About Experts Sitemap - Group 12 - Page 37 2015-01-20

Civil Engineering: Example- Etabs modeling, machine, foundation
machine, foundation, rotary: Dear Mushtaq You cant model a rotary machine in Etabs but you can extract maximum static and dynamic loadings of a machine and apply them in your etabs model. For getting idea about this you should consult handbooks of machine foundation. Rotary machines...

Civil Engineering: load distribution, load, distribution
load, distribution: Dear Roy It depends on the location of the concentrated load. You should trace the plastic lines connection the load to each corner and calculate the potential energy and working energy. If not you should use the calculations graphs which can be found on...

Civil Engineering: Modeling a Belltower in ETABS 2013, wall, tower
wall, tower: Dear Kathy Your idea to use story moments as governing moments applied to the walls is great. Shell forces cant be directly used in design purpose. Using wall elements and piers and spandrels are also a good guide toward the control of results. Regards...

Civil Engineering: MODELING COLUMN STEEL JACKET USING ETABS, composite beam design, concrete section
composite beam design, concrete section, composite columns: Hi Farah, ETABS does composite beam design but not composite columns. I suggest you use a transformed concrete section (using modular ratio of the steel and concrete), do the analysis and then do the design by using manual methods or other software that...

Civil Engineering: Mosque design, Mass source in ETABS
Mass source in ETABS: Hi Ravi, If by gamma you mean the partial factor of safety for concrete as a material, then that should be 1.5 if you are using BS8110. And mass source should be 1.0 self + 1.0 Sdead + 1.0 Mechanical (tanks, etc) + 0.25 LL (the later could be 0.5LL if it...

Civil Engineering: Physics / Enginerring, Capacity of steel cable
Capacity of steel cable: Hi Nathan, The length of the cable does not affect the tensile strength capacity- it just affects the strain (or extension under load). The tensile strength needs to be quoted in lbs per square inch or square foot, then you multiply that by the x-sectional...

Civil Engineering: PileCaps, cap, shear
cap, shear: Dear Cesar You have to calculate the shear produced by the loadings in the interface of the old and new concrete. May be you will need to provide dowels to bear the shear. If you neglect the shear in interface the cap capacity will reduce. Regards ...

Civil Engineering: Sap, sap
sap: Dear Nouman Just to know what the software has calculated you can increase the moment of Inertia by a factor of say 1.7. After analysis the software gives you a slenderness say 180 . Then you can calculate the previous slenderness drawn by sap using SQRT...

Civil Engineering: Sign convention and Shell Output in ETABS, reinforcement design, principal stresses
reinforcement design, principal stresses, enevelopes: Hi Waseem, 1. It must be a modelling issue, as using shell and with proper meshing I do not get zero values for Fmax, Mmax, Vmax, etc 2. For rebar design you should use M11, M22, and V13 and V23, and just use the stresses to check that they are within...

Civil Engineering: single and double curvature, curvature, etabs
curvature, etabs, model: Dear Teme Yes you may know using the angle of curvature in ends of the column. For more information you can divide the column in 2 , 3 or more section and be more detailed using the information given by the software. Please let me know in the case of the...

Civil Engineering: Slab load distribution to beams, span loading, ratio and proportion
span loading, ratio and proportion, trapezoidal shape: Hi Roy, Assuming that this is an internal span (or slab is simply supported at the beams), then just take 50% load onto each of the longer spans. If it is an edge span and the slab is part of a continuous multi-span slab then the edge beam would carry around...

Civil Engineering: Slenderness of column, lateral loads, etabs
lateral loads, etabs, rafter: Hi Nouman, Fist of all you need to consider slenderness of the column about both axes, and this is determined on the basis of the fixity conditions at both ends along both axes- so you need to work out the stiffness of the beams at the top, relative to...

Civil Engineering: STIRRUPS, stirrup, concrete
stirrup, concrete: Dear Ahmad 2 or 3 legged stirrup simply means that transversal reinforcement has 2 or 3 vertical extension to bear the shear due to shear or torsion. For details of calculation you should take a look at reference books for RC design. Regards BE...

Civil Engineering: sunshade curve slope, solar, shadow
solar, shadow: Dear Amudha You need to calculate the solar zenith during the year and then according to the height of the window or door you are designing the sun shade for you must size the gardient and height of it. The solar zenith is calculated according to latitude...

Civil Engineering: Two way slab tributary load to beams
Hi Faisal, The way you have divided by 5 to get UDL will be fine for shear forces and design but not for moments as you will under-estimate the span and support moments for your beam. You can either assume the maximum (or say 10% less) over whole length,...

Civil Engineering: موضوع تز کارشناسی ارشد, سازه، زلزله، می
سازه، زلزله، می: آرمان عزیز سلام هیچ در مورد افزایش میرایی ارتعاشی...

Civil Engineering: bridge engineering, bridge, thermal
bridge, thermal: Dear Eswaran I dont have expertized idea about this matter but you can find a lot of texts in Internet like the following ones: http://www.eng.auburn.edu/files/centers/hrc/IR-98-02.pdf http://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/handle/2152/17802 Regards...

Civil Engineering: column design, sectional area, axial loads
sectional area, axial loads, column design: Hi Priyantha, This depends on the height of the wall, as well as the relative stiffness of the framing beams - but as a rule of thumb, consider the wall section at the edges to be maximum 3xT = 3x 225 = 675mm as being effective at the top- due to load distribution,...

Civil Engineering: column eccentricity, Edge Column bi-axial moments
Edge Column bi-axial moments: Hi Suhail, I am not sure what you mean by eccentricity in this situation, but if you want an estimate of the eccentricity of the resultant vertical axial load, this can be approximated by simple geometry- assume the shear load for each beam to act at the...

Civil Engineering: diffrent between spectrums?, earthquake, code
earthquake, code: Dear Behzad It is because in the case of high intensity ( higher PGA) it is likely that the soil goes into plastic deformation , then the Site response spectrum may be limited to the soil strength. But in the case of lower PGA s the soil can amplify the...

Civil Engineering: drift consideration in etabs, static, dynamic
static, dynamic, modal: Dear Raviarjun It is not possible to derive differnetial drift directly , but you would extract the result in spreadsheet and do the calculation by yourself. You dont need most realistic values. You need the most reliable values . In this point of view...

Civil Engineering: ETABS static EQ RSA and Mass source, ETABS mass source
ETABS mass source: Hi Zena, Most of the questions you ask are answered in the CSI knowledge base: 1. https://wiki.csiamerica.com/display/kb/Ritz+vs.+Eigen+vectors 2. You need static cases first to determine maximum base shears, so that you can then scale the RSA factors...

Civil Engineering: Expansion joint in G+4 rcc building, Point displacements and story drifts
Point displacements and story drifts: Hi Musherib, If your building is symmetrical, so that centres of mass and rigidity are close, then the point displacements will equal the story drift. However, if there is twisting of the building due to lateral loading, then point displacements will be...

Civil Engineering: Expansion joint in G+4 rcc building, Seismic Gap to avoid pounding
Seismic Gap to avoid pounding: Hi Musherib, Yes, depending on the R factor used for seismic loading and the slenderness of the building, one can end up with quite a wide seismic gap to avoid pounding. This gap should be bridged using crushable filler with low modulus and for pedestrian...

Civil Engineering: exporting to SAFE from ETABS, Raft spring supports
Raft spring supports: Hi Ravi, For proper soil-structure interaction the raft should only be supported on springs depending on soil modulus. The columns supports on the raft can be fixed or pinned depending on your boundary conditions- e.g. if there are no basements, they should...

Civil Engineering: Structural Designing
Civil Engineering: Structural Designing

Civil Engineering: Flat slab sleeves and pipes, flat slab, vertical openings
flat slab, vertical openings, shear capacity: Hi Ahmed, Using first principles, you can check whether the loss of concrete section will have any adverse effects- e.g.: 1. Pipes within middle third depth of a slab, within middle third of slab span will have minimal effect on bending capacity, and...

Civil Engineering: load detrmination, load combinations, desine
load combinations, desine, gaurav: Hi Gaurav, When analysing a beam or slab you should apply the dead and live loads separately (without factors) and then create load combinations using appropriate factors such as 1.4DL+1.6LL, etc. Then in the reactions you can identify the amount of live...

Civil Engineering: modal analysis period, Natural periods of tall buildings
Natural periods of tall buildings: Hi Farah, For your building the 1st mode should not be much more than 2.5 to 3 seconds. The reasons why it is much higher could be due to one or a combination of: 1. Modelling errors (loss of connectivity, density of materials, young s modulus, etc)....

Civil Engineering: Modelling Slab in SAFE, Walls & slabs connectivity moment transfer
Walls & slabs connectivity moment transfer: Hi Ghulam, It is practical to a certain degree if you design the slabs to be simply supported at the walls (hence main rebar is at the bottom), but you should always have some nominal anti-crack rebar at the top, so there will be partial moment transfer....

Civil Engineering: pile design, Moments piles pile caps
Moments piles pile caps: Hi Priyantha, Piles are not normally designed to resist moments- only vertical pull/push axial forces. The moments from columns are normally resisted by the pile caps, by means of truss analogy, transmitting axial forces to the piles. Please see my past...

Civil Engineering: pile design, Pile cut-off
Pile cut-off : Hi Priyantha, This is usually done for two reasons- in case the top portion is contaminated with soil, etc, that cannot be incorporated into permanent structure, but more importantly because it is difficult to cast the pile top level accurately to the correct...

Civil Engineering: RC beam Moment redistribution
Hi Zena, I think you misunderstood the 2nd part- the reduction of moment I was speaking about is in the columns supporting the beams- if the beam carries on past the column, the redistribution can be shared between the beams rather than distributing down...

Civil Engineering: Rotational stiffness of soil, spring stiffness, shear wall
spring stiffness, shear wall, fixity: Hi Waseem, This is not something that I have used before but I would imagine that it has limited significance for design of foundations for buildings- maybe it is important for retaining walls, design of piles with high top moments and dams, etc. If...

Civil Engineering: Size Limit for Pad Footings, pad foundation, vertical load
pad foundation, vertical load, mass concrete: Hi CheeVui, The rule of thumb I use for a pad foundation is that the ratio of length/depth should be between 3 and 4. In your case it is about 5. What this means is that your rebar will be quite heavy and you may not quite get UDL reaction below the base...

Civil Engineering: strength to weight question, material
material: Dear Philip The tests have to be accompanied with theoretical background because axial and shear stresses are interconnected. The name of tests are shear, tension or compression. But some tests are more complicated like brazilian test which is performed...

Civil Engineering: Structural Designing, geocal, building structures
geocal, building structures, excellent books: Hi Ahsan, Much of what you have requested is freely available on the internet. Try these sites, and in some of them you can interactively do analysis and design: http://www.engineersedge.com/beam_calc_menu.shtml http://environment.uwe.ac.uk/geocal/foundations/Fountype.htm#RAFT...

Civil Engineering: Structural engineering, concrete, phd
concrete, phd: Dear Asad Sorry for my delay. A wide range of subjects is available. I can suggest you working on light weight concrete beams, columns. Prestressed Rc elements can give you some motivation. Special concrete admixture may be valuable for your region in Pakistan....

Civil Engineering: Temperature Load, temperature
temperature: Dear Musherib I don t see something special in ground level slabs to be considered as temperature sensitive. Can you give me some details through pictures. Usually ground level structures are less susceptible under temperature changes. Regards BE...

Civil Engineering: truss analogy method, Shear RC Beams Truss Analogy
Shear RC Beams Truss Analogy: Hi Zena, If you think of a truss and how that transmits shear from span to support, it is the same principle for RC beams, whereby the bottom rebar acts like the bottom tension chord of the truss, the top compression zone of concrete acts as the top chord...

Civil Engineering: vertical earthquake component?, earthquake
earthquake: Dear Behzad It is accepted from engineering point of view that earthquakes have to be considered in 3 directions : X,Y and Z. The relative importance of vertical component depends on earthquake source and site location and also to the structural componenet...

Civil Engineering: why1.4 A .B?, period, spectrum
period, spectrum: Dear Behzad I am not in the current of development of the procedure but I can ask you what you suggests? You must compare the spectra around the period of the structure. But the calculation of T is not very exact and also the higher mode periods may be...

Civil Engineering: اختلاف در جرم محاسبه شده ایتبس و دستی
جناب آقای علی من نمیدانم کجای کار شما اشتباه...

Civil Engineering: Canopy design, canopy, loading
canopy, loading: Dear Solo Please send a sketch of the problem and also give me an idea of wind loading along with eventual sand loading and what ever could be essential for the design of the canopy according to your local codes of practice. Without additional information...

Civil Engineering: Carpet Installation/Fixing in Trains and Buses., carpet, train
carpet, train, rail: Dear Prashant 1- My general approach is to see what the general requirements of the projects are based on and then decide, then my very global action is to say YES conditionally. Conditions are not very complicated but not restricted to the fee of the project....

Civil Engineering: Crack Control in Water Tanks, BS 8007 Crack control Water tanks
BS 8007 Crack control Water tanks: Hi Waseem, I am not well versed with the ACI codes but have designed water tanks to BS 8007, from which the quoted extract below may assist. You do need to cater for crack widths due to temperature, not just due to flexure. 2.6 Causes and control of...

Civil Engineering: ETABS, beam, membrane
beam, membrane, shell: Dear Priyantha Membrane details of interaction with related beams are not critical factors, then automeshing is allowed. But bending interaction of shells with surrounding beams may be very critical. Then your own details of connection between shells and...

Civil Engineering: Expansion joints
Hi Mohammed, As the tank is underground, I would recommend that you do not have any expansion joints as after construction the temperature differences will be minimal. During construction, however, you will need to en careful about early age cracking due...

Civil Engineering: reinforced cement concrete
Civil Engineering: reinforced cement concrete

Civil Engineering: Temperature Loading in ETABS
Civil Engineering: Temperature Loading in ETABS

Civil Engineering: INSITU- RC STRUCTURE, Beams columns joint and moment transfer
Beams columns joint and moment transfer: Hi Priyantha, 1. Either have very nominal rebar going through from column into the beam, or else detail the column vertical rebar to cross over eachother to form an X (refer to details in the Reynolds manual for RC structures). 2. As I mentioned earlier,...

Civil Engineering: Modell precast panels with ETABS, etabs, mesh
etabs, mesh, area: Dear West There are several ways to do it. I suggest you to define fine grids and then draw panels and mesh them as your very requirements. I appended a picture which depict what I want to clear. Although don t hesitate to ask if further if any doubt or...

Civil Engineering: Overturning of a building
Hi Mustafa, Check the base reactions, and if they are all positive (i.e. no tension), then overturning stability is not a problem. If some of them are negative, then you need to check the resultant reaction and if that falls within the middle third of the...

Civil Engineering: P waves in vertical component?, motion, seismic
motion, seismic, earthquake: Dear Behzad It is because of boundary conditions. The boundary condition on the surface, implies the shear stress being zero while the motion in horizontal direction is allowed. Then what will happen? An S wave will be more obvious in lateral motion. In...

Civil Engineering: Project manager, report, project
report, project: Dear Seco I suggest you again to prepare a Project State Report as part of the documentation of the project. There you can ask for more authority to choose your own colleagues. A PSR Report will give a strength to your career and organization post. Regards...

Civil Engineering: RC DESIGN, Large cantilever and wide beam
Large cantilever and wide beam: Hi Abdurrazak, a) Yes you can, but it will need to be quite deep near the support- 0.7 to 0.8m (depending on long term deflection criteria)and you should taper it down in depth as you go away from the support. You will also need a good back-span or solid...

Civil Engineering: reinforced cement concrete, cover, concrete
cover, concrete, mortar: Dear Aamir Two main reasons exist for a cover being necessary : 1- to force the steel reinforcement to be pulled and show extreme tension stress when the bending member being loaded 2- to protect the steel rods against corrosion under moisture and...

Civil Engineering: SAFE Punching Modelling, Raft punching shear
Raft punching shear: Hi Waseem, The usual procedure is to reduce the spring stiffness around the periphery of a raft (or individual pad) to allow for the fact that the soil there is no as well contained against lateral/slip movement as it is below the foundation. Extending...

Civil Engineering: Slope failure, landslide, erosion
landslide, erosion: Dear Susan What I see , it is a local failure which may be innocent ( It depends on inherent slope of the bedrock underneath of the land) but complementary Information of the lower part of the land may clear more details. Usually critical failures show...

Civil Engineering: Stirrups
Hi Sudarshan, In that case you need to go back to the structural engineer who designed the beams as only he/she will know the loading and the shear forces so that he/she can check if the stirrups as built are sufficient. If they are not you can strengthen...

Civil Engineering: Temperature Loading in ETABS, Temperature stress in water tanks
Temperature stress in water tanks: Hi Waseem, First of all you need to consider the maximum daily temperature range, not seasonal range. Secondly, if the tank is isolated and free to expand/contact then the walls will not have any temperature stress due to strain. The usual problem is...

Civil Engineering: Water tank top slab crack width
Hi Waseem, The soffit of a roof to water tank is the worst one as far as exposure goes- dampness + oxygen, so yes that needs 0.1 or maximum 0.2mm crack width, including temperature strains. However, I have explained in my last answer how to mitigate against...

Civil Engineering: انتخاب گرایش در ارشد, انتخاب رشته
انتخاب رشته: سرکار خانم مهندس نجمه با سلام و احترام قطعا...

Civil Engineering: Bearing Wall System, wall, slab
wall, slab, shear: Dear Mustafa Bearing wall has its characteristics. You have a frame with flat slabs here and no bearing walls. The gravitational loads is supported by the slab frame system not a bearing wall. This is not related to the slab system. The slabs play the...

Civil Engineering: Biaxial moment coulmn design per BS8110, bar, column
bar, column: Dear Alex I suggest you to calculate the Rebar area for both sides and then arrange the bars so that you have the needed area in each direction without adding them up. Each direction must have its own area arranged as you said : As/2 on the top and As/2...

Civil Engineering: building condition, building, structure
building, structure: Dear Mamatha There is no real way to inspect visually a hidden structure. But you can trying to check wether the roof is vibrating under actual live load . You can check it by walking or even running on the roof. You can check wether the masonry walls have...

Civil Engineering: Column Rotate, column
column: Dear Mustafa The most important must do is to calculate the additional moment due to eccentricity of columns which can not be calculated be etabs or so. I suggest you to check the lower column for R times the earthquake effect from the top but in ultimate...

Civil Engineering: etabs, load,, foundation, reinforcement, design
reinforcement, design, structure: Dear Panner I suggest you to check the column loading simply by adding the story loads together. you should use a coefficient of at least 2 for the lift impact. It means that you must assume 2 times the nominal weight of the lift cabinet as the effective...

Civil Engineering: foundation on rock, column, foundation
column, foundation, depth: Dear Niranjan The depth of foundation is geverned by shear produced in a zone near the columns which is in turn function of the column loading, then it is not affected meaniningfully and from engineering point of view by soil strength. Regards BEH...

Civil Engineering: mud mixed with RCC, concrete, corrosion
concrete, corrosion: Dear Sudarshan The only cover for bars in Rc is the concrete. The cover for fondation buried in soil is considered thicker than Rc in atmospher ( 2 times). All these are for preventing corrosion due to water or humidity or chemical hazards. You can perform...

Civil Engineering: Orthogonal effect, column, orthogonal
column, orthogonal: Dear Mustafa What orthogonality? For seismic effect? In Dubai you don t need to do so. But if you mean to consider moments in 2 directions the you need to analyze the structure in both direction according to load distribution of slabs and then you will...

Civil Engineering: Pushover analysis, push over
push over: Dear Sereen I suggest you to take a look on the Internet. There are a lot of papers relating this subject. A key word in this topic is freeman. He is among the first researchers working on this topic. After this study please contact me here to discuss about...

Civil Engineering: RCC structure, safety
safety: Dear Sudarshan Surely not. Cracks are signs of probable damage. But no crack doesn t mean a reliable safety. Because safety has 2 branches : loading and material properties. You can be safe only when you have a reliable analysis along with site observation...

Civil Engineering: selection of Sand, concrete, clay
concrete, clay: Dear Mamatha They should wash the material in one or two times. Clay will reduce the concrete strength and will absorb water and its volume increase inside concrete body leading to internal stress and damage. Careful Washing the material before use can...

Civil Engineering: shear force on the top and bottom surface of the beam, shear
shear: Dear Saumil No shear is present on top and bottom of a bending element unless in the case of composite beams. I refer you to get more deeply on vQ/It formula for shear stress which imply that no shear is present on extreme surface of the beams. I guess...

Civil Engineering: slab beam connection
Hi Saleem, As far as ETABS modelling is concerned, for analysis, all members are connected at node points and mid-axis. However, when you extrude the slab & beam, it will show it as a flange, but for design purposes it makes no difference to the slab or...

Civil Engineering: Stability & Shear Walls, story, storey
story, storey, stiffness: Dear Micheael The interstory stiffness is not governed by support situation especially in 2nd and upper story provided that good connections exist between slab and the shaft in each storey. Actually softwares like sap2000 and etabs calculate the shaft contribution...

Civil Engineering: Stiffness modifiers
Dear Samuel It differs from code to code but for flexural member a modification of moment of inertia like 0.35 to 0.5 may be adopted but in columns it can be around 0.5 to 0.85. I suggest you to follow a specific code to choose the modification factor....

Civil Engineering: Tie beams in isolated footings, Plinth tie beams
Plinth tie beams: Hi Junaid, If you browsed my past Q & A, using appropriate keywords you will find the answers, such as: Questioner: Abdurrazak Subject: Plinth/Tie beam Date Asked: 2013-11-15 20:01:51 Date Answered: today Question: Sir. what is the importance...

Civil Engineering: Weight of 22 storey building, Load on column 22 storey building
Load on column 22 storey building: Hi Panner, As I said before, you have not given me sufficient information- whether the load is high or low depends on the tributary area of slabs that are carried by the column. Based on the answer I gave you earlier, you should be able to figure that out...

Civil Engineering: Artificial island, island
island: Dear Nayem It depends on the area where your artificial island is located and then on data about the tide effect and height of the waves according to at least a 1000 years historical and instrumental information. You have to consult meteorogical data from...

Civil Engineering: Base shear
Dear Samuel You have your model with definite size and sections for the structure. Aply a lateral force (say 10000 N) on top of the structure on center of stiffness. after analysis you have to check the section in design part of the Etabs. You will see...

Civil Engineering: Civil engineering about ETABS AND SAFE
Hi Mohsin, 1. P-delta is a static analysis that takes account of additional moments in frames due to lateral displacement of frames- mainly applies to tall/slender buidings. Dynamic analysis takes account of secondary moments cause by the inertia effects...

Civil Engineering: civil engineering major, confidence
confidence: Dear Celine The styles of life and study are specific and personnal and can dictated as general rules of conduct. But as we all have common senses and characteristics somehow , I try to give you my way to approach. 1- I suggest you to make a schedule...

Civil Engineering: Etabs output information, etabs, time
etabs, time, history: Dear Filsoof Salam Sure you can doing it using export to access tables which can be reformatted to excel by access tools. In Etabs you must change the option envelope to step by step when you define the output table you need to be exported in access. ...

Civil Engineering: Lift shaft opening
Hi Liss, I am not sure I quite understand your question, but for liftshaft door openings you cannot use the column analogy- that may be applicable to the vertical (pier) components of the shaft. For the spandrals over the doors you need to do some calculations...

Civil Engineering: Line loads to Area Loads
Dear Shat No straight way to convert a linear loading to a surface loading unless you check the entire loading transfered to structural memebers and to get sure about its effects. It is very dependent on functionality of the building and distribution of...

Civil Engineering: Modelling Issue
Dear Asad You have two building then their loadings are separated. Your model may have good consequences to desing a combined foundation and also to study the soil- structure interaction during an earthquake and even where you want to have specific study...

Civil Engineering: permit lateral displacement of minaret?
Dear Behzad The restriction suggested in codes are to prevent the architectural memebers being safe from cracking then they can be used for a cantilever structure as well provided tha you use the interstory drift which can be interpreted as relative drift...

Civil Engineering: summation of loads at base of the structure at different orientation of the building, etabs, direction
etabs, direction, seismic: Dear Smile Then if had just the gravity load you would not see difference in results when you applied a rotation on your structural position. But The application of seismic load will affect the strucure differently in different orientations. The software...

Civil Engineering: base shear, wall
wall: Dear Batoul You have to distribute the total lateral loading between structural elements( walls ) according to their stiffness. You can assume the length of the walls with equal thickness as an index of stiffness. In each story you can do it sepeartly....

Civil Engineering: cantilever, beam, column
beam, column, cantilever: Dear Sufiyan If the 2 beams have one column each as a moment resisting connection support then they are cantilevers supported on eachother. But for modelling them you can suppose them a beam simply supported on the one end and moment resisting connected...

Civil Engineering: connection of columns & beams in etabs
Dear Raviarjun Simply do as following: 1- make your model normally 2- cut and past the desired beam for example 20 cm off the column center. 3- join the end of beam to the column center via a member with significant area and moment of inertia. 4-...

Civil Engineering: counterfort retaining walls
Dear Mohammad 1- This is an economical-technical compromise to decide about using counterforts or not. 2- counterforts can treated like moment resisting columns in a direction and supposed a slab in other based on the geometrical shape and dimensions....

Civil Engineering: decking slab openings closure, concrete, repair
concrete, repair, opening: Dear Sufiyan You can choose either of following ways: 1- Casting concrete slab as a cop covering the opening if no problem of thickness exists. 2- Making use of a steel sheet instead of concrete slab. 3- Crushing the existing concrete slab and making...

Civil Engineering: Early thermal cracking of concrete
Dear Arslan Early thermal cracking may be made in situations where large amount of cement in thick members do accumulate thermal effects. It is not restricted to underground structures. Take a look at following link: http://www.standardsforhighways.co.uk/ha/standards/dmrb/vol1/section3/ba2487.pdf...

Civil Engineering: economy, limit, state
limit, state, design: Dear Arsalan I didnt say that it is economical (We cant say exactly because a problem of reliability has been the motivation to follow the limit state method. But from my experiences I am convinced that the limit state method is (has) more tendency toward...

Civil Engineering: Soil Compaction
Civil Engineering: Soil Compaction

Civil Engineering: Joints: Construction, expansion, contraction, isolation, pour strip, Joints in buildings
Joints in buildings: Hi Arsalan, That is not easy to define as it depends on a lot of variables, such as overall geometry, weather conditions, soils conditions (e.g. differential settlement may require an expansion/isolation joint), method of construction (e.g. pour strips...

Civil Engineering: Near source factor and Dynamic Analysis, near, field
near, field: Dear Asad I prefer to use modal-spectral method in every situation because it is more backgrounded by experience of earthquakes. A linear dynamic check seems more accurate but in my opinion it is so complicated and hard to conclude that I use it only to...

Civil Engineering: overturning Moment
Hi Shoyeb, The overturning moments are those about the Z and x axes, i.e about the horizontal axes. Any moment about the vertical axis would be twisting moment, which is not normally critical for most common foundations. Overturning moments can be caused...

Civil Engineering: Rebar type 1 and type 2
Hi Shoyeb, Type 1 is square twisted, while type 2 is ribbed. Their manufacturing processes are different but yield strengths are similar. The bond/anchorage performance of type 2 is better than type 1. Most modern construction now uses only type 2 rebar...

Civil Engineering: Response Spectrum
Dear Mohammad When you want to analyse the response of a structure under earthquake effect you can choose a particular accelerogram to do time history analysis or do modal - spectral analysis using an spectrum which is a average of structural response under...

Civil Engineering: Roof bracing
Dear Arsalan No roof bracing but vertical bracing between few spans installed symatrically preferably 2 in first spans and 2 in last spans or only 2 in middle spans can control the drift. bracings must havd direct connection to the foundations to check...

Civil Engineering: shear wall, Shear walls in buildings
Shear walls in buildings: Hi Hani, That depends on the overall geometry, the spacing of columns, the sizes of beams, the lateral loading, etc. You can have multi-story buildings without shear walls so long as the frames are designed as laterally moment resistant. The determining...

Civil Engineering: Soil Compaction
Hi Sam, This is not really my area of expertise, but depending on the type of machine and it capability and also the type of soil, you should be able to compact thicker layers- but probably not more than 20 inches if you want maximum possible compaction...

Civil Engineering: steel beam
Dear Ammar The first figure seems not to be correct because the web material is not arranged to alter the neutral axis so much. For the case of plastic design it is better to neglect the web because a plastic behavior of the web need great rotations which...

Civil Engineering: Structural analysis, monte carlo, concrete
monte carlo, concrete: Dear Godfrey For the first step I suggest to have a littereture survey on the topic of porous media. For the second I suggest you to have study on engineering reliability . I look for a Monte carlo method of creation of cavities inside concrete body which...

Civil Engineering: structural design + moment redistribution, moment redistribution
moment redistribution: Hi Hani, If you browse my past Q&A with keywords moment distribution redistribution , you will get lots of answers. One such is copied/pasted below: Questioner: hassan Subject: moment redistribution Date Asked: 2013-11-22 11:16:17 Date Answered:...

Civil Engineering: STRUCTURES
Dear Mohd take a look at 3 links below: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CB0QtwIwAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3DN-1bzq-mzIY&ei=fcmFVKjwGYKXPI_vgZgH&usg=AFQjCNHliBhEf2tgz28sbxonIxM1khsDLQ&sig2=htE_0f8v4Zl_lbC_GhoDaQ&bvm=bv.80642063,d.ZWU...

Civil Engineering: suction, wind
wind: Dear Arsalan If the contrary side is inside the building no need to assume suction. if the wall is in free space you need to assume positive and negative same time. In very casual situation negative wind could be worse but normally no ! The abnormal situation...

Civil Engineering: theories
Dear Arsalan Why you agree with statement about Rc? Because you think that RC is treated elastically but as I said the Mu in Rc is calculated based on plastic behaviour of concrete and steel. In steel we treat the same. Because an ultimate force must be...

Civil Engineering: wind angles
hi Arsalan, Yes, basically 0 degrees is in +ve X direction and 90 degrees in +Y direction (if Z is vertical). This applies to all types of structures, such as you have listed. Of course you can also have wind at 15, 30, 45, etc degrees. (+ve and -ve...

Civil Engineering: wind loads for a element
Dear Arsalan When you blow on a stick of match 2 systems of forces act on it: Positive pressure + negative pressure both with the same direction. If the stick is among a sheet of paper when you blow on it the suction ( negative pressure) is not likely...

Civil Engineering: Basic Courses, basic, course
basic, course: Dear Osama You need to learn everything your faculty and professors have planned for you to learn. This is very essential for you to choose your very way in future. If you dont know the concepts you will be tied by your misunderstanding and not by your...

Civil Engineering: Beam Rebar, stirrup, bars
stirrup, bars, moment: Dear Vasan I think The top bars are used for support moment. You should check wether the beam is continuous or not. If not and for a simply supported beam it is not rational to use bigger size on the top . You don t need to use a 4 legs stirrup. Regards...

Civil Engineering: Building Project Qoutation, project
project: Dear Nelson You have to prepare a table with different phases of the project: 1- excavation 2- foundation 3- structure 4- architecture Each phase has several parts which will need these concerns: 1- Design details 2- Material amount 3- procurement...

Civil Engineering: Being Crushed by Elevators, elevator
elevator: Dear Richard Although the counter weight provides more efficiency but actually you cannot have a dynamic weight to balance with different weight of the elevator box. Then an electrical motor and winch come to help to compensate the actual unbalancing problem....

Civil Engineering: Curing Concrete, core, test
core, test, concrete: Dear Shadi The Standard test of 7,11,28 or 42 days of cured samples are references to check the accuracy of design calculation ant no other test can be replaced with. curing and putting in water are for the sake of to get to near complete hydratation. The...

Civil Engineering: etabs sap 2000 torsion
Dear Nadir 1- No base torsion is reported in sap and etabs, but a base moment Mx, My and Mz is calculated and you should consider Mz az base torsion. I added this by a note I recieved from Shoeib. 2- Torsion may be developped in any mode of loading including...

Civil Engineering: foundation design, footing, volume
footing, volume: Dear Kajari This is not an exact formulation . It comes from an average of 3 parameters A1, A2 and a geometrical average of A1 and A2 which is a good approximation of the volume of a cut pyramid. The exact formulation can be derived by geometrical similarity....

Civil Engineering: Modeling, shear, wall
shear, wall, structure: Dear F.D 1- Larger periods is leading to lower seismic effect in 7 storey structure.You dont need to model a complete 7 storey Rc structure if you dont have to construct it. 2- The non sway assumption depends on ratio of lateral to vertical stiffness...

Civil Engineering: Modelling of Lateral force resisting systems and RCC Design of Beam and Columns in Etabs, concrete, etabs
concrete, etabs: Dear Syed 1,2 - You should analyze the structure in several runs to tune the loading so that the main structure carry 100% of the code loading and the secondary one 25 % of it. For sure you may need to subject the structure to more than 100% of the code...

Civil Engineering: placing the beam on the column, slab, beam
slab, beam: Dear Sudarshan For gravity loads the beam lay on top of column and the introduction of beam bars into the column has no effect on vertical stability of the system. The beam stays on the column like you are staying on the floor , on the ground. However,...

Civil Engineering: Query- Career in project management
Dear Talha 1,2 I think project management is a daily progressed discipline and you can assess your time and hope to be rewarded in a rational period, everywhere . 3- I suggest you to follow project control field and working with Ms project and primavera...

Civil Engineering: Rebar size changes, column, bar
column, bar: Dear Ryan You can change and modify the arrangement and number of bars provided that you keep the reinforcement area equal or greater than the initial one. Some little details may be needed like you may need to add stirrups to confine the bars from buckling....

Civil Engineering: steel truss on building, slab, truss
slab, truss: Dear Aamir The best practice would be to cast concrete on constructed truss. You are doing the opposite which would not be very effective if you don t provide good connection between slab and truss. When you need to have a good connection you must provide...

Civil Engineering: steel truss on load bearing structure, truss, brick
truss, brick: Dear Imran You should calculate the weight of the truss along with any super loading on it to be tolerated by he brick member. For every 2000 lbs you should provide 15 x 15 in2 of brick material. This is an approximate measure and yo should consult an...

Civil Engineering: Strap Footing Design, strap, safe
strap, safe: Dear Gulam You can design strap footing with safe but you must review the design because the strap may have a deep beam behaviour. You will need check the strap for shear deformation, in some cases. but safe give you a good idea about your work. Regards...

Civil Engineering: Structural Engineering, slab
slab: Arslan I suggest you to take a modification factor for stiffness of the slab like 25%. If it doesn t work model the beam first and the apply slabs between beams. Don t forget modification factor of the slab, to ensure that the beam remain effective without...

Civil Engineering: Temperature Shrinkage
Hi Waseem, Actually if you think about it, the opposite is how it will act. Assume that the beams are restraining any movement and the slab concrete is shrinking- this will make the cracks wider. Of course if there is no restraint to the movement then...

Civil Engineering: Test for the load capacity of the RCC beam, concrete
concrete: Dear Sudarshan Schmit hammer just give you an approximate estimate of compressive strength. You can use analytical relationships (ACI for instance) to derive shear capacity. You know that in usual loading tests , shear strength of concrete is not regarded....

Civil Engineering: Villa/Bungalow Design, foundation
foundation: Dear Ghulam This statement is not true by philosophy but a low rise building does nt have very serious problem in foundation due to several reliability based reasons. Usually when you design the foundation for vertical loading the lateral requirements are...

Civil Engineering: ACI to BS Code
Hi Ghulam, I am sorry but I do not have such references, but please Google for them. However, I should add that BS codes are all withdrawn and replaced by Euro codes, and for seismic analysis and design the ACI codes are much better, so you should try...

Civil Engineering: Basic Questions- Interview
Hi Mark, I have answered these types of questions before, so if you do not mind, I will cut/paste the Q&A for these below: If these do not answer all yours please do ask again! ***************** Q. What skills are required to become a successful civil...

Civil Engineering: book, superstructure, interraction
superstructure, interraction: Dear Hom Infrastructure has another meaning that you used in your question.You can model your substructure and superstructure if a wide difference exists between substructure and superstructure stiffness (say having a ratio of 10 or more ). Otherway you...

Civil Engineering: Civil Softwares, BIM Software
BIM Software: Hi Roh, What you are aspiring to do is very relevant to the modern approach of BIM which will make you much in demand! So, the software you should learn is REVIT Structures, or TEKLA, or AutoCAD Building Structures http://www.autodesk.com/solutions/building-information-modeling/overview/design-engineering...

Civil Engineering: Concrete Cylindrical thin shell, sap, shell
sap, shell: Dear ghulam Mustafa 1- I don t use diaphragms where I can be more accurate using the real behavior of the structure. 2- The valley beams can be modelled normally. 3- You have to assign the proper shell elements where you need according to your shell...

Civil Engineering: construction technology, stone, brick
stone, brick: Dear Kishore They are both masonry but stone is a natural material which can be synthetic too but the brick is globally cynthetic. Then the strength and engineering properties of the stone cant be tuned and designed but in the case of brick you can reach...

Civil Engineering: location of earthquake?, seismic, center
seismic, center: Dear Behzad Each seismological center can estimate a distance from the center for earthquake center. One circle will give you a location on a circle , 2 circles will give you a lenz and 3 circles will give you an almost tiangle . Then you need at least...

Civil Engineering: OHWT, member, minimum
member, minimum, reinforcement: Dear Asad the criteria is almost the same as for regular members because usually you must disregard the member being hallow for minimum reinforcement. But the final decision is up to the engineer according the design she/he is performing. Regards BE...

Civil Engineering: planted columns in etabs
Hi Mohammad, That really depends on relative sizes of column and beam, and likely deformation of the beam. For example, if column is 200x200mm and beam is say 600x1000 deep, then you could just consider the column fixed at the bottom. But if you have...

Civil Engineering: About recent thesis topic, FRP
FRP: Dear Venkatesh I suggest these subjects: 1- Seismic ductility of flexural and compression members strengthened with FRP 2- Ductile Details of FRP reinforcing of beam to column connections 3- Details of shear reinforcing using FRP. Please let me...

Civil Engineering: regarding Support reactions in ETABS, etabs, mesh
etabs, mesh: Dear Balu Your question is very general which can not be answered in detail. To get the results in each part you have to check the related icon on etabs menu. The meshing can be done in edit Icon after selecting the member you need to mesh. Good Luck...

Civil Engineering: SAP 2000, sap
sap: Dear Teodor Sap is based on the stiffness method ant not the displacement method. Sap creates a stiffness matrix which is based on assembling of indvidual elements matrix. As you dont need the matrix components of restrained degree of freedom it is conveniant...

Civil Engineering: Shear Wall, ETABS shear wall corner stress & raft & colum wall ratios
ETABS shear wall corner stress & raft & colum wall ratios: Hi Zain, 1. They act in the same way, except that when the column L:W ratio exceeds about 4 to 5, it should be considered a wall (different codes have slightly different rules) 2. You can rest on the corner, but this should be treated as a boundary zone,...

Civil Engineering: Span and Spacing with pine and plywood, pool
pool: Dear Don As I calculated you can use the same support and the same distance provided that you use a 2x2 in wooden stick on the middle of the support along the sides of the pool and on the corner put an inclined support restraing the middle of the support...

Civil Engineering: structural anlysis, pile, model
pile, model: Dear Sallem There is no macro model of pile inherent in Etabs. To do it you should make a complicated model which may not to have engineering significance because of the error existing in the model which cant be managed , calculated and considered properly....

Civil Engineering: surge tank
Hi Niranjan, Just work out the vertical reaction per metre from the ground pressure adjacent to the wall and calculate the shear capacity of the foundation- probably it will be within capacity of the concrete and you will not need any extra shear links...

Civil Engineering: Assigning diaphragm in ETABS, slab, diaphragm
slab, diaphragm: Dear Sara A diaphragm is a slab with infinite axial stiffness which force all nodes in a level moving together when a lateral load is applied on the structure. Ok? You can say to yourself why modelling my slab with infinite stiffness and you can in...

Civil Engineering: Automatic Concrete Plan, concrete, plant
concrete, plant, admixture: Dear Surajlaghe An automatic Concrete Plant is a plant where, concrete is mixing through an automated process. You define the admixture of the concrete like Aggregates, cement and water and other added maeterials and you will receive the concrete in trucks....

Civil Engineering: Beam spans with different sections
Hi Ehassan, From what I can see, both beams are hidden beams which means that they are within a 300mm deep slab? If so, just do as I suggested earlier and then anchor the rebar of the wider bit of the beam through the column and into the slab. The column...

Civil Engineering: Difference b/w Bars
Hi Ahsan These terms are not very clear by themselves, but here is what I think: 1. Top means the rebar is on top layer of beam or slab- it could be anywhere along the span. 2. Extra means that it is additional to what had been designed or shown on...

Civil Engineering: dowel bars
Hi Niranjan, Dowel bars are basically rebar of different diameters, used to either connect one concrete lift to another (also called started bars)or for creating movement joints whereby one half of the dowels are de-bonded so that they allow movement. ...

Civil Engineering: end release in etabs 2, beam, moment
beam, moment, girder: Dear Hassan The response is the same but if I would be in your place I would not transfer any moment to the transversal beam and I would admit that a release would take place in connection of cross beams to it. But it is not a rule because you should provide...

Civil Engineering: ETABS seismic load bottom story
Hi Asad, Usually the GFL is taken as bottom story because if there are basements surrounded by soil, the passive resistance of the soil counteracts any lateral load from earthquakes, and also you do not wish to consider the mass of the basements in the...

Civil Engineering: FLAT AND SOLID SLAB
Hi Hassan, If you do not have downstand (stiffer) beams to support the slab, then that must be analysed as a flat slab, with sufficient widths for the the column strips and middle strips as per guidelines in codes. In this case you must assign the slab...

Civil Engineering: Flate Plate, Flat slab or one-way slab
Flat slab or one-way slab: Hi Mohammad, If you mean a flat slab, then by definition this is 2-way spanning, without any beams. If you have a one way spanning slab then that must be spanning between beams/walls/supports, and therefore behaves in a different way to a 2-way flat slab...

Civil Engineering: Foundation in Black Cotton Soil
Hi Suraj, The only way is to dig down to sufficient depth so that there is no chance of the soil drying out at that depth, then place your foundation there. Also, make sure that you keep the surface around the building impermeable to rainwater- build an...

Civil Engineering: Hair line cracks in the RCC beam, measure, crack
measure, crack: Dear Sudarshan You can load the girder using material loads to be confident of your design and construction. The loading shall be controlled and you must measure the deflections. If no eccessive displacement occurs you may assume your work safe somehow....

Civil Engineering: Lift walls and structural walls, design
design: Dear Kyogi This is a matter of design which must be studied by yourself and can be answered very shortly because I don t know your level of knowledge. Please tell me a bout your state of knowledge to help me to give you the right answer. Regards BE...

Civil Engineering: lintel beam size
Hi Sudarshan, The beam depth should be between span/15 to span/20, so 6 inches is fine and practical. The amount of rebar is also fine- you may be able to reduce it to 10mm rebar if HT steel is used. Make sure the bottom rebar is bent upwards to get proper...

Civil Engineering: minimum bearing of the beam on the wall / column
Hi Sudarshan, If the anchorage lengths of the beam rebar into the column are less than d/2 (where d is depth of beam or 12xdia, where dia is diameter of rebar (whichever is the larger dimesnsion)then you are not complying with the code and structural connectivity...

Civil Engineering: Punching shear check
Hi Ravi, If you are doing a rigorous analysis of flat slabs, with alternate spans loaded/unloaded, then yes, these moments do affect the punching shear values and should be taken account of. Possibly the spreadsheets are based on approximate methods...

Civil Engineering: pushover analysis, mode, pushover
mode, pushover: Dear Ahmed In my opinion a mode cant have a real performance point. you can estimate a dummy performance point using displacement spectrum with related modal period of vibration. You must apply a loading pattern according to the 3rd mode of vibration. ...

Civil Engineering: Query, bars
bars: Dear Muhammad No difference between a slab and a beam in this matter. You use top bars on corners, lower bars on the bottom. Usually you use a minimum top bars all over the slab and also for the lower bars . The extra bars are needed where you need more...

Civil Engineering: question in safe program, foundation, stiffness
foundation, stiffness, safe: Dear Rami To make a real sense I use m11=m22=1 for non significant loading and for extreme one , I suppose to be the earthquake combined loading I use m11=m22=0.25. But other lateral loading like wind load may be treated moderatly : suppose m11=m22= 0.75....

Civil Engineering: raft slab with downward raft beams
Hi Ravi, So long as the soil is not weakened or disturbed by the excavation for the beams, it should make no difference. However, by having stiffer beams within a raft, it stop behaving like an inverted flat slab and more like a slab spanning between...

Civil Engineering: sap2000, plastic, analysis
plastic, analysis: Dear Sirous Sap2000 , safe and etabs are not optimization softwares but they can be used to help you in this way. You can define your optimization strategy and use casually some softwares to calculate the consequences of your optimization variation. None...

Civil Engineering: simply supported beam
Dear Sudarshan As an engineer I cant design with details you provide me, because your information is not enough. I can do a favor for you althogh I think it is not fair that I do an engineering activity without a contract. However please send me a drawing...

Civil Engineering: STAAD Pro, earthquake, design
earthquake, design: Dear Manju The PGA in soft soils is less than in hard soil due to plastic deformation in soft soils which occurs in lower PGAs. But the deflection in soft soils must be higher than in hard soils. But the earthquake effect on a specific structure is not...

Civil Engineering: standard column width, beam. column
beam. column: Dear Sudarshan Every element must be proportional to other elements. You cant say what is suitable for a size of column as beam size but you can say that usually the size of a column must be at least 90% of the beam size and no upper limit exists i.e you...

Civil Engineering: Winkler Springs, spring, subgrade modulus
spring, subgrade modulus: Dear Salim The horizontal and rotational springs have no influence on your problem result Then you can consider them more than 100 times the vertical springs or even more. after all the vertical deflection governs the moments induced in your foundation...

Civil Engineering: ACI vs BS, Column design (Etabs)
Dear jimmy wan I must see your project to judge about. But as for you general view, The main difference between ACI and Bs is the matter of seismic loading which is vigorously considered by ACI . For the sake of ductility requirement the shear strength...

Civil Engineering: beam rods
Dear Sudarshan Sure it is necessary that you follow all standard recommendation. For this case if you don t have seismic problem you can deviate from standards. The judgement depend on the detail and situation of your system. You shall have your analysis...

Civil Engineering: Beam Width to Depth ratio
Dear Mohammad You dont need to worry because this matter hovers in the case of I type sections. In addition if a good bracing of the compression flange exists which is the case of the majority of situations the matter will be of minor importance. ...

Civil Engineering: column beam joints, column
column: Dear Sudarshan you have to be sure to have a good connection between column and girder which is realized using standard rebar and reinforcement. As yo may know the extension of your column reinforcement into the girder is not enough. I suggest you to apply...

Civil Engineering: Deflection of Beam
Hi Muhammad, No, as the deflection is dependent on loading (as well as materials, geometry, etc), so you need to assess short term and long term deflections for the design loading and ensure it falls within the standards for the type of building being designed...

Civil Engineering: FRP bar, FRP
FRP: Dear Sandy Hi. Frp works like an external reinforcement for a flexural concrete member. Is it clear? Please think about and let me know your opinion. I would like to have a dialogue with you to help you to understand and get your response. A teacher...

Civil Engineering: Installation of SS puddle flanges for Water Tank.
Hi Syed, Ia m not an expert in this subject but from what I know, puddle flanges are merely welded to the pipe with a continuous weld (so as to not have any leakage points) and the flange is usually placed at the centre of the RC wall. There is no need...

Civil Engineering: Pictures of beam hair line cracks
Dear Sudarshan The modes are flexural failutre at middle of beam or corners as for support moments and shear failure at corners. Shear failure shows inclinded serious cracks on the web intersecting with lower part of the beam at corners or any part with...

Civil Engineering: questions, psychology, work
psychology, work: Dear Joseph All engineers at site must have psychological knowledge or talent. You must know that to work with others need their cooperation and contribution in decisions. I suggest you to pretend needing their help even if you don t have in some cases....

Civil Engineering: roof extention
Dear Sudarshan you are right about the danger you guess being there. Even the extension of b5 might be insufficient because we need at least 2 supports for the b9 and b10 beams. Be careful!! I look forward to hear what decision you made. Regards ...

Civil Engineering: safe
Dear Sirous Sorry about my change in my idea to help you. Safe can be followed by you if you can make a good model to model the inclined section. Since I thought that it would be a bit difficult for you to do , I suggested the ansys. But with safe you...

Civil Engineering: Slope cracks
Hi Susan, I am not an expert in soils, but your observation is good and the damage to the netting as seen in your picture could result in larger slope failure. I suggest you alert the West Hills management and also the local police, so that they can take...

Civil Engineering: thesis theme in construction engineering, earthquake, seismic
earthquake, seismic, chile: Dear Victor I suggest you for the moment to have a search on the Internet and then have a contact with me with some idea with me to refine the ideas.I am looking forward to hearing from you. Please give me your email to send you a paper about earthquake...

Civil Engineering: analyzing frames for winds, distribution, analysis
distribution, analysis: Dear Ammar This is simply a portal frame solution. For an approximate analysis you will need to assume hinge in middle of each element and then to assume the shear being distributed among the columns so that the middle columns be subjected to a shear with...

Civil Engineering: anchor block
Dear niranjan The efficiency of the anchor in stone depends on the chemical product used for anchoring and the strength of the stone. There exist no standard detail for this purpose but you can find a couple of data from companies source of product data...

Civil Engineering: anchoring, anchor, girder
anchor, girder, column: Dear Sudarshan As I stated before they are to strict column to girder connection and it is important in seismic regions. you may analyze the system to be integrated and well designed without a girder to column connection. For middle columns it is usually...

Civil Engineering: civil engineering
Dear Nadeem You would base your arguments on engineering tolerances. You have a 8% of minus tolerance which have to be assessed according to the codes of practice and the contract. If it is not accepted you must force on technical justification of allowance...

Civil Engineering: Depth/Width ratio, Beams slenderness limits
Beams slenderness limits: Hi Mohammad, Yes, there are limits which are related to span as well. For example a very short span deep beam which is narrow needs to be designed as a deep beam with special detailing rules. The slenderness limits also depend on whether you have a slab...

Civil Engineering: ETABS 13, ETABS v13 Special Seismic Load Effects
ETABS v13 Special Seismic Load Effects: Hi Wael, The special Seismic Load Effects parameters Rho and SDS have been moved to Design Preferences i.e. Design Steel Frame Design (or Concrete Frame Design or Wall Design) View/Revise Preferences for American standards (AISC 360-05/10, ACI 318/08/11),...

Civil Engineering: expansion joint in etabs, Expansion joint in foundations & superstructure
Expansion joint in foundations & superstructure: Hi Ravi, 1. Yes, you can model as separate structures with a gap. If the building is completely symmetrical in both directions then you can run RSA, otherwise just stick with static EQ combos. 2. Yes, you can avoid joint in raft and GFL slab too. This...

Civil Engineering: FEM question about ETABS, ETABS 8-noded elements
ETABS 8-noded elements: Hi Waseem, That is easily done- just define the nodes and then connect them with a slab or wall element using the odd shaped icon, not the rectangular icon. However, on reflection what I have suggested above merely creates an 8 noded object, whilst...

Civil Engineering: FINAL YEAR PROJECT
Hi Devang, If you had browsed all my past answers with keywords final year project topic thesis subjects , you would have found lots of ideas. Some topics I have listed previously are: 1. High strength concrete 2. Durability of concrete. 3. Optimisation...

Civil Engineering: Foundation Design Q, foundation
foundation: Dear Nadia You should have the loadings on the foundation, well defined and categorized. some loads are permanent like load due to foundation and equipment weight. If you have a vibratory equipment you should identify the intensity and characteristics of...

Civil Engineering: Large Raft Pour
Hi Venu, This depends on the capacity of the contractor to ensure continuous pouring, but I would suggest that the joints be located at 15 to 20m centres in one direction and 30 to 40m centres (or longer)in the other. The pours should be done on a sequential...

Civil Engineering: lift wall design, Shear Wall Design
Shear Wall Design: Hi Niranjan, If you had browsed my past answers you will have found this: ************************* In simple terms, work out the total vertical loading (W)on the total liftshaft (from beams/slabs spanning on to it + roof + machinery), and the total...

Civil Engineering: Long Term Deflection in SAFE 12
Hi Mustafa, Long term creep depends on many factors, such as concrete materials (type of aggregate, mix, etc) rebar percentage, age of concrete at loading, environmental conditions, etc. There are papers on the subject that you can download from the internet....

Civil Engineering: modeling in etabs, creep, shrinkage
creep, shrinkage, concrete: Dear Saleem As I know you would study on influence of creep and shrinkage on physical parameters of concrete and also on its plastic time dependent deflection and consider them on your design . Then you cant have a matrix analysis but a pre analysis investigation...

Civil Engineering: Please check my building structure
Hi Raju, I regret that I cannot do actual designs or checks over this forum due to liability reasons. However, depending on spans and loading the sort of rebar you have indicated should be OK. Make sure your beam depths are at least span/15 to span/18,...

Civil Engineering: Raft, scaffold, concrete
scaffold, concrete: Dear Venu you will need expansion joint due to thermal dilatation. It is possible to do it continuously using lipping scafolding. It is a method to push the scafolds forward and concreting which is used in high rise cylindrical towers. Regards BE...

Civil Engineering: rebar location
Dear sudarshan Of course there exists some sonography instruments to trace the arrangement of bars inside concrete like what is getting done on human body to scan the inner problems. Have a look on the Internet and specially Hilty products. Regards ...

Civil Engineering: over - reinforced beam
Dear Sudarshan You are right and exact. The over reinforcement make a situation for the member to fail due to compression concrete crash and thus a brittle an abrupt failure which has to be prevented. I think your girder doesnt have such a problem because...

Civil Engineering: SAP modelling, Basements and Stairwell modelling.
Basements and Stairwell modelling.: Hi Rohit, 1. For the basements, it is good enough to model the walls and slabs and just place supports at the base (bottom). The much stiffer basement will not drift much from lateral loading, so you do not need to model any other lateral supports for most...

Civil Engineering: stair case, stair
stair: Dear sudarshan There is no best way because there is an amelioration and retrofitting case which is not favorite . But you should make apparent the skeleton of bar networks and make your changes. The other way is to make use of bolts and plates installed...

Civil Engineering: cube mould testing method, Cube mould which side to test
Cube mould which side to test: Hi Vivek, Because the top surface of the cube in not as smooth as the sides, it is best to test the cube on the side, so that the 2 smooth surfaces cast against the steel mould are the ones that are loaded in the machine and they are perfectly parallel...

Civil Engineering: Cylinderical underground tank
Hi Niranjan, So long as you compact the soil back in even layers around the tank, then the walls will be in uniform hoop compression and you should not have to design against local moments. However, you should consider flotation forces on the floor and...

Civil Engineering: Etabs 13 Load Pattern, ETABS governing load case for multi-seismic load combo
ETABS governing load case for multi-seismic load combo: Hi Wael, OK, I understand now. What you will need to do is look at the governing design forces when you right click on the member displaying the rebar and make a note of these. Then you go to Display Tables Column/Beam Design forces and scroll down to where...

Civil Engineering: Torsional Capacity of Channels
Hi Muzaffer, OK, try this one- it has better guidelines. As it says, you need to know the section properties, which are usually listed in books or manufacturers brochures. http://www.engineeringexcelspreadsheets.com/2012/12/c-channel-bending-stress-and-torsional-stress-spreadsheet/...

Civil Engineering: Waffle Slab
Hi Abdulkadir, A waffle slab is basically a 2-way spanning ribbed slab, so the rules about 2-way spanning solid slabs apply in terms of limits to ratio of longer and shorter edge lengths. That is, if the longer span is much more than 2 or 2.5 X shorter...

Civil Engineering: YIELD LINE SLAB DESIGN METHOD
Hi Abdurrazak, It s been a long time since I have used this, but from recollection it is used for checking the ultimate (plastic) failure pattern and capacity of the slab. For design you should use the empirical tables in text books/codes or more refined...

Civil Engineering: modeling foundation in etabs, foundation
foundation: Dear Mohammad 1- K value is for elastic range of soil behavior and it differs from soil to soil. 2- It is a research basis that you follow. 3- I always prefer a combined structure - foundation modelling and design although I encounter some error...

Civil Engineering: Partial Punching Shear, slab, punching
slab, punching: Dear Mustafa It is not due to column really . it is because of slab loading. I suggest you to neglect the beam and do your calculation. If it is ok then ok but if you needed greater thickness in slab you can take the additional thickness due to beam and...

Civil Engineering: QUESTION, time, history
time, history: Dear Ammar You can find the time history of displacement of each mass provided that you apply an accelerogram. The procedure is complicated but you you can use finite element softwares like sap2000, etabs , ansys, staad pro to calculate. Regards BE...

Civil Engineering: Railway signals control system., train, traffic
train, traffic: Dear Prashant It is not my field but as I have observed in some countries there are systems in traffic network to warn about closeness to specific point. For example it is very usual that when train is getting close to a station the station name is automatically...

Civil Engineering: Vierendeel Truss, vierendeel, design
vierendeel, design: Dear avec I don t have specific experience on this and I cant give you valuable information than you may know. The main problem in design of vierendeel truss is to calculate the secondary moment due to shear action on middle of upper and lower cord. When...

Civil Engineering: Buried Aeration Tank Floor Slab
Hi Sean, Assuming that there is no uplift pressure on the floor slab (due to external groundwater, when tank is empty), then yes you can assume no moments in the slab span and just cater for the localised moments due to wall base forces. If you have...

Civil Engineering: cranking of rebar, Beam shear due to rebar cranks
Beam shear due to rebar cranks: Hi Godswill, I presume you are cranking the bars inwards from the faces of the beam? In that case, so long as the crank slope is not more than 1:10, the only concern you may have is that the effective width for shear (as the shear links need to hang from...

Civil Engineering: ETABS column reinforcement
Hi Shoyeb, 1. The reason you are getting different rebar at top and bottom must be because the moments must be very different. You can decide to detail bottom half with higher rebar of the full height, depending on how the rebar is working out above that...

Civil Engineering: life of structure, aging, destruction
aging, destruction, life: Dear Niranjan We have to assess the time history of decay of strength in structures which is a specific expert field. In offshore structures the effect of cl ion will have destructive effect on concrete and steel strength which can be calculated in advance...

Civil Engineering: need your opinion, creep
creep: Dear Sudarshan Cement mortar like concrete loose its water after application from its free surface. The water loss produces tension strains in concrete or mortar. This is a phenomenon named creep in concrete. You should prevent the water loss from the surface...

Civil Engineering: Piles dia & load capacity-reg
Hi Ravi, I am not sure what you are asking, but the pile capacity depends on several factors including the soil conditions and properties, whether the pile is to be friction type or end-bearing type and the class of concrete and amount of rebar in the pile...

Civil Engineering: shear force factor 2, punching
punching: Dear Hassan You must conform with the code you are designing upon. Usually the side or corner columns have moderate axial loads which make the punching matter in corners and sides not worse than the middle cpolumns. beside this , 1.5 d is a very conservative...

Civil Engineering: sheet pile capping beam
Dear Shoayb This is a professional problem to resolve and need engineering decision which is your own duty. I can help you in clearing the problem and question where you would have doubt. I hope you can get my point. Please start your work and ask me the...

Civil Engineering: simulation of in fill masonry wall
Hi Mohammed, I suppose you could model wall panels in between the columns, with material properties appropriate to the block wall. You will need to assign appropriate edge restraints/releases as blockwork cannot offer much out-of-plane bending or in-plane...

Civil Engineering: Slab Design for 2 unsupported edges
Hi Abdurrazak, This can only be analysed properly by FEA methods, or yield-line theory. However, you could also try and detail flush beams along the un-supported edges, spanning between the column and the other corners. That will make your analysis and...

Civil Engineering: surge tank, anchor, bolt
anchor, bolt, tank: Dear Niranjan You should embed plates using welded or bolted anchors in the concrete or to install them using mechanical anchor bolts on the top surface of R.C wall or column. The tank support will be fixed to these plates which must be at least 4 . ...

Civil Engineering: Torsion in beams
Hi Morris, I presume you are talking about a secondary beam spanning on to a main beam, which you wish to give some torsional resistance? You can either design for the full torsion, hence without moment reduction for secondary beam, or assume 15-20% re-distribution...

Civil Engineering: cracked section, crack
crack: Dear Sufiyan Cracks in concrete removes tension cracked concrete part and results in less stiff members and system. Bars are to bear the loadings which are impossible to bear by concrete itself. But reinforcement have usually an effect of force bearing...

Civil Engineering: drift limit,base shear - in etabs, drift, wall
drift, wall: Dear Raviarjun You shall ask specific topics. Your questions cant be responded in a single paragraph so that you can use it and I can be sure of a perfect reply. 1- for drift limits I suggest a 0.005h approximateley 2- You can use the base shear in...

Civil Engineering: elastic or cracked deflections?
Hi Shahgul, The plastic theory applies mainly to steel as concrete is essentially brittle, so cracks if subjected to much tension. Reinforced concrete is partially plastic (or ductile) due to the rebar strain and with proper ductility detailing can sustain...

Civil Engineering: Forklift on industrial concrete flooring
Hi Christopher, Based on the figures you have given me, the average load under the forklift footprint is around 25 KN/m2, and the actual pressure under each wheel will be much higher. Therefore, a floor slab with a limit of 15 kN/m2 will not be adequate....

Civil Engineering: Outstanding Issue, usd, asd
usd, asd: Dear Ronald It is a matter of USD and ASD. You know that seismic forces are reduced by R factor according to US codes. This reduction is a redoction of force and not a reduction of displacement. For calculation of ultimate displacement you need to modify...

Civil Engineering: safety factors, uplift, force
uplift, force, overturning: Dear Arsalan uplift is the tension force under foundation. You have to calculate the uplift safety factor using : compressive forces/tension forces. Overturning is the moment acting on the total building forcing it to tilt down: resisting moment calculated...

Civil Engineering: Simply Support Shell elements, Slab edge restraints
Slab edge restraints: Hi Waqas, In that case you will need to do 2 models, the second one with slab as shell and you can reduce the m11, m22, and m12 stiffnesses of the walls to a value of say 0.01, so that they do not provide much edge restraint (moments) to the slab. Yes,...

Civil Engineering: Strength of concrete at beam-column junction
Hi Mohammad, In this case you have 2 options: 1. Increase the column rebar locally within the column/beam junction (with sufficient anchorage lengths above and below), so that the column capacity is OK with 3700 psi concrete. 2. Cast the areas of...

Civil Engineering: 7" slab strength, slab strength, industrial loft
slab strength, industrial loft, design drawings: Hi Kyle, My only comment is that you need a competent structural engineer to study the design drawings of the existing structure, evaluate its spare capacity and then advise you whether the slab, beams and columns can take the additional loading. I hope...

Civil Engineering: Aerodynamics, techcomm, interesting topics
techcomm, interesting topics, asce: Hi Santosh, Aerodynamics is relevant to civil engineering mainly to do with the effects of wind on buildings, particularly tall buildings. If the visit the website below you will find lots of info and other links: http://www.asce.org/instfound/techcomm_asd_aerodynamics.cfm...

Civil Engineering: Aircraft control surfaces, weight fabric, control surfaces
weight fabric, control surfaces, balooning: This is really an aerospace engineering question, but I ll give you several thoughts as to why designs might have used fabric long after metal became available: -- Cost. Fabric is cheaper than metal. -- Weight. Fabric is lighter than metal. -- Availability....

Civil Engineering: Analysis, arshad khan, metre section
arshad khan, metre section, mr khan: Hi Mr. Jarkas, Your second question is incomplete. Here is the answer to your first: If the two supports are fully simply supported, then there will be no torsional resistance, and the cranked (non-linear, as you call it) beam will simply twist over...

Civil Engineering: Application of differential equatios in ..., application of differential equations, web searches
application of differential equations, web searches, differential: . . Hi Behroz, I have checked out a few websites for you and the following gives numerous examples of where differential equations can be applied for civil engineering. You may choose any of the subjects and do further web searches. I hope this helps!...

Civil Engineering: abt. axis, major axis, minor axis
major axis, minor axis, right angles: Hi Kapil, Both sets of termionology mean the same. The major axis refers to the deeper section of a beam or column and the minor is at right angles to that. These are used to check bending, shear, deflection, buckling, etc. Hope that helps! Kind regards,...

Civil Engineering: advice, professional engineer, civil eng
professional engineer, civil eng, good job: Hello-- Each of the different specialties in civil engineering can give you the opportunity to get a good job or pursue higher education. My advice is to pursue the one that most interests you. Discussions with faculty members can also help you narrow...

Civil Engineering: your advise to new graduate...., arshad khan, info4education
arshad khan, info4education, words of encouragement: Hi Abdulfattah, Thank you for your words of encouragement! I would suggest you try and get some site experience before you go too far into a design office career. Anyway, there are lots of very useful websites to develop your knowledge. The first two...

Civil Engineering: architecture, keith albee theater, assembly buildings
keith albee theater, assembly buildings, field thanks: Hi Darrell, Normally, the height of an office building would be 3-3.5 m per floor. However, for public assembly buildings, this could be as much as 4-4.5m, but it all depends on the architect s concepts. So, as a rough guess, I would say your theatre...

Civil Engineering: Bamboo scaffolding v/s steel scaffolding, bamboo scaffolding, scaffolds
bamboo scaffolding, scaffolds, construction industry: Dear Nitin, You can absolutely use the Bamboo scaffolding for your building - I see no problem with that provided it is erected properly. You may argue that it s well known that Bamboo possesses enough strength not only to be used as scaffolds, but also...

Civil Engineering: BEAM QUESTION, numeric answer, diameter hole
numeric answer, diameter hole, stress concentrations: Hmm, I haven t used my structural calculations in many years, so a numeric answer is beyond my current abilities. So if this is a homework or test question, you re out of luck! If your question is more of a practical than a numeric one can reason our way...

Civil Engineering: Beam design, shear stresses, bending moments
shear stresses, bending moments, rc design: Hi Sana, Basically you divide teh span by 15 to 20 (depending on the loading- the greater the loading, use the lower figure), which will give you the depth of the beam. Adopt a width about half of the depth. Then decide on the strength of concrete (say...

Civil Engineering: Bearing capacity, foundation design, maximum pressure
foundation design, maximum pressure, bearing capacity of soil: Hello Manos, For the foundation design both the terms are used in the same sense. Based on bearing capacity of the soil, designer decides the size of the foundation so that the load coming on the footing is safe for the soil to bear. Usually size of the...

Civil Engineering: Bending moment, bending moment, arbitrary point
bending moment, arbitrary point, steel beam: Dear Chris, Is the beam simply supported or continuous? Each has a different equation. At any rate, the simplest way to get the bending moment at any point along the beam is to first get the reactions at the supports then choose any arbitrary point, for...

Civil Engineering: Brick House, initial strength, brick house
initial strength, brick house, rays of the sun: Hi Justin, Mm, red bricks, doesnt mean a thing off course.. Backed ones I guess, or sun dried? Anyhow, the cement, if properly mixed with small particles and of high initial strength (a high classed cement) does give the wall an extra layer of protection....

Civil Engineering: Bridge construction, different types of bridges, types of bridges
different types of bridges, types of bridges, beam bridge: Hi Stephanie, You have a very interesting project. The different types of bridges are suited for different spans. Beam type is for short spans, arch type for medium spans and suspension for long spans. Please visit this website, which will give you a...

Civil Engineering: Bridge Engineer, bridge engineer, bridge pier
bridge engineer, bridge pier, isolated footing: Hi Sanjeev, For a 3m dia pier, a 12.5 m base seems excessive. For it to engage uniform pressure, it will need to be around 1.5m thick. On way to reduce the size of the footing is to place it say 2-3 m below round and then take account of the soil above...

Civil Engineering: Bridges, sydney harbour bridge, gladesville bridge
sydney harbour bridge, gladesville bridge, anzac bridge: Hi Elisa, Hi Well, I am sorry but I had only heard of no.1 and 2- perhaps because I live in Europe and bridges is not my main speciality. However, I did do some search over the internet for you and found some info on 3 of the bridges. By following links...

Civil Engineering: Bridges, golden gate bridge, matsuo bridge
golden gate bridge, matsuo bridge, google search: Hi Ms. Henehan-- Your question it tough to answer without knowing some other factors--most notably the distance the bridge has to span. A narrow stream crossing is quite a bit different than the thousands of feet spanned by the Golden Gate Bridge, for...

Civil Engineering: Bridges, golden gate bridge, matsuo bridge
golden gate bridge, matsuo bridge, google search: Hi Ben-- Your question it tough to answer without knowing some other factors--most notably the distance the bridge has to span. A narrow stream crossing is quite a bit different than the thousands of feet spanned by the Golden Gate Bridge, for instance....

Civil Engineering: Bridges, different types of bridges, types of bridges
different types of bridges, types of bridges, physics class: Hi Ben, You have a very interesting project. The different types of bridges are suited for different spans. Beam type is for short spans, arch type for medium spans and suspension for long spans. Please visit this website, which will give you a lot...

Civil Engineering: Bridges, sydney harbour bridge, gladesville bridge
sydney harbour bridge, gladesville bridge, anzac bridge: For Anzac Bridge Check http://member.telpacific.com.au/grove/ The Sydney Harbour Bridge http://www.sydney.com.au/bridge.htm http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/hs_hb_sydney_harbour_bridge.asp http://www.gids.nl/sydney/info.html The Gladesville Bridge...

Civil Engineering: Buildability, design simplicity, layman
design simplicity, layman, many thanks: Hi Cathy, Buildability is defined as the extent to which the design of a building facilitates ease of construction subject to the overall requirements for the completed building . In other words, it s the degree of the design simplicity which makes...

Civil Engineering: Buildability, procurement method, cavity wall
procurement method, cavity wall, level perspective: Dear Anthony, Unfortunately not. However, if you have a certain inquiry about something in particular, please let me know. I must say however that usually there is no standard recipe associated with the project s type. As you may know, no two projects...

Civil Engineering: Building Design, construction drawings, slab design
construction drawings, slab design, framing plan: Hi Iftekhar, This is a very general question, so I will reply as follows: 1. Decide on the best material to use (concrete, steel, timber). 2. Work out a framing plan (positions of beams and columns and shear walls) 3. Work out the most economical floor...

Civil Engineering: Building volumes, millennium dome, interior volume
millennium dome, interior volume, pints: . . Hi Mel, I don t know about the super dome, but the Millennium Dome in London has a volume of 3.8 billion pints (UK pints). You can check out all the details at the website: http://www.greenwichletting.co.uk/dome.html Hope that helps! Kind...

Civil Engineering: ballasts, flourescent lights, rapid cycling
flourescent lights, rapid cycling, ballast: Hi Bill-- This is not really a civil engineering question and is outside my specific expertise--but it is an interesting question so I ll give you my thoughts with the caveat that this is nothing more than educated speculation. I have heard that rapid...

Civil Engineering: basic information, statically indeterminate structures, work structures
statically indeterminate structures, work structures, virtual work: Hi Adeel, It s been a VERY long time since I was taught these theorems, so the best way for you to learn them is to type the words Virtual work structures in Google and you will see many sites. Basically these are ways of analysing statically indeterminate...

Civil Engineering: boundary element of shear wall in etabs, aci 318, aci318
aci 318, aci318, boundary elements: Hi Majid, I am not sure why, but have you tried: Go to the Options Preferences Concrete Frame Design command and on the Concrete Frame Design Preferences form click on the Design Code drop-down list to select your code preference. If that does...

Civil Engineering: bracing value of masonry walls, school mathematics teacher, high school mathematics
school mathematics teacher, high school mathematics, masonry product: Hi Mark, Design of blockwork is not an exact science, especially when you are assessing strength not prependicular to the bedding planes. Therefore,as a very rough calculation, depending on the geometry of your wall panel, you can work out the available...

Civil Engineering: bridge and army, pedestrian bridges, collapses
pedestrian bridges, collapses, resonance: Hi Saurabh, Yes, this is very true. You amy have head of the Millenniem Bridge in London which on the first day suffererd from excessive sway/deflections and had to be closed down? I do not know of any collapses, but certainly there are a lot of pedestrian...

Civil Engineering: bridge and culvert, culvert, concrete structure
culvert, concrete structure, wooden structures: Hello Adeniyi, The basic difference between a culvert and bridge is Culverts made to pass the fluids beneath the roads while bridge is made to pass the road over the fluids. Culvert is sometime only a pipe that crosses the under the road carrying water...

Civil Engineering: bridges, frontal lobe, forces of nature
frontal lobe, forces of nature, bridges: well Jon, I suggest you do as everybody else who is seriously interested in this subject.. READ A BOOK ABOUT IT! it sounds you are a victim of the lazyness-disease.. had some pupils who did the same; just past and copy information from the net.. very bad for...

Civil Engineering: bridges, warren truss, building a bridge
warren truss, building a bridge, physics class: Hi Sam, Sorry for this late reply- I was travelling. Your idea of using a warren truss is good- just make sure the compression diagonals are stiffer than the tension ones to avoid buckling and also pay particular attention to the joints (nodes)- us gusset...

Civil Engineering: building design, info4education, 4teachers
info4education, 4teachers, ca gov: Hi Akbar, This is a difficult question to answer. Basically you need to do a course in structural engineering at a university, which will take 3-4 years. If you have already done this and need further training, then there are so many books in the market-...

Civil Engineering: building maintenance?, facility management companies, landscape irrigation
facility management companies, landscape irrigation, construction engineer: Dear Sir, Engineers are diversified in their expertise. In other words, the Architect usually designs the building, the Structural Engineer makes sure that the building is safe, the Electrical and Mechanical Engineers take care of the services of the building,...

Civil Engineering: Calculations, allowable bearing pressure, laod
allowable bearing pressure, laod, approximate dimensions: Hi Said, I am sorry but I cannot do sketches over this forum. For the column foundations, you need to know what the moment is as well at the base of the column. If that is zero, you can design the area of the base by dividing the total laod by the safe...

Civil Engineering: Career info, biology chemistry, science side
biology chemistry, science side, luck jim: Hi Blake-- I answered this question for Adam as well. I ll give you the same advice I gave him: Being a civil engineer can be lots of fun, so I encourage you to continue to study hard so that you can some day become one! In high school you ll want to...

Civil Engineering: Career questions, bachelor of applied science, civil engineer
bachelor of applied science, civil engineer, professional engineer: there are some many differnet things you can do as a engineer / civil engineer. I m in land development. days are fairly casual now, due to winter slow down. summer is busier out side do site work. i work on getting engineered drawing completed...

Civil Engineering: Channel strength, jon fischer, aluminum bar
jon fischer, aluminum bar, time jon: Hi Jon, This is not a trivial question, but a good one! The answer to your question is as you say- the 1 square solid bar. However, if you asked the strongest in terms of strength-to-weight ratio (i.e. economical, least material, etc), then the answer...

Civil Engineering: Charterd ENGG exam UK, chartered engineer, website hope
chartered engineer, website hope, good experience: Hi Shafaat, In order to become a Chartered Engineer via the ICE or IStructE, you need to have a good degree and at least 4-5 years of good experience including at least 6 months on site. Visit the following site for full details via the IStructE: ...

Civil Engineering: Civil Eng., physics and chemistry, engineer training
physics and chemistry, engineer training, civil engineer: Hi Joey, Let me forward you the Q&A below which may answer many of your questions. This was in answer to questions raised by several students considering their career paths. After reading this if you have further questions, please feel free to ask! ...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering Designer, hydraulics engineering, public improvements
hydraulics engineering, public improvements, construction supplier: Well my friend, I really hesitated before answering but then decided to be crystal clear. Please accept my reply in a friendly manner. My reply is that you shouldn t apply if the post is a civil engineering post and you are not a civil engineer. In...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering Info. Needed, ucalgary ca, physics and chemistry
ucalgary ca, physics and chemistry, engineer training: Hi Elizabeth, Well, it s a very exciting and fullfilling career, but not as highly-paid as other professions such as doctors, lawyers and accountants. (but who d want to be that, eh?). I have been asked similar questions before, so if you do not mind...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering Question, modulus of elasticity, moment of inertia
modulus of elasticity, moment of inertia, deflection formula: Hi Stephanie, Yes, you have the calculation correct, except that you have to have consistent units, so first convert the 50 feet to 600 inches, and then you do not raise 850 to the power of 4. The answer is 1.0953 inch deflection. If you are not sure of...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering (Retrofitting), stone masonary, circular tank
stone masonary, circular tank, water leaks: Hi Adnan, I presume this is a circular tank and that the main structure is not damaged or badly cracked? If these two conditions are true then yes your idea of applying a waterproof layer of plaster on the inside surface should do the trick! Hope that...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering (Retrofitting), stone masonary, water leaks
stone masonary, water leaks, water proofing: Dear Mr. Adnan, I have received your question on December 04 and answered you on December 05, thus I don t understand your position on the timing issue! We are volunteers with one objective in mind: to help others!! Have a good day. Dr. A. Jarka...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering Software, civil engineering software, civil engineer
civil engineering software, civil engineer, staad: Hi Zeba The most useful software is Excel or other spreadsheet, and after that an analysis package like STAAD or Prokon, or similar. Look at following websites: http://yakpol.net/ http://www.reiusa.com/ http://www.prokon.com/ However, a word...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering, aerospace industry, civil engineer
aerospace industry, civil engineer, integrated circuits: All good questions, all unfortunately without easy answers. A couple of thoughts to guide you: -- Every engineering discipline uses computers to a significant degree. The question isn t whether you like computers, but what you want to spend your time...

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineerng-consulting engineer, nitk surathkal, mechanical metallurgy
nitk surathkal, mechanical metallurgy, engineering geology: Hello-- A complete answer to this question is quite a long discussion. The brief answer to what it takes to be a successful consulting civil engineer: 1. Communication skills. Consulting by definition means that you re helping someone solve a problem....

Civil Engineering: Civil engineering, ribbed slab, moment distribution
ribbed slab, moment distribution, edge column: Hi Vijay, If by hidden beams you mean flush beams, then you can still take full frame action and moment distribution into the column so long as the width of the beam is not more than 2- 2.5 time the width of the column- although this also depends on the...

Civil Engineering: Civil engineering job, civil engineering job, starting salaries
civil engineering job, starting salaries, job satisfaction: Hi Ahsan, No, that is not the case- you can have a very high powered and office based job with an excellent package. However, it is true that starting salaries for civil engineers are below those for doctors, lawyers, accountants, business admin guys, etc....

Civil Engineering: Civil engineering, steel sheet piling, different types of bridges
steel sheet piling, different types of bridges, rubbish chute: Hi Glenn, I have already answered 1, 2 and 4 as below, and now answer 3. Although I cannot give you detailed design information over this medium, I can give you some guidelines: 1. For a medium-rise building, the main services would be lifts, fire...

Civil Engineering: Civil engineers, ucalgary ca, physics and chemistry
ucalgary ca, physics and chemistry, engineer training: Hi Rose, Well, it s a very exciting and fullfilling career, but not as highly-paid as other professions such as doctors, lawyers and accountants. (but who d want to be that, eh?). I have been asked similar questions before, so if you do not mind I...

Civil Engineering: Civil Related, vaneers, thin fingers
vaneers, thin fingers, particle board: Hi Nitin, Particle (or chip) board is fine thin fingers of wood which are wetted, and compressed with glue to form a dense board. Ply wood is made from thin vaneers, which are glued (minimum 3 layers), with each grain laid at right angles to the adjoining...

Civil Engineering: I AM A CLASS 12 STUDENT LIVING..., commercial graphic artist, sketches of buildings
commercial graphic artist, sketches of buildings, structural engineering: . . Hi Alokjuneja, Well, if you also like and are good at maths and physics, then would recommned a career in structural engineering, as drawing is very useful. Otherwise, you can go for architecture or commercial/graphic artist (adverts, etc). ...

Civil Engineering: Clyindrical Tank, sketch tool, ft radius
sketch tool, ft radius, good luck: Dear prakash, Well, the concept is still the same. Volume would equal the base area multiplied by the height. In this case consider the height same as if the tank is in the upright position. what you need is the area of the wetted base which is now not the...

Civil Engineering: CONSTRUCTION CRANES, arshad khan, construction cranes
arshad khan, construction cranes, tower cranes: Hi Howard, Most cranes for multistorey buildings are so-called self-climbing tower cranes. They are always supported on foundations on the ground, but they have lateral supports every say 5-10 floors from the building structure. Most cranes are placed along...

Civil Engineering: Concrete bridges, concrete bridges, suspension bridges
concrete bridges, suspension bridges, mr khan: Hi Hasina, There are many types of concrete bridges, starting from a simple reinforced beam-and-slab for short spans to pre-stressed I-beams and arches, cable-stayed and suspension bridges. Usually truss-type bridges are done with steel, although there...

Civil Engineering: Concrete Shear Loading, concrete slab, shear loading
concrete slab, shear loading, rebar: Hi Raymond, This question cannot be answered by any engineer unless he knows the amount and placement of main and shear rebar in the slab and the strength grade of the concrete and how the rebar is anchored into the main building. I suggest you contact...

Civil Engineering: Concrete Strength Testing Procedures, reinforced concrete structures, concrete strength
reinforced concrete structures, concrete strength, hakimi: Sorry for the mistake I made. Please follow the answer below. Dear Manuel E. Ardon As I remember there is the following relation between the 2 strengths (approximatly) reffered to: Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures by Mourachevv, Sigalov,...

Civil Engineering: Concrete technology, segragation, place hope
segragation, place hope, wet concrete: Literally honeycombing is a structure of hexagonal, thin-walled cells like constructed from beeswax by honeybees to hold honey and larvae. Honeycombing can be recognized by exposed coarse aggregate on the surface without any mortar covering or surrounding...

Civil Engineering: Concrete Walls, ready mix concrete, calcium hydroxide
ready mix concrete, calcium hydroxide, concrete cures: Hi Gad-- No, this sounds like a hoax. When concrete cures, the water reacts with portland cement (the gray powder that is the glue in dry concrete mix). I won t bother with the chemistry, but in general the equations are: Calcium Siilcate + Water...

Civil Engineering: Concrete, reinforced concrete slab, cema
reinforced concrete slab, cema, cubic meter: Hi Cema, Firstly I am not sure what a coc slab is. If this is just a concrete slab, or any other type of slab, the question is difficult to answer because it depends on the location, country etc, as some materials are cheaper than others. For example,...

Civil Engineering: Condensation, composite roofing, air gap
composite roofing, air gap, thermal insulation: Hi Cynthia, I am sorry, but I am not an expert on this subject. I hope you can get help elsewhere. What I can tell you though, is that condensation will only ocurr if you allow the outside humid air to get within the gap. So, if you seal the gap, then you...

Civil Engineering: Confused about salary, salary issue, civil engineer
salary issue, civil engineer, previous question: Dear Andrew, I have been working as an Engineer for 15 years. The salary is commensurable with experience. I m sorry, I can t help you with the salary issue as this depends on several factors, the most important of which is the geographical location, i.e....

Civil Engineering: Construction /Civil Engineering Terms, civilengineering, engineering terms
civilengineering, engineering terms, girder: Hi Kev, Try this website- it has a wealth of info and links: http://www.guideme.com/CivilEngineering.htm A beam and a girder are similar for steelework, except that the latter may be made up from several steel plates or have stiffeners, etc. In concrete...

Civil Engineering: Construction /civil engineering terms, engineering terms, girder
engineering terms, girder, terminologies: Dear Sir, I think the best way for you is to get some Catalogues from different sources to identify the various materials and equipment. In addition, the Civil Engineering Dictionary might be a good document for you to identify the meaning of the different...

Civil Engineering: Construction-future, bvs, villagevoice
bvs, villagevoice, asian country: Hi Rohit, There are several such projects proposed. Here are a few links: http://www.retrofuture.com/skyscraper.html http://www.torrebionica.com/bvs-english/bvs-english.htm http://www.villagevoice.com/news/0208,baard,32475,1.html I hope that...

Civil Engineering: Construction question, civil engineering construction, preparing for a job interview
civil engineering construction, preparing for a job interview, materials procurement: Dear Idahor, It all depends on the post for which you re applying for! Typical questions could be about your knowledge of construction practices, coordination among the disciplines, site safety and control, planning, scheduling, and monitoring of construction...

Civil Engineering: Creativity and Civil Engineering, creative fields, friend jim
creative fields, friend jim, analogies: Hi Victor-- Well, I guess your friend gets points for creativity in leaning on a friend who is a psychology major to try the Internet to help him solve a problem! One idea would be how he used creativity to solve the problem of what to write in the paper...

Civil Engineering: Creativity and Civil Engineering, open ended question, creative solution
open ended question, creative solution, google: Hi Victor, This is such an open-ended question, it is difficult to answer through this medium. Maybe he can write about findinga creative solution to a remote village s need to cross a river or to get water from a well, or sort out a long-drop type of...

Civil Engineering: Cross Brace, cross braces, structural engineer
cross braces, structural engineer, cross brace: Hello Eric, Cross braces are provided to resist horizontal loading e.g. wind, side thrust etc and to provide overall stability to the system. I could not see the pictures you mentioned here. But the best advise I can give you is to consult a structural...

Civil Engineering: Culverts and Bridge, box culvert, box culverts
box culvert, box culverts, large diameter pipe: . . Hi Adeel, If you consider a box culvert for say a river to pass through under a road, then the floor is the wet part and the roof is the support for the road. In bridges, you only have the latter. Hope that clears it! Kind regards, Arsha...

Civil Engineering: Why are canals in Central..., canals, azerbaijan
canals, azerbaijan, boats: Hi I am not sure where AZ is (Azerbaijan?), but usually any canals that are open-top are usually because of economy of construction, or due to ease of use for draw-off of water by siphoning, etc, or for use by boats, etc. I hope that helps! Kind...

Civil Engineering: carbon steel tank.., carbon steel tank, gravity load
carbon steel tank, gravity load, upper tank: Faisal, This is not easy to do without looking at the drawings, etc. Just use basic principles- distribute the load to the clamps and design the bolts against shear or tension, depending on the geometry. Sorry- can t help further, as i have other people...

Civil Engineering: Your career, calculus physics, computer programing
calculus physics, computer programing, university of waterloo: 1. computer programing, the one course in university i had to repeat was computer programing. the more calculus you get the better. 2. I enjoy construction and designing, i m always trying to figure things out and solve real world problems. 3....

Civil Engineering: career advise, list of colleges, starting salary
list of colleges, starting salary, luck jim: Hi Brett-- Many colleges offer civil engineering as a major. Some that I would consider: Georgia Tech, MIT, Purdue, Stanford, and the University of Texas. Wages are good; I don t know what a starting salary these days is, but my guess is that it s...

Civil Engineering: Which career if for me? Engineer or Architect, artistic roots, design shapes
artistic roots, design shapes, shape ideas: Hello Natali, You seem to have a natural talent in designing (drafting) of houses, which gives me the feeling that you would fit more into Architecture. Your artistic talent or shape ideas could than be fully expressed. Background for engineering or architectural...

Civil Engineering: career questions, macgill univ, univ of toronto
macgill univ, univ of toronto, stanford univ: Dear Alex, To give you an answer, I need to know where you live! Threre are various good Universities offering Civil Engineering majors. If you live in North America, MIT, Univ. of California at Berkeley, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana, Cal. Tech, Stanford...

Civil Engineering: my career, u s news world report college rankings, google search
u s news world report college rankings, google search, math and science: Well I can t speak for the rest of the world, but there are quite a number of very good engineering schools in the U.S. Do a Google search on U.S. News & World Report College Rankings or something similar and you should be able to pretty easily find a list...

Civil Engineering: careers, video game developer, top selling video games
video game developer, top selling video games, researching careers: Hi Brandon-- Playing video games is fun, but I would encourage you to take on classes and projects that require persistence and creativity. Just as it s a whole lot easier to watch people play music than it is to play yourself, it s a lot easier to play...

Civil Engineering: challenging times, civil engineering degree, undergraduate civil engineering
civil engineering degree, undergraduate civil engineering, university of nairobi: Hi, I think you clicked the wrong expert. I m in Canada too. my advice though is if you can, get involved with engineering community as an individual. once you start to make contacts with other engineers and they know your looking for work, you might...

Civil Engineering: civil, water ingress, paint water
water ingress, paint water, xypex: Raju, Looks like you do not have a damp-prrof course. You can either break out the slab and install a DPC or you can try some injection/paint water-proofing treatments like Xypex, or you can install a DPC over the existing slab and cast a new say 100m...

Civil Engineering: What is a civil engineer?, what is a civil engineer, ucalgary ca
what is a civil engineer, ucalgary ca, physics and chemistry: Hi Susan, Well, it s a very exciting and fullfilling career, but not as highly-paid as other professions such as doctors, lawyers and accountants. (but who d want to be that, eh?). I have been asked similar questions before, so if you do not mind I will...

Civil Engineering: civil engineering, mile arc, delaware pennsylvania
mile arc, delaware pennsylvania, s chain: Hi Heather, 1. As far as I know, a perch is a fish and can be used as a pet or as food! 2. A gunter s chain is 66 feet long. 3. Breaking chain is the process of measuring horizontal distances over sloping land, by means of a series of steps where the...

Civil Engineering: civil engineering, laser levelling, horizontal location
laser levelling, horizontal location, tape measures: Hi Amit, The timing for de-shuttering depends on the concrete strength, the spans and the curing, but generally the columns are done first after a day or two, the slabs next and the beams last, possibly after 7-14 days. Usually the centre props are left...

Civil Engineering: civil engineering, main beams, bench mark
main beams, bench mark, indirect expenses: Dear Amit, You can t FINALIZE the cost without the drawings! On the other hand, the price of any trade or item within the project comprises the cost of labor, materials, and other indirect expenses, in addition to the overhead and profit. The aggregated...

Civil Engineering: civil engineering, shear failure, failure mechanism
shear failure, failure mechanism, isolated footing: Hi Fredrick, Shear failure is a very important consideration in foundation design. It works almost same as cantilever beam shear. For spread or isolated footing critical section is at a distance of d/2 from the edge of the column. For details you can refer...

Civil Engineering: civil engineering concrete technology, ordinary portland cement, cement manufacturers
ordinary portland cement, cement manufacturers, chemical compositions: Hi Mani, This is related to the compressive strength at 28 days age, in Mpa, and is a function of how finely the cement is ground. Here is an extract from one of the cement manufacturers: Ordinary Portland cement OPC is manufactured in two grades...

Civil Engineering: civil engineering safety and equipment, man holes, safety rope
man holes, safety rope, breathing mask: Hi Sammy, If you mean what they use when out on site, the the answer is as follows: 1. A pair of safety shoes (with steel sole and toe protection) 2. A safety vest (with luminescent strips) 3. A safety hard hat Furthermore, for special circumstances...

Civil Engineering: civil engineering, high school subjects, graduate engineer
high school subjects, graduate engineer, principal engineer: Hi Chris, The answers are in BOLD below: How many days do you work? AVERAGE 5-6 A WEEK, 42 WEEKS A YEAR. Do I work with people or machines? PEOPLE AND COMPUTERS What did you begin as? TRAINEE GRADUATE ENGINEER Then what where you promoted to and what...

Civil Engineering: civil/piping, piping engineer, cross sectional area
piping engineer, cross sectional area, self weight: Hi Manish, Just work out the self weight and weight of contents per metre run and the racking can be designed to suit. If the pipes have high pressure or flow and have bends, then you will also need to work out the thrusts at the bends, so that these can...

Civil Engineering: civil, shrinkage cracks, roof water
shrinkage cracks, roof water, water tank: Hi Raju, This is difficult for me to answer without further details and in any case I do not do full designs over this medium. I suggets you seek advice from an engineer who can see the problem- what the contractoe is suggesting is not excessive. Hope...

Civil Engineering: designing foundation footing, spread footing, concrete footing
spread footing, concrete footing, soil condition: Hi Ali, For foundation design you need to know the loading on the footing and soil conditions. Soil condition will give you bearing capacity of the soil and it will tell you whether it is fit for footing or not. Once these things are known designing...

Civil Engineering: concentrated load on flat slab, flat slab, arshad
flat slab, arshad, udl: Hi Zhen, Definitely not, as that would exceed the safe load by a factor of around 25!! If you meant 5 kN placed at 1m centers, that would be OK, even 20KN placed at 1m centres, providing the span is at least 8-10m. If the span is smaller, you need to decrease...

Civil Engineering: concrete bridge repair, bridge repair, carbonation
bridge repair, carbonation, concrete bridge: Hi Maha, This is very difficult to advise on without inspecting the structure myself. However, here are some general guidelines: 1. The bearings would only be replaced if they have failed- i.e. they are cracked, or restrict movement, etc. 2....

Civil Engineering: concrete design, side surfaces, bonding agent
side surfaces, bonding agent, isolated footing: Hi Sreekanth, You can roughen up the top and side surfaces, drill and grout in some T10 dowels at say 300mm centres (or at least 5 dowls along each side and top in each direction, then put a thin mesh and apply some bonding agent and cast a covering layer...

Civil Engineering: concrete slab strength, slab strength, tractor weight
slab strength, tractor weight, laod: Hi Cameron, This is not an easy question to answer as you have not given full details- i.e. weight of tractor, exact maximum laod to be carried, wheelbase of tractor, weight distribution, etc. In any case, I cannot offer a full design service over tghis...

Civil Engineering: concrete, reinforced concrete, carbonation
reinforced concrete, carbonation, alkalis: Hi Allan, Hi Carbonation is the affect of carbon dioxide in air neutralizing the alkalis in concrete over a period of time. This happens faster if the concrete is weak or porous, but in dense strong concrete it can take many years to penetrate more...

Civil Engineering: construction crane counterweighting, construction cranes, construction crane
construction cranes, construction crane, boom arm: Hi Bruce, Well you are quite right- such cranes would topple over if they did not have travelling counterweights (or a cable stay at the back which is connected back down to the base). So I reckon the ones you are talking about must be ones as described...

Civil Engineering: consulting firm, economy booms, design discipline
economy booms, design discipline, construction supervision: Dear Jan, Well, it is different in different countries and regions. Nonetheless, consulting firms usually charges about 2 to 3% of the estimated construction cost of the project for the Design phase. They also charge approximately similar amount for the...

Civil Engineering: corbonation, rc structures, story apartment
rc structures, story apartment, carbonation: Hi Bupinder, The main source of carbonation is exposure to the atmosphere and then with the additional presence of moisture and air this leads to corrosion of the rebar. Your example of the roof is one where you can easily get carbonation and corrosion...

Civil Engineering: criteria for tempeareture analysis of slab in rcc building, floor slab, lateral displacement
floor slab, lateral displacement, movement joints: Hi Rupesh, If basement is subjected to daily temperature variations then you will need movement joints- these can be up to 100m apart if thermal analyisis is done and appropriate rebar detailed. Here is a good source for info: http://products.ihs.com/cis/Doc.aspx?AuthCode=&DocNum=253481...

Civil Engineering: Damage detection, lamb waves, shef ac uk
lamb waves, shef ac uk, proceedings papers: Hi Adeel, No I do not have direct exeperience of this but I did a quick search for you. Try the following web sites: http://www.shef.ac.uk/mecheng/dynam/health/health.html http://www.civil.columbia.edu/em2002/proceedings/papers/286.pdf Hope that...

Civil Engineering: Dams, fluid mechanics laboratory, dam design
fluid mechanics laboratory, dam design, spillways: Dear Anneleice, Unfortunately, the Hydraulics part of the Dam Design is not my area. You may contact any reference, the Library at the University is a good place to start, pertaining to such area (look for Dam Design and not Fluid Mechanics) and I m...

Civil Engineering: Design of slab with opening, rebar, slab
rebar, slab, slabs: Hi Rajesh, Assuming that this slab is supported along all 4 sides, then I would design the slab as two strips of one-way spanning slabs of width 1.4m each. Make sure you take account of reduced effective depth of rebar in one direction and put some anti-crack...

Civil Engineering: Design small column & slab, auto cad designer, mohammed ali
auto cad designer, mohammed ali, floor slab: Hi Mohammed, This is a very general question, so I will reply as follows: 1. Decide on the best material to use (concrete, steel, timber). 2. Work out a framing plan (positions of beams and columns and shear walls) 3. Work out the most economical floor...

Civil Engineering: Design, mario salvadori, cad 2d 3d
mario salvadori, cad 2d 3d, civil structural engineering: Hi Mike, There are several CAD software on the market, but I have not tried out the simple/basic ones. However, you could try Total CAD 2D-3D by Focus Multimedia Limited of Rugeley, Staffs, UK. Their website is www.focusmm.co.uk Regarding books, again...

Civil Engineering: Disasters and Construction, nuclear power plants, mass dampers
nuclear power plants, mass dampers, flood level: Hi Hassaan, Yes, to a limited extent one can design against all these disasters, but it is a question of how much you are willing to pay. Most buildings are designed as a compromise between cost and risk, but some critical structures, such as nuclear power...

Civil Engineering: Doubts ..., horizontal strips, fanlight
horizontal strips, fanlight, architrave: Hi Ankit, This is really more to do with Architecture, but here are your answers: 1.The moulding around a door or window 2.A window blind made of horizontal strips that overlap when closed 3.A framework that holds the panes of a window in the window...

Civil Engineering: Drinking straw structures, empty soda cans, offshore oil platforms
empty soda cans, offshore oil platforms, straw structures: These kinds of projects are fun. I can t tell you exactly what will work best, because some trial and error will be involved. But a couple of things for you to think about: 1. Straws are essentially long cylinders, and cylinders can be very strong if...

Civil Engineering: d.o.s, circular tank, circular tanks
circular tank, circular tanks, saqib: Hi Saqib, That is because steel is very efficient in tension (rather than bending), so by using a circular tank, all the forces are in hoop tension. That also applies to RC circular tanks, as all the hoop tension is taken by the rebar. I hope that helps!...

Civil Engineering: A day in the life of, sources of air pollutants, laundry detergent
sources of air pollutants, laundry detergent, golders associates: Hi Jeff-- A civil engineer s day can vary quite a bit, which is one of the things that makes it an interesting profession. Some things I did at various points in my career: --Supervise excavations by backhoes and bulldozers --Dress up in a hazardous...

Civil Engineering: about density of soil, soil density, dry density
soil density, dry density, soil mechanics: Dear Nyap, The density of the soil comprises of the dry particles, water, and gaseous materials. When we talk about the density of the soil, we refer to all these elements combined. On the other hand, the dry density is the same principle however, without...

Civil Engineering: depth of foundation, good soil, civil engg
good soil, civil engg, question sir: Hi Kapil, Normally the bottom of a foundation is set at a minimum depth of around 0.6m to 0.8m, where the effects of ground frost or ground drying out are negligible. Of course you will need to go deeper where there is not good soil at shallow depth, or...

Civil Engineering: design of slab, reinforcement details, high hope
reinforcement details, high hope, slab: Hi Kishor, I cannot design the slab for you over this medium- in any case that depends on the applied loading. However, for th dimensions you have mentioned, the slab will basically work as one-way spanning, and the thickness of around 175mm will be sufficiemt...

Civil Engineering: design?, horizontal acceleration, wooden sticks
horizontal acceleration, wooden sticks, anie: Dear Anie, I m sorry, but I have received your message only today, thus I apologize for the delay in response. Certainly, the trick here is to have an adequate bracing, the cross option is a good one. However, please remember that an earthquake is basically...

Civil Engineering: doubt clearance ..., horizontal thrust, relative merits
horizontal thrust, relative merits, lintels: Hi The main difference between lintels and arches is that the former is straight and horizontal while the arch is curved, and usually a semi-circle. The lintel works by resisting the load through bending and shear (an so usually need to be reinforced with...

Civil Engineering: Eccentric Load at Foundation, soil bearing capacity, soil pressure
soil bearing capacity, soil pressure, slab on grade: Hi Greg, I normally do not design over this forum, but if the figures you have quoted are correct then it s a no-brainer- there will be no problems. However, I would question your soil bearing capacity- seems to be too high by a factor of 10 to 20! Hope...

Civil Engineering: Effect of aggragate content, grain size distribution, soil mixture
grain size distribution, soil mixture, soil mechanics: Hi; As aggregate content (boulders and bulk grains) increase, the density increase and permiability decrease up to a point and then the opposite process happen. Actually, the grain size distribution gives an indication of how dense a soil is and about permeability....

Civil Engineering: Engineering, design foundations, soil investigation
design foundations, soil investigation, concrete structures: Hi; 1) My education is 5 years of civil engineering undergraduate studies (it is 5 years in Egypt and Europe but 4 years in USA. The curiculum is bigger in Egypt and Europe). Then I had my master degree from Germany and now pursuing my PhD. The needed part...

Civil Engineering: Engineering, simon frost, engineering disciplines
simon frost, engineering disciplines, classmates: Hi Simon-- All of the engineering fields you describe provide good career opportunities, so my suggestion is that you find a field that interests you. Over the course of your education and career there will be different hot fields, but if you re good...

Civil Engineering: Engineering, ucalgary ca, physics and chemistry
ucalgary ca, physics and chemistry, engineer training: Hi Sabrina, Well, you ahve not mentioned which type of engineering (civil, structural, mechanical, electrical, etc), but here are some Q & A to tell you about civil and structural engineering: ***************** Well, it s a very exciting and fullfilling...

Civil Engineering: Engineering, ucalgary ca, physics and chemistry
ucalgary ca, physics and chemistry, engineer training: Hi John, I am asked this question quite often, so if you do not mind, I will cut and paste a Q&A below, which should answer most of your questions: ***************** Well, it s a very exciting and fullfilling career, but not as highly-paid as other...

Civil Engineering: Engineering... sort of, loft style, consumer product safety
loft style, consumer product safety, luck jim: Hi Jacalyn-- I ve never heard of this type of requirement, but then again, I ve never tried to make or market children s furniture. My suggestion would be to pursue this information from whomever told you that it was required. I do know that there are...

Civil Engineering: Engineering, aerospace engineering, google
aerospace engineering, google: Hi Adam, I am sorry to say that this is not my field of expertise, nor do I have any contacts. However, if you go to Google on the internet and type in Aerospace engineering , you will find numerous links that may be useful to you. I hope that helps!...

Civil Engineering: For my English Career Project., approximate salary, physics and chemistry
approximate salary, physics and chemistry, engineer training: Hi Karmi, Let me forward you the Q&A below which may answer many of your questions. This was in answer to questions raised by several students considering their career paths. After reading this if you have further questions, please feel free to ask...

Civil Engineering: Estimating, plaster finishes, working drawing
plaster finishes, working drawing, concrete rebar: Hi Emmanuel, Basically you have to measure the materials of permanent construction (e.g. concrete, rebar, plaster, finishes, windows, doors, sanitary fittings, etc), and then apply prevailing cost rates (inclusive of labour) to these. You also need to...

Civil Engineering: ETABS, flat slab, manual column
flat slab, manual column, laod: Hi Astrid, Sorry, I was travelling hence delay in replying: 1. Rigid diaphragm allows no in-plane deformation, whilst semi-rigid does. 2. My mistake, if you use pdelta, then you need not use moment magnification in columns, etc. Notional load is still...

Civil Engineering: ETABS, hollow core slab, hollow core slabs
hollow core slab, hollow core slabs, shell membrane: Hi Astrid, Thank you and a very happy New Year to you and your family as well! 1. For hollow core slabs, to simulate one-way loading on to beams, you should use planks . 2. This depends on what you are trying to achieve. There are a lot of useful FAQ...

Civil Engineering: ETABS, csi website, shear design
csi website, shear design, technical queries: Hi Bjorn, I am new to ETABS as well, but I believe it does take main rebar into account for shear design. I sugget you visit the CSI website where there is a good FAQ and also you can post technical queries. I hope that helps! Kind regards, Arsha...

Civil Engineering: ETABS Period/Rigid Diaphragm, thick slab, elevator shafts
thick slab, elevator shafts, continuous wall: Hi Peter, You are right, in that the period should be 0.5-1.0 second. I acn only suggest 2 possible problems: 1. That your units are not consistent- recheck these. 2. That you have a member that is not properly connected to the main structure and that...

Civil Engineering: ETABS, dear sirs, single shell
dear sirs, single shell, dicussion forum: Hi Astrid, I am fairly new to ETABS too, but I can answer as follows: 1. Suggest you use semi-rigid diaphragm, as that will yield more accurate results. 2. Notional load is one of the options within the software, but if you use pdelta, then you do not...

Civil Engineering: Etabs results, csi website, seismic forces
csi website, seismic forces, static loads: Hi Samir, This depends on how the piers atre defined- basically the moment will be a summation of the node moments plus the push-pull forces multiplied by the lever arm. Visit the CSI website and see the knowledgebase Q & A- there is a lot of useful info...

Civil Engineering: Example of math/work, civil structural engineering, math work
civil structural engineering, math work, branches of engineering: Hi Brett, The maths can get very complex if you do it long-hand, but these days there are tools such as computer software and spreadsheets that make the task easier. As a general answer I would say yes maths is very important for civil/structural engineering....

Civil Engineering: Existing Beam- Block Roof to support SIL = 5 Kn/m2, secondary beams, parapet wall
secondary beams, parapet wall, steel beams: Hi Syed, Much as I would like to help you, I cannot do such assignments over this website- firstly because this ius very time consuming and difficult to do without drawings, etc, but also due to liability and safety issues. I recommend that you get a qualified/experienced...

Civil Engineering: Extension work, suitable procedure, beams
suitable procedure, beams, bungalow: Hello Santosh, You can use either way, but grouting is most common and probably more economical. Check the structural strength of the columns and beams also for extension work. If you have any more question don t hesitate to ask. Regards Veto ...

Civil Engineering: earth quack, ground water table, earth quack
ground water table, earth quack, soil pressure: Hi Maha, If you are in a high-risk seismic zone, then yes, reservoirs should be designed against earthquakes. The forces imposed are as follows: 1. Inertia of the walls themselves 2. Additional inertial pressure from the water, as well as due to sloshing...

Civil Engineering: earthquake on an burried structure, quake force, slab thickness
quake force, slab thickness, floor slab: Hi Adel, You are correct in principle, but it also depends on what type of soil is backfilled and what the groundwater table is in relation to the structure. What I am getting at is this: if the earthquake causes liquefaction of the soil, then you may have...

Civil Engineering: eccentric footing, earth pressure, tie beam
earth pressure, tie beam, bending moments: Hi Abdul, Yes, you have to design it as required by the geometry, for example for a boundary wall this is a common problem and you need to design it as an eccentrically loaded pad footing, which will have high pressure at one and (near boundary) and low...

Civil Engineering: eccentricall loaded foundation, soil pressure, graduate engineer
soil pressure, graduate engineer, pressure distribution: Hello Jonathon, For eccentrically loaded foundation you need to determine exact soil pressure distribution. If you are designing for the loading then I assume you design for all compressive soil pressure distribution instead of some tension components,...

Civil Engineering: an eggcatcher, egg catcher, physics class
egg catcher, physics class, vertical plane: Hi Micah, I guess the best way to do this is to design a channel with has a cross-section of a semi-circle just bigger than the egg diameter. Then make this channel as long as you can and curve it the shape of a parabola held in a vertical plane, with on...

Civil Engineering: engineering, zone 0, seismic zones
zone 0, seismic zones, seismic zone: Hi Habib, There are several seismic zones in accordance with UBC 97- starting with zone 0, 1, 2A, 2B, 3, 4, 5, 6.... Visit this website for more info: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/aboutmaps.php Hope that helps! Kind regards, Arsha...

Civil Engineering: engineering/maths, quantity surveyor, math expert
quantity surveyor, math expert, formwork: Dear Rommel, I will answer, to the best of my knowledge, this type of question although I think you should be directing such types of questions to a Math. Expert. My expertise is related to Construction Engineering. As far as your question, a circle...

Civil Engineering: more engineering questions, engineering colleges, math and science
engineering colleges, math and science, best bet: Engineering colleges look primarily at grades and either SAT or ACT scores. Taking both the SAT and ACT is probably your best bet; failing that, visit the web sites of several engineering programs that interest you to see what their preferences are. The...

Civil Engineering: engineering, civil engineering course, personal circumstances
civil engineering course, personal circumstances, structural engineering: Hi Rahul, This is a difficult question for me to answer as I do not know enough of your personal circumstances, nor the wishes of your parents. However, as a general rule, if you have family property which you may be able to do business in, then after...

Civil Engineering: english, shrinkage cracks, horizontal cracks
shrinkage cracks, horizontal cracks, vertical cracks: Hi Santosh, This is probably caused by: 1. Shrinkage cracks in blockwork 2. Lack of movement compatibility between the structural frame and non-structural in-fill blockwork- this puts stresses in blockwork due to the lateral displacement of the structural...

Civil Engineering: erosion problem, erosion control mat, landscape fabric
erosion control mat, landscape fabric, mesh fabric: Hi Kate-- Water is a tough foe... but here are a few thoughts: 1. You were on the right track with the hydro-seeding, but it sounds like you just got unlucky. You might try again (hoping the rains are more kind to you), or you might try... 2. Seeding...

Civil Engineering: example of design calculation of rc structure, istructe, design calculation
istructe, design calculation, calculation examples: Hi Ikram, I cannot send you examples through this forum, but if you go to the following website and click on the links at the right side of the page, you will find lots of helful advice. http://www.istructe.org.uk/exams/index.asp I hope that helps!...

Civil Engineering: Faculty Project: Metallic construction over concrete ones., portal frames, metallic construction
portal frames, metallic construction, faculty project: Hi Sebastian, A simple example of where a steel structure is better than concrete is for long-span trusses or portal frames for warehouses etc. This is because steel is lightweight and very good in tension, as well as compression, whilst concrete is best...

Civil Engineering: Field, civil engineering courses, civil engineering education
civil engineering courses, civil engineering education, ocw mit: Hello Larry, Before you decide to study civil engineering, you need to be very interested in science, i.e. math, geometry, physics, chemistry. To become a civil engineer graduate, you need to be ready to study geology/geotechnics, material properties, structural...

Civil Engineering: Flat slab analysis using SAFE8, flat slab, punching shear
flat slab, punching shear, storey tower: Hi ONG, For a tall building, you should select the third option, as that will take loads due to gravity laoding as well as any distortions due to gravity and lateral loading. The first option will only do a gravity loading down analysis, so is not a safe...

Civil Engineering: Flexibility Method, cantilever beam, ourworld compuserve
cantilever beam, ourworld compuserve, point loads: . . Hi Paul, Although I can work out the answers for you, it would be far better if you understood how this is done, so I have found the following websites which have all the formulae for: 1. Point Loads: http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/MJVanVoorhis/T312.htm...

Civil Engineering: "Floor" Finite Element Analysis Program, finite element analysis, slab design
finite element analysis, slab design, flat slabs: Hi Adam, I think you are referring to the ADAPT-Floor software, which is a very good one for PT flat slabs. Check out: http://www.consoft.com.sg/content/adapt.htm Recently I noticed that STAAD.Pro is offering ADAPT-Floor as part of the package-...

Civil Engineering: Follow-Up, arshad khan, slab thickness
arshad khan, slab thickness, shear reinforcement: Hi Mr. Jarkas, I believe I have already answered your question yesterday by giving you the principles. However, from the further data you have given me, a quick calculation shows that a 18 cm slab will not be sufficient for shear, and that you will need...

Civil Engineering: Follow-Up, arshad khan, mr khan
arshad khan, mr khan, dear mr: Dear Mr. Jarkas, Your question is incomplete, but from what I can make out, here is the answer: If the wheel is very close to the supporting beam, then you can take the shear to be applied over a length equal to the wheel width (w)or contact length....

Civil Engineering: Footings/Slab, dear walter, sandy soil
dear walter, sandy soil, ceek: Dear Walter, Unfortunately, a Geotechnical Lab. has to carry out the investigation, usually by the SPT method. In the absence of such test however, you can estimate conservative values ranging from 1.0 to 0.50 kg/cm2. I recommend the later. Good luck....

Civil Engineering: Force vectors, force vectors, vertical axis
force vectors, vertical axis, horizontal force: Hi Shahid, From first principles, and ignoring friction, and assuming that the material of the cone is quite elastic compared with the stiffness of the ring, then the horizontal component on each finite element (triangular slice of the cone)would be w x...

Civil Engineering: Foundation Design, reinforcement details, spread footing
reinforcement details, spread footing, shear reinforcement: Hello Mark, The foundation dimensions are mainly governed by soil bearing capacity and the load carried by the foundation. Again the type and location of foundation governs the calculation. If you specify your questions further (type and location of foundation,...

Civil Engineering: Foundation for Free-Fall ride, acceleration of gravity, gravity load
acceleration of gravity, gravity load, pile foundation: Dear David, Two criteria should be considered: a) gravity load, taking into consideration the dynamic effect; and b) the lateral load resulting from wind or earthquake if within such zone. The most suitable type for this structure is the Mat foundation....

Civil Engineering: Foundation for lift well for G 2 building, vertical loads, structural engineer
vertical loads, structural engineer, lateral loads: Hi Tedy, For this, just consider the total vertical load down the wall per metre run and design a strip footing all around- it may end up being 1m wide strip (or less) , but this depends on the ground conditions. Hope that helps! Kind regards, ...

Civil Engineering: Foundation Proposals, sheet piling, mass concrete
sheet piling, mass concrete, sized holes: . . . Hi Martin, Thanks for further info, but this is still not enough for me to give you specific advice. However, I ahve found a very good website for you which gives excellent guidance on the different types of sheet piling etc.: http://www.corusconstruction.com/page_2755.htm...

Civil Engineering: Foundations, raft foundation, flat slab
raft foundation, flat slab, strip footing: Hi Kwame, A matt foundation is the same as a raft- different name only. A raft works by bending along both planes (a bit like a 2-way spanning flat slab), whilst a strip footing normally works only by bending in one direction- usually it supports a wall,...

Civil Engineering: Foundations, strip footings, foundations
strip footings, foundations: Hi Tom, This is difficult to answer as it all depends on how well the limestone has been compacted, how long it has had time to settle, what the depth of fill is, etc. All things being equal, if the fill is well compacted, you should be able to use pad...

Civil Engineering: Four and a half inches RCC slab, free edge, rebar
free edge, rebar, camber: Hi Jagdish, You have not indicated roof loading, but assuming it is minimal, this should be OK with proper rebar detailing- especially additional bottom rebar for a zone of say 300mm along the free edge. Also, provide a pre-camber of the slab of say 30mm...

Civil Engineering: Application of differential equatios in ..., solution project, arshad
Civil Engineering: Application of differential equatios in ..., solution project, arshad, problem solution

Civil Engineering: Beam design
Civil Engineering: Beam design

Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering Designer, architectural skills, professional engineer
Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering Designer, architectural skills, professional engineer, civil engineer

Civil Engineering: Construction /Civil Engineering Terms, structural steel design, reinforced concrete design
Civil Engineering: Construction /Civil Engineering Terms, structural steel design, reinforced concrete design, rebars

Civil Engineering: Construction-future, straights of gibraltar, google
Civil Engineering: Construction-future, straights of gibraltar, google, bridge

Civil Engineering: Cross Brace, horizontal member, lateral load
Civil Engineering: Cross Brace, horizontal member, lateral load, cross bracing

Civil Engineering: my career, technology colleges, engineering colleges
Civil Engineering: my career, technology colleges, engineering colleges, best engineering

Civil Engineering: civil engineering safety and equipment, nose guard, google
Civil Engineering: civil engineering safety and equipment, nose guard, google, overrun

Civil Engineering: concrete
Civil Engineering: concrete

Civil Engineering: d.o.s, circular shape, meter square
Civil Engineering: d.o.s, circular shape, meter square, square shape

Civil Engineering: depth of foundation, tree root, unecessary
Civil Engineering: depth of foundation, tree root, unecessary, plasticity

Civil Engineering: design of slab, slab thickness, sw
Civil Engineering: design of slab, slab thickness, sw

Civil Engineering: doubt clearance ..., flat arches
Civil Engineering: doubt clearance ..., flat arches

Civil Engineering: ETABS, exterior beams, civil structural engineer
Civil Engineering: ETABS, exterior beams, civil structural engineer, response spectrum

Civil Engineering: ETABS, class tool
Civil Engineering: ETABS, class tool

Civil Engineering: ETABS Period/Rigid Diaphragm, modes, animation
Civil Engineering: ETABS Period/Rigid Diaphragm, modes, animation, element

Civil Engineering: eccentric footing, eccentricity, footing
Civil Engineering: eccentric footing, eccentricity, footing

Civil Engineering: Flexibility Method, ceros, hallas
Civil Engineering: Flexibility Method, ceros, hallas, giros

Civil Engineering: General, foot cube, center of gravity
Civil Engineering: General, foot cube, center of gravity, maximum weight

Civil Engineering: Grading Unpaved Roads, sterling consulting, jim sterling
Civil Engineering: Grading Unpaved Roads, sterling consulting, jim sterling, gravel roads

Civil Engineering: geometry in real life, manhole cover, gutter
Civil Engineering: geometry in real life, manhole cover, gutter, shapes

Civil Engineering: good career choice?, prospect
Civil Engineering: good career choice?, prospect

Civil Engineering: Home based work for BE Civil Er reg., civil engineering job, drawing
Civil Engineering: Home based work for BE Civil Er reg., civil engineering job, drawing

Civil Engineering: mat foundation, graphical representations, good software
Civil Engineering: mat foundation, graphical representations, good software, mohammed

Civil Engineering: Pad Foundation, soil pressure, pressure distribution
Civil Engineering: Pad Foundation, soil pressure, pressure distribution, concept of equilibrium

Civil Engineering: Pad Foundation, pad foundation, quation
Civil Engineering: Pad Foundation, pad foundation, quation

Civil Engineering: Professional Fee, structural engineering
Civil Engineering: Professional Fee, structural engineering

Civil Engineering: pad foundation calculations, factor of safety, eccentricity
Civil Engineering: pad foundation calculations, factor of safety, eccentricity, assumption

Civil Engineering: pile cap design, reinforcement design
Civil Engineering: pile cap design, reinforcement design

Civil Engineering: pipe design
Civil Engineering: pipe design

Civil Engineering: Raft foundation+forklift movement, duty forklifts, good luck
Civil Engineering: Raft foundation+forklift movement, duty forklifts, good luck

Civil Engineering: Raft foundations, raft, piles
Civil Engineering: Raft foundations, raft, piles, friction

Civil Engineering: RCC beam slab, brick walls, 5m
Civil Engineering: RCC beam slab, brick walls, 5m

Civil Engineering: Reinforced Concrete Industrial Facilities Design load., duty forklifts, costly fines
Civil Engineering: Reinforced Concrete Industrial Facilities Design load., duty forklifts, costly fines, rollover protection

Civil Engineering: raft foundation design, bending moment, 95d
Civil Engineering: raft foundation design, bending moment, 95d, factor x

Civil Engineering: rcc column, bearing, soil
Civil Engineering: rcc column, bearing, soil, triangle

Civil Engineering: rcc design, slab, bearing
Civil Engineering: rcc design, slab, bearing

Civil Engineering: ribbed(hollow block) slab, temperature gradient, concrete construction
Civil Engineering: ribbed(hollow block) slab, temperature gradient, concrete construction, rigidity

Civil Engineering: The role of civil engineers, civil engg, civil engineers
Civil Engineering: The role of civil engineers, civil engg, civil engineers

Civil Engineering: Selection of Final Year Project, mumbai india
Civil Engineering: Selection of Final Year Project, mumbai india

Civil Engineering: Structural Analysis, stretch tension, beam elements
Civil Engineering: Structural Analysis, stretch tension, beam elements, truss member

Civil Engineering: soil bearing capacity?, shallow foundation, soil investigation
Civil Engineering: soil bearing capacity?, shallow foundation, soil investigation, soil samples

Civil Engineering: specific gravity of soil
Civil Engineering: specific gravity of soil

Civil Engineering: statistics on its contribution, heavy rainstorm, drainage system
Civil Engineering: statistics on its contribution, heavy rainstorm, drainage system, third world countries

Civil Engineering: strip foundation design, formulae, soil
Civil Engineering: strip foundation design, formulae, soil

Civil Engineering: What is the title Ir. stands for?, professional engineer, engineering institution
Civil Engineering: What is the title Ir. stands for?, professional engineer, engineering institution, german word

Civil Engineering: weight bearing capacity of concrete, concrete slab, factor of safety
Civil Engineering: weight bearing capacity of concrete, concrete slab, factor of safety, flexible material

Civil Engineering: finishing productivity, labor productivity, blockwork
labor productivity, blockwork, different regions: Dear Sir, Labor productivity is different in different regions. As I m not working in the UAE, I m not in a position to help! You can always however get a crude estimates for such activities from the local labors. The logic behind using the term crude...

Civil Engineering: footing design, footing design, static equilibrium
footing design, static equilibrium, strap footing: Hi Prasanna, This is difficult to answer without looking at the plans and knowing the foundation conditions. However, in principle if you ensure that static equilibrium is maintained for all possible load conditions, then your approach should be Ok. ...

Civil Engineering: footing design, combined footing, footing design
combined footing, footing design, tie beam: Hi Meenakshi, It is difficult to explain that through this medium, but if you put some key words in google, you will get some guidelines. Basically a tie beam acts to counter balance the out-of-balance moment caused by a colum on the edge of a pad (or isolated)...

Civil Engineering: force of water hitting a sea wall, vector equation, force vector
vector equation, force vector, advanced algebra: Hi Andrea, what I would use for a simplified force on the wall is: get an average speed of waves as they break into wall. use momentum, mass X velocity then take the time it takes to absorb the momentum to get the force applied to the wall....

Civil Engineering: can forecast earthquake's..., arshad khan, predicting earthquakes
arshad khan, predicting earthquakes, 4teachers: Hi f, The science of predicting earthquakes is not very good for the long-range, although instruments can give warnings within a short time-frame. Visit the website below which has lots of relevant info. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/4teachers/section_index.html...

Civil Engineering: foundation decision, pad foundation, concrete pad
pad foundation, concrete pad, retaining wall: Hi Markos, Foundations are very difficult to advise upon remotely as there are too many variables and potential problems. However, in general, for any such building on sloping ground, you should ensure that the down-slope stem wall is reinforced to act...

Civil Engineering: foundation design, concrete foundations, th effects
concrete foundations, th effects, graduate engineer: Hi Jonathan, Yes, you should take th effects of wind laoding into account- basically you can take additional vertical loading caused by the over-turning moments. If the foundation is below ground, you can use mass concrete- either as a deep strip footing,...

Civil Engineering: foundation design, property edge, soil conditions
property edge, soil conditions, foundation design: Hello Dency, For a residencial building you should consider Location of footing, Bearing capacity, moments transferred etc. Size of the footing is straight forward i.e. load divided by Bearing capacity, but the shape may be sometimes tricky. Such as if...

Civil Engineering: foundations, raft foundation, geotechnical consultant
raft foundation, geotechnical consultant, graduate engineer: Sir, We usually do not place a raft foundation, which is classified as shallow foundation at such depths! At any rate, wherever you want to place the raft, the bearing capacity of the soil, which is usually reported and recommended by the Geotechnical...

Civil Engineering: foundations, reinforced concrete design, design textbook
reinforced concrete design, design textbook, soil capacity: Dear Said, First, you need to find the resultant load and location by summing moment at, say, one of the edges of the foundation. To do this, assume a length. Having located the resultant load, based on the soil capacity, you can determine the required...

Civil Engineering: General engineering, tunnel boring machine, silty sand
tunnel boring machine, silty sand, liquid limit: Tim, I think you re sunk. Godfrey s on to you, and it probably isn t long before the others wise up as well. Regarding your sweet tunnel job... I suggest that you try something like, I d appreciate it if you didn t ask too much about it, as we hit a...

Civil Engineering: General questions, entry level salaries, civil engineer
entry level salaries, civil engineer, jobs for civil engineers: Hi Brendan-- Here are some answers to your questions: 1. & 2. A bachelor s degree (typically 4 years of college) is required to be a civil engineer. Many people also get a master s degree (1-2 more years) in addition to the bachelor s degree. 3....

Civil Engineering: General, structural engineer, reinforced concrete
structural engineer, reinforced concrete, mr khan: Hi Jarkas, Your question is very difficult to answer as there are so many variables. Basically, whether one uses a UDL load for machines or works out exactly the load distribution depends on the relative sizes of the machines and floor panels, and also...

Civil Engineering: Geotechnia, different types of soils, soil mechanics
different types of soils, soil mechanics, effects of earthquakes: Hi Pablo, Geotechnical engineering is the application of soil mechanics to practical problems, such as slope stabilization, erosion control, foundation designs, tunnels excavations/support systems, etc. Basically you will learn how different types of...

Civil Engineering: Good afternoon! My name is..., biology chemistry, science side
biology chemistry, science side, civil engineer: Hi Adam-- Being a civil engineer can be lots of fun, so I encourage you to continue to study hard so that you can some day become one! In high school you ll want to take as many math and science classes as you can. That means Algebra, Geometry, even Calculus...

Civil Engineering: Good engineering colleges, high school math, ap calculus
high school math, ap calculus, engineering colleges: Hi Mike-- Glad to hear that you may be interested in a career in engineering! There are many colleges with good engineering programs (dozens), so I can t list them all here. I suggest you look at rankings in publications such as U.S. News & World Report...

Civil Engineering: Grading Unpaved Roads, dot employee, gravel road
dot employee, gravel road, foot drop: Hi Allen-- Interesting question. I m having to infer from your question that the problem you re trying to solve is the frequency of grading / addition of crusher run that ends up being necessitated by ruts and the hairpin turns. Let me know if I ve...

Civil Engineering: geometry in real life, circular shapes, point of intersection
circular shapes, point of intersection, geometry in real life: The best shapes that can uniformly distribute forces and stresses in all directions are circles and spheres. Other shapes will have more stresses in one direction than the other direction and this is less economic and waste. Beside stress is more concentrated...

Civil Engineering: geometry, applications of geometry, structural engineers
applications of geometry, structural engineers, simple search: Hello Kaustav, Geometry is used very frequently in all fields of civil engineering. e.g. to find the shortest span across the river for the bridge, to get an unknown dimension in a building plan, simple geometrical application in resolving the forces in...

Civil Engineering: good career choice?, career choice, business managers
career choice, business managers, civil engineering: Hi Grant, Yes, you can make good money, but probably later in your career. It is not as well paying as doctors, lawyers and business managers, etc, but is veru satisfying as you can point to your children and say I built that!! Hope that helps! ...

Civil Engineering: how do i do such as good engineer?, best bet, engineering student
best bet, engineering student, best of luck: Hello-- There is no one best job in civil engineering. It really depends on what you like to do, and what s important to you (salary, stability, variety, location, etc.). Your best bet is to do well in your classes, so that you keep your options open....

Civil Engineering: ground settling, drainage pipes, sanitary sewers
drainage pipes, sanitary sewers, storm sewers: Yours is not an uncommon problem, and could be the result of many things. The most likely seems to be buried construction debris and/or poorly compaceted soil. If there are storm sewers, sanitary sewers, or other drainage pipes in the area (tip: look for...

Civil Engineering: ground settling, testing labs, compaction
testing labs, compaction, gravel: Hi Alan, It is very difficult to give advice about ground problems without physically inspecting it. However, there are ways of determining in-situ ground density and compaction (soils testing labs can do this) and to check susceptibility to future settlement,...

Civil Engineering: H-Beam cantilever, jack posts, h beam
jack posts, h beam, hi bob: Hi Bob, Unfortunately, I need more info about the section size before I can work out the load carrying capacity. I need to know the width of the flanges and the thickness of the the flanges and the web (the vertical part of the I-section). I need the grade...

Civil Engineering: HELP!!!- Bridges Research, span bridges, different types of bridges
span bridges, different types of bridges, types of bridges: Hi Samantha, I would suggest you look at following aspscts: 1. Diferent materials used- e.g. steel, timber, concrete, composite (steel + concrete). 2. Different types of bridges, e.g. simple beam, truss, arch, suspension, post-tensioned, cable-stayed,...

Civil Engineering: Help with the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation, bernoulli equation, suitable boundary conditions
bernoulli equation, suitable boundary conditions, moment of inertia: Hello Tsuyoshi, You can derive deflection directly using the Euler Bernoulli equation. Solution of the beam can start with EI d4y/dx4=-w(x), if moment of inertia and E is constant. then by putting suitable boundary conditions one can derive deflections....

Civil Engineering: Help required, rcc website, research engineers
rcc website, research engineers, engineering student: Hi santosh, Go to the Research engineers website which has a lot of data on STAAD. You can visit the RCC website to get info on design and analysis. See below: www.reiusa.com www.concretecentre.com/main.asp?page=290 www.structural-engineering.fsnet.co.uk/rcc.htm...

Civil Engineering: Help!, geography class, fish life
geography class, fish life, canalization: Hi Margarita, I am not an expert on canals, but from what I know, canalisation is man-made profiling of the river cross-section and helps with controlling the erosion of the riverbed to ensure a long life and smooth flow of water, especially during floods....

Civil Engineering: High school essay questions, physics and chemistry, engineer training
physics and chemistry, engineer training, advance classes: Hi Nathan, These are far too many questions for me, but: Well, it s a very exciting and fullfilling career, but not as highly-paid as other professions such as doctors, lawyers and accountants. (but who d want to be that, eh?). I have been asked similar...

Civil Engineering: HONEY-COMBING, international safety standards, honey comb
international safety standards, honey comb, thumb rule: Dear Anika, Your problem is indeed a simple one! Just expose the affected area and refill with epoxy based material having a higher compressive strength of the existing concrete. As for the safety limit, I m not sure that such a criterion does exist!...

Civil Engineering: Home based work for BE Civil Er reg., engineerig, ramkumar
engineerig, ramkumar, home based work: Dear Ramkumar, As you have indicated, you re working for the Tender Dept. If I understood you correctly, you can certainly do that from home. Other services could also be done from home such as, consultancy work, quantity take-off, specifications writing,...

Civil Engineering: Honey Combing In Concrete, honey comb, member size
honey comb, member size, remedial measures: Hi Suman, Honeycombing to a depth of 25mm is not very serious so you can simply grout this up and the column can be serviceable. You can do this bu applyng cement sand grout incorporating a bonding agent. Hope that helps! Kind regards, Arsha...

Civil Engineering: Horizontal cracks in concrete blockwork, hollow concrete blocks, horizontal cracks
hollow concrete blocks, horizontal cracks, mesh reinforcement: Hi Amjad, Horizontal cracks may be due to either because of blocks sliding or only plaster cracks. If is certain that it is because of concrete block that smells trouble. I suggest to use local engineer and get it inspected thoroughly before proceeding...

Civil Engineering: Hurricanes/Storms, us coastline, fusion reactor
us coastline, fusion reactor, futuristic ideas: This is outside my area of direct expertise, but I seriously doubt that the giant baffle idea is practical. (As an aside, it sounds like something that would come out of Popular Science , which tends to promote futuristic ideas without much regard to their...

Civil Engineering: Hydraulic cosiderations, tree logs, flood conditions
tree logs, flood conditions, water way: Hi Adeel, The main considerations are of course hydraulic loading during flood conditions, as well as debris impact (tree logs, etc), ship impact and scouring. Here is a good website which gives details: http://www.vaw.ethz.ch/hy/research/flow_feature_piers/flow_feature_piers.htm...

Civil Engineering: hello, oakmont high school, ucalgary ca
oakmont high school, ucalgary ca, physics and chemistry: Hi Chris, I am often asked such questions, so if you do not mind, i will cut and past a Q&A session which may answer all your questions. If not, do contact me again: ************************************* Well, it s a very exciting and fullfilling...

Civil Engineering: hollow concrete block, factors of safety, concrete block
factors of safety, concrete block, density: Hi Harkesh, You get the density either from the manufacturer s brochure or by weighing the units. The design load is worked out by calculating the lengths or heights of the blocks per m2 or per m height and then applying the usual factors of safety. ...

Civil Engineering: honeycombing in concrete, cement grout, bonding agents
cement grout, bonding agents, soom: Hi Prabhat, This depends on the location and extent. Usually, most honeycombing, if it is just within 10-30mm of the surface, can be trated with sand-cement grout, soom after formwork striking. If it is extensive, so that either rebar bond or corrosion...

Civil Engineering: International jobs, paducah kentucky, fairfield university
paducah kentucky, fairfield university, math degree: Hi Isabelle-- I appreciate your worry, and admire your desire to help your son. A couple of thoughts: 1. Just to get it out of the way: it s always a bit of a warning flag when a parent tries to help/direct the career of an adult child. You re just...

Civil Engineering: Interview, construction engineering management, technical consultations
construction engineering management, technical consultations, california san diego: Dear Izell, Please find the answers to your questions below: 1. What engineering discipline did you graduate in? Civil Engineering 2. To what extent do the knowledge and principles of that discipline apply towards your current job? To a very high...

Civil Engineering: how to improve the great wall of china, great wall of china, modern tools
great wall of china, modern tools, wall of china: Hi Kenny, This is an interesting question, but I would like to know what you mean by improve the wall. For example, you could make it much thinner by using reinforced concrete, but then perhaps that will not permit horses to run up and down along it...

Civil Engineering: inclines, grassy knoll, side of a right triangle
grassy knoll, side of a right triangle, luck jim: Sorry, I don t understand the question. What do you mean work out a degree of inclination ? If you re simply trying to calculate the geometry, you can take the height of the knoll as one side of a right triangle, the distance (horizontal distance from...

Civil Engineering: integral calculus, integral calculus, plate theories
integral calculus, plate theories, wave propagation: Hello John, Integral calculus is widely used in civil engineering. It is a very useful mathematical function used to solve unknowns e.g. deflection of the members(Beam etc), slope of the deflected member, bending moments in it. It is also used to solve...

Civil Engineering: interview., trigg county high school, ucalgary ca
trigg county high school, ucalgary ca, physics and chemistry: Hey, Brittany!!!! Well, it s a very exciting and fullfilling career, but not as highly-paid as other professions such as doctors, lawyers and accountants. (but who d want to be that, eh?). I have been asked similar questions before, so if you do not...

Civil Engineering: Job Question, physics and chemistry, engineer training
physics and chemistry, engineer training, starting salaries: Hi Josh, I have had similar questions before, so if you do not mind I will cut & paste a Q&A section which should give you many answers to your questions: **************************** Regarding salary levels, these can vary enormously depending on...

Civil Engineering: jobs, john lucht, civil structural engineering
john lucht, civil structural engineering, magic answer: Well the bad news is that there s no magic answer I can give you. Finding a rewarding job is hard work, and there is an element of luck involved. The good news is that hard work and perseverance are usually rewarded, since many people give up without...

Civil Engineering: Load bearing, ground water table, plate bearing test
ground water table, plate bearing test, nearby trees: Hi Conor, Yes, you can either get a proper in-situ plate bearing test carried out by a suitable laboratory, or you can improvise and do your own test as follows: 1. Dig down to the strata that you wish to put a foundation on, say a 50X50 cm pit, as...

Civil Engineering: Load weight question: Deck, load test, 8x8
load test, 8x8, joists: Hi Matt, I had replied earlier, but seems it did not get to you. I regret I cannot design over this forum for insurance plus other reasons. However, timber is easy to check for design capacity by doing a simple load test. Just put some drums or jerry...

Civil Engineering: lifting heavy weight, sikorsky helicopter, millington central high school
sikorsky helicopter, millington central high school, construction sections: Hi Jeff, This is not really my expertise, but I did some research for you and it appaers that a Sikorsky S-6AF can lift up to 11,000 kg. This I assume is at sea-level, as capacity reduces with altitude. Hope this helps! Kind regards, Arsha...

Civil Engineering: Maintenance, road barriers, structure maintenance
road barriers, structure maintenance, dorsetforyou: Hi Idahor, Basically, it relates to regular inspections and remedial work on items that have sufferred from wear and tear (e.g. say read surface), physical knocking (e.g. road barriers, bridge soffits and parapets, columns in car parks), buildings cladding,...