculating concentration, chemistry olympics, calibration curve
chemistry olympics, calibration curve, constant of proportionality: Hi Catia, I m trying to understand your methods here. I m going to just assume that you used some sort of spectroscopy to get your values. Since I m not clear on what you did I m going to show you what I would do. First I would measure the absorbance...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Converting ion concentration to grams of solvent, molar conversions
molar conversions: Hi Peter, Absolutely - you can definitely do this. When you calculated the amount of potassium in the solution that gives you the number of moles of potassium. By applying this and the stoichiometry of the dissolution of potassium sulfate we can calculate...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): chem, precipitation, exam questions
precipitation, exam questions: Hi Ann, I think that you over thought the question - a mistake I ve make many times! In this reaction you are putting a solid Pb(NO3)2(s) into an aqueous solution and ending with an aqueous solution with a different solid. There are two ways this could...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Dissolving, chlorine ions, chlorine ion
chlorine ions, chlorine ion, free ions: Hi Agla, That is a good question. Especially since Cl is toxic and Na flames when in contact with water! What explains this phenomenon is that when we dissolve salt in water we are releasing free ions of Cl- and Na+. These ions are relatively harmless,...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Methyl isocyanate, methyl isocyanate, sustainability science
methyl isocyanate, sustainability science, university of tokyo: Hi Tahira, I m not that familiar with the uses of methyl isocyanate, but I did some quick internet searches. It appears that there are alternatives, one is 4-nitrophenyl N-methylcarbamate, but I don t know how effective these alternatives are. As I m...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): molar calculations, molar calculations, calculator displays
molar calculations, calculator displays, dentistry school: Hi Aimee, Congratulations on your successes, and good luck for dentistry school! Let me see if I can help you out with significant figures. Always remember that significant figures are extremely important. A measurement is not worth much unless you understand...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): molarity, titration, strong acid
titration, strong acid, strong base: Hi Sarah, Thanks for the clarification! I always feel badly about turning down obvious homework questions because people obviously ask because they need help - now I can provide some guidance worry free! I also thank you for providing all the information....

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Organic Chemistry, higher secondary education, homework question
higher secondary education, homework question, alkyl group: Hi Uday, I turned your question down because it looks too much like a homework question and I don t feel comfortable just giving out answers. If you rephrase your question more generally I will try to help you understand the topic. Thank you for giving...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): organic, ethyl alcohol, organic liquids
ethyl alcohol, organic liquids, hydrogen bonding: Hi Apache, I think you are asking why ammonia and ethyl alcohol are volatile at room temperature despite the fact that they participate in H-bonding? The reason is simple - they are very small compounds. So although they do participate in intermolecular...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): pH chemistry, hydrolysis reaction, cl ions
hydrolysis reaction, cl ions, acids and bases: Hi Dana, I don t feel comfortable just giving the answer, but I can give you a BIG hint. The chemical in your question is called sodium citrate. The first thing you need to do is find out whether it is an acid or a base or neither. The fact that you...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Re-do of Previous question, CO2, gasoline
CO2, gasoline, carbon footprint: Hi Paul, I believe the discrepancy is a result of the reaction of the gasoline with oxygen during combustion. Basically, to every carbon atom in the gasoline you add two oxygen atoms. If you are driving on pure octane you go from one molecule of octane...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Water pH Question, aquarium tank, river rocks
aquarium tank, river rocks, fish tank: Hi Adrian, I m not entirely sure. Is this a new problem? If so - what changed? If you added something(s) then that is the first place to check. (If you didn t add anything then it is possible that something changed with your city s water.) Often...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): baking soda + detergent or soap, soap molecules, laundry detergents
soap molecules, laundry detergents, chemistry literature: Hi John, Ok - point taken. I think that in the example you give the soaking may be what helps rid the clothes of the smell. The baking soda will change the pH of the solution and in this case that might also kill some of the bacteria. (However, the whole...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): baking soda + detergent or soap, laundry additives, laundry detergents
laundry additives, laundry detergents, backing soda: This is one of those, it depends answers. If you look at Arm & Hammer s website they recommend all three ways of using it. If you have time to soak for longer after a regular wash, you will get more bang for the buck. If you don t want to add time, add...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): balacning chemical equation, calcium phosphate, calcium sulfate
calcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, h3po4: Dear, Hope that you will be fine. Ca3(PO4)2 + HSO4 - CaSO4 + H3PO4 in this equation put H2SO4 instead of HSO4. If you are still unable to balance it, I can tell you the rules but telling you coefficients will be like solving Home work. Best of luc...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): biotechnology, genetic manipulation, other search engine
genetic manipulation, other search engine, google: Dear Ishan, Hope that you will be fine. Dear you can get very detailed informations about biotechnology, its scope and applications from google or any other search engine. Biotechnology is the use of organisms especially microganisms in order to provide...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): boric oxide titration, gram equivalent
gram equivalent: If your boric acid is listed as either B(OH)3 or B(OH)4-, then yes it is a 1:1 ratio - you ve got it! But if you are adding boric trioxide to the water than your gram equivalent is still 34.8101. The nomenclature here is a bit dicey. Different people...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Chemistry, definition, base
definition, base, Lewis: Hi Shajahan, Bases are a class of chemicals that raise the pH of a solution. That is, they decrease the amount of available H+ (protons). In this way they are the opposite of acids. There are a few different definitions. The easiest to understand is...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Chemistry, atomic masses, atomic numbers
atomic masses, atomic numbers, atomic number: Dear Shajahan, Your teacher is right. In fact, Mendeleev s Periodic Table was based upon atomic masses of elements while Modern Periodic Table was based upon atomic numbers and you know that isotopes have same atomic number but different atomic masses. So,...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Re: cream of tartar, ions and sucrose, budget filmmaking, milky appearance
budget filmmaking, milky appearance, sodium chloride: You are right, Julian! I should have spoken more carefully. Citric acid does have 3 carboxylic acid groups and tartaric acid only has 2. However, tartaric acid is a slightly stronger acid than citric acid - it more easily releases its two acidic protons...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Diffusion as rate determining step, diffusion coefficients, pool chemistry
diffusion coefficients, pool chemistry, rate determining step: Hi Mike, If we make your assumption, that diffusion will be the rate determining step then we need to think about what controls the diffusion of these species: HOCl - H+ + OCl- (CNOH)3 The reaction actually occurs between OCl- and (CNOH)3. Assuming...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): The Effect of NaCl on BP of Water, ionic salts, boiling point of water
ionic salts, boiling point of water, boiling point elevation: Sure Chris, What I meant was that in order for a packet of water to evaporate all the salt that is in that water needs to be removed. This happens due to random movements of the water and salt molecules. They are in constant movement, so there are moments...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Ethanol concentration, boiling point of ethanol, miscible liquids
boiling point of ethanol, miscible liquids, ethanol concentration: Oh yes, definitely! You will need a system optimized for the measurement of very small molecules. If you have such a system then that would be the fastest and easiest method for determining the mixture. If I don t know what a person s situation is (high...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): cream of tartar, ions and sucrose, mock apple pie, malic acids
Chemistry (including Biochemistry): cream of tartar, ions and sucrose, mock apple pie, malic acids, jonathan feldman

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Diffusion as rate determining step, molar mass, microm
Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Diffusion as rate determining step, molar mass, microm, reply

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Help with Silver and Aluminium REDOX?, silver sulfide, aluminum
silver sulfide, aluminum, tarnish: Hi Tamlyn, I think you are looking at two different ways of removing silver tarnish. I ll start with the carbonate - it is used as a mild abrasive to physically scrape off the tarnish. The difference between sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium bicarbonate...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): organic chemistry, conjugate base, electrophile
conjugate base, electrophile, organic chemistry: Dear apache, Both these are very closely related for example both can donate pair of electron, both can have negative charge ( for example Cl- can serve as conjugate base of HCl and also act as a nucleophile ). But if we consider Arhenius concept a base have...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): plasma, plasma serum, glucose concentrations
plasma serum, glucose concentrations, blood plasma: Dear ezhil arasi, Hope that you will fine. Following are answers to your questions. 1. The reason behind this seems to be that the concentration of water in plasma is almost 11% higher than that of whole blood. Therefore, glucose concentrations in plasma...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): question, barium chloride, carbonate chemistry
barium chloride, carbonate chemistry: Hi Aimee, It sounds like you are busy. What you need to consider here is how acid will affect this solution, then how the barium chloride will affect the remaining solution. You should look in to the acid/base chemistry of sulfate and carbonate. You...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Do we taste the same thing when we taste the same flavour?, eating habit, tastebud
eating habit, tastebud, personal preference: Dear Rambo, Since I recieved your question, I am considering and discussing it to my fellows and collegues. What we have concluded is that if two person like the same food, then they must be having same pleasent neurological effects for this food and most...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Will we taste the same thing when we taste the food with same flavour, taste, smell
taste, smell: Hi Rambo, I just want to say up front - I ve wondered these questions too! I m not an expert on taste or perception of taste, but all aspects of food chemistry interest me, and I ll do my best to answer your question. When we taste things the molecules...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Alcohols, ethyl alcohol, alcohol denat
ethyl alcohol, alcohol denat, cause dizziness: All alcohol used for drinking is ethyl alcohol. All others are poisons when consumed. The denat alcohol is also ethyl alcohol. Almost all perfumes use it. Many men s shaving/beauty products have it also. If you do a web search, you can find water based...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Alcohols, different alcohols, ethyl alcohol
different alcohols, ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol: First of all, make it clear its not possible for us to leave any question unanswered. I don t think you have sent me this question ever. If you don t accept me as expert then why have you asked me these questions? More over, according to Islamic teachings...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Alcohols, ethyl alcohol, alcohol denat
ethyl alcohol, alcohol denat, denatured alcohol: Hi Sulaman, I m not going to get into point #2 - I think this is more of a religious issue. However, through out history people have always referred to ethyl alcohol (also called ethanol) as simply alcohol. I think you can safely assume that when it is...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): asking a question, preparation of aspirin, reaction mixture
preparation of aspirin, reaction mixture, special greetings: A low yield could be explained by any of the following: 1 Not allowing the reaction mixture to stand long enough, or a failure to reflux the mixture gently for long enough to “complete the reaction”. 2 Impure ethanoic anhydride. If the bottle of...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): biochemistry, anomeric carbon, glycosidic bond
anomeric carbon, glycosidic bond, sugar groups: Yes, oligosaccarides are classed as glycosides. Formally, a glycoside is any molecule in which a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to another group via an O-glycosidic bond or an S-glycosidic bond; glycosides involving the latter are also...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Chemistry, atomic mass unit, lead nitrate
atomic mass unit, lead nitrate, molar concentration: that s correct! the formula for lead nitrate is Pb(NO3)2 meaning there is 1 mole of lead and 2 moles of nitrate in 1 mole of lead nitrate. basically: 1 Pb + 2 NO3 ----------------- 1 Pb(NO3)2 1 mole of lead would mass 207.2g 1 mole of nitrate is...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Chemistry, blood, buffer
blood, buffer, bicarbonate: Hi GNu boi, Bicarbonate acts as a buffer in the blood to maintain a stable pH. Blood in the human body needs to remain within a very narrow pH range, and bicarbonate is part of the system that allows the body to control this. You may remember that pH...

Chemistry (including Biochemistry): Concentration Calculation, GCMS, analyte concentration
GCMS, analyte concentration, calculation: Hi Ekies, What you are describing is a common method of extracting soil. However, in order to know what the concentration will be of your analyte in the GC injection, I would need to know what the concentration was in the soil sample to begin with. And...