About Experts Sitemap - Group 12 - Page 37 2015-03-24

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering questions, Interview- civil engineering
Interview- civil engineering: Hi Joe, Hi Cory, My job title is Director of Structures. The starting salary for a graduate in UK would be around GBP 25,000 per annum. These are far too many questions for me, but I have been asked similar questions before, so if you do not mind...

Civil Engineering: Concrete specifications, Concrete in Middle East
Concrete in Middle East: Hi Muhammad, Grade 25 means the crushing cube strength of the concrete at 28 days is 25 N/mm2. Ditto for 35, 40, 50, etc. The higher strengths are achieved by proper choice and grading of aggregates, a low water-cement ratio and higher quantity of cement,...

Civil Engineering: civil engg., cement concrete, civil engg
cement concrete, civil engg, reinforced concrete: Hello De Krishna, R.C.C also known as Reinforced Cement Concrete can be designed in various ways. To improve the load carrying capacity of the concrete they reinforce it with steel bars of varying diameters in an appropriate manner. This concrete is then...

Civil Engineering: Daily Job Life, landscape architecture, professional engineer
landscape architecture, professional engineer, civil engineer: I can only speak to my career path and daily activities. I have been fortunate enough to work for small businesses which has allowed me to get a well rounded background in many different areas. As my career has progressed my daily routine has varied. Early...

Civil Engineering: Interview, Interview Civil/Structural Engineer
Interview Civil/Structural Engineer: Hi Cory, My job title is Director of Structures. The starting salary in UK would be around GBP 25,000 per annum. These are far too many questions for me, but I have been asked similar questions before, so if you do not mind I will cut-and-paste the...

Civil Engineering: MS in civil Engineering, design optimisation, final year project
design optimisation, final year project, efficient design: Manthan, Currently there are very good job opportunities in both fields so I would suggest you go for the one that intersts you most. As for final year project, there is such a large choice that you need to discuss the options with your tutor. For example...

Civil Engineering: material science, Stress and shear stress
Stress and shear stress: Hi Kalyan, Stress is force divided by area- for example, if there is a beam member 2cm wide by 3cm deep, so the cross sectional area is 6 cm2. If this beam is subjected to an axial load of say 60 kN, then it has an internal longitudinal stress of 10 kN/cm2,...

Civil Engineering: retrofittig of structures, stiffness reduction, soft soils
stiffness reduction, soft soils, seismic action: Hello Liaqat, The main innovative methods of seismic retrofitting may be grouped into the following categories Stiffness Reduction This is a period elongation and consequent reduction of the seismic action in affect this reduces the seismic strength...

Civil Engineering: rubble packing, Rubble packing
Rubble packing: Hi Mathew, Rubble packing is normally used under ground bearing slabs and sometimes under foundations as well, in order to permit compaction of the sub-base and hence allow the applied loading to be more uniformly distributed. If rubble packing is not...

Civil Engineering: SAFE, SAFE for foundation design
SAFE for foundation design: Hi Sarah, Yes, within SAFE there are several examples that you can review. Also, if you have any problems with a model you have created, contact support@csiberkeley.com and they will answer you queries or tell you if ther are problems with your model. ...

Civil Engineering: Steel deck + concrete diaphragm, Shear Capacity of Steel Decking
Shear Capacity of Steel Decking: Hi Pier, I think this is to do with the shear capacity of the lugs that are welded through the decking on to the steel beams. Once you know what diaphragm forces you need to transfer between the concrete and the steel beams, then you can use the guide to...

Civil Engineering: Structural engineering, Shear Wall Design
Shear Wall Design: Hi Sreekanth, That depends on the aspect ration of the building (height to minimum horizontal dimension) and also on the extent of lateral loading- e.g. wind, seismic, etc. Generally speaking buildings over about 5-10 stories need shear walls or other forms...

Civil Engineering: sizing structural materials of a deck, main beams, timber beams
main beams, timber beams, cinder block: Hi Joel, Due to liability reasons, I cannot perform a design for you but merely give advice. I would imagine that for a 4m by 5m deck (or is it 4x8m?- if it s 8m, then the main beams should span the shorter distance-i.e. 4m), you could use timber beams...

Civil Engineering: study of careers in Engineering, errors and omissions insurance, city planners
errors and omissions insurance, city planners, malpractice insurance: 1. Most are either hired by Private Engineering some are hired by government entities. City Planners usually graduate with a specialized planning degree which is different than a Bachelors of Civil Engineering - BCE 2.There are several specializations depending...

Civil Engineering: bond strength between concrete and reinforced steel, steel source, bond strength
steel source, bond strength, reinforcing bars: Hello Ahetesham, I have found some sites which will be able to give you some further information to your question. Please find them below; http://books.google.com/books?id=0CzEJNxmcZUC&pg=PA103&lpg=PA103&dq=test+procedure+of+finding+bond+strength+between+concrete+and+reinforced+steel&source=web&ots=zUSiSkzk_R&sig=Ig6Rq5LImvuQuiPEDr_oTjdNxQo&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result...

Civil Engineering: Career Interview Questions, ketchikan high school, drainage structures
ketchikan high school, drainage structures, natural environments: Hey Tyler, Sorry for the late response but I will try answer these, I have copied and pasted from previous questions which I have answered. -What kind of tasks do you do on a daily basis? This depends on what type of work you do. Whether it is design...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering, Extending Foundations
Extending Foundations: Hi Awais, The best way to do this is to hack back the side of the existing foundation to about 50mm beyond the back of the existing vertical rebar at the sides, and then loop around new horizontal rebar that will bond fully into the new base (both top and...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering, undergraduate civil engineering, civilengineer
undergraduate civil engineering, civilengineer, eng tips: Hey Yusuke, There are some forums and magazines which you could sign up with below; http://www.cseforum.net/ http://www.eng-tips.com/ http://www.cebulletin.com/ http://thecivilengineer.org/forum/index.php http://www.engineeringcivil.com/journals-and-magazines...

Civil Engineering: what is the definition, definition of specific gravity, specific gravity of soil
definition of specific gravity, specific gravity of soil, density of water: Hello Nurshafia, This is probably belated and apologies for that as my internet was disconnected... Basically specific gravity (Gs) is defined as the ratio of the unit weight (or density) of soil solids only to unit weight (or density) of water. ...

Civil Engineering: Foundation design, nrc cnrc, slab foundations
nrc cnrc, slab foundations, high rise buildings: Hello Julie, I can t really indicate what is economical and what is not as I do not know all of the specifications and more importantly the type of foundation conditions and budget which exists. You can do some research on different types of foundations...

Civil Engineering: Career Interview Questions, nationality, engineer
Civil Engineering: Career Interview Questions, nationality, engineer

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering

Civil Engineering: foundation, Extending Foundations
Extending Foundations: Hi Daniel, If you are connecting the foundations, then it would be better to also connect the rest of the building, especially if you are in a seismic zone. Also, in order to mitigate the differential settlement, make the new foundations a bit bigger than...

Civil Engineering: hi, my question is about Theis equation (grownd water), aquitard, geological formations
aquitard, geological formations, mechanical behavior: Hello Ammar, The Theis equation was derived under the assumption that total stress in the aquifer was constant and the mechanical behavior of the confining unit was neglected. In reality, most geological formations, especially those which are well consolidated,...

Civil Engineering: Interview Questions, wastewater infrastructure, civil engineer
wastewater infrastructure, civil engineer, intense course: Hey Mark, Apologies for the late response. I will do my best at answering these questions. -What are some recent trends you ve noticed in civil engineering? Some trends include; 1. Green building design and construction; greening the indoor environment...

Civil Engineering: job prospects, water resources engineering, fire protection engineering
water resources engineering, fire protection engineering, quarry design: Hello Ram, I will copy and paste from a previous question I have answered. A civil engineer basically deals with design, construction and maintenance of physical/natural environments. This includes a wide variety of works such as; bridges, roads/highways,...

Civil Engineering: Project Interview, mayfield woods middle school, writing memos
mayfield woods middle school, writing memos, everyday is a new day: Hello Binyam, I will do my best at answering, hope you don t mind if I have copied and pasted from some of my previous responses. 1. What is your daily routine? This is quite a broad question as it depends on which discipline you will want to venture...

Civil Engineering: Questions regarding ETABS, ETABS Floor Definition
ETABS Floor Definition: Hi Umar, Membranes have only in-plane stiffness (so can be used to simulate diaphragms), plates have out-of-plane stiffness only and shells have both in-plane and out-of-plane stiffness, so the latter are best for floor slabs, whilst for walls you could...

Civil Engineering: Structural Design, Rebar Lap Lengths
Rebar Lap Lengths: Hi Ravi, Lap lengths depend on a lot of variables, such as bundling, distance from edges, whether they are in tension or compression, etc. As a general rule laps should be between 30d and 50d. Best to study the relevant codes in detail. Yes, column laps...

Civil Engineering: Structural Engineering, toothpick bridge design, glue joints
toothpick bridge design, glue joints, flat toothpicks: Hello Matthew, Well firstly you are given specifications I assume, so considering your specifications you will then need to decide on a bridge design. There are various bridge designs, and we all know that a truss is the most strongest configuration in...

Civil Engineering: work from home opprtunity for civil engg, bangalore india, apartment construction
bangalore india, apartment construction, residential apartment: Dear Sir, Of course, you could always work from home provided however you have good connections to get enough design assignments to pay the bills; I m assuming you are a Structural designer, are you not? Hope this helps! Dr. Jarkas PS: I will be...

Civil Engineering: Anchoring in RCC, Hilti Anchors
Hilti Anchors: Hi Syed, There is no drawing attached, but in any case you should not just rely on an adhesive as that can fail due to concrete surface spalling. You should use Hilti anchor bolts, which are long enough to anchor well behind the main longitudibal rebar...

Civil Engineering: Best civil specialties for employment?, transportation areas, civil engineering
transportation areas, civil engineering, prospects: 1.) It is hard to say with current economy situation but it looks like things are coming around in the site development and transportation areas. 2.) In the past I have seen some civil site sent out to India but it has to be good fit for the firm. Simple site...

Civil Engineering: beam design formulas, grade beam concrete civil engineering design
grade beam concrete civil engineering design: Hello Raju, I haven t come across this just yet in my studies, however, I was able to find some links which may be of some help to you: http://www.beforethearchitect.com/Articles-FDN%20A%20GBM.htm http://www.eng-tips.com/viewthread.cfm?qid=279&page=32...

Civil Engineering: building construction, terrazzo tiles, terrazo floors
terrazzo tiles, terrazo floors, interior design articles: Hello, I have listed two websites which have the information you need. http://www.articlesbase.com/interior-design-articles/how-to-lay-polished-terrazzo-floor-finishes-1295896.html http://www.gharexpert.com/articles/Flooring-1495/Terrazzo-flooring-Mosaic-or-Marble-chip-flooring-_0.aspx...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineer Interview, chemistry physics, bell technologies
chemistry physics, bell technologies, stringent deadlines: Hello Tom, Q. What made you choose your career? A. I completed an internship in year 10 with a telecommunication company Lucent Bell Technologies, and thats what drove me to choose engineering as a career path for my future. Q. What else did you consider...

Civil Engineering: Concrete tesing thesis, Cylinder and Cube Strengths Resrach
Cylinder and Cube Strengths Resrach: Hi Ernst, There is a lot of material available on the internet, if you google the subject (such as http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5360/is_200811/ai_n31110936/). Some of the issues you could research are: 1. Effect of size of cylinder/cube on...

Civil Engineering: cantilever slabs, Cantilever slabs
Cantilever slabs: Hi Nithya, The main advantage is that you can have a column-free zone for movement and views below the slab. The rebar is always near the top surface as that is in tension. The most critical zone is at the support where the moment and shear is at a maximum...

Civil Engineering: Dam construction, civil engineering roles design dam and express ways
civil engineering roles design dam and express ways: Hello Ankit, Let us assume the project is one of large scale and the dam is already designed and a bid has been accepted. At this point, there will be various engineers as well as civil engineers working in collaboration to complete the project. In...

Civil Engineering: Engineering Interview, writing a research paper, mental tasks
writing a research paper, mental tasks, water road: Hello Rich, 1. What physical and mental tasks does your job require you to do? Physically waking up early! Mental tasks are the ones which require more effort. This coud range from basic safety to complex design. For design tasks you need to consider everything...

Civil Engineering: Expansion joints in structures, Expansion joints in structures
Expansion joints in structures: Hi Akhtar, If the foundations are good and you do not have any problems with differential settlement, then you do not need to have any joints in the foundations or basement. For temperature movements, the levels affected are normally above ground, so you...

Civil Engineering: Expansion joints in Water retaining structures, RCC Water Tank Joints
RCC Water Tank Joints: Hi Narasinga, If the design takes care of all stresses caused due to temperature variations, and if you take care during construction (to avoid early-age shrinkage cracking), then there is no need to have any movement joints in a structure of this size....

Civil Engineering: Flat slab design of tall building, Flat Slabs in High-rise buildings
Flat Slabs in High-rise buildings: Hi Nguyun, Yes, your approach can work so long as you do not intend the slabs to be fully-fixed to the core walls and shear walls (i.e. no or little moment transfer). If you do require fixity, then the slabs need to be designed for the additional moments...

Civil Engineering: Moment magnification factor from ETABS
Civil Engineering: Moment magnification factor from ETABS

Civil Engineering: flow nets, flow nets, groundwater flow
flow nets, groundwater flow, uosl: Hey Brock, I cant say that I am bad! There are some basic steps to constructing a flownet and I have provided some useful links to help you through the sketching process. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=2pnswHxRMpoC&pg=PA540&lpg=PA540&dq=flow+nets+should+be+90+degree&source=bl&ots=xFRoYQufuM&sig=N5woqKSkzx4IgKYRFcQwtmxEvTc&hl=en&ei=JKbpSoFVgebqA-f-uOsL&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CBkQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=flow%20nets%20should%20be%2090%20degree&f=false...

Civil Engineering: Horrizontal Stirrups for Beam Bracket, hollow core slab, compression strut
hollow core slab, compression strut, gravity forces: Hi Prakash, Horizontal stirrups are normally provided for brackets and corbels to resisit the tensile forces induced by the resolution of forces by triangulation. In other words, the gravity forces are resisted by a sloping compression strut within the...

Civil Engineering: Interview, interview civil engineering
interview civil engineering: Hello Alex Apologies for my belated response, been busy with uni assessments. I will do my best to try answer these questions: 1. What college courses did you have to take to become a Civil Engineer? There are many courses taken during the 4yr degree...

Civil Engineering: Interview, uni assignments, student engineer
uni assignments, student engineer, work attire: Hey Andrew, I am currently not working but I will do my best to answer these questions when I was working...and apologies for my late response it is nearing exam time for me! Questions: 1) What duties and responsibilities are involved in your job?...

Civil Engineering: to know very better about civil engineering, computer algebra system, unseen problems
computer algebra system, unseen problems, fundamental subject: Hello Abi, Mathematics is a very fundamental subject in civil engineering. Without this foundation you will struggle in later subjects. Having a sound knowledge of maths and physics is integral to being a civil engineer. Maths is used in all types of...

Civil Engineering: Moment magnification factor from ETABS, magnification factor, bangladesh university
magnification factor, bangladesh university, department of civil engineering: Hi Dilruba, Yes, ETABS does calculate magnification factors and includes these in the output. This applies equally to slender columns with or without p-delta analysis. Yes, if you have slender columns then moment magnification is relevant. For pdelta...

Civil Engineering: Pad Foundations, underpinning pad foundation civil engineering foundations soil geotechnical engineering
underpinning pad foundation civil engineering foundations soil geotechnical engineering: Hello Tim, A pad footing is mainly used for isolated loads and the process which is adopted for pad footings is very similar to the process used for strip footings. The basic outline for the construction is as follows: - A trench is excavated with...

Civil Engineering: Point load on load bearing wall, load bearing wall, bearing blocks
load bearing wall, bearing blocks, central beam: Hi Syed, Yes, so long as the contact pressure does not exceed the capacity of the load-bearing blocks and there is no opening directly below the point load, then this solution will be fine. You could also, as an alternative, provide a down-stand beam all...

Civil Engineering: questions., university of technology sydney, millau viaduct
university of technology sydney, millau viaduct, sydney australia: Hello Dean, This is quite some interview :) Seems like fun... Where you went to college? I am still currently attended University of Technology Sydney (UTS) which is in Sydney, Australia. Would you do it all again? Yes! If somehow I can be...

Civil Engineering: Re: Lab test on durability of concrete, durability concrete civil ene gineering undergraduat
durability concrete civil ene gineering undergraduat: Hello Collin, I am not fully aware of the tests that can be performed for Concrete Durability as I am currently undertaking Concrete Design myself this semester. However, I have provided some links with some info which might be of some help to you: www.cshrp.org/products/csbf-e5.pdf...

Civil Engineering: rcc slab, RC slab support conditions
RC slab support conditions: Hi Rabi, If it is possible to provide continuity rebar across two adjacent slab panels, then that is the correct way of doing it and treating the slabs as continuous. This will be more economical than to treat them as individual slabs with simply supported...

Civil Engineering: Spring Stiffness & Subgrade Modulus, Spring Stiffness & Subgrade Modulus
Spring Stiffness & Subgrade Modulus: Hi Ravi, This is dependant on the soil type and its level of compaction. You normally get subgrade modulus values from site investigations, from which you can derive spring stiffnesses to apply to FEA models. Please visit these sites as they have some useful...

Civil Engineering: senior project dissertation topic, Green Building Case Studies
Green Building Case Studies: Hi Othman, Yes, you have the correct approach. For case studies, you could use the Bahrain WTC (with the wind turbines) and maybe another green building from Dubai. For the Bahrain WTC, you can contact the marketing department of Atkins, the architectural...

Civil Engineering: solid slab shear, Solid Slab Shear Links
Solid Slab Shear Links: Hi Mousa, This is mainly because shear in solid slabs is evenly distributed at the beam/wall supports and is usually within the shear capacity of the concrete. However, if you have concentrated heavy loads near the supports or a column without beams (flat...

Civil Engineering: striuups, Multi-legged stirrups
Multi-legged stirrups: You can have 4, and 6-leg stirrups, but these are normally in wider beams, otherwise there would be congestion. The main outer stirrup would be around the perimenter, then the next one would be the same height, but narrower, and the the 3rd one narrower than...

Civil Engineering: structural design, structural design, rebar
structural design, rebar, deg: Hi Raviarjun, This is a major change in size, as the only common area is 200X200, so I would say it will be difficult to make it work, unless the loading above 1st floor is much reduced. You need to either increase the rebar in the core 200X200, or else...

Civil Engineering: structural design, beam elements, concrete column
beam elements, concrete column, etabs: Hi Ravi, 1. This depends on the slenderness and natutal frequency of the building as well as local codes. In general any building with an aspect ratio (height/width) of less than 3 will not require dynamic analysis. 2. Yes, so long as the 700 is parallel...

Civil Engineering: structural eng, floor beams, building demolition
floor beams, building demolition, transfer girder: Hi Gracious, This is a complex and potentially dangerous proposition, as the only way you can do it safely is to have a massive transfer girder under the planted columns at the first floor level, and this girder will somehow need to be prestressed so that...

Civil Engineering: Assessing a new house, security conditions, nhi
security conditions, nhi, soundness: Hi Idahor, You really need to consult an estate agent/surveyor for a detailed list, but these websites should assist. As far as structure is concerned, you need to check for any cracks, settlement, rot in timer, etc. http://www.housing.org.uk/ http://www.nhi.org/...

Civil Engineering: Basement Walls, plinth beams, lateral stiffness, spring stiffnesses
lateral stiffness, spring stiffnesses, seismic loads: Hi Muhammad, UBC makes the recommendation you have quoted as these members, when cracked, lead to higher sways/deflections of the frame/building. If a slab is supported on beams, then whether the slab is cracked or not makes little difference to lateral...

Civil Engineering: Catapults, wooden skewer, popsicle sticks
wooden skewer, popsicle sticks, popsicle stick: Hey Dylan, Apologies I had exams and was not able to respond. Unfortunately I do not know much about the construction of catapults, however I have tried to research some links which might be of some use to you: http://building-a-catapult.com/16719.html...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering Questions, hume freeway, civil engineering department
hume freeway, civil engineering department, university of technology sydney: Hello Erika, I will copy and paste some answers from previous questions which I have answered. 1. What s your name, highest academic degree & colleges attended? Jeanette Alkhatib, I am still currently attending University of Technology Sydney studying...

Civil Engineering: Column Loading, load paths, vertical load
load paths, vertical load, slabs: Hi Ravi, Changing the rebar distribution will make little difference. You can alter the load-paths by changing relative stiffnesses of slabs/beams/columns, by introducing additional beams, or by making the top of the relevant column a partial pin-joint...

Civil Engineering: Construction demolition, Demolition of Hordy Slab
Demolition of Hordy Slab: hi Maher, Without knowing the details it is difficult to advise, but basically for a hordy slab system that spans one-way, you can demolish any part of it parallel to the ribs so long as you do not demolish any part of the supporting beams or walls at each...

Civil Engineering: civil engineer, Pros & Cons of Civil Engineering Career
Pros & Cons of Civil Engineering Career: Hi William, I presume you enquire about a career in civil engineering? If so, the advantages are that you will learn a lot of different aspects of engineering and have great travel opportunities as this career can take you all over the world. The other...

Civil Engineering: concrete technology, Heat of Hydration
Heat of Hydration: Hi Dichusie, By minimising the cement content or replacing some cement with pozzalana or fly ash. You can also mitigate the problems associated with heat of hydration by chilling the aggregates, using iced water and insulating the formwork and exposed surfaces...

Civil Engineering: concrete technology, u bourgogne, c3a
u bourgogne, c3a, concrete technology: Hello Dichusie, Below are some useful sites which give you an indepth answer to your question. epena.u-bourgogne.fr/Members/Sylvie/papiers.../canmet06SP.pdf http://books.google.com.au/books?id=jYmg8XCEnycC&pg=PA343&lpg=PA343&dq=influence+of+gypsum+in+the+hydration+of+C3A&source=bl&ots=3xIL0u_MOj&sig=RB0bwtYTKrX-tCWZcC0OZToS-Lc&hl=en&ei=AzIZS8LGKdWgkQXWy9nlAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAgQ6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=influence%20of%20gypsum%20in%20the%20hydration%20of%20C3A&f=false...

Civil Engineering: concrete tehnology, Gap Graded Aggregate
Gap Graded Aggregate: Hi Dichusie, With gap graded aggregate, you achieve the best density, durability and strength of a concrete mix with the least amount of cement required. Check this website for more details: http://www.engineeringcivil.com/concrete-mix-design-as-per-indian-standard-code.htm...

Civil Engineering: How to construct domes using etabs, ETABS Extruding Lines to Areas
ETABS Extruding Lines to Areas: Hi Mohammed, The procedure is as I described in my answer above. In addition, you can visit the CSI website and download the watcha nd learn video tutorials: http://www.csiberkeley.com/Support_WL_ETABS.html The one for radial ramps is relevant to...

Civil Engineering: core cutting test, Concrete Cores Extraction
Concrete Cores Extraction: Hi Raj, The strength gain after 28 days depends on several factors, including method and length of curing, ambient conditions, mix design, ingredients (additives), etc. In general, you can count on additional strength gain of between 5-15% of the specified...

Civil Engineering: Determining the location of plastic hinge in a uniformaly loaded steel beam, plastic hinge, moment equations
plastic hinge, moment equations, bending moment: Hello Osman, Can I know if you have been taught the Principle of Work method by your teacher? I can then help answer your question when I know what you have been taught. Also, is that all that was given with the question? Any values? Take care, Jeanett...

Civil Engineering: design of footings, geocal, google
geocal, google, atterburg limits: Hi Ibrahim, These are very basic principals that you should study from a text book before attempting to design a any footings. Please refer to these websites that will guide you: http://books.google.com/books?id=2VxjlzKrLPYC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=atterburg+limits+foundation+design&source=bl&ots=KPHO9WzAoX&sig=ZgcEaos1N6rdkau1ha9WbPLvmpw&hl=en&ei=BdI0SpucDcPJ-Aa0wvSgDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2#v=onepage&q=&f=false...

Civil Engineering: ETABS questions, csi berkeley, berkeley website
csi berkeley, berkeley website, input file: Hi Sai, Your query is not very clear to me. I presume you are looking for an input file (EDB file) for a RC building? If so, this is not in PDF format. If you are looking for some sample buildings, then ETABS has many incorporated within the software....

Civil Engineering: ETABS Section Cuts, ETABS Section Cuts
ETABS Section Cuts: Hi Ravi, many of the questions you ask me about ETABS can be answered by simply going to the help menu, such as below: Draw Section Cuts Form: Section Cut Stresses & Forces Use the Draw menu Draw Section Cuts command to display integrated forces...

Civil Engineering: Etabs (Perimeter beam for flat plate), manual calculations, bending moment
manual calculations, bending moment, use auto: Hi Jimmy, Yes, what you assume is correct- if the slab is quite stiff in relation to the beam, then it will not transfer a lot of load on to the beam. However, if you change the out-of-plane stiffness modifiers for the slabs (to simulate cracked sections...

Civil Engineering: etabs wall design, etabs, spandrel
etabs, spandrel, reinforcement: Hi Ravi, This procedure is a bit long to describe over this medium, but if you refer to the manuals provided by the software (and also on-line), you will get the full guidance. Basically you need to define the Pier and spandrel numbers first and after...

Civil Engineering: Final Year project in Kenya, metro light rail, ngong
metro light rail, ngong, urban cities: Jambo Eick, This is not quite my area of expertise, but knowing the problems of urban cities in Kenya (esp Nairobi), I would suggest the following topics for your project: 1. Feasibility/benefits of fly-overs (one or two directional) across the roundabouts...

Civil Engineering: Final Year project topics, Final Year project topics
Final Year project topics: Hi Junaid, This is such a wide subject- it could any of the following: 1. High strength concrete 2. Sustainable construction 3. Minimising carbon footprint 4. Faster construction techniques 5. Self-compacting concrete 6. Efficient design of flat...

Civil Engineering: Fireproofing of steel buildings, Fireproofing of steel buildings
Fireproofing of steel buildings: Hi Civilian, Fire ratings are determined in accordance with local authority regulations and so you need to refer to these in oredr to deteremine hwich structures require firproofing, and to what rating (usually by no. of hours resistance). The 3 main...

Civil Engineering: Foundations in swamps, granular soil, reinforced concrete
granular soil, reinforced concrete, construction issues: Hi Curtis, A raft would be adviseable, as swamps can have soft ground, and the raft will spread the pressure equally. For construction, you will need to provide temporary bunds or sheet-piling around the excavation, will need to de-water the excavation...

Civil Engineering: concrete tehnology, concrete technology, technology visit
Civil Engineering: concrete tehnology, concrete technology, technology visit, gap

Civil Engineering: Etabs (Perimeter beam for flat plate), bending moment, column design
Civil Engineering: Etabs (Perimeter beam for flat plate), bending moment, column design, axial load

Civil Engineering: flat slab and flat plate, Flat Slabs
Flat Slabs: Hi Sara, Flat slabs in Bahrain are either plain RC or post-tensioned. The latter are more economical for larger spans (more than say 6m, as they also reduce the thickness and hence loading on supporting beams, columns and foundations. Flat slabs have the...

Civil Engineering: hollow blocks, Hollow-Pot Floor system
Hollow-Pot Floor system: Hi Chebet, Yes, you can use hollow blocks (or clay pots) in between RC ribs to form a what is called hollow-pot floor slab. The slab will be one-way spanning (on to beams of load-bearing walls) and will probably be about 250 to 275mm thick, with 125 to...

Civil Engineering: Large Opening in Flat Slab, external reinforcement, relative proportions
external reinforcement, relative proportions, slab thickness: Hi Ravi, If the spacing is only 2.7m, then with a hole 1.2m diameter the slab stops behaving like a continuous flat slab and you basically have short cantilever slabs from the columns either side of the hole. So long as you detail the rebar accordingly,...

Civil Engineering: Main & Secondary beam sections, secondary beam, bottom surfaces
secondary beam, bottom surfaces, main beam: Hi Ibrahim, Work out which one attracts more loading due to it position within the slab, and make that primary. Then, if the two beams cross over, keep the rebar for the main beam nearest the top and bottom surfaces, and the secondary beam rebar can be...

Civil Engineering: In some portion of beam decreasing the effective Cover will effect the strength of beam?, Effective Depth reduction of RC beam
Effective Depth reduction of RC beam: Hi Javed, If the portion of concrete you have chipped off is in the compression zone (e.g. mid-span of a simply supported beam), then yes you have effectivly reduced the compression zone and the effective depth of the beam, so its capacity will be reduced....

Civil Engineering: procedures for the design of flexible pavements, airport pavements, highway pavements
airport pavements, highway pavements, flexible pavements: Hello Glaiza, Below are some websites which hopefully will assist in your research; http://onlinemanuals.txdot.gov/txdotmanuals/pdm/approved_pavement_design_methods.htm www.tenaxus.com/literature/app_geosynthetics/GRID-DE6.pdf http://pavementinteractive.org/index.php?title=TxDOT:Flexible_Pavement_General_Design_Procedures...

Civil Engineering: Questions:Etabs Beam Design and UBC, ETABS Slabs Stiffness Modifiers
ETABS Slabs Stiffness Modifiers: Hi Muhammad, The reason you are getting different moments in the support beams is because you have modelled one shell element spanning between the peripheral beams and columns, and at 12 inches thick this has a lot of out-of-plane stiffness, so much of...

Civil Engineering: Relation between the thickness of a wall and its length, RC Dams/walls
RC Dams/walls: Hi John, This depends on which type of dam wall you are designing- an arch dam or a gravity dam or a cantilever dam. In the former, the concrete wall arches in a horizontal plane against the sides of the valley(and can also arch across the vertical plane...

Civil Engineering: Request for interview, henry ford community college, change professions
henry ford community college, change professions, henry ford community college dearborn: Hello Sammy, I will do my best at answering your questions, hope I don t bore you! 1. What do you enjoy most/least about engineering? MOST: I enjoy the new challenges that you are faced with on a day to day basis. Could range from large scale to...

Civil Engineering: reinforcement details when beam cross each other, Rebar Detailing Rules
Rebar Detailing Rules: Hi Ibrahim, You have not indicated whether the beams terminate at A,B,C, and D or whether they are continuous. If they terminate, the detailing depends on whether you have designed the beams as simply supported or fixed, so that they form a sort of portal...

Civil Engineering: Supports under Raft(Etabs), spring support, bending moments
spring support, bending moments, rafts: Hi Muhammad, If you have access to the Atkins Stroogle website, you will see the full arguments there for and against fixed supports. For any building more than a few storeys high, it makes little difference as to whether you use fixed or pinned supports....

Civil Engineering: stay plates, Stay or Stiffner Plates
Stay or Stiffner Plates: Hi Civilian, These are stiffener plates either at the ends or along the lengths of I-beams, H-columns or C-channels, to make them stiffer against buckling. The spacing depends on the axial load as well as the geometry and thickness of the flanges. This...

Civil Engineering: structural design, slab design, flat slab
slab design, flat slab, etabs: Hi Ravi, 1. You can consider them fixed, but with property modifiers to simulate cracked sections for purposes of sway/deflection. 2. That depends on whether the peripheral beams are supporting the slab or vice-versa. If the latter, then there is no...

Civil Engineering: structural design, Column minimum size
Column minimum size: Hi Ravi, Only if it is a very lightly loaded column (in fact this could be classified as an RC wall), and you can get away with one layer of vertical rebar in the middle, as otherwise you will not be able to get adequate cover for durability/fire resistance....

Civil Engineering: structural engineering, chemistry physics, physics engineering
chemistry physics, physics engineering, structural engineer: Hello Ivonne, Well if youre referring to classes in highschool they would be: - Maths - Chemistry - Physics - Engineering Studies Thats some subjects that are useful for a future in engineering. However, you get taught that in university anyway...

Civil Engineering: Temperature analysis in R.C.C. building, load combinations, stress load
load combinations, stress load, temperature stress: Hi Ravi, If your building does not have very stiff columns or shear walls, then the temperature analysis may not show up significant results. Remember also that the range of temperature variation has a major impact on the results- so do input the full range....

Civil Engineering: Concrete Setting and Strength Gain Rates, Concrete Setting and Strength Gain Rates
Concrete Setting and Strength Gain Rates: Hi Ibrahim, This depends on a lot of variables such as temperature, humidity, cement content, water/cement ratio, additives, etc. The initial setting time can vary from an hour to a few hours. As for the strength gain rates, again this depends on various...

Civil Engineering: Cost estimate for a concrete water tank, RC Water Tank Design
RC Water Tank Design: Hi Robert, The dimensions now look fine. I have designed many such tanks and have never had to resort to using piles. Sandy material, if it is capable of supporting 75-100 kN/m3 as a safe bearing capacity, will not require any piles, especially if you locate...

Civil Engineering: choosing of final year project, Final Year Topics
Final Year Topics: Hi Damian, Here are some suggestions: 1. High strength concrete 2. Durability of concrete. 3. Optimisation of structures. 4. Punching shear in flat slabs. 5. Long term deflection of concrete beams/slabs. 6. Modern methods of construction. 7. Sustainable...

Civil Engineering: About civil engineering terms, Building Terminology & Glossary
Building Terminology & Glossary: Hi Sakthi, These websites will assist: http://diydata.com/general_building/building_glossary.php http://www.homecontents.com.au/buildingdictionary/index.php?p=1# If you need help with any other terms, type it in Google and you will get lots of...

Civil Engineering: DEFLECTION IN RC SLAB, post tension slab, burj dubai tower
post tension slab, burj dubai tower, external reinforcement: Hi Maher, From what I can make out, this is a flat slab and the span in question is an end-span. In this case the thickness is insufficient, and the long term deflection (including live loading) should be restricted to about 40mm. Incorporating beams may...

Civil Engineering: Dynamic-Diaphragm Eccentricity, Earthquake Directional Effects
Earthquake Directional Effects: Hi Muhammad, Yes, that is correct, but also ensure you have the negative direction load combinations. As for which elements contribute, this depends on your structral system- for example if you have a moment resisting frame system or a dual system, then...

Civil Engineering: design of pile cap bridge using BS 8110, Bridge Pile Cap
Bridge Pile Cap: Hi Fairul, Technically there is no reason why you cannot use BS8110 for this, but you may need to check with the approving authorities, in case they have any strict regulations in place. Please ensure you take bridge dynamic loading into account as well...

Civil Engineering: Elevator Loading .Etabs, Lift Room Loading
Lift Room Loading: Hi Muhammad, Yes, that is correct- normally this is 7.5 kN/m2 within the lift machine room space. You should also allow for impact loading within the lift pit, in case of emergency. This varies from manufacturer to manufacturer, so refer to lift supplier...

Civil Engineering: Equipment Foundation, Machine Foundation
Machine Foundation: Hi Vimalan, This is too complex a subject to describe in detail over this forum, but you can get info from the web, such as: http://shop.bsigroup.com/en/ProductDetail/?pid=000000000000078225 http://www.eng-tips.com/viewthread.cfm?qid=110197&page=6...

Civil Engineering: etabs modification factor, eng tips, dynamic analysis
eng tips, dynamic analysis, background info: Hi Ravi, No, it depends on which code you are designing to, and so you need to stick to the recommendations therein. For example, time period and acceleration for buildings change with cracked sections. Refer to this forum for more background info: http://www.eng-tips.com/viewthread.cfm?qid=253157&page=...

Civil Engineering: Structures & detailing, RC Detailing
RC Detailing: Hi Ruwan, In oredr to understand that, please study some books on RC design- this is too big a subject to describe over this forum. Briefly, concrete is weak in tension and strong in compression. Rebar detailing is the method of fixing rebar in RC structures...

Civil Engineering: Mini/Micro dams, hydraulics lab, pmts
Civil Engineering: Mini/Micro dams, hydraulics lab, pmts, pubs

Civil Engineering: pile foundation, thick slab, lift shaft
Civil Engineering: pile foundation, thick slab, lift shaft, tower area

Civil Engineering: final year project, STAAD.Pro Tutorials
STAAD.Pro Tutorials: Hi Dayveed, This is too complex a subject to go through this medium, but you can learn the basics of STAAD.Pro by following its help menus, and also on-line tutorials: http://www.fileguru.com/apps/staadpro_tutorial http://pdfdatabase.com/index.php?q=fee+online+staad+tutorial...

Civil Engineering: final year project, high strength concrete, concrete beams
high strength concrete, concrete beams, flat slabs: Hi Mahe, You have not mentioned which aspects of civil engineering interest you most, but if this is in structures, you could consider: 1. High strength concrete 2. Durability of concrete. 3. Optimisation of structures. 4. Punching shear in flat slabs....

Civil Engineering: floating slab, raft slab, flat slab
raft slab, flat slab, slab footing: Hi Ravi, I don t quite understand what you mean by a floating slab/footing. If you mean a raft slab/footing, then you can browse my previous answers to that subject- basically the rebar detailing would be like a suspended flat slab, but up-side down...

Civil Engineering: knowledge about reinforcement and structure, RC Detailing & Curtailment
RC Detailing & Curtailment: Hi Ameen, Best of luck in your interview. You can refer to BS 8110 for detailing rules amd also check these websites for assistance: http://www.kbrebar.co.uk/bs-8666 www.cse.polyu.edu.hk/~tommy/under/reinforce.pdf http://www.pdf-search-engine.com/reinforced-concrete-detailing-pdf.htm...

Civil Engineering: Lift Shaft design, Lift Shaft terminating at GF
Lift Shaft terminating at GF: Hi Ravi, You can start from the GF, but you will still need a 1.5m (approx) deep pit for the lift over-shoot and also you will have problems with transfering lateral shear from the 5 storeys (wind/seismic loading) down to the foundations, unless you do...

Civil Engineering: Load Combinations Eurocode 8, Eurocode 8 Load Combinations
Eurocode 8 Load Combinations: Hi Muhammad, I have not used Eurocode 8 much, but this website should assist you for load combinations: http://books.google.com/books?id=Aaa5sUHmN7cC&pg=PA124&lpg=PA124&dq=eurocode+8+load+combinations&source=bl&ots=76kbtsB_i8&sig=RBx__kjU8JtBSwBI2h96GJGUWUo&hl=en&ei=C08yS_WaNoO8jAff_9XTAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=eurocode%208%20load%20combinations&f=fals...

Civil Engineering: Mini/Micro dams, Mini Dams in Wadis
Mini Dams in Wadis: Hi Abdul, Yes it is possible to construct micro/Mini dams, which could be made from either concrete of earth (with a clay core). However, knowing the nature of wadis in desert areas, your main problem will be leakage from the reservoir, due to the porous...

Civil Engineering: masonary infils, Masonry Infills in Framed Structures
Masonry Infills in Framed Structures: Hi Umar, You are quite correct- this detail is very important especially where the in-fill blockwork does not have any openings such as windows, etc, and where the structures relie on lateral stability by means of MRF or SMRF, or a dual system. You are...

Civil Engineering: model hollowcore slabs in etabs, Hollow Core Slabs in ETABS
Hollow Core Slabs in ETABS: Hi Kaiser, Here are 2 ways you can do this: 1. Model slabs as Shell, with special one-way load distribution. If out-of plane bending stiffness is not of concern, then you can model the slab as equivalent solid with reduced thickness. Remember to include...

Civil Engineering: modeling of ground supported concrete slabs, Grade Slabs Modelling
Grade Slabs Modelling: Hi Yogesh, 1. Meshing is dictated by overall slab proportions and any concentrated loading positions. There should be at least 6-10 elements between any loading positions, and at least 10-12 for any length/breadth of a slab. Also, as a rule of thumb, the...

Civil Engineering: Piles alignment with Pile Cap, Pile Cap/Piles
Pile Cap/Piles: Hi Emel, The pile cap should remain positioned centrally on the piles. If the column cannot be re-positioned to centre of pile cap, then re-analyse the pile cap/pile group to assess whether the re-distributed loading on the piles is within capacity. If...

Civil Engineering: Pour Strips/ Shrinkage strips, lap length, slabs
lap length, slabs, rebar: Hi Shekhar, In both cases, the pour strip should be at least as wide as the lap length of the rebar, and hence the laps should be formed within the pour strip to minimise shrinkage restraint. In the case of suspended slabs, the strip should be located at...

Civil Engineering: Projected loads, Stadium Design
Stadium Design: Hi Muhammad, 1. Yes projected gravity load is correct. Also remember to add in the dynamic loading due to crowds, as per your local code requirements. 2. So long as your load distribution from slabs to beams is correct, you can use ETABS. But you should...

Civil Engineering: pile foundation, Pile Caps & Ground Beams
Pile Caps & Ground Beams: Hi Maher, Yes, in this case include tie-beams and place the fllor slab on grade. But remember that tie beams are only really necessary for one or two piles pile-caps to resist moments in the weaker direction. (so for one pile cap, need beams in both directions,...

Civil Engineering: pile foundation, Pile caps vs raft
Pile caps vs raft: Hi Maher, Yes, you can use pile caps and to help in waterproofing and also ease of construction, you can intergrate the basemnet slab with the pile caps (so top of pile caps is same level at the basment floor. In this case, if you make the basement slab...

Civil Engineering: pre engineering building, Pre- engineered buildings
Pre- engineered buildings: Hi Ravi, A pre-engineered building is one that has its main structural members analysed, designed and sized up for clients to choose from say a catalogue and order. This relates mainly to steel warehouses and pre-cast concrete portal frames and pre-cast...

Civil Engineering: prospects in Australia, civil engineer salary, max salary
civil engineer salary, max salary, maximum salary: Hello Raviarjun, Its Miss by the way - as for your question: Prospects: Excellent - shortage of engineers in Australia and plentiful work Minimum and maximum salary can be found at this link: http://www.payscale.com/research/AU/Job=Civil_Engineer/Salary...

Civil Engineering: Questions regarding civil engineering, Maps, Geography
Maps, Geography, survey equipment: Hi Zabdiel, 1. For design of roads, canals, railways, bridges dams etc, one need a good idea of the geography, so that the alignment and location can be optimal in terms of cut and fill, spans, foundation locations, etc. 2. Maps are used to determine...

Civil Engineering: Rebar Lap Length in-case of welding, wall reinforcement, lap length
wall reinforcement, lap length, shape size: Hi Victor, This really depends on what type of electrides and weld (shape/size) you use. However, if you are going to build a walkway 1200mm each side of the wall, you really do not need to do any welding. Just cut out the concrete at the top of the wall...

Civil Engineering: Ribbed Slab Cross-rib, Ribbed Slab Cross-rib
Ribbed Slab Cross-rib: Hi Aladdin, Perhaps you have not understood what I meant. A ribbed slab comprises ribs at say 450 to 600mm centres, connected by a relatively thin flange (topping). So, if you have a concentrated load along one rib (e.g. a wall parallel to the rib), without...

Civil Engineering: raft slabs, Raft Foundation
Raft Foundation: Hi Kay, The basic detailing of a raft is like that of a suspended flat slab, but upside-down. So, if you have a column in the centre of the raft, you will have concentrated rebar around its footprint in the bottom layers. I do not have a link for an...

Civil Engineering: retaining wall, Length of RC Wall Casting
Length of RC Wall Casting: Hi Naseer, You can pour the full length, but your design for the distribution (horzontal) rebar will need to cater for the greater stresses caused by the early age shrinkage. To reduce these stresses (and rebar quantity), you could consider incorporating...

Civil Engineering: retaining wall design ?, Reatining Wall Analysis
Reatining Wall Analysis: Hi Leon, This forum discourages doing homework assignments, but I will of course give you some pointers. Please visit these websites for assistance: http://www.sbe.napier.ac.uk/esm/eurocode7/retaining_walls.html (example 7.1 looks relevant for you)....

Civil Engineering: Section cuts-etabs, horizontal cuts, negative moment
horizontal cuts, negative moment, axial force: HI Muhammad, Yes, this part is covered in the help menu, as quoted below. These are left and right sides of the section cut. So if you start the section cut from bottom of your plan to top, left and right sides are as you see them on the screen. If the...

Civil Engineering: Shear wall weight in psf, Building Materials Estimates
Building Materials Estimates: Hi Muhammad, I don t know why you wish to work this out, but the only sensible way is to work out the total weight of the walls and beams (and columns)per floor and divide by total floor area. ETABS does that for you by way of their Show Tables Building...

Civil Engineering: Slabless stair design, Saw Tooth Stairs
Saw Tooth Stairs: Hi Muhammad, This website has some suggested detailing: http://www.sefindia.org/?q=system/files/REREINDETAILING.ppt#41 The analyis can be done assuming a straight sloping slab, but the design will need to cater for the opening and closing moments...

Civil Engineering: Soil Mechanics Projects, Soil Mechanics Projects
Soil Mechanics Projects: Hi Aparna, I am not an expert in this field, but relating to structures, you could look into: 1. Effect of compaction on lateral pressures on retaining or basement walls. 2. Influence of water table on soils bearing capacity 3. Effect of cement stabilisation...

Civil Engineering: Study of RCC Design, diploma engineer, beam design
diploma engineer, beam design, line education: Hi Pradipta, Yes there is a lot of on-line learning material, such as: http://www.bsigroup.com/en/Search-Results/?q=reinforced+concrete www.colincaprani.com/files/notes/Moment%20design.pdf http://pdfdatabase.com/index.php?q=basic+rc+beam+design...

Civil Engineering: senior project, Steel Structures Senior Project
Steel Structures Senior Project: Hi Hani, This really depends on what interests you most, but here are some suggested subjects: 1. Modern methods of fabrication/erection. 2. Pre-engineered steel structures. 3. Economical methods of fire-proofing. 4. Bolted versus Welded- pros and...

Civil Engineering: stair supporting beam construction, cement slurry, arshad khan
cement slurry, arshad khan, expanded polystyrene: Hi Tesfaye, I principle your gut feeling is correct, but in practice the method I have mentioned is commonly used and is adequate for shear so long as aggregate is exposed and the surface prepared. If you want a more positive connection, you can ask that...

Civil Engineering: standerds of, Basic RC Design and Standards
Basic RC Design and Standards: Hi Ibrahim, Your question is not very clear but if you want some standards and basic guidance in RC design, then visit these websites: http://www.bsigroup.com/en/Search-Results/?q=reinforced+concrete www.colincaprani.com/files/notes/Moment%20design.pdf...

Civil Engineering: steel deck concrete on wood frame support, Economical House Construction
Economical House Construction: Hi Jeff, Corrugated sheets can be used as permanent shutters/formwork for RC slabs, and if they have any types of ridges or ribs that can form a good positive bond with the concrete it can also contribute towards the rebar requirement by composite action....

Civil Engineering: stone masonary, Masonry Retaining Wall
Masonry Retaining Wall: Hi Ibrahim, This depends on a lot of variables, such as type and compaction of soil to be retained, quality of foundations, slope of the ground above and below the retaining wall, any surcharge loading, water table, density and quality of the masonry, etc....

Civil Engineering: structural dynamics, Moment of Inertia of Combined Sections
Moment of Inertia of Combined Sections: Hi Anvesh, I do not have that book, but these websites should assist you: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/mi.html http://www.emu.edu.tr/mugp101/PHYS106/architecture/461_lectures/461_lecture28/461_lecture28.html You can work out the overall...

Civil Engineering: subgrade modulus to area springs, ETABS Area Springs
ETABS Area Springs: Hi Naeen, So long as you have consistent units (i.e. Force/Length3 ), then all you need to do is assign the value within ETABS. Also refer to following: http://www.sefindia.org/forum/viewtopic.php?p=15763 http://www.eng-tips.com/viewthread.cfm?qid=20089...

Civil Engineering: tendering and estimating, Rubble Foundation
Rubble Foundation: Hi Hussain, This should assist: http://chestofbooks.com/architecture/Building-Construction-V2/Stone-Rubble-Foundation-Walls.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubble_trench_foundation http://www.buildnaturally.com/EDucate/Articles/RubbleTrench.ht...

Civil Engineering: thumb rule, Rule of thumb
Rule of thumb: Hi Ibrahim, I have already answered this question before,and explained that there are many variables that effect this ratio. As a rule of thumb, for a gravity structure the base will need to be about 2 to 2.5m wide for a 6m height of wall, but a rule of...

Civil Engineering: UBC Torsional Irregularity, UBC Torsional Irregularity
UBC Torsional Irregularity: Hi Muhammad, From what I can make out by way of a quick review, your spreadsheet looks OK, and your interpretation of both UBC and FEMA-451 is correct. There are some differences in the two approaches (as you have noted) and some discussions/debates on...

Civil Engineering: Void in foundation for a tree, muhammad umar, raft footing
muhammad umar, raft footing, clay soils: Hi Muhammad, If you have a basement and the raft is at say 3m depth, then there may not be a need to provide a further toe wall. Insure that the basement wall is thick enough and that any external tanking/waterproofing is well protected against root damage....

Civil Engineering: BOX CULVERT DESIGN, Box Culvert Design
Box Culvert Design: Hi Bruly, Please check out these sites as they will give you all the info you need: http://www.dot.state.fl.us/structures/StructuresManual/CurrentRelease/DesignGuidelines/SDG3.15BoxCulvertDesign.htm http://structsource.com/drainage/types/culvert.htm...

Civil Engineering: Civil, QA on site-concrete and backfilling
QA on site-concrete and backfilling: Hi Nousar, Briefly, here are my answers: 1. This can cause cracking due to shrinkage and also surface crazing , which is a series of small cracks in a random pattern. 2. This can cause bubbling of the waterproofing layer as the curing releases gases...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineer interview, civil engineering technology, rochester institute of technology
civil engineering technology, rochester institute of technology, georgia institute of technology: 1)What is your job title? Senior Transportation Engineer 2)Your employer/organization - T.Y. Lin International 3)Length of Service in current job - 2 weeks 4)General Job responsibilities - In charge of all transportation projects in the Atlanta office....

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering, RC Beam Capacity
RC Beam Capacity: Hi (2485?), Your sizes of bars are nor clear and I presume the beam is 72 inches long, but is it 9 inches wide or deep? In any case, the following website will guide you as to work out the load carrying capacity of your beam: http://bccw.cityu.edu.hk/rc.design/beam_design.asp...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering, Rebar Laps
Rebar Laps: Hi Tiong, Basically the laps should be about rebar diameter x 40, but these can increase if the bars are bundled, or are near corners with low concrete cover. The normal range is between 30d and 50d. It would be best to refer also to your local code...

Civil Engineering: Existing ground slab capacity, Slab on Grade / Ground-bearing Slab
Slab on Grade / Ground-bearing Slab: Hi Carmel, Without knowing the ground conditions, it is difficult to advise you. However, based on my experience I would say that this slab will not be able to support your tank, especially if it is on bearers- if the slab is built on competent rock and...

Civil Engineering: Expansion joint in tall building, Expansion Joints in high-rise buildings
Expansion Joints in high-rise buildings: Hi Yadegari, Firstly, the 50m can be increased to 75m and even 100m, if a proper thermal analysis is done and the structure is designed to resist the additional temperature stresses. However, if a joint is required, then it only needs to be wide to avoid...

Civil Engineering: Final year project topics, concrete mix design, high strength concrete
concrete mix design, high strength concrete, modern methods of construction: Hi Saadia, This is such a wide subject- it could be on concrete mix design or durability or strength gain, or on falsework, or on modern methods of construction, slip forming, self-compacting concrete, high strength concrete, quality control, etc, etc...

Civil Engineering: BOX CULVERT DESIGN, earth pressure, horizontal force
Civil Engineering: BOX CULVERT DESIGN, earth pressure, horizontal force, water load

Civil Engineering: Expansion joint in tall building, seismic load, frame building
Civil Engineering: Expansion joint in tall building, seismic load, frame building, displacements

Civil Engineering: Final year project topics, civil engg
Civil Engineering: Final year project topics, civil engg

Civil Engineering: STAAD foundations, foundation design, nisa
Civil Engineering: STAAD foundations, foundation design, nisa

Civil Engineering: florring, rc slabs, local market
rc slabs, local market, remedy: Hi Rohit, This is difficult to assess as it depends on the local market in terms of materials costs, etc. As a general rule, ground bearing RC slabs are quite economical, with a layer of rebar mesh near the top. I cannot comment on the cause/solution...

Civil Engineering: Info about Civil Engineering, civil engineering education, construction portion
civil engineering education, construction portion, good sense of humor: I will do the best I can with short answers, I hope that will be sufficient. 1. The early years are spent designing various proejcts depending on the area you enter into. The later years become management of junior engineers and finances of the projects....

Civil Engineering: Pilecap Design, Pile Cap Design
Pile Cap Design: Hi J, Try this site for a spreadsheet: http://www.structural-engineering.fsnet.co.uk/cid.htm and also this one for guides: http://www.pdf-search-engine.com/pile-cap-design-pdf.html Also see my response to a previosu such question: http://en.allexperts.com/q/Civil-Engineering-1357/pile-cap-design.ht...

Civil Engineering: Questions about your Career, Civil Engineering Career
Civil Engineering Career: Hi Simon, My job title is Director of Structures. The starting salary for a graduate in UK would be around GBP 25,000 per annum. These are far too many questions for me to answer in detail, but I have been asked similar questions before, so if you do...

Civil Engineering: Questions for research project, transportation engineer, engineer project
transportation engineer, engineer project, math and science: Q: What is your job title? Senior Transportation Engineer/ Project Manager Q: Why did you choose this field? I choose a school that best fit my skills, i.e. math and science. Then when I got there I tried several different majors until I settled into one...

Civil Engineering: Questions about structural engineering, Career in Civil/Structural Engineering
Career in Civil/Structural Engineering: Hi Izam, My job title is Director of Structures. The starting salary for a graduate in UK would be around GBP 25,000 per annum. These are far too many questions for me to answer in detail, but I have been asked similar questions before, so if you do...

Civil Engineering: resizing overhead RC tank, Water suppy to high altitude houses
Water suppy to high altitude houses: Hi Shams, You have 2 options: 1. If there is enough pressure in the mains supply, then build another tank located at say 1300 ft or above, so that you can distribute by gravity from this new tank to the 70 higer houses, or.. 2. Put a booster pump...

Civil Engineering: Slab vibration, Slab Deflection/vibration
Slab Deflection/vibration: Hi Murvin, The short answer is that the assessment was flawed, as in order to limit deflection/vibration problems, the slab should have been at least 175-200mm thick for the spans you mentioned, especially if the slab is not an internal span (i.e. is an...

Civil Engineering: STAAD foundations, STAAD Pattern Loading
STAAD Pattern Loading: Hi Solomon, I have not used STAAD for a while, but the last version did not have this facility. The only way was to do one load case with only dead load and two other load cases with only live loading (on different alternative spans) and then combining...

Civil Engineering: Subgarde Reaction in safe, Modulus of Subgrade reaction
Modulus of Subgrade reaction: Hi Umar, I am afraid it is not as simple as that, becuase you need to take into account the load-settlement relationship. These tow websites will give you the procedures: ftp://ftp.dot.state.tx.us/pub/txdot-info/cst/TMS/100-E_series/pdfs/soi125.pdf ...

Civil Engineering: Swing Bridge with electric trolley car access, Libau Swing Bridge
Libau Swing Bridge: Hi Arnold, Not knowing the details, these are the possibilities: 1. The overhead cables were high enough to allow ships through, or 2. The overhead cables had junction boxes into which the swing bridge cables slid in/out of, or 3. The power was supplied...

Civil Engineering: Wind Loads Uganda, Wind Loads in Uganda
Wind Loads in Uganda: Hi Andrea, This really depends on location within Uganda, but in anycase I do not have the info to hand. In Kenya (Nairobi), I used 32.6 m/sec (3 second gust speed), if that helps. Also, check out this response I had given before and maybe you will get...

Civil Engineering: water proofing under raft in gulf, Raft waterproofing
Raft waterproofing: Hi Syed, There are many systems available in the Gulf, such as Sika or Servicised or Fosroc- you should contact the local agents to get details. You can also visit this site: http://www.polyflexmembrane.com/basement-waterproofing.html Regarding rebar...

Civil Engineering: Boundary Wall Joints, Expansion Joints in Walls
Expansion Joints in Walls: Hi Amal, Your question is not very clear, as it could be read in two ways: 1. If you want to know how often you need an expansion joint along the total length of the wall, then in this case you just need to cater for temporary expansion of the foundations/ground...

Civil Engineering: Column Design - Etabs, pcacol, design column
pcacol, design column, column design: Hi Agha, In that case, the only reason I can imagine for the different results is that maybe you got the signs/directions for the end-moments wrong when inputting to PCACol? If that is not the case, I suggest you send both models to CSI support and they...

Civil Engineering: Concept of Unit width Design, longitudinal axis, design question
longitudinal axis, design question, longitudinal direction: Hi Agha, One way to check this would be to take the loadings for 2 different unit widths, say 4 or 5m apart and then analysing the section longitudinally for the differential loading/stresses. From what you are saying, probably this will not be a problem...

Civil Engineering: Construction enginnering, ucalgary ca, engineer training
ucalgary ca, engineer training, physics and chemistry: Hi Brodie, Yes, that is what a structural engineer does- i.e. work with architects to design the most efficient structure to meet their aesthetic and functional requirements. A construction engineer may be defined as someone who is on the construction site...

Civil Engineering: Drink straw structures, drinking straws, straw structures
drinking straws, straw structures, teachersdomain: http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/phy03.sci.phys.mfe.zstrawbridge/ Try this link it may help, unfortunately I am not a structural engineer. Additionally I had a hard time finding a website that did not use at least some of the items you excluded. ...

Civil Engineering: Energy Work Diagram, ETABS Energy Work Diagrams
ETABS Energy Work Diagrams: Hi Umar, These basically tell you how hard each member is working (utilisation ratio), so that you can increase or decrease their sizes accoudingly in order to optimise the design. I quote form a paper by CSI: You can generate displays of energy diagrams...

Civil Engineering: examples of applied math knowledge in civil engineering, math knowledge, math classes
math knowledge, math classes, differential equations: Hello Polly, the math associated with the degree is far more difficult than the actual math used on a daily basis. I attended Georgia Tech and took 6 math classes on the quarter system. 5 calculus and differential equations. All the associated classes such...

Civil Engineering: expansion joint, Expansion Joints in high-rise buildings
Expansion Joints in high-rise buildings: Hi Abhishek Firstly, the 40-50m normal joint spacing can be increased to 75m and even 100m, if a proper thermal analysis is done and the structure is designed to resist the additional temperature stresses. However, if a joint is required, then it only...

Civil Engineering: job and spring constant value, engineer
Civil Engineering: job and spring constant value, engineer

Civil Engineering: ground slab capacity, Machine Foundation
Machine Foundation: Hi Mulugheta, If the ground is very well compacted so that it does not settle with a pressure of 50 kN/m2, then this should be OK (assuming that the machine spreads the load evenly over the footprint, and not via concentrated loads at corners, etc). ...

Civil Engineering: Hello, brett bennett, northeastern indiana
brett bennett, northeastern indiana, principles of engineering: These are alot of questions, I will do my best to brief and to the point. Q: Describe the duties and responsibilities of someone working in civil engineering. What are some specific jobs in this field? At first you are designer, designing things like...

Civil Engineering: Inclined Columns, Inclined Columns
Inclined Columns: Hi Syed, The main secondary effect of having inclined columns is that they introduce a horizontal component of the axial load into the beams/floor slabs at each level, so you need to design for these forces. Also, you need to be careful about additional...

Civil Engineering: Isolated eccentric footing, Eccentric Footing
Eccentric Footing: Hi Carmel, Yes, this is a common problem and you need to design it as an eccentrically loaded pad footing, which will have high pressure at one and (near boundary) and low to zero pressure at the other end. In order to avoid tension, you may have to extend...

Civil Engineering: job and spring constant value, Modulus of Subgrade reaction (Spring Constant)
Modulus of Subgrade reaction (Spring Constant): Hi Zargham, 1. For modulus of subgrade reaction (spring constant), refer to my answer in website below: http://en.allexperts.com/q/Civil-Engineering-1357/2009/2/Subgarde-Reaction-safe.htm 2. For jobs in the ME, the construction market has really taken...

Civil Engineering: mezzanine reinforcement, Timber decking
Timber decking: Hi Debbie, This is a bit difficult to visualise, but if you are spanning the timber decking (not slab) in the short direction, then metal framing would be sufficient at the edges. I would estimate (depending on how much shelves/books storage you plan to...

Civil Engineering: Overhead Steel Water Tank, Steel Tanks
Steel Tanks: Hi Michael, I regret that I do not carry out actual designs, for liability reasons-I just give advice. The best orientation for cylindrical tanks is for their axes to be vertical, then the walls act in hoop tension and can be quite thin (3-6mm, depending...

Civil Engineering: Patio Overhang column Removal, patio overhang, foot gap
patio overhang, foot gap, foot span: I think you would see a definite sag in the roof line if you were to remove a support. I am not a structural engineer but that is my opinion. My thoughts are placing a header across the opening to prevent that sag but I would consult a professional such as...

Civil Engineering: Project topics, concrete mix design, cement ratio
concrete mix design, cement ratio, roads and bridges: Hi Bola, Here are some suggestions: 1. Setting out accuracy (line and level)for say roads and bridges 2. Control of density and crushing strength of concrete (aggregate grading, water/cement ratio, compaction, curing, etc). 3. Proper logging of sub-soil...

Civil Engineering: School project, place stress, dealing with stress
place stress, dealing with stress, tylin: Stress encountered with the job is usually associated with time schedules or making sound engineering judgements that will cost the client money. Dealing with stress is something I handle very well due to my persona, I am a laid back individual that does not...

Civil Engineering: Seismic joint & ...., seismic loading, seismic zone
seismic loading, seismic zone, expansion joint: Hi Mehrdad, 1. Noted 2. This depends on where your main shear/core walls are. You should try and put joints at such places that each segment of the building is symmetrically restrained in both lateral directions, to avoid twisting due to seismic loading....

Civil Engineering: Silo Foundation, Silo Grade Slab
Silo Grade Slab: Hi Prasad, This would be considered a structural slab on grade, and the design needs to take account of the compaction and nature of the sub-grade and sub-base. Normally heavily loaded industrial floors would be between 200-300mm thick. For a silo, this...

Civil Engineering: Twist in Support Beam, lolly column, support beams
lolly column, support beams, structural engineer: I am not a structural engineer but it does sound as if there is a problem. Typically the column supports a major load associated with the house. I would recommend paying for a structural engineer to come and look at it. It shouldn t cost more than $500 or...

Civil Engineering: i want to set a designing consultancy, exact requirement, civil engineer
exact requirement, civil engineer, degree graduate: Hi Deepak, I am sorry but I have no experience or knowledge of requiremnets for setting up a consultancy in AP (I presume this is in India?). In any case, I would highly recommend that you gain a few years of experience before you go into such a venture,...

Civil Engineering: window cleaning equipment of roof slabs, window cleaning equipment, wheel spacing
window cleaning equipment, wheel spacing, dynamic factor: Hi Amal, In this case you need to design the slab to carry patch loads (under footprint of the pad), and you can detail waterproofing to go all around and above these pads. They should not designed as part of the slab, but considered as part of the dead...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering questions, Civil Engineering Career
Civil Engineering Career: Answer: Hi Alex, My job title is Director of Structures. The starting salary for a graduate in UK would be around GBP 25,000 per annum. These are far too many questions for me to answer in detail, but I have been asked similar questions before, so if...

Civil Engineering: Column Lateral Ties Design, RC Column Ties
RC Column Ties: Hi Amit, You cannot cut corners in this regards, as the ties are not there for shear, but mainly as restaints to the compression vertical rebar so that they do not buckle and also to give the column ductility. You can reduce the number of bars and the...

Civil Engineering: Combined foundation, Combined Footings
Combined Footings: Hi Ayman, Yes, that is a simple case of using first principles by taking moments about the edge of the base and getting equilibrium of moments and forces (actions=reactions). You will need to add in the self weight of the base, acting at the geometrical...

Civil Engineering: Cutting reinforcement by flame, Rebar Flame Cutting
Rebar Flame Cutting: Ho Wow, I do not think there is a BS restriction, but visit this site and you see lots of debate on the subject: http://www.eng-tips.com/viewthread.cfm?qid=6962&page=563 If you flame cut and then grind the ends by 2-3mm, then there should not be any...

Civil Engineering: Cylinder and Cube Strengths, Concrete Specification
Concrete Specification: Hi Vijay, You need to be careful as to which codes the concrete is referring to. If it is to the old codes, including BS 8110, then C35/20 means 35N/mm2 cube strength at 28 days and that the nominal aggregate size is 20mm. If you look at recent codes,...

Civil Engineering: clear-span load capacity, foundation footings, span sections
foundation footings, span sections, spiral staircase: Hi Jim, What you are proposing is feasible, but you will really need a local structural engineer to study the details (especially foundations) and advise you- this is too complex a problem to advise you over this forum, I regret to say. The I-beams will...

Civil Engineering: Diaphragm shear transfer in concrete slabs, Shear in Slabs due to Diaphragm action
Shear in Slabs due to Diaphragm action: Hi Adam, Firstly the shear that the diaphragm resists is the difference between the storey shear that the shear wall takes and the sum of the storey shears taken by the columns at that floor. So, having got this net shear force resisted by the slab, you...

Civil Engineering: etaabs, miss match, slabs
miss match, slabs, increment: Ravi, It is diffucult to comment without seeing the model. I suggest you send it to support at CSI and they will be able to assist. Normally meshing problems occur when you have a miss-match between slabs nodes and beams/supports nodes. Try checking...

Civil Engineering: etaabs, ETABS Offest connections
ETABS Offest connections: Hi Ravikumar, The answers to many of the questions you are asking me on ETABS are readily available in the help menu, so please make sue of that. I copy/paste from the help menu below what you are asking about: Form: Frame End Length Offsets In ETABS...

Civil Engineering: etaabs, ETABS Slabs/Beams meshing
ETABS Slabs/Beams meshing: Hi Ravi, 1. If the ground slabs are ground-bearing, rather than suspended, then there is no need to model them. 2. No, in order to get proper transmission of loads to beams, the beams should be meshed into at least 5 segments and the slabs also meshed...

Civil Engineering: Cylinder and Cube Strengths, best regard, astm
Civil Engineering: Cylinder and Cube Strengths, best regard, astm, cubes

Civil Engineering: Modelling Base Fixity Conditions, Modelling Base Fixity Conditions
Modelling Base Fixity Conditions: Hi Ravikumar, This depends on a few variables- whether it is high-rise (in this case either is fine as it makes little difference to overall stability), or whether it is portal frame (in this case it makes a big difference to stability/moment distribution)....

Civil Engineering: Notional Loads, AISC 05 Notional Loads
AISC 05 Notional Loads: Hi Tamer, This is not a code I am familiar with, but from what I can make out, notional loads need to be applied in combination with other loading, but the sway from seismic loading should not be additive to the notional loads calculation. Please refer...

Civil Engineering: Openings in RC beams, Openings in RC beams
Openings in RC beams: Hi Sandeep, This depends on whether you have any concentrated loads- if it is mainly UDL, then the safest place to locate the openings is within the middle 1/3rd span and you can probably have it up to 400mm deep and around 300-400 wide. You will need to...

Civil Engineering: Project, Roles in Projects
Roles in Projects: Hi Krishna, These are some of the projects: 1. Textile Mill in Tanzania- lead structural engineer 2. Water supply dam in Kenya- lead civil and structural engineer 3. High rise buildings: lead structural engineer 4. Brewery in Kenya: project management...

Civil Engineering: Rcc Design, RC Beams Bending Moments and Rebar
RC Beams Bending Moments and Rebar: Hi Zeeshan, This is because the bending moment diagram is such that you will have maximum tension at the bottom near mid-span (assuming uniform loading) and maximum tension at the tops at supports for constinuous beams. See details in this website: http://www.engineersedge.com/beam_bending/beam_bending5.ht...

Civil Engineering: Rebar Sizes Etabs, ETABS rebar choice
ETABS rebar choice: Hi Umar, This is from the ETABS help menu: Reinforcement Bar Sizes Form: Reinforcing Bar Sizes Define the reinforcing bar (rebar) name, diameter and area using the Reinforcing Bar Sizes form, which is accessed using the Options menu Preferences...

Civil Engineering: Steel Structures, Bolts and Grade or Ground Bearing Slabs
Bolts and Grade or Ground Bearing Slabs: Hi Syed, 1. This website has all the info you need: http://euler9.tripod.com/bolt-database/22.html 2. Ground slab is a cheaper option than a suspended slab and especially where the ground is good you can have a high capacity without too much concrete...

Civil Engineering: Stepped foundation, Stepped foundation
Stepped foundation: Hi Mohanna, You have not given me enough information, but in principle such a foundation should be done in a stepped manner, with a stiff ground beam between pads, or a continuous stepped strip footing instead of individual pads. It is difficult to assess...

Civil Engineering: Structural Steel Connections, Steel Connections
Steel Connections: Hi Syed, Visit these sites and you will have a lot of useful links/images: http://www.steel-connections.com/lmc_types.htm and http://images.google.com/images?q=steel+connections&rls=com.microsoft:en-gb:IE-SearchBox&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7GGLL_en&um=1&ie=UTF-8&ei=BV3zSaDTL8GS_Qa1ip3dCQ&sa=X&oi=image_result_group&resnum=4&ct=title...

Civil Engineering: splices in rolled steel sections, Structural Steel Section Splicing
Structural Steel Section Splicing: Hi Anees, There are two common ways of splicing: 1. Welding, using full penetration butt welds. 2. Bolting- using either end-plates (if only in compression/bending), or with splice plates if the section is mainly subjected to tensile forces. See...

Civil Engineering: structural details, double pitch, rough size
double pitch, rough size, column sizes: Hi Mohan, You have not given me enough info to advise you- for example, will the building be in RC or steel, what type of roof is intented (flat, sloping, single/double pitch), loading on roof (will there be snow in winter), is it a seismic zone, will there...

Civil Engineering: Tutorial on foundation design, Soils Interpretation for foundations design
Soils Interpretation for foundations design: Hi Kulpix, It is admirable that you wish to learn the basics rather than blindly use software. I regret to say, however, that I cannot offer tutorials over this forum and do not wish to charge anything for advice on particular questions. Please see this...

Civil Engineering: Beam design, Beam/Slab & Effective Depths
Beam/Slab & Effective Depths: Hi Solomon, The effective depth of a beam is increased if the slab is in the compression side of the beam, when compared with the same overall depth of beam. This is because the lever arm from the centre of the compression block of the concrete to the rebar...

Civil Engineering: Column Structure & design, Foundations Depth for Houses
Foundations Depth for Houses: Hi Vishwanath, Water depth is not a major criteria, but the ground conditions is what determines depth- so, without site investigations data, I am sorry that I cannot advise any further. Just ensure that the strata below the foundation can safely support...

Civil Engineering: civil engineering, Foundations for Houses
Foundations for Houses: Hi Usman, That depends on the ground conditions. If the ground is weak or likely to result in uneven settlement, then use a raft foundation. If the gound is good and even, then the best solution is to use a continuous strip footing under the load-bearing...

Civil Engineering: cracks in concrete, Concrete Repair
Concrete Repair: Hi Vivak, What you need to do is remove the concrete cover and expose the corroded rebar. Remove all loose rust from the rebar- wire brush them clean. Then apply a proprietory anti-rust liquid (such as from SIKA), and then apply repair mortar including...

Civil Engineering: deflection results in staadpro, load combinations, partition walls
load combinations, partition walls, fload: Hi Anees, In your case, the overall deflection of the slabs is a critical servicibility criterion (for example cracking of partition walls, etc), so I would consider the overall global deflection without deducting deflection of the supporting beams...

Civil Engineering: designe bridge of pipe rack, lattice structure, negative suction
lattice structure, negative suction, wind loading: Hi Malihe, I am not sure I understand your question too well, but for wind loading on an open lattice structure there are special rules, in accordance with wind loading codes- to be on the conservative side, you could consider the projected area of the...

Civil Engineering: Flat Slab, Flat Slab Analysis/Design
Flat Slab Analysis/Design: Hi Syed, This is complicated if you do not have a regular grid of supports and the only way is to use a 3-D analysis program like SAFE. Wall loads can be spread over a strip of say 1-1.5m wide and applied as a UDL. All panels need to be designed according...

Civil Engineering: RCC design, automatic drawings, softtech
Civil Engineering: RCC design, automatic drawings, softtech, struds

Civil Engineering: honeycombs in concrete, Concrete Repair
Concrete Repair: Hi Chelvan, You can repair this by ensuring all loose aggregate is removed and then using a bonding agent such as produced by SIKA, in oreder to apply the mortar- check this site for more details: http://www.sika.co.uk/uk-home/uk-con/uk-constr-conc-repprot.htm...

Civil Engineering: RC Cantilevers, RC Cantilevers
RC Cantilevers: Hi Ravi, 1. You can design any span, so long as you take care of long term deflections- so the span/depth ratio for beams needs to be between 6 and 7. 2. As above, with span/depth limit between 7 and 10. You must also ensure that the support has full...

Civil Engineering: RCC design, RCC design
RCC design: Hi Ali, This is a complex subject which you will need to learn by instruction or self-study. These sites have good reference books: http://books.google.com/books?id=yr7nmajB7XMC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=cube+and+cylinder+strengths&source=web&ots=WFCPc0Obkr&sig=L9dQXezlHNe4c5kbyCI7lOzMNVU#PPP1,M1...

Civil Engineering: raft footing, Raft Foundation
Raft Foundation: Hi Naser, A raft foundation is designed like an upside-down flat slab, with the upwards subgrade reactions being equal and opposite to the self weight of the raft, the walls, the columns and of course the applied live loading. You need to have subgrade...

Civil Engineering: 40' Tall Retaining Wall, Retaining Wall
Retaining Wall: Hi Umar, Without knowing details of what you are retaining (properties of soil, ground water level, surcharge, etc), I cannot advise you properly. However, a cantilever wall of such height will need to be about 1.2m thick at the base, but it can taper uniformly...

Civil Engineering: Atterberg Limits and Foundation Design, Atterberg Limits & Foundation Design
Atterberg Limits & Foundation Design: Hi Haridsan, Yes, they do, particularly for pile design. Please see the website below for a detailed explanation: http://books.google.com/books?id=2VxjlzKrLPYC&pg=PA61&lpg=PA61&dq=atterburg+limits+foundation+design&source=bl&ots=KPHO9WzAoX&sig=ZgcEaos1N6rdkau1ha9WbPLvmpw&hl=en&ei=BdI0SpucDcPJ-Aa0wvSgDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2#PPA61,M...

Civil Engineering: Braced & Unbraced Column in RCC Structure, Braced Columns
Braced Columns: Hi Shahzan, 1. Yes, it can be considered braced against rotation, but not sway unless the whole building is braced by core walls or shear walls or X-bracing. 2. Yes, if the in-fill blockwall is build tightly against the columns and beams, without door...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineer, Damp Proofing
Damp Proofing: Hi Nadeem, The most probably reason for dampness is either that the original damp-proof course (DPC) has deteriorated, or that there was none to start with. You have 2 options: 1. Use a chemical grouting system to inject a DPC 2. Line the inside...

Civil Engineering: Class 40 concrete, Class 40 concrete
Class 40 concrete: Hi Mugo, This depends on the type of aggregate and cement and additives, but the following website will give your guidance: http://concrete.union.edu/general.htm Class 40 concrete is used commonly these days for columns, shear walls and for increased...

Civil Engineering: Concrete flat plate, Flat Slab
Flat Slab: Hi Adnan, This depends on the number and location of columns- if it is just one column at the centre and the slab is not continuous, then there may be a problem. If there is a regular grid of columns at 690 cm centres,and there are several continuous...

Civil Engineering: Container Design, container design, steel sections
container design, steel sections, shipping container: Hi Umar, If you are talking about a standard shipping container, then that is strong enough to act as an office, so you only need to design the foundations. However, if you need to design one using steel sections, then use your local Standard for steel...

Civil Engineering: civil engineering technology, civil engineering technology, petroleum engineering
civil engineering technology, petroleum engineering, btech: Here in the US the economy is pretty difficult across the all fields of civil engineering. The field that has the most potential is the petroleum engineering with the energy crisis across the world. This field seems to be still in need of good engineers as...

Civil Engineering: cranking of rebars, Starter Rebar Cranks
Starter Rebar Cranks: Hi Ravi, This depends partly on how stressed the compression rebar is during service- the higher the stress the less you can crank otherwise you will induce bursting forces. I would suggest a 1:20 slope for the crank will be OK, but to cater for additional...

Civil Engineering: Design of Pile Cap as Pier Cap, grade bridge, pier cap
grade bridge, pier cap, pile cap: Hi Deepak, I cannot do actual designs for you but just give advice. I would say that in principle there is no reason why you cannot combine the cap, but do ensure that you take the additional lateral forces into account from the bridge- such as those...

Civil Engineering: designing a beamm, bending moments, steel sections
bending moments, steel sections, beamm: Hi Cynthia, You work out the loading on the beam and then from that the internal forces (bending moments, shear, deflection, etc) and then size the beam to resist these forces- the formulae are different for RC or steel sections. If the section is too...

Civil Engineering: doubts regarding plinth beams, Plinth Beams
Plinth Beams: Hi Abdul, In principe plinth (or tie) beams between pads are only required if: 1. You expect differential settlement or rotation of individual pads (such as in poor ground conditions or big differences in applied pressures between adjacent pads. 2....

Civil Engineering: ETABS Energy Work Diagrams, ETABS Energy Work Diagrams
ETABS Energy Work Diagrams: Hi Ravi, This is not normally to do with stability but with deflection control and is a way of look at the utilisaton ratio- i.e. how hard a particular element is working. See the Help menu in ETABS which gives a lot of details, including the summary below:...

Civil Engineering: Extension to exsisting structure, concrete roof, rebar
concrete roof, rebar, bolts: Hi Mulugheta, You have not given enough info to advise properly, but basically you need to assess if the foundations/columns/walls of the existing building can take the additional loading. It may be better to consider a lighter steel option? As for connection...

Civil Engineering: etaabs, Moment Release
Moment Release: Hi Ravi, This depends on the relative sizes and spans and loading on both the cantilever and the secondary beam. If a release is applied to the end of the secondary beam, this should only be a partial moment release, because in RC construction unless you...

Civil Engineering: expasion joint, Thermal Expansion/Joints
Thermal Expansion/Joints: Hi Baiju, Yes, you should have at least on expansion joint to break the 100m into 50m. If no expansion joint is provided you will need to do full thermal analysis and then provide additional rebar in the slabs and beams/columns to resisit internal forces...

Civil Engineering: Foundation Depth, frost heave, footing
frost heave, footing, afganistan: Hi Adeehaw, This depends on the bearing capacity compared with applied pressure, but generally you need to be below 600-800mm to avoid problems with frost heave, which I am sure you have in Afganistan. If all other things are OK, then you can place a footing...

Civil Engineering: 40' Tall Retaining Wall, nisa, inr
Civil Engineering: 40' Tall Retaining Wall, nisa, inr

Civil Engineering: doubts regarding plinth beams
Civil Engineering: doubts regarding plinth beams

Civil Engineering: Need favour, customer orientation, enginners
Civil Engineering: Need favour, customer orientation, enginners, time lines

Civil Engineering: need ur advise regarding civil engineering, material quantities, consultant company
Civil Engineering: need ur advise regarding civil engineering, material quantities, consultant company, civil eng

Civil Engineering: General SBC in Tanzania regions, Tanzania Soil Bearing Capacity
Tanzania Soil Bearing Capacity: Hi Narashima, That depends on location, as it can vary from 100 kN/m2 to 400 kN/m2 in soils, and even up to 800-1000 kN/m2 in rocky strata. You will need to do some site investigations on your site or refer to any investigations already carried out adjacent...

Civil Engineering: Geotechnical, Geotechnics or Structural Engineering
Geotechnics or Structural Engineering: Hi Subhadip, The decision really depends on what interests you more- statics and analysis (and seeing actaul buildings come up that you have designed), or soil mechanics which is not a very exact science and you really do not have much to show your friends...

Civil Engineering: HELICAL STAIR CASE, Helical Stairs Support
Helical Stairs Support: Hi Mulugheta, Just design the section of stair that is in contact with the first floor slab as a wide beam, with the vertical moments, shear and torsion as determined by the analysis. If the section of stair can take all these internal forces within limits...

Civil Engineering: Need favour, new civil engineer, what is bending moment
new civil engineer, what is bending moment, steel piling: What is the difference between a Structural Designer and a Structural Consultant? What is bending moment? How many layers are required for a 4-lane Expressway in general? What are they? There are 4 layers. 1.) Bitumen layer 2.) Concrete 3.) Metal...

Civil Engineering: need ur advise regarding civil engineering, structure material, local university
structure material, local university, engineering projects: Hi Zeeshan, I would suggest that either you go for a refresher course at your local University, or else look for a job in administration with say a consultant or contractor working in civil engineering projects. Out of all the options you mentioned,...

Civil Engineering: Pad Foundation design, Pipe Bridge Foundations
Pipe Bridge Foundations: Hi Francis, The 1:600 slope is insignificant. Moments will be incurred orthogonal to the axis of the pipe, as I explained erlier- horizontal loading due to wind/water, applied for exposed length, multiplied by (1.5m plus 0.3m to centre of pipe plus thickness...

Civil Engineering: Precast and Pretensioned slabs, Precast and Pretensioned slabs
Precast and Pretensioned slabs: Hi Ravi, Precast slabs mean that they are made in factories or on site in relatively small sections that can be moved/transported/lifted. Pretensioned slabs are sections of precast that are cast with tensioned strands, which are released after the concrete...

Civil Engineering: Prestressed Concrete, Pre-stressed and Post-tensioned concrete
Pre-stressed and Post-tensioned concrete: Hi Ravi, Post-tensioning is simply to apply pre-stress after casting & curing concrete, and prestressed concrete principles are simple- using very high yield tendons to those areas of beams or slabs that have tension zones, so that concrete remains in compression....

Civil Engineering: RCC beam load Capacity, RC Beam Capacity
RC Beam Capacity: Hi Asif, I order to determine that, you need to know the class of concrete and the amount of main and shear rebar in the beam (and also in the columns, in case their capacity is lower than the beam s). You can also work this out yourself by using this...

Civil Engineering: RCC Column/Beam Joint Rebar Detailing, Column/Beam Joint Rebar Detailing
Column/Beam Joint Rebar Detailing: Hi Shahid, Based on the detailing in the picture, the joint will not be fully-fixed, nor a full hinge- it will be partialy fixed. In order to achieve full fixity, you should either extend the top beam rebar fully down into the column (say around 30 to 40d...

Civil Engineering: RCC slab & beam depths, RCC slab & beam depths
RCC slab & beam depths: Hi Sasika, You have not given enough details to advise properly, but as a rule of thumb, any simply-supported slab should have a depth of around span/20 and a simply supported beam around span/12, to be on the safe side. If the slabs or beams are continuous,...

Civil Engineering: SAFE Analysis, SAFE Analysis
SAFE Analysis: Hi Ravi, In most cases normal is fine. Cracked is used where you have long spans/shallow slabs and deflection is a criteria, particularly long-term deflection. Uplift is normally used only for foundations/basements- check out the Help Index and type: Line...

Civil Engineering: SAFE Deflections, SAFE Deflections
SAFE Deflections: Hi Naveen, This depends on the span and the amount of rebar that you have detailed. Deflection itself is not an indication of safety, but of serviceability- if the deflection is within span/250 for long-term deflection, the latter requiremnet will normally...

Civil Engineering: Spring Stiffness & Subgrade Modulus, Spring Stiffness & Subgrade Modulus
Spring Stiffness & Subgrade Modulus: Hi Ravi, Assuming your units are the same, then subgrade modulus per m2 can be converted to spring stiffness by dividing by the area of influence of the spring- so, if you have say springs at 0.5m centres, then it s area of influence is 0.25 m2. If the...

Civil Engineering: About Stirrups, Stirrups with multiple legs
Stirrups with multiple legs: Hi Jijo, You can have 4-leg and 6-leg stirrups, but these are normally in wider beams, otherwise there would be congestion. The main outer stirrup would be around the perimenter, then the next one would be the same height, but narrower, and the the 3rd...

Civil Engineering: Structural Beam, anchor bolts, tension forces
anchor bolts, tension forces, high tension: Hi Zairul, As membrane structures have high tension forces, you have 2 options: 1. Use one or a pair of steel plates that are bolted into the side of the beam- with Hilti or similar anchor bolts. Ensure the bolts are deep enough and that they are not...

Civil Engineering: safe, Flat Slabs rebar
Flat Slabs rebar: Hi Ravi, I can tell from your question that you do not understand the basic principles of flat slab analysis and design, so please study the relevent textbooks. Flat slab design relies on column and middle strips, for which the rebar detailing is very...

Civil Engineering: safe, punching shear, column points
punching shear, column points, dear sir: Hi Ravi, Without seeing the model it is difficult for me to advise, but if you are concerned about any particular column location, you could mesh the slab around the column more finely and then inspect the element stresses? I suggest you also put this...

Civil Engineering: slab failure, Slab Failure
Slab Failure: Hi Suman, This could be due to several reasons or combination of reasons, such as: 1. Insufficient thickness 2. Insufficient rebar 3. Low concrete strength or improper curing 4. Early striking of formwork 5. Over-loading 6. Insufficient support...

Civil Engineering: structural design, SAFE & ETABS
SAFE & ETABS: Hi Ravi, 1. No, because the capacity has no relationship to soil stiffness as far as SAFE is concerned. 2. Shell is OK for most cases as they take account of out-of-plane stiffness, while plates do not. So plates could be used for elements forming a...

Civil Engineering: Vierendeel truss, Vierendeel truss
Vierendeel truss: Hi Jose, Not necessarily, but they may be due to ease of making the connections. The welds should be full penetration butt welds so as to allow full transfer of axial and bending forces. This website should help: http://books.google.com/books?id=EfG2ja8GrBUC&pg=PA279&lpg=PA279&dq=Vierendeel+trusses&source=bl&ots=j0t9R0l2v1&sig=4SqXNdHAUgNagltZr-vkAhrhsFo&hl=en&ei=kqBDSpP5DYW8mgOfppmiBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8...

Civil Engineering: Actual detail of connections, RCC Joints- fixed/pinned/sliding
RCC Joints- fixed/pinned/sliding: Hi MJ, If the rebar from column is bent over and has full anchorage into the beam, then that can be considered fixed. If the rebar has insufficient anchorage, that will be partially fixed (between fixed and pinned). Unless you have precast sections,...

Civil Engineering: Design for Thermal Stressess, transverse direction, bonding agent
transverse direction, bonding agent, column size: Hi Shazan, If there is no chance of bracing the column (or any part of the building), then you can cast on the columns an addition width of 150mm by exposing the rebar along one face, looping links around these, adding additional rebar and casting fresh...

Civil Engineering: diagonal reinforcement, corner bars, zise
corner bars, zise, rebar: Hi Dod, This depends on the size of the opening in relation to the span of the slab and also on the location with respect to supports. You need to assess how much of the main rebar has been curtailed and then detail corner bars to prevent cracking due to...

Civil Engineering: the effect of cantilever in dynamic analyzing, maximum span, abeam
maximum span, abeam, cantilever: Hi Maher, It seems that your cantilever is actually a slab varying in span. If the maximum span is 4m and the depth of the slab is at least 450mm, then you should not get such a long time period. I suggest you re-check your model and also the units...

Civil Engineering: structural design, water tank design, ground storage tanks
Civil Engineering: structural design, water tank design, ground storage tanks, head water

Civil Engineering: Punching, flat slab, first principles
flat slab, first principles, dod: Hi Dod, That depends on the width of the openings compared to the width of the column. If the latter is smaller, it will not work as a flat slab. Otherwise, use first principles and check the shear next to the face of the column, where the slab is connected...

Civil Engineering: RCC footing, Foundaton for Split or Double Column
Foundaton for Split or Double Column: Hi Siddarath, In this case, you should not take the joint through the footing- in fact you can stop the movement joint at the ground floor level and combine the 2 halves of the column into one below ground. So then you design the footing with a centrally...

Civil Engineering: SAP2000 & ETABS, SAP2000 & ETABS
SAP2000 & ETABS: Hi Ravi, Firstly, these software are called SAP2000 and ETABS and you get full details of their capabilities by visiting the CSI website. SAP2000 is much more powerful than ETABS and can be used to analyse and design all types of buildings and structures...

Civil Engineering: structural design, ETABS for hydrostatic pressure.
ETABS for hydrostatic pressure.: Hi Ravi, That is simple- depending on the number of wall elements for the height, just do manual calculations for start and end pressures and apply these to the elements as linearly varying pressure. When all else fails, revert to first principles...

Civil Engineering: structural design, structural design, source web
structural design, source web, slabs: Hi Ravi, Please study this book- it will answer 95% of the questions you have been asking me about RCC and post-tensioning. http://books.google.com/books?id=yr7nmajB7XMC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=cube+and+cylinder+strengths&source=web&ots=WFCPc0Obkr&sig=L9dQXezlHNe4c5kbyCI7lOzMNV...

Civil Engineering: footing, Footing with downstand
Footing with downstand: Hi Ayman, Assuming that the ground at the inside corner of the L remains intact and that the vertical drop of the downstand beam is not much more than say 1.5-2 times the depth of the horizontal section of the footing, then you can assume a linear distribution...

Civil Engineering: newbie, casual job, time contractor
casual job, time contractor, fresh graduate: The market right now is not great but the future is still bright. The civil engineering industry is something that over the years has been strong due to the nature of what we do. For example, transportation is something that constantly deteriorates and needs...

Civil Engineering: stirrups shape, Stirrups with 45 degree bends
Stirrups with 45 degree bends: Hi Baiju, The 45 degree bend is a requirement for structural ductility detailing for seismic zones. As the old UK codes do not consider seismic considerations, they do not require these bends at the ends of the links or stirrups. You can refer to UBC 97...

Civil Engineering: windmills, Windmills with uni-directional resistance.
Windmills with uni-directional resistance.: Hi Mike, This is not quite my area of expertise, but having looked at your sketch, the answers are: 1. Yes, the surfaces will need to be like one-way valves. 2. This can be done by having a series of narrow and long pivoting vanes, which overlap and...

Civil Engineering: Building High-rise, services engineers, structural engineers
services engineers, structural engineers, architects: Hi Kavin, This is a complex subject but you will get some guidance from this website: www.ndmindia.nic.in/EQProjects/rcchomeownersguide.pdf It is most important that you involve qualified and experienced architects, structural engineers, services...

Civil Engineering: box culvert, Double Cell Box Culverts
Double Cell Box Culverts: Hi Sashen, This is normally designed on basis of an influence line (moving loads, like for bridges), but you can simplify the design by applying earth pressures and also point (wheel/axel) loads in order to impose maximum shear (near supports) and maximum...

Civil Engineering: Cantilever / Supported Balcony Loads, Moments & Forces, Balcony Design
Balcony Design: Hi Nick, This is quite an involved question, but you can break it down into steps and do the following: 1. Work out the loading and the platform span direction (could be parallel to wall or right angles). 2. Work out the loading as UDL on the supporting...

Civil Engineering: Combined Footing, combined footing, spring stiffnesses
combined footing, spring stiffnesses, google: Hi Ayman, You need to obtain the modulus of sub-grade reaction and use this to form the spring-stiffnesses for the foundation, which should be designed in 3-D (although you could do a simplified 2-D analysis, using just one side of the square, and applying...

Civil Engineering: Concrete strength, concrete strength, 28 days
concrete strength, 28 days, variables: Hi Nouzer, If it is freshly poured, then good curing methods can ensure that you get the best possible strength. Also bear in mind that concrete continues to gain strength after 28 days, so that at say 100 days it may be 15-20% stronger than at 28 days,...

Civil Engineering: civil, civil engineering structural design statics
civil engineering structural design statics: Hello Rock, Absolutely not. A sound understanding of statics and mechanics and structural analysis and design are the most fundamental subjects for civil engineering design. Could you imagine a heart surgeon who has no idea about the heart and he is going...

Civil Engineering: civil engineering, Pointing in blockwork
Pointing in blockwork: Hi Nadeem, I am not an expert in blockwork, but from what I can make out, these are terms for how one finishes the joints within brickwork or blockwork. Flush means no indentations, whilst tuck means a small depression while deep rule pointing probably...

Civil Engineering: concrete, Honey Combing
Honey Combing: Hi Ali, Yes, this can be a serious problem especially if the pedestals have rebar embebbed, which can corrode. You need to chisel out the loose aggregate and then repair the surface with mortar or a grout including a bonding agent. If the honey-combing...

Civil Engineering: core wall design, Core wall openings
Core wall openings: Hi Ravi, This depends on the aspect ratio of the opening in relation to the core wall, but in any case you can have whatever size you want so long as lateral stiffness is not too adversely affected and vertical load paths are maintained (either via deep...

Civil Engineering: etaabs, ACI 318 Section 10.11.1 Property Modifiers
ACI 318 Section 10.11.1 Property Modifiers: Hi Raviarjun, Visit this website and scroll up to section 10.11.1 and you will see all the factors. http://books.google.com/books?id=oa8XnnvX6BgC&pg=PA133&lpg=PA133&dq=aci+318+section+10.11.1&source=bl&ots=33ZLxNu-fU&sig=I7lXHqE-x_aFmXQpGiK3-DX933A&hl=en&ei=sSjGSqrzB4T-_AaVgpWWCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=onepage&q=&f=fals...

Civil Engineering: Future City, future city, city competition
future city, city competition, maintenance schedules: Typically as the consultant we are contracted by a city to preform a certain task. Such as the design for an intersection improvement or a road widening. In either case, we are typically doing the design plans and/or construction administration for the city...

Civil Engineering: about final year project, Final Year Topics
Final Year Topics: Hi Sandeep, If you are seeking ideas for topics, then here are a few: 1. High strength concrete 2. Sustainable construction 3. Minimising carbon footprint 4. Faster construction techniques 5. Self-compacting concrete 7. Efficient design of flat...

Civil Engineering: Hydraulics, hydrograph, rate of flow
hydrograph, rate of flow, weirs: We very rarely use the V-notch weir anymore due to the complexity of calculating the rate of of flow. Here in the United States we have started using a combination of orifice and/or multiple square weirs to determine outflow of a pond. If it absolutely necessary...

Civil Engineering: high school interview project, Career in Civil/Structural Engineering
Career in Civil/Structural Engineering: Hi Ryan, These are far too many questions for me to answer in detail, but I have been asked similar questions before, so if you do not mind I will cut-and-paste the Q & A, from which you can get most of the answers: ***************** Q. What skills...

Civil Engineering: Inclined RCC columns, Inclined columns
Inclined columns: Hi Syed, You have asked me this question before and I answered it on 16th March as follows: The main secondary effect of having inclined columns is that they introduce a horizontal component of the axial load into the beams/floor slabs at each level,...

Civil Engineering: interview, ucalgary ca, what personal qualities
ucalgary ca, what personal qualities, engineer training: Hi Derek, My job title is Director of Structures. The starting salary for a graduate in UK would be around GBP 25,000 per annum. These are far too many questions for me to answer in detail, but I have been asked similar questions before, so if you do...

Civil Engineering: mathamatics, civil engineering Matrix method structural analysis
civil engineering Matrix method structural analysis: Hello Abi, Well Matrix Methods are applied to Structural Analysis. Structural Analysis is the calculation of forces, deflections, stresses etc within a structure. There are two types of methods that can be used to analyse the structures and that is: ...

Civil Engineering: moment, Bending Moments
Bending Moments: Hi Rob, A moment is the internal coupling force (or stress) created within a member due to external loading. The coupling force creates zones of tension and compression on opposite surfaces of the member. Examples of this can be in beams, slabs and foundations...

Civil Engineering: Questions, pad footing civil engineering structural design foundations soil
pad footing civil engineering structural design foundations soil: Hello Neville, Here is some info which will answer your questions: 4. Pad Foundations Pad foundations are generally used to transfer the load from a column, pier or heavy machinery to the ground. Pad foundations are usually square or rectangular...

Civil Engineering: Rebar Cranking, diameter size, bs standards
diameter size, bs standards, compression force: Hi Zack, The slope is independant of diameter of bar, as it is the resultant horizontal component of compression force that is of concern. The BS does have limits to rebar placement tolerances, which is around +/- 5mm. Anything that is beyond this limit...

Civil Engineering: Retaining Wall Cracks, Retaining Wall Cracks
Retaining Wall Cracks: Hi Ramu, Based on the limited info you have given, this sounds like an under-design of the retaining wall-certainly 175mm is too thin and possibly the rebar is also insufficient. Solutions could be to excavate outside and build some intermediate buttress...

Civil Engineering: Spacings of expansion joints in Gulf Region, building expansion joints, external insulation
building expansion joints, external insulation, thermal stresses: Hi Hong, As far as I know, there are only guidelines, not strict requirements. However, some local authorities interpret the guidelines as legally binding, while others will accept properly engineered solutions, as I mentioned earlier. The scenario you...

Civil Engineering: scope in civil engg., central univ, joba
central univ, joba, market situation: Hi Ajeet, Without knowing the local market, I would say that if you enjoy your subjects, then stick with the same as in a few years the market situation could change for the better. Work hard and get a good degree and you will be better placed to get employment...

Civil Engineering: Wind & Seismic Loading, Wind & Seismic Loading
Wind & Seismic Loading: Hi Ravi, Wind loading should be considered for all buildings, as depending on location/exposure, even single storey buildings can have significant lateral loading. Seismic loading depends on the local codes and zoning. For example in Zone 0, no seismic...

Civil Engineering: 1st year thesis topic about Civil Engineering, thesis topic, civil engineer
thesis topic, civil engineer, engineering projects: Hi Kiel, This is such a vast subject so really you should select a topic that interests you. Some examples: 1. Sustainable design 2. Zero-carbon building/construction techniques 3. Role of civil engineering in development of a country. 4. Environmental...

Civil Engineering: Bc value ACI 21.4, aci 318, right angles
aci 318, right angles, rebar: Hi Umar, I have not used this clause, but from first principles I would reckon that the smaller dimension is applicable for rectangular columns as the purpose of restraining rebar is to prevent buckling of the vertical compression rebar, which is likely...

Civil Engineering: box culvert design, Box Culvert Detailing
Box Culvert Detailing: Jambo Aliyu, Please refer to my earlier answers to a similar question: http://en.allexperts.com/q/Construction-Contractors-1093/2009/8/Concrete-slab-root-cellar-1.htm http://en.allexperts.com/q/Civil-Engineering-1357/2009/2/BOX-CULVERT-DESIGN.htm...

Civil Engineering: Center of mass in Etabs, Centers of Mass & Rigidity in Buildings
Centers of Mass & Rigidity in Buildings: Hi Tanveer, Centre of Mass location depends on the geometry of the building, as well as distribution of weight of structure- for example if there is a thicker slab on one side (or an atrium opening on the other side), then the centre of mass will shift...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering as a career, prospective career, transportation field
prospective career, transportation field, management side: The entire Civil Engineering field has been slow but that is nothing new. The structural engineering field is very technical and takes a certain kind of individual to be successful in that arena. In college I took all of the appropriate classes to minor in...

Civil Engineering: Civil jobs, civil engineering degree, shoulder injury
civil engineering degree, shoulder injury, good evening: Hi Wayne, You should have no problems whatsoever in pusuing a very successful career in civil engineering. So long as you can write/type and give presentations, etc, you can have an design office-based job. Even a site job is possible so long as you are...

Civil Engineering: Concrete Strength, Demolition of Multi-story RC building
Demolition of Multi-story RC building: Hi Saeed, As all the live-loading for the upper 5 storeys will not be in place, the columns/shear walls below level 6 should have ample spare capacity to support the loading due to hammering- so long as large pieces of debris is not allowed to fall on to...

Civil Engineering: civil eng, civil engineer, work construction
civil engineer, work construction, construction inspection: The majority of my time is spent performing the management of other engineers and budgets. I am more of a senior project manager now. Early on in my career I spent most of my time behind a computer but they are avenues in our field that will allow for outside...

Civil Engineering: container office, Container Office Uplift Loading
Container Office Uplift Loading: Hi Mi, The only uplift you will get is from high cross wind loading, that may give rise to suction on the roof (and possibly upwards loading under the floor, if there is a gap between that and the ground). So long as the sum of these upward forces is less...

Civil Engineering: Design "R" letter shape by reinforced concrete, upper curve, axial compression
upper curve, axial compression, vertical column: Hi Mado, The structural system will be as follows, if only gravity loading is considered (i.e. no lateral wind or seismic loading): the inclined column will have only axial compression, the arch will have compression along the bottom half and tension along...

Civil Engineering: Design of RC Column, wall dimensions, thicknes
wall dimensions, thicknes, approximate sizes: Hi Hari, You have not given sufficient info to me, but in any case you can do the calculation as follows: 1. Work out the approximate sizes of beams and slabs, then calculate self weights. 2. Apply imposed loading or super-dead loading such as walls....

Civil Engineering: Expansion joints, expansion joints, soil properties
expansion joints, soil properties, traffic loading: Hi Sudha, If this is a buried structure, you do not need any expansion joints as the temperature will be fairly constant during operation. During construction you could incorporate some temporary pour strips in slabs, walls and roofs, say every 30-50m,...

Civil Engineering: Earthquake design, Base Isolation
Base Isolation: Hi Godfrey, There are 2 ways that rubber can be used to mitigate effects of earthquakes: 1. As visco-elastic absorbers between X-bracing and frames, which increase the damping. 2. As base-isolators between the bottom of the building and the foundations...

Civil Engineering: Eccentric foundation, Eccentric Footing
Eccentric Footing: Hi Amit, For this, you can provide an eccentric foundation and counter-balance the out-of-balance moment either by gravity (mass concrete) or by a stabilising ground beam connected to another foundation of the new building. See also my earlier answer below:...

Civil Engineering: FLATSLAB THICKNESS, slab thickness, flat slab
slab thickness, flat slab, storage shelves: Hi Samual, This really depends on various factors, such as: 1. Whether you can use column heads/drop panels or not. 2. What the usage and loading is (to control deflection). Shopping zones can be for a mall or for storage shelves. 3. How many spans-...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering as a career, civil engineers, civil engineering
Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering as a career, civil engineers, civil engineering, email

Civil Engineering: Minaret Design, design consideration, minaret
Civil Engineering: Minaret Design, design consideration, minaret, architectural design

Civil Engineering: Pipe Bridge Detail Design, truss bridge, recycled plastic
Civil Engineering: Pipe Bridge Detail Design, truss bridge, recycled plastic, wonderful thing

Civil Engineering: Swimming pool design, construction of swimming pools, therapeutic pools
Civil Engineering: Swimming pool design, construction of swimming pools, therapeutic pools, outdoor pools

Civil Engineering: frame analysis, 2-D vs 3-D analysis of frames
2-D vs 3-D analysis of frames: Hi Ananta, 1. Yes, column rebar can be different in different planes/axes- it is normally equal in opposite faces, but even that can vary, e.g. if you have a cantilever column with uni-directional high moment. 2. If the columns are braced, then there...

Civil Engineering: Gantry Col Design, column sections, mbma
column sections, mbma, google: Hi Umar, A good reference is the Steel Designers Manual: http://books.google.com/books?id=EuFYVTIDZV4C&pg=PT55&lpg=PT55&dq=steel+designers+manual+built+up+columns&source=bl&ots=JoKJlJq7jD&sig=jP2CkgOBzrLRCyJdCnHIMd7dACQ&hl=en&ei=z3FRS-_WKpr8sQaL6InYCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=&f=false...

Civil Engineering: help to build black pool, concrete screed, ceremic tiles
concrete screed, ceremic tiles, pool base: Hi Ananta, Firstly, if you apply a plaster or screed you need to ensure that the concrete base has fully dried out beforehand, otherwise you will gett peeling. The best solution is to apply black ceremic tiles- again, after the base concrete is fully dry...

Civil Engineering: MBA after BE(civil), passout, further studies
passout, further studies, area of specialization: Hi Anuj, This really depends on what subjects you are interested in. I would recommned that you do at least 1-2 years of practical work experience before you attempt an MBA (or even an MSc), as that way you will benefit a lot more from the further studies...

Civil Engineering: Minaret Design, muhammad umar, lateral loading
muhammad umar, lateral loading, seismic loading: Hi Umar, As the minaret is not normally considered to be habitable, the overall deflection due to wind/seismic loading should not be an issue for serviceability- all you need to ensure is that the structure is stable against overturning, shear and bending-...

Civil Engineering: masters project topic, masters project, modern methods of construction
masters project, modern methods of construction, dr khan: Hi David, If you type these subjects in Google, you will get a lot of research/reference material. Regarding both subjects, you should look into applicability in your own country, compare with present practice and suggest reasons why the introduction of...

Civil Engineering: designing beam, House Extention Foundations
House Extention Foundations: Hi Ananta, Without looking at this in detail, due to creep effects, and natural re-distribution, I would recommend that you insert an extra T16 in bottom for span moments. As for plinth beams, these will not make too much difference to differential settlement...

Civil Engineering: Overlapping, Rebar Laps
Rebar Laps: Hi Majeed, You have not clarified whether this is for RC structures and the lapping you are asking for is for rebar? If so, the safe rule is 40x diameter of bar, but this can be shorter or longer depending on various factors such as type of rebar, bundling,...

Civil Engineering: Pipe Bridge Detail Design, Truss Bridge Design
Truss Bridge Design: Hi Suhail, The most common/easy type of bridge for this is a truss bridge. Check these sites: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truss_bridge nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/IIT...Steel...bridges/7_truss_bridges.pdf The applicable codes depend on your country/local...

Civil Engineering: pier design, exact geometry, stress value
exact geometry, stress value, thickness ratio: Hi Sudha, Without knowing the exact geometry of the piers, I would guess that you need to design them as either columns or, if width:thickness ratio is more than say 5, then you should design it as a wall, with out-of-plane bending. For an approximate...

Civil Engineering: RC Beams/columns sizing, continuous beams, first mail
continuous beams, first mail, steel beams: Hi Suhail, You have not mentioned whether this is for steel or RC structures. The latter is more complicated, so I will address that. The minimum sizes of columns and beams are determined by various factors, such as durability, fire-resistance, spans,...

Civil Engineering: RCC wall retaining Scrap, muhammad umar, density of steel
muhammad umar, density of steel, grain silos: Hi Umar, This is an unusual type of loading and it really depends on size/shape of the pieces. The lateral pressure on the RC retaining walls will need to be determined by methods used for grain silos, but the density of the material should be taken as...

Civil Engineering: Slab, rebar, span
rebar, span, brother: Hi Majeed, I think you need to study a book on basic design. One way slab means that all the loading is distributed on 2 opposite sides/supports, so main rebar will be parallel to that span. 2-way span meams the loading is distributed to all 4 supports,...

Civil Engineering: Steel formula, Rebar design for RC
Rebar design for RC: Hi Majeed, This is quite complex and varies on whether you are designing beams or columns or walls. I suggest you buy a basic book on RC design and study that. Also refer to my earlier answers: http://en.allexperts.com/q/Civil-Engineering-1357/2008/6/design-slab-1.htm...

Civil Engineering: Swimming pool design, Swimming Pool Design
Swimming Pool Design: Hi Ravi, The design of a swimming pool should be done from first principles, as it is relatively simple- no need to use FEM software. The design should be done to a water-retaining code (unless you intend to specify waterproof plaster lining) and the...

Civil Engineering: sand bulkage, Sand Bulking for concrete mix design
Sand Bulking for concrete mix design: Hi Ibrahim, The best way to avoid problems with bulkage is to do weight-batching rather than volume batching. If that is not possible, then you need to increase the volume of the sand (between 20-40%, depending on how fine the sand is) to compensate for...

Civil Engineering: senior project, Steel Connections- study topics
Steel Connections- study topics: Hi Hani, Here are three suggestions for connections in steel structures: 1. Welded compared with bolted connections- pros and cons. 2. Limited-slip bolted connections to enhance ductility and damping for seismic zones. 3. Connections with elasto-plastic...

Civil Engineering: slab design, Slab design for traffic
Slab design for traffic: Hi Tafs, This really depends on what loading the culverts have been designed for- if they are for use in highways applications, then you can design your slab as one on grade. As for the wheel loading- you need to look up this info in your local codes...

Civil Engineering: THESIS, Isolated Footings Study
Isolated Footings Study: Hi Sajad, This seems to be a simple and straight forward topic, and you may wish to consider following aspects: 1. Analysis with/without tension/uplift at base. 2. Effect of depth and over-burden weight of soil. 3. Differences between footings for...

Civil Engineering: Thesis Topic, Pre-fabricated RC Construction
Pre-fabricated RC Construction: Hi Juwon, One type of pre-fabricated building system that is catching on in Europe is the twin-wall system whereby the outer surfaces are precast and the inner core is in-situ. You could do a study of this and its possible application in Malaysia? Check...

Civil Engineering: Wind Loading on sloping surfaces, muhammad umar, wind loading
muhammad umar, wind loading, vertical surface: Hi Umar, This is quite a complex subject and you need to study the codes of practice on wind loading in order to assess properly. As a rough method, you could just apply +ve horizontal pressure on projected vertical surface, but also taking care to apply...

Civil Engineering: waterproofing, Waterproofing Repair
Waterproofing Repair: Hi Ameen, These two areas are similarly waterproofed by using either bitumen or rubber linings, and then protected against foot traffic by use of either tiles or pavement slabs. If the lining fails, the proper manner for repairing is to remove the protective...

Civil Engineering: Beam & Slab spans of 22' & 24' needed, rc slabs, slab thickness
rc slabs, slab thickness, density level: Hi Sudheer, A few small fruit trees will only add around 0.5 to 1 kN/m2 loading, depending on spacing. You should also allow for live loading if people will have access to wander about. This can be from 1.5 kN/m2 for a few people, to 4 kN/m2 for crowd loading....

Civil Engineering: Bridge Abutment settlement, bridge abutment settlement, differential settlement
bridge abutment settlement, differential settlement, bridge deck: Hi Taffie, This is a common problem and the best way to deal with it is to install some length of appraoch/transition slab, which rests on the ground at the far ends and sits on the bridge abutment (as a hinge joint). If there is not enough seating available...

Civil Engineering: Clerk of works, higher national diploma, executive engineer
higher national diploma, executive engineer, resident engineer: Hi Ananta, A clerk of works is normally someone of lower qualifications than an engineer or architect and would have a HND (higher national diploma) or equivalent. He could be either trained as an engineer or as an architect but will not have the same high...

Civil Engineering: Core Pilecap design, raft slab, punching shear
raft slab, punching shear, pile caps: Hi Maheswari, In that case you can check the punching shear for each pile like you would do for a pile-cap. The only difference is that if part of the cone of shear sits under the wall, then you ignore that portion and just assess the shear around the...

Civil Engineering: Cracking, differential settlement, question sir
differential settlement, question sir, beams: Hi Mohammed, Yes, that is possible, as the column is under compression and tensile/bending stresses may not arise to crack the column. The crack being 50 cm away from the corner is not unexpected- so it does sound like a foundation problem, if there...

Civil Engineering: Cross braces, cross braces, cross bracing
cross braces, cross bracing, tension: Hi Gabriel, If you are only relying on braces to act in tension, then no need to check, but you must define them as tension-only members in the properties, so that they do not attract any compression (otherwise you risk under-estimating the tension in the...

Civil Engineering: civil engineering, hindustan petroleum corporation, hindustan petroleum corporation limited
hindustan petroleum corporation, hindustan petroleum corporation limited, hindustan petroleum: Hi Sravanthi, I am not familiar with what HPCL does, but I can imagine that a civil engineer could do land surveys and design pipelines, pipe supports, thrust blocks, pipe bridges, and possibly also the buildings and infrastructure for their refineries....

Civil Engineering: civil engineering, combined footing, line loads
combined footing, line loads, bending moment: Hi Waqas, The best way to model stair loading in ETABS is to manually calculate the reactions at the landings and apply these to the model as line loads on the supporting beams. For half-way landing, distribute the loading equally to the floor above and...

Civil Engineering: combined footing, combined footing, wall footing
combined footing, wall footing, google: Hi Rao, This should be simple enough- just add or subtract the individual pressures from the footings and the retaining wall footing and then design the combined footing accordingly. The Manual on RC design by Reynolds gives guidance on design of combined...

Civil Engineering: Diaphragm, ETABS High Shear from Outriggers/belt walls
ETABS High Shear from Outriggers/belt walls: Hi Tom, This could be due to a number of reasons, one of which is if your tower is not uniformly stiff (un-symmetrical) in orthoganal directions. Also, you may find that the shear will reduce if you used cracked sections (stiffness modifiers). The shear...

Civil Engineering: dirt, waterproofing of pond, sodium bentonite
waterproofing of pond, sodium bentonite, viny ester acrylic resin: Dear Mr Chip, Both the wastes - readymix truck washing and limestone fines - can at best fill the gaps in grading of the coarse soil. They can be mixed with a part of the soil excavated for the pond and layed to line the pool bottom to 15-20cm thickness along...

Civil Engineering: ETABS modelling - Differential settlement, Columns Shortening in Tall Buildings
Columns Shortening in Tall Buildings: Hi Firdows, ETABS will only take account of instantaneous elastic shortening, so for any buildings above about 30 storeys you will need to do other calculations to ascertain long term shortening due to creep and shrinkage. By doing staged construction...

Civil Engineering: Expansion Joints in Tanks, movement joints, expansion joints
movement joints, expansion joints, water treatment facility: Hi Bilal, As I explained before, you can design this with or without joints, depending on construction methods and amount of rebar you will have to detail to prevent early age and thermal cracking. Please refer to these guides: www.ciria.org/.../ContentManagerNet/TemplateRedirect.aspx?...=/ContentManagerNet/......

Civil Engineering: eccentric footing, geometric centre, footing
geometric centre, footing, boundaries: Hi Mubeenbalol, An eccentric footing is one where the load (usually from a column) is applied near one edge rather than in the geometric centre of the footing. This is usually needed along the boundaries of properties. If you search through my past answers,...

Civil Engineering: etabs model for twin towers, 2 towers, virsa
2 towers, virsa, natural frequencies: Hi Robert, You have not given me the overall plan dimensions of the basement, but if there is no movement joint within the basements (i.e. between the 2 towers), then you must model the whole system in one ETABS model, just as you have done. The reason...

Civil Engineering: FABRIC STRUCTURES, fabric structure, fabric structures
fabric structure, fabric structures, wind forces: Hi Rama, This depends on whether the fabric is pervious (net-like) or impervious- the wind load reduces for the latter. Small structures can be designed by using the BS or American code for wind loading, but for larger structures you will need some specialist...

Civil Engineering: Waffle Slab Design
Civil Engineering: Waffle Slab Design

Civil Engineering: Grillage Foundation construction, thick slab, point loads
thick slab, point loads, foundation construction: Hi Asghar, This is a type of foundation that looks like an up-side down slab with downstand beams in 2 directions. In other words, you will have a thick slab, with up-standing beams, crossing at locations of point loads such as columns. The construction...

Civil Engineering: Height of Building v/s Depth of Foundation, frost heave, ground surface
frost heave, ground surface, ashok: Hi Ashok, There is no fixed rule for this because the type/depth of foundation depends on the ground conditions and also on the climate. For example, if the ground is very hard (like rock), you can place the foundation just below the natural ground surface,...

Civil Engineering: Large building w/o expansion joint/ Temperature effect, stresses in beams, temperature variation
stresses in beams, temperature variation, load case: Hi Mahendran, This is only a little bit larger than the recommended maximum of 50m, so I suggest you just include a temperature load case within STAAD.Pro, and then do the combinations with DL and LL for the analysis. That way the additional axial stresses...

Civil Engineering: mat foundation analysis & design, raft foundation design, finite element software
raft foundation design, finite element software, fea analysis: Hi Rekha, You can model the matt/raft sitting on springs (stiffness determined from ground investigations) at regular intervals and then do a 3-D FEA analysis using STAAD or SAFE or ANSYS, etc. Then you will need to do an upper-bound and lower-bound analysis,...

Civil Engineering: modeling 2 towers with etabs, applicable code, 2 towers
applicable code, 2 towers, large experience: Hi Robert, I am not too familiar with IBC 2006, but using my engineering judgement, I would say that you should introduce a joint at the location I suggested (i.e. nearer the smaller tower, so both have proportionate masses attached as basements). You should...

Civil Engineering: i have problems in etabs about unstability, ETABS Instability Problems
ETABS Instability Problems: Hi Hussein, Without seeing the model it is difficult to advise. One possible problem may be due to autoline contraints invoked when running pdelta analysis. Choose either pdelta or auto line constraints, but not both at the same time, and see if that stops...

Civil Engineering: Raft Foundation Design, raft foundation design, flat slab
raft foundation design, flat slab, geocal: Hi Pablito, The support conditions at the ends will be discontinuous (taking account of any basement walls), but you will still have the springs supporting the whole raft, including the edges and you need to apply both raft self weight as well as live loading,...

Civil Engineering: RC slab design, slab design, allexperts
slab design, allexperts, civil engineering: Hi Akbar, This is a bit complicated to explain over this medium, but there are sources on the web, such as: http://download.cnet.com/BS8110-Rectangular-RC-Slab-Design/3000-2064_4-10640320.html ..and one of my past answers: http://en.allexperts.com/q/Civil-Engineering-1357/2008/6/design-slab-1.htm...

Civil Engineering: RCC FOR DAMS, Aggregates for RC Dams
Aggregates for RC Dams: Hi Jawad, It s been a long time since I designed RCC dams, but from what I can recall, aggregates of up to 75-100mm are commonly used, and for mass concrete dams, you can also specify so-called plumbs (pieces of solid rock) to be placed within the dam core...

Civil Engineering: RCC wall design, side wall thickness, bending moment
side wall thickness, bending moment, knm: Hi Sanjay, This depends on the materials strength. At around 25 kN/m2 pressure, each wall of 15m length will have shear of around 190 kN/m, and bending moment of around 500-600 kNm/m, so you need to decide how much deflection you can tolerate and make the...

Civil Engineering: Rebars Beam to Wall connection, ss case, concrete wall
ss case, concrete wall, soffit: Hi Gohar, This depends on whether the joint is to be moment resistant or just simply supported. If simply supported, then you can just ensure that the bottom rebars extend to the far face of the wall and bend upwards at least 100 x diameter of beam rebar....

Civil Engineering: rectangular combined footing reinforcement, combined footing, footing reinforcement
combined footing, footing reinforcement, lever arms: Hi Ravi, Yes, that is acceptable, so long as you have designed the 12mm and the 16mm bars with the correct lever arms (i.e. reduced lever arm for the 16mm bars). It is usually better to have smaller dia bars as the outer layers, for crack-control, etc...

Civil Engineering: Soil test - crane access, wall footing, earth embankment
wall footing, earth embankment, crane foundation: Hi Nousar, In order to not impose additional loading to the retaining wall, you will need to place the crane at least as far from the wall as it is high- in other words if the wall is 3 m from top to foundation, then keep the edge of your crane 3m away....

Civil Engineering: section modifier in reinforced conc. shear walls, moment release, c elements
moment release, c elements, shear walls: Hi Farid, This really depends on the relative stiffness of the beam and the wall or the beam and the column. If the beam is much stiffer than the supporting element, then effectively you will have some yielding and hence a partial hinge forming. You can...

Civil Engineering: structure, ground investigations, load test
ground investigations, load test: Hi Saeed, This is difficult to do- you can either carry out some ground investigations to ascertain the capacity and then compare this with the existing applied pressure, or else you can do a load test on a small part of the foundation and see how much...

Civil Engineering: Vessels foundation, raft foundation, lateral loading
raft foundation, lateral loading, diamter: Hi Olivia, Your answer is a bit contradictory- if the c/c distance is 2.8m and the vessels are 2 m diameter, then the clear distance between them is 0.8m. Based on that, you could more or less consider the loading to be UDL under the footprints of the vessels...

Civil Engineering: Waffle Slab Design, slab design, waffle
slab design, waffle, beams: Hi Shahid, This is designed in exactly the same way as a 2-way solid slab, but when you get the moments/shears per unit width (say per metre width), you need to design the individual ribs with the topping as Tee-beams. These websites will give you further...

Civil Engineering: Waterproofing RCC slab under roof top garden, Roof garden, waterproofing
Roof garden, waterproofing, soil resistant: Hi Sudheer, Two risks should be taken care of - 1. as you have identified, protecting RCC slab from water ingress 2. Protecting slab from root growing into it. Recommended ratio of fall towards the drains is 1:60 to 1:80 in extended rainfall areas and 1:80...

Civil Engineering: Base Shears in X & Y directions, shear walls, seismic analysis
shear walls, seismic analysis, r factor: Hi Khaled, If your building is symmetrical, with same stiffness in both directions, then yes the base shear will be the same. Even if the building is stiffer in one direction, so long as yoiu use the same R factor in both directions, the base shear will...

Civil Engineering: beam, Propped cantilever, cantilever
Propped cantilever, cantilever, beams: Dear Mr Nadeem, Sorry to be late - was travelling on business. Cantilever beam is only fixed at one end, with freedom of movement only at the other end both in translation and rotation. In the propped cantilever beam, the other end is lightly supported without...

Civil Engineering: Composite steel plate RC wall, Bi-Steel System
Bi-Steel System: Hi Tom, I am not aware of any code that covers plate embedded in concrete, so you may need to use first principles. However, I am aware of a system called bi-steel (by CORUS), whereby the concrete is sandwiched between 2 outer layers of steel and this system...

Civil Engineering: concrete technology, dry volume, wet volume
dry volume, wet volume, volume batching: Dear Muhammed Khaleel Akbar, I did not answer this question since I was answering your other question on mix proportioning, which would have answered this question to a great extent. I think I have to answer this too to make clear. In dry mix volume, we...

Civil Engineering: am confused, arshad khan, slabs
arshad khan, slabs, dear mr: Hi Hussain, As I explained, please do not use both pdelta and line constraints. Then run the model and see if the problem persists. If it does, then double check that your slabs are modelled between joints/nodes, with no nodes left un-connected in middles/sides...

Civil Engineering: Example of full design, Designed & Detailed BS8110
Designed & Detailed BS8110: Hi Adam, I am sorry but I cannot do that. However, there is an excellent booklet that does exactly that, and it s called Designed and Detailed. See link below: http://www.scribd.com/doc/24116585/Designed-and-Detailed-BS8110 or http://www.scribd.com/full/24116585?access_key=key-2mpogx6q4hptnslugh41...

Civil Engineering: engineering interview project, Interview Q&A
Interview Q&A: Hi Jesus, I have answered these types of questions before, so if you do not mind, I will cut/paste th Q&A for these below: ***************** Q. What skills are required to become a successful civil engineer, and what courses did you take in high school...

Civil Engineering: estimating concrete, stone masonary, target grades
stone masonary, target grades, bridge girders: Dear Muhammed, You can go through the answer (posted) for the question on concrete proportioning. The same principles and method we can apply to work out the mortar also for use in stone masonry. If the question is to also workout the quantities of stone...

Civil Engineering: excavation, soil collapse, dewater
soil collapse, dewater, bentonite: Dear Nordz, Assuming it is a medium sized building foundation, we can use sheet piles to prevent soil collapse before excavation; provide a sump pit and a pump to dewater as the foundation work progresses.Dpending on the nature of the structure more expensive...

Civil Engineering: expansion gap for 93m rcc structure?, rectangular tank, expansion joints
rectangular tank, expansion joints, seismic zone: Hi Sureshbabu, As a general rule you should have expansion joints at bewteen 40-60 m centres. So, in your case you should have one in the middle of the 93m length. However, if you wish not to have an expansion joint in the RC structure, then you just need...

Civil Engineering: Foundation to depth to dig in sloped ground, foundation excavation, ground slopes
foundation excavation, ground slopes, differential settlement: Hi Saroj, If you have been told to set the foundations at 2.5m depth, then I would suggest that you set the others at the same depth from the original ground level- in other words the bases would be at different levels, but maintaining 2.5m from ground...

Civil Engineering: expansion gap for 93m rcc structure?, code book
Civil Engineering: expansion gap for 93m rcc structure?, code book

Civil Engineering: Loads on slab, Load of walls, partition walls
Load of walls, partition walls: Dear Dawit, It is not clear from your question if this is for a constructed building or one that is going to be built. If it is going to be built, it is easier - just obtain from the quantity surveyor the weights of all the materials that go into the partition...

Civil Engineering: Machinery Applied (Live) loading, sap 2000, rough guideline
sap 2000, rough guideline, dynamic effects: Hi Gohar, You really need to know what sort of equipment will be placed on the floors before you design a building. If you do not, you could end up under/over designing the structure. For machine rooms, generally we use 7.5 kN/m2 for the live load (as...

Civil Engineering: Post-Tension AASHTO Girder Design, post tension, ceng
post tension, ceng, girder: Hi Randel, I am sorry but I do not have any sample calcs, but you can find info on: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/BRIDGE/pt/pt01.cfm http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05122007-195020/unrestricted/SusanBowersMSThesis.pdf http://www.childs-ceng.demon.co.uk/tutorial/expcc.htm...

Civil Engineering: Presentation Skills, final year project, paper presentation
final year project, paper presentation, presentation skills: Hi Sirshma, I am not sure whether you are asking for some topics or the style of presentation. If you want topics, please browse my past answers with key words final year project topics . If you want to know about styles or skills for presentation, then...

Civil Engineering: RCC, Ribbed Slabs
Ribbed Slabs: Hi Anchal, Check out my earlier responses on ribbed slabs, which are one-way spanning: http://en.allexperts.com/q/Civil-Engineering-1357/2008/11/Ribbed-slab.htm http://en.allexperts.com/q/Civil-Engineering-1357/2008/11/RIBBED-FLOOR-CONSTRUCTION.htm...

Civil Engineering: shaft for a lift, Design of Lift Shaft / Shear Wall
Design of Lift Shaft / Shear Wall: Hi Niranjan, For achieving optimal stiffness of a building, it is best to have the liftshaft in the middle of a building, but if it needs to be at a side, then it is better not to leave a gap between shaft and building. The shaft can be designed after...

Civil Engineering: strap footing, strap footing, freelance consultant
strap footing, freelance consultant, eccentricity: Hi K, As it happens I have just returned home to Nairobi, operating as a freelance consultant! There are no hard and fast rules about the need for strap beams- it really depends on the nature of the ground and also on the eccentricity of moment on any...

Civil Engineering: thesis, Final Year Topics
Final Year Topics: Hi Mark, You have not stated what subject you are interested in, but if it s structures, you could try: 1. High strength concrete 2. Durability of concrete. 3. Optimisation of structures. 4. Punching shear in flat slabs. 5. Long term deflection of...

Civil Engineering: Width of Design Strip, raft foundation, gravity loads
raft foundation, gravity loads, thick sections: Hi Tom, This really depends on the overall size of the raft and the spacings of the major gravity loads (columns, walls, etc). As a rule of thumb you should have at least 5-6 strips (elements) between such load points, but at the same time I would not make...

Civil Engineering: Preparation for an interview, paving bricks, brick and mortar
paving bricks, brick and mortar, wall cavity: Dear Rashid, I am not an expert at it! Going by what I would have done, my advice would be to: Learn about the employer and their business. If in construction line, learn about the type of structures they are focusing on- buildings/bridges/roads/tunnels/airports...

Civil Engineering: Continous Bracing of column, Effective length of columns
Effective length of columns: Hi Khurram, If it is continuously braced then the effective length is say the same as the dimension along the plane of the bracing- hence basically a compression member, fixed at both ends. However, the effective length is also dependent on the bracing...

Civil Engineering: commercial building ring beam, Ring Beam Design
Ring Beam Design: Hi Sujithra, The principles are the same as for a rectangular building, but you will need to be careful with the rebar detailing at the points of the star. Perhaps you can incorporate a fillet inside the acute angle of where the ring beam meets at the points,...

Civil Engineering: concrete technology, coarse aggregates, note abbreviations
coarse aggregates, note abbreviations, material quantities: Dear Muhammed, From what you have mentioned, the assumptions seem to be that cement forms 1/7 of the wet volume (and hence 1/7 is multiplied by the factor 1.54 to get dry volume)and that the factor to convert wet concrete to dry concrete (1.54) is applicable...

Civil Engineering: Diaphragm calculation, seismic loads, diaphragm
seismic loads, diaphragm, shears: Hi Azzam, If you analyse the building by way of a 3-D model, then the diapgragm forces will be part of the output for the slab elements. If you do not, then calculate the total story shears for two adjacent frames and the difference between these will be...

Civil Engineering: Foundation of an reactor, black cotton soil, plasticity index
black cotton soil, plasticity index, minimum water table: Dear Jagadish, Some key parameters - as I can recall - are the plasticity index of soil (a measure of volume changes in soil on wetting/drying), shear strength / stiffness (measured by traxial test or with odometer, bulk density, and min water table. In...

Civil Engineering: flat slab design, secondary beam, slab design
secondary beam, slab design, beams: Hi Ravi, If you need a flat slab you cannot have any downstand beams. If you can have downstand beams, then you have a choice of either a one-way spanning slab (5.5m), or else a 2-way spanning slab with an intermediate secondary beam to split the 12.8 m...

Civil Engineering: ground beams, Ground Beams Design
Ground Beams Design: Hi Waleed, I am not sure I completely understand your question, but ground beams cast as you say can be designed and reinforced as continuous so long as support conditions are consistent. For deflection compatibility, you should alos consider a strip of...

Civil Engineering: Interview: Civil Engineering, Civil Engineering Interview Q & A
Civil Engineering Interview Q & A: Hi Chelsea, I have answered these types of questions before, so if you do not mind, I will cut/paste th Q&A for these below: ***************** Q. What skills are required to become a successful civil engineer, and what courses did you take in high school...

Civil Engineering: Normal Office Floor Slab Strength, Office Floor Imposed or Live Loading
Office Floor Imposed or Live Loading: Hi Owen, Yes, the loading is all in accordance with British Standards. For offices, the normal live (imposed) loading, in addition to the self weight of the slab, services (MEP + ceilings) and finishes is 2.5 kN/m2 (for occupants plus furniture, etc) plus...

Civil Engineering: Plate Element Loading on Staad Pro, manual calculations, book source
manual calculations, book source, reference book: Hi Randel, Actually both types of loading are OK for the plates, so long as the distrubution of the loading onto the supporting beams is correct. So I suggest you do some manual calculations to verify- I do not have a reference book/source, sorry. Pressure...

Civil Engineering: Question about Geometry, Geometry for Surveying and Civil Engineering
Geometry for Surveying and Civil Engineering: Hi Ermias, Geometry is vital for surveying because all the basic priciples are used, such as pythogras theorem, equilateral trangles, triangulation, areas calculation, etc, etc. Geometry is used to set-out on the ground levels and boundaries of plots and...

Civil Engineering: Specific Gravity And Soil Classification., soil, heterogeneous
soil, heterogeneous, layers: Yes this is a little different to my area of specialisation; but I try to answer with what I know! Specific gravity is an inherent property of a single material - say quartz or bronze (an alloy); I think, because soil is a heterogeneous mixture of various...

Civil Engineering: Tower design, sap 2000, construction analysis
sap 2000, construction analysis, creep and shrinkage: Hi Thaer, 1. You only need to use construction sequence analysis if the building is over 30 storeys and/or if there are different heights or stiffnesses for different parts of the tower. 2. Please elaborate about omega 0- I am not sure I understand this...

Civil Engineering: Ask about dynamic, slab, ETABS Floor Meshing
ETABS Floor Meshing: Hi Khanh, I don t know what the precise problem is, but use the Help menu to find the solution. Maybe you need to use one-way loading distribution? I cut/paste below something that may be of help: ************************************************** Use...

Civil Engineering: Building a Deck, Timber Deck Posts
Timber Deck Posts: Hi Ron, This really also depends on the sizes of the horizontal cross-members (beams) as they need to be bigger for longer spans. However, in principle, if 6X6 for posts is OK for spacing at 6 ft., then 8x8 or 12x12 can be definitely spaced further apart...

Civil Engineering: beam span, Cantilever Steel Beam Optimisation
Cantilever Steel Beam Optimisation: Hi Abdrrazaq, Perhaps you mean how to optimise the design of a cantilever steel beam for a specific span and loading? (Otherwise the optimal span is the minimum span, with minimum loading!). Well, if deflection is not a critical factor, then just follow...

Civil Engineering: boundry wall, Boundary Wall Construction
Boundary Wall Construction: Hi Naseer, This is quite a complex problem with potential danger of undermining the neighbors wall foundations. My first reaction is, why construct your wall if there is already one that separates your property from the neighbors? If you do need to construct...

Civil Engineering: Chemistry for Civil Engineers, Chemistry in Civil Engineering
Chemistry in Civil Engineering: Hi Mokhitli, In addition to that, you can also use chemistry to check the quality of soils for foundations and how these may effect foundations. You can also use it to test the quality of water for use in concrete mixes, and also the fire/chemical resistance...

Civil Engineering: Continuation of last question, reinforcing bars, subgrade
reinforcing bars, subgrade, last question: Hi Rex, The presence of rebar will only have a small influence on performance of the slab, as that depends on the subgrade. What rebar does is prevent localised cracking or punching failure. Your calculation appears to be correct. How big you make them...

Civil Engineering: Cube & cylinder Tests, Cube & cylinder Tests
Cube & cylinder Tests: Hi Jown, There is no difference when it comes to quality control- one system is common in the USA whilst the other is common in Europe, etc. You should decide on which one is common in your country and stick to that. It is not a good idea to mix them...

Civil Engineering: calculating levels, Manhole Excavation
Manhole Excavation: Hi Stephen, The depth to dig is 37.485-36.320= 1.165m plus depth required for the pipe and any bedding. The method of digging depends on the soil type, compaction, ground water level, etc. You may need to provide temporary shoring while excavating, or you...

Civil Engineering: civil technology project, concrete sections, civil technology
concrete sections, civil technology, laser levels: Hi Abhishek, The only projects I can think of combining electronics and civil engineering are: 1. Using strain gauges to measure movement/cracking/deflection in structures. 2. Using laser levels to measure/monitor settlement or verticality. 3. GPS...

Civil Engineering: concrete 2 nd floor, RC Slab Design
RC Slab Design: Hi William, Firstly, if you have not water-proofed the earth-retaining wall then your storage area will always be moist/damp- I trust you realise that. Also, that retaining wall needs to be strong enough to resist lateral pressure including over-burden....

Civil Engineering: concrete slab, Foundation Slab for Container
Foundation Slab for Container: Hi Mosesseroka, Due to liability reasons I do not do actual designs over this forum, just give advice. I presume you are talking about a ground-bearing (grade) slab, in which case the design is determined to a great extent by the nature and compaction...

Civil Engineering: Degree Of Freedoms, shell elements, shell membrane
shell elements, shell membrane, plate elements: Hi Tanveer, This info is available in the ETABS help menus: ********************** Type options. A wall or slab section can have shell, membrane or plate-type behavior. Shell-type behavior means that both in-plane membrane stiffness and out-of-plane...

Civil Engineering: EATBS Slab Moments in Beams, ETABS Slab Moments in Beams
ETABS Slab Moments in Beams: Hi Khanh, Your image is not clear enough to see the figures, but looking at the BM diagrams, I suspect the problem is to do with what I mentioned before- the load distribution from the small triangular bits of slab just above the beam 1670. Re-check this...

Civil Engineering: Expansion joint in huge water concrete tank, Water Retaining Tank
Water Retaining Tank: Hi Amer, No, if the walls and slabs are designed properly for early-age shrinkage cracking, then you do not need any joints in these. However (if I may say so), based on my experience of designing many tanks, I feel that the wall thickness appears excessive....

Civil Engineering: estimation buildings, dr arshad, asbestos cement
dr arshad, asbestos cement, asbestos roof: Hi Abdikadir, For a complete estimation, the following need to be worked out: Site clearance, excavations, temporary supports, foundations (maybe piling?), basements, shuttering/propping, concrete, rebar, steelwork, architectural finishes, curtain walling,...

Civil Engineering: expansion joint, Bridge Expansion Joints
Bridge Expansion Joints: Hi Ananta, Yes, in long span bridges, the expansion joints are usually located where there is minimum moment. So in cable-stayed bridges, they will most likely be at the middle of the span. Remember that joints are incorporated to prevent problems with...

Civil Engineering: Formula for calculating raft foundation thickness, Preliminary raft thickness
Preliminary raft thickness: Hi Paul, I am afraid there is no such standard formula, as the raft thickness is determined by various factors such as: 1. Ground conditions and limits for differential settlement. 2. Distances between supported walls, columns, etc. 3. Loading on columns....

Civil Engineering: Foundation of a house, Basement Foundations
Basement Foundations: Hi Pal, Yes, you can use the foundation as a basement but if the water table is high you will need to waterproof it well. Some details: http://www.thisoldhouse.com/toh/basement-and-foundations http://www.bobvila.com/HowTo_Library/Foundations_An_Overview-Foundation-A1670.htm...

Civil Engineering: estimation buildings, slab, bricks
Civil Engineering: estimation buildings, slab, bricks, gravel

Civil Engineering: Industrial building slab strength, concrete floor slab, injection moulding machines
concrete floor slab, injection moulding machines, slab strength: Hi Rex, Yes, your assumption could be correct, but this depends on the loading the slab has been subjected to. Normally the maximum load in a warehouse would be about 7.5-10 kN/m2, but you are applying a pressure (localised) of between 200-400 kN/m2, so...

Civil Engineering: Raft foundation design., raft foundation design, soil test report
raft foundation design, soil test report, working in oman: Hi Bilal, In that case you have 2 options only- drop the raft by incorporating a basement, or use piles. Rafts are quite complex to design, so you will need to use a suitable FEA software. Here are some sources for further info: http://www.oasys-software.com/information/case_studies/aspire_tower.shtml...

Civil Engineering: Regarding the Bill Of Quantity., QS- Item and Lumpsum
QS- Item and Lumpsum: Hi Jijo, Any amounts mentioned against Item or Lump Sum are usually not re-measured as the prices are fixed. All the QS needs to ascertain is that the work was completed in accordance with the specifications. So effectively there is no difference between...

Civil Engineering: Shell Elements, Shell Membrane Plate Elements
Shell Membrane Plate Elements: Hi Tanveer, If you are referring to ETABS, please go the the help section and it is all explained there. Also, there are a lot of useful FAQ s in the following websites: http://dev.csiberkeley.com/faq_ETABS.html and: http://www.eng-tips.com/threadminder.cfm?pid=802...

Civil Engineering: Stone Wall Holes, head tank, drilling holes
head tank, drilling holes, building consultant: Hi Nadeem, I am not quite sure how drilling holes and putting rebar will support a tank, but so long as the holes are well spaced out (say at a spacing of more than 1.5 to 2 times thickness of stone wall), then there should not be any damage to the wall,...

Civil Engineering: Structural design of flat slab, Flat Slab Analysis/Design
Flat Slab Analysis/Design: Hi Dada, 1. You will need to use your engineering judgement on that- you can always choose 2 or 3 alternative spans as critical and compare the results. 2. You can take long term creep/cracking effects by modifying the bending stiffness of the slab....

Civil Engineering: single column pad foundation, Stepped Foundations
Stepped Foundations: Hi David, So long as the slope is original ground (i.e. not fill), then you can step the foundations down to save costs. It is a good idea to use ground beams to connect the columns of the lower bases to the bases of the upper ones, so that you get a more...

Civil Engineering: structural beam design., Steel Beam Design
Steel Beam Design: Hi Ehsanuddin, Due to liability reasons I do not do actual designs over this form, but just give advice. You have not indicated whether the load is single point load or UDL and what the deflection criteria is. I suggest you use the tables in the Blue Book...

Civil Engineering: suggestion for a project topic, Soil Mechanics Project Topics
Soil Mechanics Project Topics: Hi Emmanuel, I am not an expert in this field, but relating to structures, you could look into: 1. Effect of compaction on lateral pressures on retaining or basement walls. 2. Influence of water table on soils bearing capacity 3. Effect of cement stabilisation...

Civil Engineering: Water Pressure, Floatation Problems
Floatation Problems: Hi Umar, Upthrust or floatation is only a problem when you construct a basement or tank or swimming pool below the ground water level. Otherwise, for just buidling foundations this is a temporary problem for keeping the excavations dry, which can be done...

Civil Engineering: Two Way Continuous Slab, Continuous RC Slabs
Continuous RC Slabs: Hi Tariq, This is a difficult question to answer as it depends on how the slabs have been analysed and what relative spans and moments you have. Normally, if S1 equals S2, and S1 is an end-span and S2 is a middle span, then the moments and rebar in S1 should...

Civil Engineering: How to calculate area of tunnel, Area of Tunnel X-section
Area of Tunnel X-section: Hi Mandar, The best way to do this is to divide up the X-section shape into a semi-circle, a rectangle and possibly 2 triangles at the sides (if the sides are not vertical). Then you can easily work out the individual areas and add them up. Or, if you...

Civil Engineering: canal building, Cost for Canal Construction
Cost for Canal Construction: Hi Altynbek, This question is difficult to answer because it depends on the design of the canal (whether it is concrete or clay or rubber membrane lined), on local rates for materials/labour/plant and also on the alignment/topography/geology of the route-...

Civil Engineering: civil, Ground Bearing Floor Slabs
Ground Bearing Floor Slabs: Hi Nadeem, Your question is not very clear, but in any case floor slabs are not normally cast straight on top of isolated footings. Normally the the tops of the footings are at least 12-24 below the natural ground level, and the floor slab is normally...

Civil Engineering: Depth. of foundation, Foundation Depths
Foundation Depths: Hi Vinod, This really depends on gound conditions and annual weather conditions. For example, on good rock, you can have fairly shallow foundations but on soil subject to frost heave in winter, the minimum depth should be about 1m below finished ground...

Civil Engineering: End Releases In ETABS, End Releases
End Releases: Hi Umar, In practical terms it is not possible to construct such a junction without any moment transfer (unless you use pre-cast beams, with steel support bearings). So, how much moment you release depends on how the rebar detailing is done and whether...

Civil Engineering: ETABS MODEL.. Different Questions, muhammad umar, strange area
muhammad umar, strange area, column sizes: Hi Umar, I could not open the zipped folder (says it is empty), but in any case your strange results may be due to: 1. The upper columns having much higher moments than lower ones. (could be bi-axial moments). 2. The size of the columns looks rather...

Civil Engineering: Expansion/ construction joint in RCC retaining wall, Retaining wall expansion joints
Retaining wall expansion joints: Hi Baiju, This depends on whether the retaining wall is exposed to the weather (in direct sunlight, etc). If it is a buried retaining wall (such as in basements), then you can maximise the spacing of movement joints to 40-50m centres. Otherwise, I would...

Civil Engineering: Repair of Column Cracks, Concrete Cracks repair
Concrete Cracks repair: Hi Nords, You have not indicated whether this is a new or old construction. If it is old, vertical cracks normally are formed due to corrossion of the main rebar. If that is the case, the best option is to remove the cracked/spalled concrete (you can put...

Civil Engineering: Hidden Beams, Flush Beams
Flush Beams: Hi Narayana, A hidden beam is also known as a flush or merged beam, usually used to support slabs that are either made from hollow blocks (in between ribs), or may even be within flat slabs. They should be analysed and designed in the same way as normal...

Civil Engineering: PT Slab Cost Effectiveness, Economical Floor design
Economical Floor design: Hi Marcus, You are quite correct. In purely terms of materials (concrete/rebar), RC slabs are more economical than PT. In my experience, for spans of between 6-10m, a one-way ribbed slab (with down-stand beams)is about the most economical. However, if...

Civil Engineering: Question on Mass Underground Transportation Idea, underground transportation system, available times
underground transportation system, available times, mr khan: Hi Mark, The concept is technically feasible but will be very expensive and hence not financially viable. Also, current technology does not have trains that can run faster than about 250-300 mph, so even these will need to be developed. You idea is good,...

Civil Engineering: Redesign of pile cap, Pile Cap re-distribution
Pile Cap re-distribution: Hi Ahmad, If the column vertical reaction remains on the position of the original 300x300 stump, then increasing the stump width will not significantly alter the position of the resultant vertical force on to the pile cap, I am afraid! You have 2 choices-...

Civil Engineering: roof slab design, RC Roof Slab Design
RC Roof Slab Design: Hi Ashraf, This is too general a question, but this may assist you(RC roof design is similar to floor design, but with reduced live loading): http://www.scribd.com/doc/19184820/Economic-Long-Span-Concrete-Floor-Slabs http://en.allexperts.com/q/Civil-Engineering-1357/roof-slab-reinforment-details.htm...

Civil Engineering: Seeking project guidance, Raft FEA analysis & Design
Raft FEA analysis & Design: Hi Arnab, I am not familiar with ANSYS, but most FEA software work on the principle of beam on elastic foundations (simulated by spring supports), and normally you need to do iterative runs of the model to get upper-bound and lower-bound results in terms...

Civil Engineering: Shear design for slab in SAFE, SAFE Slab Design for Shear
SAFE Slab Design for Shear: Hi Karkin, If you are using SAFE v12, and if you invoked Run Analysis & Design (instead of just Run Analysis), then the output does have all details for shear values and rebar requirements. That way you will be able to ascertain if the output is correct...

Civil Engineering: Steel shuttering Design, structural steelwork, wet concrete
structural steelwork, wet concrete, composite design: Hi Bala, This can be designed using the locally applicable standard on structural steelwork, but when analysing the forces, you need to take account of pressures from wet concrete as well as construction related loading (such as men, equipment, etc). I...

Civil Engineering: steel column footing, steel column, axial load
steel column, axial load, baseplate: Hi Ravi, This depends on the detailing of the joint- if it is a true pin joint, then the answer is no; however, if it is a baseplate with 2 bolts, then you should apply a minimum moment equal to maximum axial load X lever arm between centre of column and...

Civil Engineering: Tie Beams, Tie or Plinth Beams
Tie or Plinth Beams: Hi Kaushik, This is difficult to answer as it depends on various aspects. However, generally the tops of tie (gound) beams can be just below the natural gound level. You can span primary beams between columns and then have secondary ones (below walls) spanning...

Civil Engineering: Transverse Reinforcement Critieras for Simply Supported Flexural Members, Lateral Rebar in Flexural Members
Lateral Rebar in Flexural Members: Hi Umar, I am not sure which 4 criteria you speak of, but perhaps you mean lateral reinforcement? Lateral reinforcement in ACI-318 is required for compression rebar in order to stop this buckling. So, if your SS beam is only singly reinforced (i.e. top...

Civil Engineering: Any way to obtain a licence certificate in Civil Engg., building constructions, layout drawings
building constructions, layout drawings, boundary markers: Hi Vinod, That depends on how the site boundary markers are placed and what distances are shown on the layout drawings between the markings and the corners of the building. The centre-line also depends on whether the building is symmetrical or not...

Civil Engineering: Cantilever Retaining Wall, RC Retaining Wall
RC Retaining Wall: Hi Abhishek, This sounds like a homework question, which you really should learn the baics of yourself before answering. The bending moment depends on afew variables such type and density of soil retained, ground water table, whether there is surcharge,...

Civil Engineering: Civil Structural Engineer, Residential Building Estimate
Residential Building Estimate: Hi Amit, Fot calculating loads, you need to assess the self (dead) weight of the structure by calculating the volume and multiplying with the density, and you need to apply the imposed (live) loads in accordance with usage and the applicable standards/codes....

Civil Engineering: Concrete and steel columns, Steel/Concrete combined construction
Steel/Concrete combined construction: Hi Ravi, You can do a proper analysis so long as you define the section properties correctly and you take care about detailing the joints in such a way that the assumed fixity conditions are realised or buildable. For examle, you can cast a steel plate...

Civil Engineering: Different questions, ETABS Analysis Manual Checks
ETABS Analysis Manual Checks: Hi Umar, If you are asking about ETABS, there will be no diaphragm in a pitched roof- you just rely on the roof to brace itself and to transmit loads on to the beams or walls. For lateral wind loading, you will need to manually work it out and apply it...

Civil Engineering: dynamic seismic load, ETABS Dynamic Analysis
ETABS Dynamic Analysis: Hi Ravi, Not automatically- you have to use the RSA mode and then input the appropriate data in order to do dynamic analysis. The help menu has more info, as pasted below: ******************** Define Response Spectrum Case Form: Define Response Spectra,...

Civil Engineering: expansion joint provision for large water retaining structure, Early Age Concrete Cracking
Early Age Concrete Cracking: Jonathan, Basically this design takes account of the prevailing weather conditions, the shape/size/support conditions of the structure (i.e. what restraint there is to shrinkage, the concrete mix & compaction, the curing methods and the quantity and distribution...

Civil Engineering: Final Year project topics, final year project, final year projects
final year project, final year projects, highway engineering: Hi Yemi, I am not an expert in highway/transportation, but my answer below may give you some ideas relevant to your location: http://en.allexperts.com/q/Civil-Engineering-1357/2009/11/Final-Year-project-Kenya.htm As for research on other construction...

Civil Engineering: Foundation on Fill, floor slabs, air gap
floor slabs, air gap, ground settlement: Hi Jang, I am not an expert in geotechnics, nor have you given enough data. The answers depend on the properties of the soil, degree of compaction, etc. You need to do some site investigations in order to get the properties needed to do an assessment. ...

Civil Engineering: Mass Vs. Weight in ETABS, storage areas, warehouses
Civil Engineering: Mass Vs. Weight in ETABS, storage areas, warehouses, ubc

Civil Engineering: Support under plinth beams
Civil Engineering: Support under plinth beams

Civil Engineering: final year project, yr student, final year project
yr student, final year project, suitable project: Hi Dayveed, I (and fellow experts) have answered this question many times before- please browse my past answers using the keywords: Final year project, Projects, Topics One such example is: http://en.allexperts.com/q/Civil-Engineering-1357/2009/12/final-year-project-3.ht...

Civil Engineering: Green Buildings, Green Buildings
Green Buildings: Hi Siva, Yes, this is a hot topic so a good one to pursue. If you do a search on Google.com, you will find lots of material, such as ones below: http://www.igbc.in/site/igbc/index.jsp http://www.usgbc.org/ http://www.ukgbc.org/site/home http://www.worldgbc.org/...

Civil Engineering: Mass Vs. Weight in ETABS, response spectrum, seismic load
response spectrum, seismic load, etabs: Hi Arman, The discrepancy could be due to several reasons, such as definition of mass source (menu Define Mass Source, where you should have the dead load plus 25% of live load), whether you have sufficient modes in order to capture at least 90% of the...

Civil Engineering: Raft pile foundation design, Leaning Towers Foundations
Leaning Towers Foundations: Hi Murid, This then depends on the pile capacities vs length and diameter. If you can cater for all loading without piles goind down into the pancone clay, then you can use piles. If not, the alternative is to use a wide circular strip footing, which...

Civil Engineering: Rebar per cubic meter in RCC, Rebar Density in Concrete
Rebar Density in Concrete: Hi Amith, This really depends on what part of the structure your are talking about, and can vary from about 60 kg/m3 for rafts to 250 kg/m3 for beams. On average for a building you can assume between 80 and 120 kg/m3 depending on geometry/size/spans and...

Civil Engineering: Rigid foundations, Rigid Foundation
Rigid Foundation: Hi Ali, This is based on engineering judgement and depends partly on what the supporting strata is and also on what the loaded area is- e.g., is it a single column load or continuous walls etc, which may result in the foundation becoming more rigid. ...

Civil Engineering: raft foundation, Raft Foundation Design
Raft Foundation Design: Hi Gaurang, This is quite complex, depending on soil conditions and how the loading is applied. A raft foundation is designed like an upside-down flat slab, with the upwards subgrade reactions being equal and opposite to the self weight of the raft,...

Civil Engineering: SAP 2000, Isolated Footing Design
Isolated Footing Design: Hi Sajad, For isolated footings, use SAP 2000 only if you want to do detailed FEA analysis, otherwise it is best/easier to use either hand calculations or spreadsheets readily available, such as this website: http://www.civl.port.ac.uk/rcc2000/ ...

Civil Engineering: Staggered reinforcement in raft, raft foundation, stress concentrations
raft foundation, stress concentrations, rebar: Hi Issa, The main advantage of staggered rebar lapping is to avoid rebar congestion at localised zones and also to avoid stress concentrations in the concrete (to transfer bond) to only one zone- by staggering the laps, the stresses are spread over a larger...

Civil Engineering: Strap Footing, Combined Footing
Combined Footing: Hi Gilbert, This depends on the relative stiffnesses of the sub-grade, the pad footings and the strap beam. It will only really work as a combined footing if the strap beam is as stiff in the vertical plane as the pad footings. Also, you can frame the strap...

Civil Engineering: Structural enginering how to design piles caps which can support more than five piles, Multiple Pile Cap Design
Multiple Pile Cap Design: Hi Taddesse, Actually you can design a pile cap with up to 5 piles (5th one directly under the column in the middle) using traditional methods. However, for anything more than 5 piles, you end up having pile-grouping effects and also for the design of...