About Experts Sitemap - Group 25 - Page 8 2014-12-16

Geology: petroleum geology
Faizan, Again read the book by I.B. Kadri and also the different Proceedings of PAPG-SPE ATC s and you will find the answers. There is only one main function of a trap; just to trap the hydrocarbons. In my view the chances for finding a giant hydrocarbon...

Geology: petroleum geology
Dear Mr.Faizan, Thanks for your question, You can find the answer for your question in the following link. http://www.pe.tamu.edu/blasingame/data/z_zCourse_Archive/P324_03A/Lecture_Refs_(pdf)/P324_Mod1_01_Nelson_(Log_Analyst_May_June_1994).pdf Definitely...

Geology: Petrophysics
Dear Azeem Khan, Thanks for showing your interest in Dhulian data. Pakistan Oilfields Limited (POL) is the operator of Dhulian oilfield and holds 100% working interest. My paper about Dhulian was published in 1998 when I was working as Exploration Geologist...

Geology: Petrophysics
Azeem, I have no any information about the petrophysical properties of the Chorgali formation. If there are no other open-hole logs then you have no choice but to use the NEUT, but you need to look into the corrections which are necessary in case of...

Geology: Petrophysics
Dear Azeem Thanks a lot for sending me your question. First of all you have to realize that first well in Dhulian field was drilled in 1918 and first oil producing well was found in 1936 from well Dhulian 5. During that time the names of the formations...

Geology: requesting internship for geotechnology
Dear Madam, Goodmorning and Fraternal Greetings! Thankyou very much for your question. In fact I could not understand exactly what you want. we are not offering any internship in our organisation. for that you should contact any underground mines/openings/caverns...

Geology: ROCK IN A ROCK
Hi Wayne, You have a concretion. Concretions are hard bodies that form in sediments. As they lithify into sedimentary rocks chemical changes that may be due to microbial activity, cause minerals to precipitate out of the surrounding groundwater and cement...

Geology: Structural Geology
Dear Arslan, Thank you very much for sending me this question. My answer is as follows; The Salt Range (SR) is a major structural element in the northern Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhawa provinces of Pakistan. SR is an active frontal thrust zone of...

Geology: what is structure of missa keswal area ?
Muhammad, This is a classified information and the oil and gas companies do not make it public, unless a field is a subject of a published paper. Go through the different volumes of the PAPG-SPE ATC Proceedings. You may be able to find answer, not only...

Geology: Total in-ground global gold reserves?
Hi Amir, According to the United States Geological Survey there s about 51,000 metric tons of gold in reserve (still in the ground, and proven to exist). See; http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/gold/mcs-2011-gold.pdf Or visit the USGS...

Geology: Well Logging
Dear Nohman Khan, Thank you very much for sending me this question. All the names of open hole logs you have mentioned in your question are for determining the rock properties of the wellbore to find the zones of oil and gas bearing. These logs do...

Geology: Well Logging
Dear Nohman, Thanks for sending me your question. To determine the shale and sandstone base line you have to mark with lead pencil in between GR log where GR reads highest (inside Shale) and the lowest (inside sandstone or carbonate) and draw two average...

Geology: career in exploration geophysics, soil engineer, soil science
soil engineer, soil science, basin analysis: Dear Ifeanyi, No worries! You should have motivation and courage to take the subject. It is a very interesting field. If you are a soil engineer, you could effectively pursue the exploration geophysics degree. In principle it is about physics. So, go...

Geology: Career planning; geology or environmental geology?, gas exploration industry, petroleum geoscience
gas exploration industry, petroleum geoscience, petroleum geology: Dear Jojie, Thanks for sending me your question. I sincerely appreciate your willingness to work for oil and gas exploration industry. I would suggest to implement your career plan with two prong strategy. Firstly, try to get an entry level job position...

Geology: Coal as Source Rocks, coal, source of oil
coal, source of oil: Saeed, The source of Coal is mainly plants etc, hence oil is not possible. You may be aware that the source rock for gas is Type III source material which it self results from plants. I am not aware if anywhere the oil is extracted from coal. But at the...

Geology: economic geology, economic geology, united states geological survey
economic geology, united states geological survey, eastern russia: I have never worked in these Mountains;however, I have worked in eastern Russia and Mongolia. I looked on the internet and found a number of articles listed in the below link: http://connection.ebscohost.com/tag/MINERAL%2Bindustries If it were me I...

Geology: Engineering geoloy, geotechnical investigations, engineering geology
geotechnical investigations, engineering geology, construction stage: Between identification of a Dam Site and construction there is a long chain of geological-geotechnical investigations consisting of : (1) Identification stage (2) PFR Stage (3) FR Stage and (4) DPR Stage (5) Construction Stage (6) Post-Construction...

Geology: Filling, pir mangho, fracture plane
pir mangho, fracture plane, chlorite: Dear Hasan, Thanks for sending me your question. naturally occurring rocks are subjected to stresses which produced fractures of varying magnitude and dimensions. Fault is a large fracture plane varying in size and area from few yards to several tens...

Geology: general geology(i think), ground waves, crustal plates
ground waves, crustal plates, outer shell: Hi Itamar, Interesting question. It turns out that the surface of the Earth (the Crust) does indeed change shape. But, perhaps, not as you might imagine. Earthquakes can cause ground waves that look much like the waves on water, they can also push...

Geology: Geoinformatics, geographical information systems, image tape
geographical information systems, image tape, country nigeria: Zee: Geoinformatics is also called GIS, or geographical information systems. It includes cartography, remote sensing, computer mapping, photogrammetry, spacial mapping and relational data bases. I studied Remote sensing in grad school and did work in...

Geology: geology, petroleum geology, universities in pakistan
petroleum geology, universities in pakistan, petroleum engineering: Sultan, Quite a few universities in Pakistan offer petroleum geology , like Punjab Univ, Sindh Univ, Bahria Univ. etc. For you the best option would be the Punjab Univ., Lahore. Yes, you can also apply for petroleum engineering. Check at the NED Univ.,...

Geology: geology of potowar basin pakistan, thrust faults, appalachian mts
thrust faults, appalachian mts, normal faults: AFtab: The most obvious cause is post depositional compression, either before or after lithification. Reverse or thrust faults are compressional, normal faults are due to tensional forces. The basement rocks were faulted, then deposition occured and...

Geology: Geology of Sawan area, geothermal gradient, gondwana land
geothermal gradient, gondwana land, indus basin: Dear Feroz, Thanks for sending me your question. This answer takes some time to compile the proper text as it needs citation of books and papers. GEOLOGICAL SETTING OF THE SAWAN AREA IN THE MIDDLE INDUS BASIN The Sawan gas field is located in the...

Geology: Geology of Sawan area, Sawan, Miano gas field
Sawan, Miano gas field: Feroz, Following papers will be useful for you. Miano Field, Pakistan, A Case History Of Model Driven Exploration, by 1. Peter Krois 2. Tariq Mahmood 3. Gerhard Milan 1998 ATC Proceedings Sequence stratigraphy as predictive tool in...

Geology: Hydrocarbon traps from OIl FIelds in PAkistan, Type of traps
Type of traps: Maya, In Kohat-Potwar area (Upper Indus) we mainly have structural traps. Fault-bounded pop-up structures are common in the eastern Potwar (like Adhi). Fault-bounded with dip closure on three sides are encountered towards west. In Middle Indus region...

Geology: kind of rock?, septarian nodule, sedimentary layers
septarian nodule, sedimentary layers, laden water: Hi Teresa, Without a picture it really is impossible to reliably identify your rock. Also, you don t mention where you found it or how large it is, though I suspect it s at least fist sized since you mention your husband removes rocks that can damage his...

Geology: Lithostratigraphy, Lithostratigraphy, Biostratigraphy
Lithostratigraphy, Biostratigraphy: Abdulraheem, The pre-requisites for hydrocarbon entrapment are source, reservoir, seal, trap and the time of generation of hydrocarbons. Now the three main ones are source, reservoir and seal. Source has to be rock rich in preserved organic matter (mainly...

Geology: msc study, king fahad, utp malaysia
king fahad, utp malaysia, masters program: Dear Ismail, Thanks for sending me your question and interest in Petroleum Geosciences. I am not a university expert but I can tell you with my experience that universities are also being recognized by their date of establishment. More often, if not...

Geology: Need details about Geoinformatics Study and job description., geographical information systems, outdoor job
geographical information systems, outdoor job, interest thanks: Ashish: Sadly no. Geoinformatics is just another term for Geographical Information Systems, or GIS. The typical GIS professional sits in front of a computer terminal entering or analyzing data, generating maps and such activities. Not much opportunity...

Geology: Petreoleum traps from OIl FIelds in PAkistan, petroleum geology, type traps
petroleum geology, type traps, indus basin: Dear Ayesha, Pakistan Indus basin has drilled through mainly in structural traps in upper and lower Indus basin. Punjab platform and Offshore indus basin are favourable sites for stratigraphic traps. Rest plz check the Petroleum Geology of Pakistan for...

Geology: PhD, PhD
PhD: Dear Amjad I am currently a PhD student of economic geology at Shiraz university and I am thinking of continuing my studies abroad in Europe or America. Because of the international economic sanctions on Iran, the universities in Iran are poorly equipped...

Geology: About PPL training, petroleum company training and schedule
petroleum company training and schedule: Dear Zaid, Thanks for sending me your question. This subject is not my hard core expertise any way. I am not aware about the details of the training program for trainees but I can answer you by giving an overall scenario based on my observations and...

Geology: Rock identification, iron sulphide, plausible answer
iron sulphide, plausible answer, arsenopyrite: It appers to be an aggregate of pyrite/marcasite - iron sulphide minerals. (from the pics the colour looks brass yellow and lusture as metallic?) If the colour is silvery white, the mineral could be arsenopyrite? pl. provide more info like Colour, Lusture,...

Geology: Sedimentology, Sedimentary structures, origin
Sedimentary structures, origin: Aosaf, As per definition the sedimentary structures are those structures, which are formed during sediment deposition. The main sedimentary structures are cross-bedding, ripple-marks, mud-cracks, graded-bedding, concretions, nodules, bio-turbation etc....

Geology: seimic stratigraphy, global sea level, sea level changes
global sea level, sea level changes, sequence stratigraphy: Samar, The most important part of seismic and sequence stratigraphy is that it takes care of the shape of the geometry of the depositionalt rough/basin and the local and global sea-level changes. This dynamism causes the change in depositional environments...

Geology: Shiny, champagne rocks, mineral material, bottom of the river
mineral material, bottom of the river, quality grade: Hi Megan, Looks like you have a piece of mica. That s a mineral made up of different elements combined with silica and oxygen. It has perfect cleavage which means it can split into thinner and thinner pieces. They can get so thin you can see through them....

Geology: silver shiny rock, rock specimens, fraternal greetings
rock specimens, fraternal greetings, shiny rock: Dear Jovanni Torres, Goodmorning and Fraternal Greetings! I have seen the image which you have sent. It is very difficult to understand or guess the specimen without seeing with naked eye. However it looks like Galena (Pbs) in one angle, but we can t conclude...

Geology: Strange, Silvery mirror-ish rock, meteorite facts, mortar cement
meteorite facts, mortar cement, uky edu: Hi Kobe, There are many kinds of silver minerals and it is difficult to tell one from another by just a picture. But I think I can tell what you have there. It looks like a metallic slag. That s the waste product left over after the smelting process. ...

Geology: stratigraphy of Kohat sub basin, Kohar sub-basin
Kohar sub-basin: Ehsan, Meissner (1974) is right. Following papers will provide you the desired information. Stratigraphy & Tectonic Architecture Of The North Western Part Of The Kohat Basin, NWFP, Pakistan 1. Amjad Ali Khan 2. Muhammad Najeeb-Uz-Zaman PAPG/SPE...

Geology: Stratigraphy of Miano Area, Kadanwari, Tajjal
Kadanwari, Tajjal: Ali, You better read all the volumes of ATC Proceedings. Kadanwari discovery is part of the originl Tajjal block. These papers may help. Kandanwari Gas Field, Pakistan; Perseverance Pays 1. Nasir Ahmed 2. Siddique Chaudhry 2001 ATC Porosity prediction...

Geology: structural geology, hinge line, structural geology
hinge line, structural geology, shape pattern: Dear Imran, There is a little difference in this fold than normal anticlines/synclines. By definition these folds have a little different orientation than the actual axial plane. This means that their hinge line is pluging (as dipping) with a certain degrees....

Geology: Structural and stratigraphic traps from OIl FIelds in PAkistan, type traps, crystalline rocks
type traps, crystalline rocks, ogdcl: Dear Maryam, Thanks for sending me your question. Sincere apology for the delay. Answering your question need a lot of time that allows you to appreciate the exact nature of structures and those controlling factors. Oil and gas bearing traps are...

Geology: unconformity of upper indus basin, middle cambrian, sedimentary basins
middle cambrian, sedimentary basins, upper burma: Dear Talha, Thanks for sending me your brilliant question. In the Central part of the Indian plate which covers area from central India and majority of the Pakistani sedimentary basins(e.g complete Indus basin)has no record of about 210 million years...

Geology: asking about thesis and internship field or subject, university of sindh, university of sindh jamshoro
university of sindh, university of sindh jamshoro, internship field: Dear Abdullah, I come across to similar questions many times. All the times, I have been saying that please choose the directions in which you have more interest compared to others. Also, evaluate your skills in those paths. If you think that at present...

Geology: Assalam o alaikum, Geophysics and Geology
Geophysics and Geology: Usama, Walaikassalam It is good that you are pursuing Geophysics. A Geologist s job is to find places where the requisites of a petroleum system exist. Based on surface geology he/she may locate places to drill wells. However, to ensure that the structures...

Geology: bed rock of shukkur, engineering geology, stratigraphic section
engineering geology, stratigraphic section, sukkur: Atif, There is a hill in Sukkur where Kithar limestone or Habib Rahi limestone crops out. And at Qadirpur field near Kandhkot the entire stratigraphic section as exposed in Sulaiman Lobe area has been drilled. You can expect the same in Sukkur. Regarding...

Geology: CAREER, kuwait petroleum corporation, ras al khaima
kuwait petroleum corporation, ras al khaima, national oil company: Dear Haider, Thanks for sending me your question Very briefly I can answer about each country s potential for career in geology; UAE, Bahrain and Kuwait, The most potential in these countries are in petroleum sector and you can work as exploration...

Geology: Career on petroleum geology, petroleum geology, dear francis
petroleum geology, dear francis, ms level: Dear Francis, Can you please check the program in details. I am not sure what scares you more. I think at MSc level you should not be entering into an under graduate knowledge or basics. So, you must be able to learn it yourself rather than asking your...

Geology: cavitation, limestone bedrock, catastrophic failure
limestone bedrock, catastrophic failure, cavitation: Cavitation: There are several types. Cavitation in the soil, will obviously compromise the integrity of the surface for building, due to its inability to support weight, its suseptibility to collapse and shifting, all can compromise the strength of...

Geology: cavitations, carbonate bedrock, fraternal greetings
carbonate bedrock, fraternal greetings, surface runoff: Dear Samesh, Goodmorning and Fraternal Greetings! Thankyou very much for asking the question and my answer is as follows Where there is a basement, a concrete floor is generally placed on the bottom of the excavation within the confines of the footer...

Geology: Coking Coal And Other Minerals in Pakistan, reko diq, kerman iran
reko diq, kerman iran, dr congo: I can not answer this question with any confidence since I have never worked in the area and have no access to the geology of the area; however, I can tell you that anthracite is not a good coking coal because it does not agglomerate; which is a requirement...

Geology: crystal formation identification, quartz crystals, amethyst crystals
quartz crystals, amethyst crystals, gas bubbles: The picture is blurry but my guess without more through investigation is at the strange rock that you have is a geode. Geodes are geological secondary structures which occur in certain sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Geodes are generally, but not always,...

Geology: engeneering geology, literature survey, geological formations
literature survey, geological formations, wadia: Its a very wide question, pl. consult (1) Geology of India by Wadia, (2) Geology of India and Burma by M.S. Krishnan and (3)A Manual of the Geology of India and Burma, Vol, III, by E.H. Pascoe. For your report you must do some literature survey by this...

Geology: Flower Structure, tectonic regimes, strike slip faults
tectonic regimes, strike slip faults, sedimentary strata: Dear Obaid, Thanks for sending me your question. The flower structures are usually associated in the zones where strike slip faulting deformed the earlier existing structures (fold and syclines) . There are two type of tectonic regimes 1)compressional...

Geology: Geology, Gilgit-Baltistan
Gilgit-Baltistan: Haider, The simple answer is that you apply in mud-logging companies. The E and P companies normally contract out this service but you may also apply to companies like OGDCL. And hope for the best. As I understand Gilgit-Baltistan region dominantly constitutes...

Geology: geology, hydrocarbon reservoirs, rock fractures
hydrocarbon reservoirs, rock fractures, side slides: A fracture is any local separation or discontinuity plane in a geologic formation, such as a joint or a fault that divides the rock into two or more pieces. A fracture will sometimes form a deep fissure or crevice in the rock. Fractures are commonly caused...

Geology: Geology, gravity water, outer diameter
gravity water, outer diameter, water chemistry: Nouman, I am glad you are satisfied with earlier answer to your question. Thanks for good rating to my answer. Answering your this question I have a feeling that you face challenge to take decision. My answer is simple; pursue further studies in geology...

Geology: geology, hydrocarbon accumulation, migration pathways
hydrocarbon accumulation, migration pathways, theises: Dear Mr.Asim, Thanks for your question Petroleum play, or simply a play, is a group of oil fields or prospects in the same region that are controlled by the same set of geological circumstances. A particular stratigraphic or structural geologic setting is...

Geology: about geology modelling, Thin layerd coal deposits
Thin layerd coal deposits: Seyed, I am not an expert in the subject. However, you need to have lithological logs or preferably electric logs across the field. Make geological sections across the coal field in different orientations. You should try your best to correlate the stratigraphicaly...

Geology: geotech, excavation methods, strength parameters
excavation methods, strength parameters, hydrogeological report: Dear Salim, Goodmorning and Fraternal Greetings! This topic is very wide and cant be answered on a piece of paper. However while appreciating your interest I am trying to explain my level best to your question briefly. There are three basic steps to...

Geology: Higher Education, graduate record exam, bs students
graduate record exam, bs students, engineering disasters: Hasan: Its no different here in the states. The Deans of the various schools collude to get students from other departments to take classes in their departments in the guise of helping the students get a more well rounded education. I taught a class...

Geology: What kind of rock is this, rocks minerals, mineral crystals
rocks minerals, mineral crystals, fingernail: Hi Marry, Unfortunately the image came through really blurry. All I can see is that it is a black rock, it has some shiny looking, flatish surfaces, and two white surfaces. Can t tell enough from that to be able to identify it. There are many things it...

Geology: Mineral Potential In Pakistan, Iran, Pakistan
Iran, Pakistan, Paleogeography: Dear Saeed Its a very good question. I will try to give a good answer by putting together what I remember on the subject. Almost all of the porphyry copper deposits of Iran are formed in the Urumiah-Dokhtar magmatic arc of Eocene-Pleistocene age. But...

Geology: mud casting, clam shells, turtle heads
clam shells, turtle heads, ark shell: Stewart: Its kind of difficult to make a determination based on the photos. But I dug around and this link has some similar fossils from Myrtle Beach. So yes, it looks like you have a variety of Turtle fossil remains as well as fish verteba and plates....

Geology: Oil and Gas in Tharprakar, coal bed methane, thermal maturation
coal bed methane, thermal maturation, shale oil: Dear Mr.Saeed, Thanks for your followup. Coal Bed Methane is a gas which is of non conventional type. Both the source rock and reservoir for such type of gas is coal itself. Please see the attached image as reference. Thanks, Kothandapani Manoharan...

Geology: Phosphate Rock Identification And Thickness Measurement, phosphate rocks, phosphate minerals
phosphate rocks, phosphate minerals, phosphate rock: Dear Nouman Qureshi, Goodmorning Please refer my earlier answer that, in Igneous and Metamorphic rocks there won t be any bedding plane and you can t measure Strike and dip, however based on overall trend of the body, joints, foliation we can assess the...

Geology: properties of source rock, source rock
source rock: Zeeshan, Patala shale (Paleocene) in Kohat-Potwar and Sembar shale (Cretaceous) in the remaining Indus Basin are the established source rocks in Pakistan. A source rock must have preserved TOC (1% and above is considered a beginning of a good source rock),...

Geology: rarity/occurrence of mineral, volcanic terrains, volcanic rocks
volcanic terrains, volcanic rocks, forest beach: Yellow jasper is a mineral of volcanic affinity and should be expected in volcanic terrains or in alluvium/colluviums derived from such terrains. Its occurrence in forest, beaches and deserts could only be incidental to such terrains only. Your find...

Geology: Rock/Mineral identification, chemical abstract services, quarry blasts
chemical abstract services, quarry blasts, quartz minerals: Dear Jack It seems to be variety of quartz- Remove weathered portion and scratch with knife-if it may not scartch -it may be mineral of quartz-Note any cleavage planes or partings on it-Generally quartz minerals will not show Prof DVREDDY-Editor in Chief...

Geology: SCIENCE, formation of sedimentary rocks, fraternal greetings
formation of sedimentary rocks, fraternal greetings, metamorphic rocks: Dear Adam, Goodmorning and Fraternal Greetings Granite will become Sedimentary rock by the process of Rock cycle which involves weathering, transportation and deposition. these three processes are mainly responsible for the formation of sedimentary rocks....

Geology: structural Geology, normal faults, fraternal greetings
normal faults, fraternal greetings, earth scientists: Dear Ahmed, Goodmorning and Fraternal Greetings! I am happy to answer your question to the best of my knowledge. the answers are marked 1,2,3 according to your questions as given below. though these questions are thought provoking and bit difficult to...

Geology: Unknown Rock, minerals and rocks, rocks and minerals
minerals and rocks, rocks and minerals, geologist: To identify a rock some info is required like its hardness, streak of its minerals, sp. gravity etc. Most of the time its not possible to identify rocks and minerals from only pics. A geologist normally identifies minerals and rocks from various attributes...

Geology: Unknown rock, luck mike, microscopic analysis
luck mike, microscopic analysis, door handle: Hello Marry It is difficult to identify a rock from a picture. Sort of like identifying a car from a picture of the door handle. Rocks can be identified by things like hardness, texture, density and sometimes microscopic analysis is necessary. It looks...

Geology: 6th graders ask geology questions, geology questions, rocks and minerals
geology questions, rocks and minerals, six pointed star: Hi guys, Good questions. The Star Ruby gets its star from many, many very tiny, very thin minerals called rutile that are inside the ruby. They are called inclusions and that means that the ruby is not pure. Rutile is a titanium mineral that can...

Geology: hydrogeology, parameters, guidance
Geology: hydrogeology, parameters, guidance

Geology: Geology, derrick floor, rig floor
derrick floor, rig floor, floor elevation: Without spending so much time in answering to these fundamental questions, I will suggest that you read the following: http://www.slb.com/~/media/Files/evaluation/books/fundamentals_formation_testing_overview.pdf This is a good manual for you to read....

Geology: geology, gas discoveries, sequence boundaries
gas discoveries, sequence boundaries, well logs: Sana, In Lower Indus Basin the first major discovery was made at Mari from Habib Rahi in 1957, which is the biggest after Sui that was made in 1952. In Badin area the first oil discovery was made at Khaskeli-1 in 1981. Lower Goru sands (Lower Cretaceous)was...

Geology: geology, colleges in bangalore, geology course
colleges in bangalore, geology course, top 10 colleges: Kriti Agrawal You can search for science colleges -where geology teaching in B.Sc Courses Botany-Geology Chemistry also u can take as group search in web list of institutes in your state Related: Required qualification to get admission for geology...

Geology: Geology, american petroleum institute api, american petroleum institute
american petroleum institute api, american petroleum institute, indiana limestone: Dear Tariq, Thanks for sending me your question. A little bit of background about calibration; all logging tools are calibrated against a fixed and known value either its radioactivety, Neutron or density to record logs with precision. Limestone ...

Geology: Geology, Badin, petroleum system
Badin, petroleum system: Adeel, The best thing for you is to get hold of PAPG-SPE ATC Proceedings for different years. You will find many papers on Badin area with stratigraphic column. However, the source rock in Badin area is Sembar (mainly Cretaceous) and the reservoirs are...

Geology: Hydrocarbon Exploration Using Sedimentology, petroleum reservoirs, hydrocarbon exploration
petroleum reservoirs, hydrocarbon exploration, sedimentary petrology: Mr. Qureshi: I am not sure if you strictly mean sedimentology or also include sedimentary petrology and also stratigraphy. If you are limited to sedimentology you could look at modern analogs of hydrocarbon bearing reservoir rocks. By this, I mena you...

Geology: Hydrogeology, hydrogeological conditions, resistivity data
hydrogeological conditions, resistivity data, nowshera: Dear Mr. Muhammad Kashif Thanks for your question, For a sequence of n horizontal, homogeneous and isotropic layers of resistivity ρi and thickness hi , the DZ parameters (longitudinal conductance S and transverse resistance T) are defined respectively:...

Geology: Hydrogeology, saline water, fraternal greetings
saline water, fraternal greetings, resistivity data: Dear Asiya, Goodmorning and Fraternal Greetings! while thanking for asking the question, my answer is as follows Dar-Zarrouk (D-Z) parameters provide a useful and confident solution in delineating the saline and fresh water aquifers i.e. The significance...

Geology: hydrogeology, permiability, structural geology
permiability, structural geology, resistivity data: Asiya: Here is a paper that deals directly with your problem. It explains how to calculate the values. http://www.medwelljournals.com/fulltext/?doi=ojesci.2010.19.26 Anisotrophy defines the directional dependence of something. So you war looking...

Geology: hydrogeology, andhra pradesh india, applied geophysics
andhra pradesh india, applied geophysics, water pockets: Dear Asia Thanks for your question, Sorry for the delay as i was in field work and unable to get access to my PC. Calculation of Dar Zarrouk parameters: For a sequence of n horizontal, homogeneous and isotropic layers of resistivity ρi and thickness...

Geology: Interpretation of geological strata, geological strata, thick bed
geological strata, thick bed, shenendoah: Vernon: It is kind of difficult looking at the pictures, to determine exactly what the lithology type the rocks are. Not being able to walk the outcrop also limits what I can surmise, but I will make a stab at it. Not having a scale ini the picture also...

Geology: what kind of rock is this?, web page images, blinn edu
web page images, blinn edu, geology department: Hi Kimmi, This is a good picture. It looks like a mineral cluster to me. The mineral appears tabular (you can see the edges of each crystal). It s mostly dark colored but the lower section looks glassy. Unfortunately there are a lot of tabular, glassy...

Geology: muscle, shale rocks, calcium carbonate
shale rocks, calcium carbonate, mt ida arkansas: Danny: First off, the term is mussel, not muscle. You don t say what formation you collected it from in the Ida area. It could be from either Mississippian or Pennsylvanian aged shale rocks. If you found it weathered out of the rocks and did not have...

Geology: Obsidian in Lake Charlevoix, lake charlevoix, prehistoric native americans
lake charlevoix, prehistoric native americans, conchoidal fracture: Hi Jeff, It would be unlikely to find obsidian here in Michigan. I have received other questions about obsidian in Michigan and it s enough to make me wonder. My researches still haven t come up with any obsidian deposits in Michigan. But that doesn t...

Geology: petrified egg, national institute of technology surathkal, rocks minerals
national institute of technology surathkal, rocks minerals, petrified egg: LINDA First confirm petrified eggs-its geological age-dating of it is requires Now several expertise available for dating of rocks-minerals etc We cannot confirm for black rings-it may be due weathering Kindly consult the -experts Prof DVREDDY Dr D.Venkat...

Geology: petroleum geology, porosity and permeability, public domain literature
porosity and permeability, public domain literature, petroleum geology: Dear Mutahir, Thanks for sending me your question. I really appreciate it. In order to meet your studies objective I would suggest you; first try to find information about petroleum system of Lower Indus Basin (LIB) through published papers and books....

Geology: petroleum geology ( traps , downstream and upstream activities of petroleum), upstream, downstream
upstream, downstream, oil: Maham, Please read my previous response again. I have mentioned about the regions in Pakistan with reference to the tectonic regime. I inadvertently left out the last part. The upstream deals with finding the oil and gas, while downstream are those who...

Geology: What is this rock?, muric acid, ancestry com
muric acid, ancestry com, www google com: This rock/bolder appears to be a piece of highly weather limestone; see the below picture links of weathered limestone(for whatever reason I could not copy and paste). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Weathering_Limestone_State_College_PA.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/chucksutherland/754972111/in//...

Geology: rock, quartz group, fraternal greetings
quartz group, fraternal greetings, goodmorning: Dear Mr Danny, Goodmorning and Fraternal Greetings! The specimen you are showing is not clear,it is very difficult for me to identify in a small image, however I can guess it is a rock or stone. Always make it a point that rock is an aggregate of minerals,...

Geology: Seal rock, seals, southern Sulaiman Range
seals, southern Sulaiman Range: Ali, For Lower Goru, the regional seal is Upper Goru. For Pab, it is Ranikot shale and the overlying Dungan itself is a very tight limestone. For SML it is Ghazij shale. For Habib Rahi, it is Domanda shale. You should get hold of PAPG-SPE ATC...

Geology: Size of river rock formula, fluid flow dynamics, quartz grains
fluid flow dynamics, quartz grains, shear velocity: Stacie: There are a number or formualas. The first that came to mind was the Rouse equation, which only defines HOW a sediment will be transported, not how far. It uses a combination of data: The settling velocity (the speed at which the sediment...

Geology: stone, silicate minerals, aluminum ore
silicate minerals, aluminum ore, extracting aluminum: I looked at the attachments and I cannot provide you any more information beyond what I have already provided. I think you will need to provide a sample to a processor and have them tell you what it would cost to extract the aluminum into a usable ore...

Geology: structure geology and well logging, convection currents, oil gas water
convection currents, oil gas water, density curve: Khalil, It was clear in my response that the currents either rotate cloc- wise or anti clockwise. So depending upon that they may come together or pull apart. It is rather a combination of clockwise or anti-clockwise rotation of the convection currents that...

Geology: sub surface maping, petroleum geology, sedimentation rate
petroleum geology, sedimentation rate, petroleum industry: Dear Abdullah, Nice to hear from you. Isopach maps are a routine practices of the petroleum industry. We create such maps to understand depositional area, depocenters, sedimentation rate (qualitative), reservoir thickness etc. In terms of opportunities,...

Geology: traps ( compressional, extensional , transtentional and transpressional), sulaiman range, collision zones
sulaiman range, collision zones, southern pakistan: Dear Maham, I am glad to know that you know how these structures are formed. The compressional structures are usually associated with collision zones such as areas which are affected by Himalaya orogeny tectonics(Northern part of Pakistan, Murree and...

Geology: What type of rock do I have?, nitk surathkal, brownish gray color
nitk surathkal, brownish gray color, journal of earth sciences: Dear Samantha This rock due to weathering conditions became rounded-They collected rocks from the field-It is not source originally where rock was existed You can try to test rock your self-first wash rock with water removed -covered dust Rock identification...

Geology: understanding sediment data, sediment data, stream sediment
sediment data, stream sediment, sediment samples: I am not personally familiar with the procedures from the NURE sampling program; however, I was able to find at: http://www.dggs.alaska.gov/webpubs/usgs/of/text/of88-0240.pdf the following description. Each rock was analyzed for 31 elements using semiquantitative...

Geology: Unusual Rock, symmetrical shape, type locality
symmetrical shape, type locality, flower petal: Hi Raedel, What you have there is Hexagonaria percarinata, or more conventionally known as Petoskey Stone. It s a fossil coral that was alive 350,000,000 years ago. It s probably from the west coast of Michigan, that s the type locality; Petoskey Michigan....

Geology: the usual ??, streams and rivers, fraternal greetings
streams and rivers, fraternal greetings, carbon atoms: Dear Wormi, Goodmorning and Fraternal Greetings! Diamonds are available in different geological terrains, for example Kimberlite areas, placer deposits and also alluvial deposits A Diamond is formed when extreme heat (temperatures of 2200 degrees Fahrenheit)...

Geology: Chromite detection with Magnetic Survey, gravity surveys, magnetic surveys
gravity surveys, magnetic surveys, magnetic survey: No sir. We can very rarely detect chromite ore by magnetic surveys directly. It is useful only as an indirect tool. On the other hand Gravity surveys are very diagnostic in this regard. Expert *************************************************************************************...

Geology: Chromite detection using Magnetic Survey, magnetic detection, magnetic survey
magnetic detection, magnetic survey, magnetic attraction: I am not personally familiar with chromite magnetic detection; however, I was able to find this article on the internet: http://pra.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v57/i5/pR3173_1 I would suspect that the iron attached to the chromium in the mineral (compound)...

Geology: cross sections intrepretation, petroleum world, target area
petroleum world, target area, dip direction: Ahmed: If by axial surface you mean the strike plane, yes it does. The axial surface will depict the true vertical depths to the horizon surfaces on the cross section. Any cross section drawn at arbitrary angles to any structure will be subject to changing...

Geology: Earthquakes, national institute of technology surathkal, field geologist
national institute of technology surathkal, field geologist, engineering geologist: Dear Sir U can get all details from seismology books -related P-S-L waves u can refer directly from web u will get more in puts U can note my book -published chapter on earthquakes Prof DVREDDY-EDiytor in Chief IJEE Engineering Geology by D.Venkat Reddy,...

Geology: Impact event, satellite views, further study
Geology: Impact event, satellite views, further study, herschel

Geology: gemstones, geological society of india, gemmologists
geological society of india, gemmologists, geological process: Dear Mohammed U can get books ettc Geological Society of India Gemstones -books are published send mail to jgsi.journl@gmail.com Gemstones identification done by gemmologists-for qualty assessement required techinoiques gemstone formed in geological process-few...

Geology: Geo-technical/rock mechanics, rock mass characterization, velocity measurement
rock mass characterization, velocity measurement, rock weathering: Dear Zaheer, Goodafternoon and Fraternal greetings! Thank you for your question and my answer is as follows P-wave velocity test that can be carried out both in the laboratory and on-site is a common non-destructive testing method used in civil, geotechnical...

Geology: geology, shale formations, hydrogen ions
shale formations, hydrogen ions, petroleum geology: Dear Usman Khan, Thanks for your questions. Q) what are the best critries of oil trap.........? Answer) you mean criteria? 3 types of traps for petroleum are known a) Structural trap such as folds or fault bounded anticlines or simply fault bounded...

Geology: geology, stable isotope geochemistry, radiogenic isotope geochemistry
stable isotope geochemistry, radiogenic isotope geochemistry, mass spectrometers: Dear Neal Thanks for your question. Principle of Stable isotope geochemistry is that the study is based upon study of the relative and absolute concentrations of the elements and their isotopes in the Earth. Variations in the abundance of these isotopes,is...

Geology: gray rock with holes, gas pockets, gas leaks
gas pockets, gas leaks, sierra nevadas: Hi again Jenny, That s a good pic. I think you have piece of basalt. That s a rock that hardens directly from molten rock. Lava is molten rock that flows out on the surface, magma remains buried. Lava hardens into rock quickly and so the grains that make...

Geology: green/blue rock, iron factories, iron furnace
iron factories, iron furnace, blast furnace: Hi Deb, Very interesting specimen. You have an example of glass slag. It s basically rough glass from a blast furnace. This was probably from a glass making operation, although slack from an iron furnace can be very glassy. It can have value as an antique...

Geology: History of oil, soil erosions, greenhouse gases
soil erosions, greenhouse gases, burning fossil fuels: Dear Dianney, Goodmorning and Fraternal Greetings! Thank you for your question and my reply to the best of my knowledge is given below. A non-renewable resource also known as a finite resource is made up of deceased organic material. The organic material,...

Geology: To identify a rock, sierra nevada range, northern sierra nevada
sierra nevada range, northern sierra nevada, waving my arms: Hi Jenny, Your question sounds like you meant for a picture to accompany the question but I didn t get it. Perhaps you could send me an image with an object in it for scale, a coin works just fine. Otherwise I ll just be guessing. If it s gray it certainly...

Geology: Igneous Rocks of Troodos Ophiolite, pillow lavas, hand specimen
pillow lavas, hand specimen, holiday in cyprus: Interesting problem, my advice is that you pl. contact some local geologist in Cyprus. The Torrdos ophiolite suite has been extensively studied. Your problem is to identify hand specimen? pl. take help of a local geologist who would be able to show you...

Geology: Impact event, marshall county mississippi, new madrid earthquakes
marshall county mississippi, new madrid earthquakes, florida gulf coast: Tony: At first glance it looks like a hodge-podge of scientific fact molded into a conspiracy theory of sorts. Some of the author s science is mixed up. For instance: Most comets are believed to be large bodies of Ice hence their large tails of...

Geology: Mapping using Wireline log, color pencils, key log
color pencils, key log, well control: Dear Muhammad, Thanks for sending me your question. You have not mentioned how big the area your 13 wells covers. Some suggestions for your project; First you have to divide each formation on different sub units on the basis of logs correlation(use...

Geology: need suggestion about geology, geology physics, iit roorkee
geology physics, iit roorkee, physics and chemistry: Yes its a good decision to take a PG in Geology as you have passion for it too. You should pursue B.SC with Geology, Physics and chemistry combination, I am not sure whether Hansarj offers it. You can do your PG from Delhi University or IITs; IIT...

Geology: Pore spaces, pore spaces, nutron
pore spaces, nutron, reservoir rock: Arman, You did not mention about the hole condition. Neutron is independent of hole size. However density, being a pad tool, is severely affected by bad hole, and shows anomalous gas effect. Empty pore spaces are not possible in a rock. One of the three...

Geology: rock identification, gas bubbles, physical observation
gas bubbles, physical observation, secondary minerals: Dear Mike, Goodmorning and Fraternal greetings! While appreciating your interest on Rocks, my answer is given below. It is very difficult to identify the rock by observing in the photograph, however with naked eye and also with the help of some physical...

Geology: Rock with sparkles in it, college geology, geology department
college geology, geology department, blue goldstone: Hi Pat, Without a pic it s pretty much impossible to tell what you have with any certainty. But your description of light reflecting off different colored flecks makes me suspect you have a stone called Goldstone . It s considered a gemstone and you often...

Geology: I want to start my career in geology . please suggest what is the scope of this new era in earth science., seas and oceans, major physical features
seas and oceans, major physical features, earth sc: Dear Rahul Sharma, Thanks for sending me this question. Congratulations for obtaining good results with high marks in your examinations which reflects that you are a really a good and serious student. Your have taken a right decision to become geologist...

Geology: Weird rock i found, weird rock, match box
weird rock, match box, beach links: Wade Sorry it took me so long to respond! Looking at your picture, I agree what you have is probably a rock. Understand that what you have is a small piece of something much larger. The processes that led to what you found have taken millions and millions...

Geology: blue rock picture, sand fulgurites, quartz sand
sand fulgurites, quartz sand, sand grains: This is very difficult without actually seeing the rock but I believe that it is one of two rock types. Fulgurite, would be my first guess, is the varietal name given to fused Quartz, Si02, which has been fused by the action of lightning striking the Earth...

Geology: Characterisation of Depositional systems andhydrocarbon reservoirs, hydrocarbon reservoirs, pinnacle reef
hydrocarbon reservoirs, pinnacle reef, petroleum reservoirs: Kanu: There are lots of studies on various petroleum reservoirs and the depositional systems from which they are derived. For instance, in Oklahoma and Kansas, there is an old play consisting of shoe string sands . These were old stream channel sand...

Geology: Climate conditions, mt ararat, wind circulation
mt ararat, wind circulation, irrigation network: I have no more than what I have already said, for more specific answers pl. contact laboratories engaged in glacial studies of the past. I can only add that the planet has experienced warm climate since 11000 or 10500 years BP as per Quaternary records...

Geology: Earthquake Resistant Structures., http www youtube, earthquake resistant structures
http www youtube, earthquake resistant structures, reply thanks: Dear Prashant You should probably contact a geotechnical engineer or an architect. I am a Geologist doing Water Resources work so my opinion should not be your final answer. I think a building could be 100% earthquake proof but it may be too expensive...

Geology: Earthquake Resistant Structures., http www youtube, earthquake resistant structures
http www youtube, earthquake resistant structures, core shaft: Dear Mr. Prashant S Akerkar Thanks for your question. Yes it Is possible to renovate/redevelop already built structures viz buildings,bridges etc for earthquake resistant proofing ?. Where the addition is not independent, the addition and existing structure...

Geology: Earthquake Resistant Structures., http www youtube, earthquake resistant structures
http www youtube, earthquake resistant structures, reply thanks: A very important and interesting question that should also be put before NDMA. I do not think India has any such body other than the architects on whose signature the local self govt. agencies - State development agencies approve the plan. I think we...

Geology: Earthquake Resistant Structures., http www youtube, earthquake resistant structures
http www youtube, earthquake resistant structures, engineering geology: Dear Prashanth.A Generally it is not possible-however structual engineering designers-earthquake engineers developed some techniques. However all your answers can be resolved by structual -earthquake engineer- eathquake resistant designers in our journal...

Geology: Earthquake Resistant Structures., http www youtube, earthquake resistant structures
http www youtube, earthquake resistant structures, earthquakes in the world: Dear Sir, Goodmorning and Fraternal greetings! In China there are many artificially fabricated houses which can withstand the earthquake intensity of 9.0 also. And these structures are certified by local Government authorities just like ISO:9000 certification...

Geology: Earthquake Resistant Structures., http www youtube, earthquake resistant structures
http www youtube, earthquake resistant structures, lateral displacement: I imagine if you tailor it to the specific area in which you are building that it might be possible. You need to take into account all types of motion that it might be subjected to. Whereas most buildings are built to withstand compressional forces and...

Geology: Earthquake Resistant Structures., Certification, earthquake resistant
Certification, earthquake resistant: Prashant, The certificate just can t be given just like that. The consultant has to be involved from day one. The building design will have to be approved in the first place for an earthquake resistant building. He/she then has to oversee the building in...

Geology: Engineering Geology, alkali silica reaction, degradation results
alkali silica reaction, degradation results, geology student: Dear Amjad, Goodmorning and Fraternal Greetings! Thankyou for your question, I apologise that I am in the field hence I could not give you answer early. Regarding ASR test, the following is the explanation to the best of my knowledge. Alkali-silica reactivity...

Geology: engineering geology, engineering geology, project execution
engineering geology, project execution, remedial measures: pl. select the topic in consultation with your profs. and also based on data availability and access to the site nearest to your location. you can choose topics related to adverse geological-geotechnical conditions encountered in the project execution and...

Geology: Fictional Minerals, Fictional Minerals
Fictional Minerals: Dear Tristen It is a hard question. Because inside the earth pressures and temperatures are very high, minerals formed there are very compact and dense and some of them are among the most tenacious minerals on earth, say diamond (a form of carbon) and stishovite...

Geology: Foissl or not?, rugosa, assemblage
rugosa, assemblage, fossils: Hi Cora, I m sure you have a piece of Rugosa (Horn Coral). At least you can see a part of it that has been exposed from the ground rock by erosion. I d expect to find that kind of fossil just where you did in Michigan. It s probably from the Niagaran formation...

Geology: Found black stone deep in the ground, south shore beaches, north shore beaches
south shore beaches, north shore beaches, long island expressway: Long Island, as part of the Outer Lands region, is formed largely of two spines of glacial moraine, with a large, sandy outwash plain beyond. These moraines consist of gravel and loose rock left behind during the two most recent pulses of Wisconsin glaciation...

Geology: Geology, continental accretion, fraternal greetings
continental accretion, fraternal greetings, terranes: Dear Mr. Eric, Goodmorning and Fraternal greetings! Thank you for your question, in fact there are few and very less examples of Proterozoic terranes that do not conform to modern tectonism. However to the best of my knowledge, the explanation is as follows...

Geology: Geology, geology software, reserve estimation
geology software, reserve estimation, fraternal greetings: Dear Dammy, Goodmorning and Fraternal Greetings! Thank you for your question, but it is incomplete?? I understood that you want to know the software applications in Geoscientific research there are many softwares that are available in the market right...

Geology: Geology of Ghar -e-Hira, Ghar-e-Hira
Ghar-e-Hira: Dr. Imdad, Go to the battle gnround of Uhad, note the positions of the mountains and visualize the action done by Khalid bin Waleed. You will have to SMS me your email address. Some of staff of your department have my addresses. I will then be able...

Geology: geology/Stratigraphy, Murree, Kamlial formations
Murree, Kamlial formations: Mohib, Good question. Broadly speaking, the Murree Formation (FM) dominantly constitutes dark red to maroon color siltstone and clay inter-bedded with red, brown and gray color sandstone. The Kamlial FM, on the other hand, consists of purple-gray and...

Geology: geomining, chemical abstract services, carbon dioxide mitigation
chemical abstract services, carbon dioxide mitigation, indian institute of technology bombay: Dear Kanu Send your proposals-details I will suggest Now Iam in Ming Dept-University of Nevada USA to get research initiation You can see our web site www.cafetinnova.org IJEE journal Archies-u will get mining related research papers see our journal...

Geology: Hudson River Fjord (?), american geological institute, glossary of geology
american geological institute, glossary of geology, glacial trough: Geologically the name is not correct. While it might be evocative of a fjord, the setting is not. I cite from the glossary of Geology, published by the American Geological Institute. Fjord: A) A long narrow winding, U shaped and steep walled generally...

Geology: hydrocarbon generation and migration, petroleum geologist, petroleum geology
petroleum geologist, petroleum geology, luck mike: Hello Kanu I think you need to find a petroleum Geologist to help with this topic. I am a Hydrogeologist so only know what I learned in school many years ago. While you are looking for an expert I suggest you get some ideas from your professor. Also,...

Geology: Log interpretation, sediment deposit, sediment supply
sediment deposit, sediment supply, volcanic arc: Irfan, A difficult question. To identify litology, age of sediments and to mark the contact on logs, we just can t rely on one source of information. It has to be a combination of perography of ditch-cuttings, fossil content of cuttings and keeping in mind...

Geology: Molten Granite, molten granite, concise answer
molten granite, concise answer, foot print: Dear Sacha, Granite is a hard rock and it might be difficult to make imprints on it directly. But in my opinion it should be possible. I think if you heat granite say above 1000C, it will start melting. So you should be able to make imprints on it. I...

Geology: obsidian, obsidian tools, fracture pattern
obsidian tools, fracture pattern, spear tips: Hi Kyle, Early hunters used many materials for their weapons and tools. They used what worked best for specific applications. Obsidian does fracture easily but that s the major reason early hunters used it. The conchoidal fracture pattern can create...

Geology: peroleum, unix based software, pc based software
unix based software, pc based software, dynamic reservoir: There are a number of industry leading software packages. They are generally divided up between a focus on geology and geophysics. The big software providers were all purchased by the big service companies, in an attempt by them to be the sole source providers...

Geology: petroleum exploration, petroleum exploration, permiability
petroleum exploration, permiability, horizontal wells: It can include that if you want it to. I am not familiar with the exact way they complete the horizontal wells but it differs from how they complete conventional wells since, the perforated zone may run for kilomters instead of tens of meters. So the...

Geology: petroleum geology, hydrocarbon reservoirs, carbonate reservoirs
hydrocarbon reservoirs, carbonate reservoirs, petroleum reservoirs: Dear Mr. Kanu the first 3 topics require field studies, remaining 2 topics i.e. 4 and 5 requires class room reserch. However for all the topics, if possible some practical studies including field studies may help you to fulfill your dissertation. Refer...

Geology: question related to geophysics, career, geophysics
career, geophysics: Muhammad, Nice of you to think ahead. That quality will be of great help in your practical life. In the past I have responded to several such questions, and with special reference to Geophysics. You may use the Find option on right top of the AllExperts...

Geology: Structural geology, Potwar structures
Potwar structures: Dear Mohib, Thanks for sending me your question. First I would like to give you an overall tectnic picture of the Potwar Basin. Potwar Basin which is located in Potwar Plateau and is the part of lesser Himalayas. Himalayan collision system represents...

Geology: All white obsidian with blue in it?, black obsidian, blue streaks
black obsidian, blue streaks, northwest ohio: Hi again William, I m pretty sure you have a piece of glass slag. That s a waste product from the smelting of iron ores. All the silicates that are present in the raw ore are removed during the beneficiation process and usually collect on the refractory...

Geology: Carnelian Agste Formation, adna washington, thick gel
adna washington, thick gel, crystalline structures: Hi Barry, You ask very good question. The truth is that we don t really know how an agate forms. We have a pretty good idea but that s not the same thing as knowing. We are pretty sure things work like this; silica rich groundwater, heated by depth and...

Geology: dam efficiency, hydroelectric power generation, hydroelectric power plant
hydroelectric power generation, hydroelectric power plant, mathematician leonhard: I believe what the question is asking is how efficient a hydroelectric dam is at converting the potential energy of the water stored in the dam to electric power. A tall dam with more hyrdraulic head would have more power to turn turbines, than a lower one...

Geology: entry Geologist question, geology job, geological experience
geology job, geological experience, related company: Dear David, My sincere apology for late response. First, I am sorry to hear about your difficulty and pray with Almighty to give you complete health. This is a tough question and I am not sure if I am the right person and qualified enough to answer....

Geology: general geology, plate tectonic model, earth 2
plate tectonic model, earth 2, morphological changes: With the present knowledge about moon, we cannot say for certain that geologically moon is inactive. (1) in absence of atmosphere on Moon, we should not expect morphological changes that we find over earth nor we are likely to find physico-chemical alterations/weathering...

Geology: Geology take home test, calcium carbonate, pineapple cake
calcium carbonate, pineapple cake, protolith: Nicole: First, the first one should be Protolith, which is the original rock before metamorphism. Let me ask you a question. If you have a bowl of apples, can you turn it into pineapple cake by mashing it up, or heating it, or leaving it in the oven...

Geology: Geology rock description, claystone, siltstone
claystone, siltstone, rock chip: Usually a rock chip on a thin section is hardly of 0.5x0.5 cm, so it would not be wise to say one rock is grading into another. Lateral and vertical heterogeneity within a rock can be quite variable to use such a liberty. You have to see whether the...

Geology: Guidance about research proposal, Phd Research Proposal in oil and gas
Phd Research Proposal in oil and gas: Dear Nazan, Thanks for sending me your question and I am glad that you are pursing a research proposal. Please keep in your mind that you will need following dataset for research.(where ever it applies depending on the type of research work) 1)well...

Geology: Identify a rock, asheville nc, hotmail
asheville nc, hotmail, fossil: Okay, first, Asheville is an interesting place for geology. It is pretty complex. I used to have an old girlfriend who s family was from that area, last name was Knipe. She was one of two identical twins, and used to know how to clog. Okay, back to...

Geology: What kind of rocks are these, colored minerals, gas pockets
colored minerals, gas pockets, volcanic rocks: Hi Kerry, You may be correct that the original rock was volcanic, but what is left appears to be mostly agate. Both volcanic rock and agate are common in Minnesota. We don t fully understand how agate forms but it is pretty certain that a silica rich solution...

Geology: mineral indentification, epithermal gold deposits, electrum
epithermal gold deposits, electrum, gold and silver: Dear Chauncy You might have found a piece of electrum which is a natural alloy of gold and silver. Electrum can occur in epithermal gold deposits. So, upstream such a deposit might exist. Measure the density of your specimen to make sure. This is only...

Geology: Do I have pertrified wood and a meteorite?, chondritic meteorites, stone tiles
chondritic meteorites, stone tiles, astronomy department: Hi again Christy, The bigger piece is certainly petrified wood. Check out this site to give you an idea of a similar piece; http://www.pakistanonyxmarble.com/petrified-wood-stone-tiles-slabs.php Some pieces are preserved well enough for an expert to...

Geology: Petroleum Geology, ali mohammed, petroleum geology
ali mohammed, petroleum geology, mohammed ali: Ali, Sorry, I am not a drilling expert. However, logically it needs to be done just to keep a check that no changes are taking place in the original composition and consistency of the mud, which also includes monitoring the volume of returns in the mud-pit....

Geology: rain water, rain water harvesting, water cistern
rain water harvesting, water cistern, underground aquifer: Wajid: This sounds like a class question, but I ll try to help. In a humid area, people can still water harvest, or collect water in cisterns. Cisterns are containment vessels for storage of water. The method was once used very commonly in the US even...

Geology: regarding career, geologist jobs, geology career
geologist jobs, geology career, mud logger: Tushar: You are using a few terms I do not understand. Waht is I.sc. and B.Tech. With regard to geology career paths. First, in most instances, you need a masters degree to get a professional position, rather than a technical or geotechnical...

Geology: rock, lustre iron, cleavage directions
lustre iron, cleavage directions, hand specimens: It is very difficult to identify most rocks simply by pictures but my first guess would be pyroxene. Within hand specimens, pyroxene can generally be identified by the following characteristics: two directions of cleavage intersecting at roughly right angles...

Geology: Rock, strange shape, primitive tools
strange shape, primitive tools, hole in the rock: Hi Carl, Very interesting rock. Looks like a clay-rich limestone, which is not uncommon in Michigan. But I am intrigued by the hole in the rock. Holes can certainly be made by natural, erosional means, I ve seen many. But this one looks so regular, and...

Geology: Rock specimen, dark blobs, rock specimen
dark blobs, rock specimen, common rocks: Hi Bajawa, You have a nice specimen of micaceous schist. A schist is a rock that has been changed through the application of heat and pressure. It s called metamorphic . There are many kinds, but yours was changed when the temperature and pressure were...

Geology: Scallop shell in matrix, central france, maximum age
central france, maximum age, miocene: Here is a link to some samples almost identical to yours. They are from the Miocene of the Lacoste area of west central France, species is Clamys latissima 20 million years old. or so. http://www.indiana9fossils.com/BrachsBivalves/Bivalves/France-Bivalves.htm...

Geology: specimen id, colorado geology, colorado school of mines
colorado geology, colorado school of mines, specimen id: I need pictures and please check to make sure that they are in focus. I need the steak, hardness, specif gravity, and where in the river it was found. I got my MS from the Colorado School of Mines and have worked in Colorado quite a bit; in fact I ran a gold...

Geology: Stalagtites, frost heave, mineral deposits
frost heave, mineral deposits, generic term: Hi Craig, I believe your surmise is correct; they were removed from a local cave and just left on the surface. Speleothems (the generic term for mineral deposits that form in caves)are generally too fragile to survive the frost heave or other erosional action...

Geology: Upper and Lower Basins (Refer Book plz), Stratigraphy, books
Stratigraphy, books: Faisal, The following two books will provide the desired information: 1. Stratigraphy and historical Geology of Pakistan. Kazmi and Abbasi (2008). 2. Petroleum Geology of Pakistan. I.B. Kadri (1995). You may also go through different volumes of PAPG-SPE...

Geology: What to take beside geology, discrete mathematics course, petroleum geology
discrete mathematics course, petroleum geology, geology student: Dear Asaad, If you are in bachelors program and wanted to do masters in Geology then you should have mathematics and Physics and as an additional minor subjects you may go with Chemistry. This combination will enable you to get admission either in the...

Geology: Career in Petroleum Engineering, mud engineer, petroleum professional
mud engineer, petroleum professional, colorado school of mines: Patrick: Like so many things in the petroleum industry, there are a lot of roles played by people bearing one title. I am a geologist, but I have friends who went to the Colorado School of mines and they graduated from the same petroleum engineering...

Geology: criss-cross river rock, continental glaciers, asian carp
continental glaciers, asian carp, yosemite ca: Hi John, What your seeing is a joint fracturing in the rock. What happens is the rock fractures in a pattern, usually parallel or sub-parallel. This happens in different ways depending on the type of rock, and the kind of stress acted upon it. Sometimes...

Geology: geology, bottom hole assembly, lwd tools
bottom hole assembly, lwd tools, mwd tools: Dear Sajid, Thanks for sending me your question. MWD is the abbreviation of Measurement While Drilling. This is a tool run in wellbore by means of drill pipe bottom hole assembly or BHA and usually placed near the bit. MWD tool provides following information...

Geology: guidance about geophysics, Career, Geophysics
Career, Geophysics: Kamran, You have chosen a right subject. Quaid-e-Azam University and Bahria University (Islamabad) both offer Masters in Geophysics. But your admission depends upon your marks in F.Sc. You should be good in mathematics and with a good command on the usage...

Geology: Oil based nud, eid mubarak, mubarak ali
eid mubarak, mubarak ali, drilling fluid: Ali, Actually I am not an expert in drilling. However, I would say that one knows about the quality and properties of the oil constituent in an oil-based mud. You always check the mud properties of the returns, and all the more when the well is drilling...

Geology: Petroleum Engineering, petroleum engineer, petroleum engineering
petroleum engineer, petroleum engineering, pre calculus: Patrick, As you may be aware, I am not a Petroleum Engineer. I may be able to provide you a general answer, and over and above that I am not fully aware of the teaching system in the USA. Your question relates to your future wherein a pertinent and perfect...

Geology: petroleum Geology, ali mohammad, petroleum geology
ali mohammad, petroleum geology, mud system: Dear Ali Mohammad, Thanks for sending me this question. It is common that oil is mixed with water based mud to increase the lubrication for ease of drilling and better rate of penetration and also to decrease the Clay swallowing effect when in contact...

Geology: Please ID this Rock?
The geology of the Central Cascade Mountains is very complex and without a detailed study (probably on-site visit) I cannot tell you specifics about the rocks; however, I will give you a background and try to tell you what I can. Rock 1 --- COULD be a quartzite,...

Geology: QUESTION, HSE, career
HSE, career: Gerald, I am surprised that you are having problems to pursue a successful career in HSE. This is a subject which is very much IN these days. You probably are located in a wrong country where due importance is not given to safety. This subject is such...

Geology: Question about Kimberlite Rock, air pockets, higher education
air pockets, higher education, diamonds: The rock that is in the picture is probably not kimberlite since it is and extrusive igneous rock (air pockets) and kimberlites are generally intrusive. Kimberlite has no value itself but is an indicator of diamonds. In essence, kimberlite is the rock in...

Geology: Reservoir engineeing terms, brine solution, pore fluids
brine solution, pore fluids, rock column: Abbas: Most of these should be available in your textbook or glossary of terms. Bubble point is the pressure in a reservoir at which gas begins to bubble out of the petroelum, condensate and brine solution. At this time the gas expands driving the oil...

Geology: Rock found in Quebec, blue nile, lamp shades
blue nile, lamp shades, glass rock: Hi Jason, You have a very nice piece of glass slag. Your guess about where it came from is as good as mine, but slag is found all over the place. A antique glass was made for jewelry. Others were made for windows, lamp shades and other decorative items....

Geology: Rock or mineral, jmu edu, harriman state park
jmu edu, harriman state park, shiny spots: Hi Mike, Looks like you have a couple schist specimens. That s a metamorphic rock; one that has been subjected to moderate amounts of temperature and pressure. There was not enough temperature to melt the rock but enough to change the minerals in it. This...

Geology: rocks, quartz pebbles, quartz grains
quartz pebbles, quartz grains, colorful rocks: Hi Brenda, Very colorful rocks you have there. Minerals mostly. Almost all of them are quartz. That s a silicon dioxide (SiO2# mineral that is very hard and very resistant to erosion. Almost all the sand on all the beaches in the world are quartz grains....

Geology: selection of gemstones' detector, minerals and rocks, precious minerals
minerals and rocks, precious minerals, gemmological association: Dear Mohammed Adab-Idi mubarak You have to consult experts for detection evaluation of precious minerals-gem stones Gemstones are not stones-minerals formed in nature-in geological -formations In trade and commercial industry named as gemstones I am geologist...

Geology: Unknown fossil, fossil corals, fossil measures
fossil corals, fossil measures, rocks and minerals: Hi Tyler, Sorry but without an image it is just impossible to tell what you have. There are fossil corals that look just like a large tooth, erosional features can create tooth-like specimens. Some minerals can have that kind of shape. If you can send...

Geology: Very unusual, and heavy rock?, geology departments, duck egg
geology departments, duck egg, specific gravity: James, It will be difficult to give you an answer based on the above description, and I can not promise even if I see the photographs; however you may send the photo (s). The high specific gravity makes it interesting. Have you taken help from Geology...

Geology: unusual rock, vitreous luster, quartz glass
vitreous luster, quartz glass, types of rocks: You are quite right this is an unusual rock; actually at least two different types of rocks. I can tell you that the red rock is hemititic (red color) quartz. The other rocks I can not identify from the pictures; without hardness, streak, density of the...

Geology: Basin effected by tectonic setting
Check articles related to the followings: Vienna Basin, San Andreas Fault and basin, pull apart basin, Dead sea transform fault etc. http://imgw.univie.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/inst_met_und_geo/intern/Photos_Mitarbeiter/GEO/Salcher__Meurers_Beitrag.pdf...

Geology: Coring, coring, depth anticipatio
coring, depth anticipatio: Ali, There are no short-cuts in operations and all the more for coring in an oil well. If it is a development or even an appraisal well you will have well-history to see the formation behavior and all indicators from a nearby well, and that may help. Carefully...

Geology: Some general questions / advice., honest answers, heartfelt thanks
Geology: Some general questions / advice., honest answers, heartfelt thanks, taking the time

Geology: faults, structural geology faults, visible fragments
structural geology faults, visible fragments, rock fragments: Dear Mr. Ahmed Khot Thanks for your question and sorry for the delay as i was in field work and unable to access internet. Fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a rock, across which there has been significant displacement along the fractures as...

Geology: faults and dams, geologist, dams
geologist, dams, faults: If a fault is suspected in dam section, its presence, orientation and its impact on the dam and other appurtenant structures need o be assessed through surface and sub-surface investigations. After its identification the site geologist suggests treatment...

Geology: Some general questions / advice., geology skill, bedrock geology
geology skill, bedrock geology, economic geology: Donnie: To your first question...No. There is not much crossover between minerals and petroleum. In fact there has always been a bit of animosity between the two...good natured as it is. One are the hardrock crowd, and the other deals with those dirty...

Geology: geomorphology, hydro power projects, quartz reefs
hydro power projects, quartz reefs, circular depressions: Good question. (1) Mineral Prospecting : land forms like old mine heaps, old mine openings, quartz reefs/ dikes forming linear ridges in otherwise low relief, karstic landforms, circular depressions with dikes etc. are some of the features that help in locating...

Geology: geophysics, Career, Geophysics
Career, Geophysics, general: Taimoor, As I mentioned in my previous response, there is relatively better scope of Geophysics in Pakistan. But it all depends on how successful the exploration activities remain in the country, particularly when you will be out in about 5 years time....

Geology: Can you help identify this rock
The mineral is marcasite. Marcasite, sometimes called white iron pyrite, is iron sulfide (FeS2) with orthorhombic crystal structure. It is physically and crystallographically distinct from pyrite but having the same chemical formula. Pyrite is iron sulfide...

Geology: Identification, septarian nodule, septarian nodules
septarian nodule, septarian nodules, sedimentary material: Hi Rachel, Your specimen looks like a septarian nodule . This type of rock is more properly called a concretion but the common name is septarian nodule. It has to do with how it forms. Both types of rock are sedimentary and are generated by heat,...

Geology: MUD LOGGING, mud logger, petroleum geology
mud logger, petroleum geology, mud logging: Dear Faisal. Thanks for sending me your question. It is nearly impossible to say anything with any certain authority about your chances to get job after a lapse of few years in non geological work. If you have Masters in geology that is a biggest...

Geology: New Madrid Fault, new madrid fault, new madrid fault system
new madrid fault, new madrid fault system, new madrid fault zone: Hi Claiborne, Two good questions. The first is the easiest to answer. No one knows when the next quake will be in New Madrid Fault Zone. It is an intra-continental fault zone, and the mechanism behind those is not well understood. In fact, no fault mechanism...

Geology: Petrophysical analysis., Mud Log, Electric Logs
Mud Log, Electric Logs, benefits: Kaleem, The Electric Logs are not just for identification of lithology, that we surely get much better from the Mud Log because we see the cuttings directly. E.Logs are basically to identify/interpret the petrophysical characteristics (porosity, permeability...

Geology: porosities difference, Porosity, grain size
Porosity, grain size, permeability: Maham, You may be aware that finer the grain size higher the porosity. That is the reason why shale has the highest porosity. Having said that, it is not just the porosity but the ability of the rock to allow the fluids to flow, which is described as the...

Geology: rock identification
My first GUESS is magnetite. The greenish color kinda throws me off since magnetite is generally blackish gray with brownish tint in reflected sun, not green. Whatever the rock is it has some iron in it; because of the magnetism. Magnetite is a mineral,...

Geology: Sand, volcanic ash, volcanic ashes
volcanic ash, volcanic ashes, grain size: Dear Nata, Good question. We generally consider volcanic ash sediments as being argillaceous rocks. These are very fine rocks and can be considered equal to shales/mud grain size. For instance, present day volcanoes such as Icelandic ones has dumped...

Geology: Structural Geology, structural traps, fracture modeling
structural traps, fracture modeling, shale gas: Kaleem, Kohat-Potwar, Sulaiman Lobe and further south under the plains (Kandhkot, Qadirpur and Mari), and Kirthar Range and the Foredeep running to the east of Kirthar Range represent mainly 4-way structural traps. However, in Kohat-Potwar we also find...

Geology: Validity of topic for research, synopsis, gravity
synopsis, gravity, offshore minerals: Ali, It is great that you will be able to analyze real data, which you will relate to the three tectonic regimes of your choice. Are there some proven examples in the world where economic minerals have been found in any of the tectonic regimes you want...

Geology: career in petroleum geology
Dear Ms.Sheela Sharma, Thanks for your question. I think you have misunderstood about what job means. Where ever you work you have to produce results. Either in Petroleum sector, coal sector, mining sector etc., you have to just gather data and interpret...

Geology: Find on Beach
Hi Linda, What you have there is a cluster of barnacle shells. Very common in Florida. Here s a site that has a good picture of barnacle shells. http://onesnap.blogspot.com/2011/02/shells-around-house-barnacle.html#!/2011/02/shells-around-house-barnacle.html...

Geology: What have I found?
Jason: You are right it is a fossil coral. Here is a link to one that looks pretty similar to your s from St. Louis, Missouri. http://www.fossilmuseum.net/fossils/Cnidaria/Lithostrotionella-custelnaui/Lithostrotionella-custelnaui.htm It is the...

Geology: geology
Joints are favourable unfavourable in civil engineering-I have just given few examples now I am up grading in my book Prof DVREDDY Favourable structural, Sheet joints, vertical joints In artificially exposed granite quarries sheeting is well exposed....

Geology: Green Rock
Hi Zoe, The image you sent is pretty blurry but I can see some things in it that, with your description, make me sure you have a mineral called asbestos . You describe the rock as mint colored , the end looks like it s frayed to me, and it also looks...

Geology: IR microscope
I,m not sure who offers such services today but twenty years ago The Colorado School of Mines Laboratory and Skyline Labs did. You should be able to find out on line. The only fluid inclusion work that I have done was with the USGS and they had their own...

Geology: ore geology
Shariq: It is the same as optical mineralogy, except it is done on thin sections of ore samples. Depending on the type of ore one is dealing with, the properties will vary. A summary is here: http://www.edumine.com/courses/online-courses/practical-ore-microscopy-and-mineralography/...

Geology: photo geology & remote sensing
Dear Mr.Shariq Khan Thanks for your question, Major types of aerial photograph include Oblique,Vertical. There are two more types which includes either oblique and or vertical and are called as combinations and Orthophotos. Oblique include those photographs...

Geology: Two question about geology ?
Abdullah: 1) If your MS is in on a subject that is currently of interest to the industry you are seeking to work in, then this is the best route. A thesis or special research project should be done after you research the industry in which you want to work...

Geology: sequence stratigraphy
Dear Salman, I actually do not understand your question. In marginal marine settings, you can look for various defining criterion. These could be process based or lithologic based. In these settings a system may change abruptly if there is an influence...

Geology: Slope failure?
pl. provide following info: average annual rainfall in the area how far away is your house from this erosion feature? what is the frequency of such features in the area. some more pics please. the slope appears to be gentle slightly rolling type or...

Geology: Stratigraphy of Miano area in Lower Indus Basin
Muhammad, It will be useful and prudent if you find it yourself, and I will let you know the references. You may look into the Proceeding volumes of the PAPG-SPE ATCs. There are so many papers on lower Indus region. You will surely find lot of details...

Geology: structural geology
Dear Mahboob, The best way would be that you open the book written by i Kazmi and Jan /i . There they explain this. The general understanding for you should be that we split the salt range into two because of a strike slip fault. Otherwise it is a same...

Geology: What types of organic matter comprise oil?
Dear Sir Kindly refer to sites for formation of oil and natural gas web site wikipedia for details Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting...

Geology: Depofacies and Lithofacies logs, facies
facies: Hello, Thank you so much for putting this question. I don t use SLB software so i am sorry i don t know their algorithms. You can make your facies on the basis of rock typing; some softwares do have this utility in the whole package. Regards, ...

Geology: genral question
Waqas: I am a geologist, not a psychologist. Both degrees in order to be worth anything and afford you a job opportunity require at least a masters degree. In geology, a masters degree is necessary to get a job with an exploration company. Look at...

Geology: Geology, Basin architecture, Pakistan
Basin architecture, Pakistan: Yashu, I do not know if you have access to the two books published in Pakistan. 1. Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan by Kazmi and Jan (1997). 2 Stratigraphy and Historical Geology of Pakistan by Kazmi and Abbasi (2008). These books provide both...

Geology: Geology, Basin evolution, coal
Basin evolution, coal: Yashu, You may be aware that the Indus basin belongs to the Indian Plate (IP) and the Balochistan basin is part of the Eurasian Plate (EP). The rifting (from Madagascar/Africa) sometimes in Early Mesozoic and drifting of the IP towards north eventually...

Geology: Geology, Collisional margin, Indian Plate
Collisional margin, Indian Plate: Yashu, The Axial Belt does not divide the two basins, as per my understanding. See my previous response wherein I had just touched upon the subject. I am presenting a paper in GeoIndia15 to be held in Noida in January, 2015 that will deal with the collision...

Geology: Identifying Rocks
At a place where the sample is chipped, the rock appears to be like chalcedony and the ocherous colour seems to be surficial coating. (1) Kindly do one more experiment, keep the sample immersed in concentrated hydrochloric or sulphuric acid for about 20-30...

Geology: Index fossils
Hi Umer I am not an expert on Paleontology in Pakistan - I am sure you can find a lot of information on the internet, at your University and any natural history museum. Here is a link I found to get started - good luck. Mike http://paleopolis.rediris.es/cg/CG2009_BOOK_03/CG2009_BOOK_03_Chapter06.pd...

Geology: info
Dear Mr Haris Qureshi, Thanks for sending me your question. The recorded Pakistans exploration history is one of the oldest in the world and among all Middle Eastern countries known for their massive oil production and reserves Pakistan petroleum industry...

Geology: to know about sand stone and source rock reserviors
Mati: As much as I would like to answer your question, it would take too much time and effort to catalog reservoir and source rock parameters for all of them in the US. There are literally hundreds if not thousands. Just doing it for the major productive...

Geology: to know about sand stone and source rock reserviors, data
data: Hi Mati, Thanks for your question, I don t think that there is any published or public domain data record of such properties. All these are part of the proprietary data owned by operating companies and they are always reluctant to release such data....

Geology: Kyrgyz badlands
Eleanor, You are right that the badland sediments also get deposited in an endorheic water body where the deposits have a homogenous lithology and fine texture. But that is not the only habitat. Once the area again becomes a dry land, the run-off due to...

Geology: Petroleum Geology
John These are good questions. I am wondering, are you a student of engineering, geology or something else? I have a guess that it might be engineering.... Consider the outcrop an extension of what is in the subsurface. When you look at an outcrop...

Geology: Possible fossil?
Hi Teresa, Very interesting. You are correct, it is a fossil. What s called a horn coral or Rugose Coral . They are still around today but your fossil is probably around 400 million years old. Here s a site that will give you a few images and tell...

Geology: Rock identification
Dear Mr. Yvette, Good morning and Fraternal greetings! You are exactly correct, this is the variety of Quartz. Smoky quartz, agate and may be with chalcedony also. However it is bit difficult for me to exactly predict unless I see with my naked eye. ...

Geology: Structural Geology: Is it really that important?
Jaffery: There are a myriad of jobs in the O&G industry that do not require a working knowledge of structural geology. It IS necessary that you have a conceptual understanding of structure and that you can visualize structures in 3D space. Working with...

Geology: Bimini road in the Bermuda Road
Hello from Houston. The Bimini road. There are a lot of strange geological phenomena that have yet to be adequately explained. The Bimini Road is not one of them. The road is composed of massive cemented carbonate beach sands that occurred when the...

Geology: Why US, Canada have more tornadoes
Sir I am not expert in this area but u can get all details from goodle sites presented here Prof DVREDY-INDIA Refer to meteorologist -Scientific notes in google Prof DVREDDY Dayna Vettese Meteorologist Thursday, September 4, 2014, 12:32 PM - ...

Geology: Continued Test on Rock
The splitted sample looks like a fine grained quartzite, it does not appear to be vein quartz, chalcedony, agate, chert etc. Possibility of it being a man made material still cannot be ruled out. If your curiosity still persist, you can give one part of...

Geology: Engineering geology
Dear Iredia USA Kindly note the courses your are interested differs from courses Geology-Course will give in general earth sciences etc Engineering Geology- Course gives more in puts of geology applications in civil engineering-Civil engineers will read...

Geology: environmental engineering?
Dear Sheikh Adab Environmental Engineering comes under civil engineering Some from Chemical engineering Few institute started Environmental sciences and engineering u can search for environmental consultants Every developing project requires clearance...

Geology: writing a well proposal document
Geology: writing a well proposal document

Geology: Future of Petroleum Engineereing, Petroleum and Reservoir Engineering
Petroleum and Reservoir Engineering: Abdul, Worldwide, the exploration is comparatively in advanced stage in the mature basins, where as there may be some reservoirs which may have been left out, or the producing reservoirs may have been damaged, leaving behind considerable oil and gas, resulting...

Geology: Future of Petroleum Engineering
Abdul: For the foreseeable future, petroleum will be in demand. If not for energy, for plastics feed stock and for synthetic fertilizer. You are too young to remember, but in the 1950 s and 1960 s millions died from periodic crop failures in Pakistan...

Geology: geo tectonic setup of pakistan, Geology, Tectonics
Geology, Tectonics, Pakistan: Saif, It is vast subject. You need to read the book by Kazmi and Jan (1997). Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan . It must be in the library. --------------- Sorry Saif, You have to read the literature to complete your assignment. The cut-n-paste...

Geology: Geology degrees
Aidan: The difference is that the BS usually gives you more electives in your chosen field, whereas the BA will require that you take more electives in other non-major related areas. The BA was conceived to produce a more well rounded graduate. So...

Geology: Identification
I can not give you a definitive answer to your question. It is very difficult to identify a rock from pictures, there are about 100,000 different rocks and minerals and to identify one or two, as you can imagine, would be very difficult. To identify rocks/minerals,...

Geology: materials for construction
Dear Mueen, Goodmorning and Fraternal Greetings! The images you have shown are clearly River borne Pebble deposits. You will not get any hard type of stones for the purpose of construction of roads. However the soil material can be used for Mud roads etc....

Geology: Petroleum Engineering, petroleum engineer
petroleum engineer: Hi Arsalan, Thanks for the question, I would say that i am not the best person to answer this question because i am not a petroleum engineer. There are two types of opportunities in oil and gas industry, one is field based and other is office based....

Geology: petroleum geology
Dear Md Ibrahim Petroleum exploration depends upon -reservoir with hydrocarbons-Geological factors-migrations and occurrences of il and natural gas.Latest methods have been applying for exploration of hydrocarbons-Each group -several expertise are working...

Geology: Sargodha High, Sargodha High
Sargodha High: Raj, Sargodha High is also called Kirana Hills. It has been discussed in Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan by Kazmi and Jan, 1997). Petroleum Geology of Pakistan by I. B. Kadri (1995) includes a section showing the relationship of stratigraphy on either...

Geology: Strange Rocks
Jane: What you have are concretions. These rocks, usually form when carbonate shell material is deposited in a sandstone. After burial and what we call digenesis, the carbonate shell material is dissolved and then begins to be deposited as radial cement...

Geology: Underground Water Resources for Farming Land
Amir: I had a college roommate from Iran, and remember the boxes of pistachios, pumpkin seeds, and other nuts he would receive from home. I work with a guy from Iran who came over before the war in the 1980 s with Iraq. You need to check a few things....

Geology: Understanding closure from maps, 3D view of structures, traps
3D view of structures, traps: Sheeba, A Geologist must be able to visualize in three dimensions to understand a structure. The depth maps are the contour maps, which show elevation with reference to a datum, either the Seismic Reference Datum (SRD) or mostly the Mean Sea Level (MSL)....

Geology: writing a well proposal document, Well proposal, drilling design
Well proposal, drilling design: Shehu, You may have to start with an Introduction about how the well location was selected---seismic (2D, 3D), mapping etc, and mention the coordinates. Some information about surrounding discoveries, if any, and which rocks produced hydrocarbons. What...

Geology: Earth mantle
Hi Sher Afgan, You might want to check out this section from the book, Dynamic Earth: Plates, Plumes and Mantle Convection , by Geoffrey Frederick Davies. https://books.google.com/books?id=t7kyQXKK6yMC&pg=PA205&lpg=PA205&dq=mantle,+super+adiabatically&source=bl&ots=MCJ93CfOGD&sig=R6QewXhGTPmMyHaoonqphlBIwdE&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Y6WNVMGKHtifyASy94DYDA&ved=0CDwQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=mantle%2C%20super%20adiabatically&f=false...

Geology: Geology
If it is magnetic, then it contains a fair amount of iron. The only naturally occurring mineral that is magnetic is Magnetite. Where do you live? I went to school in Virginia and my family is from the Shenandoah Valley. There were once a lot of iron...

Geology: petroleum exploration
Dear Uche, 1) Is petroleum system different from play? if they are, could you throw more light on both? Answer) Petroleum system deals with all aspects and processes of hydrocarbon starting from the source to the final entrapment. You need to see study...

Geology: structural geology
Dear Mr. Naresh, Goodmorning and Fraternal Greetings! True dip is the dip which is measured at right angles to the strike of a plane and which is the maximum value of dip for that plane Apparent dip the dip of the trace of a plane, which is measured from...

Geology: use of volcanic rock as mulch
Jean: Volcanic rock encompasses a lot of different mineralogies. Scoria, the vesicle filled rock commonly sold as volcanic is found in two types, one red one black. They are both pyroclastic meaning they are thrown from the volcano and cool as a kind...

Geology: Baram Delta
The situation you describe sounds somewhat similar to what is described in the following thesis which covers one of the more productive basins in Oklahoma. digital.library.okstate.edu/etd/umi-okstate-2251.pdf I am not familiar with the area you are...

Geology: biasness, Importance of CGPA
Importance of CGPA: Abdullah, You are welcome. This is an unfortunate aspect of our system. A devoted student excels irrespective of the Institution. And they must be evaluated according to their merit across the board. But please note that when applications are evaluated,...

Geology: Continental drifts
Dear Bhavnish, Its a good question and I do not have any answer to it. I think its analogous situation of the Indian plate colliding with the Asian/Euro-Asian plates etc. with the formation of Alpine-Himalayan Mountain systems. In case of Americas, the...

Geology: Deltaic setting with clastics starved
Good morning Thanks for posing this interesting question..... I am not an exploration geologist so I probably don t have the answers you are looking for. Consider though, that there might allogenic reasons for the sudden decrease in the sandstone and...

Geology: rock identification
Geology: rock identification

Geology: geological processes
Janine In my experience the period of time that civilization, as we know it or understand it, has existed on earth is a fraction of geologic time. Certainly there are examples like Pompeii where entire communities have been wiped out. And there are civilizations...

Geology: geology related to islam, Hijr-e-Aswad, Zamzam
Hijr-e-Aswad, Zamzam, Ghar-e-Hira: Abdullah, Interesting questions. I have worked on Ghar-e-Hira, more in a technical manner than religious, and have published a paper too. If you like, I can provide you the copy. About Hijr-e-Aswad, I was asked a question by a Hindu, when I was presenting...

Geology: historical geology
Sounds like a class question. Usually these kinds of questions are asked in context, that is, in relation to a class discussion, where parameters were laid out. Or alternatively you may be trying to lay out the basis for a novel. I don t think anyone...

Geology: Identification of this rock or mineral?
The rock is quartz in crystal form. The colors are mostly from very minor amounts of iron that were in the original fluid of the quartz. The biggest problem that I have is how in the world did it get to Florida. Crystal system: hexagonal. Fracture: conchoidal....

Geology: is this an obsidian,tektite or impact glass?
Hi Carlos, Very interesting specimen. You have an example of glass slag. It s basically rough glass from an iron blast furnace or glass making operation. Much of it originated in England in the late 19th century and It is thought that manufacturers created...

Geology: please identify
To me, from the pics, the samples appear to be varieties of silica like chert-jasper-chalcedony etc. Nowadays a lot of artificial/synthetic materials have come in the markets for a variety of use. Therefore i must caution and confess that identification of...

Geology: pyrite concretion
Concretions can be variable. The colors come from the various minerals that become mobile and are deposited. Gold can be sulfur compounds. Blue can be caused by copper, Red iron oxide. Copper can cause green color, blue, titanium. There is no set in...

Geology: regarding well in desert
Dear Amtry Note Terchnical note from wikipedia-Zam Zam well is located in -confined aquifer-well is in weathered formation-Sub-surface water adding to the well from Vally portions -water source,,Saudi Geological Survey established hydro geological characters...

Geology: rock identification
Hi Cornelia, You have a piece of muscovite there. That s a type of mica, a mineral with a very complex formula. It is not particularly rare but you usually don t find it in your backyard, unless it s a gravel pit or quarry. The mineral forms soft,...

Geology: rock identification
I can t without actually seeing the rock tell you everything about the rock but I can tell you that that portion shown at the top of the closeup green red rock photo is an intrusive vein. From the photo the vein appears to contain: pyrite (FeS), chalcopyrite...

Geology: Rock Type
Hi Kim, Very interesting specimen. You have an example of glass slag. It s basically rough glass from an iron blast furnace or glass making operation. Much of it originated in England in the late 19th century and It is thought that manufacturers created...

Geology: rocks types and their porosity
Dear Manikandan, Goodafternoon and Fraternal Greetings! Porosity is the property of rock that depends upon the site specific conditions with + or - 10% difference depend upon the area. However the Krishnagiri area is covered with Migmatites, charnockites...

Geology: SALAM
Naveed, I am not aware of any published paper on Missa Keswal field. However, the nearest field is Adhi in the west. You may find my (et. al) paper on Adhi field in the PAPG-SPE 2003 Proceedings. That will provide stratigraphic information. Please...

Geology: Shear zones
Dear Umer, Goodmorning and Fraternal greetings! Thank you for your question My answer is as follows Shear zones involve volumes of rock deformed by shearing stress under brittle-ductile or ductile conditions, Shear zones often occur at the edges of tectonic...

Geology: structural geology(structurlal analysis)
Structural analysis is also critically important in petroleum exploration to determine the timing of the start of folding (in oil generally it should be an anticline) and final phase of fold when it becomes a viable trap for hydrocarbon or if a young fault...

Geology: Unidentified stone
Hi Erin, Very interesting specimen. You have an example of glass slag. It s basically rough glass from an iron blast furnace or glass making operation. Much of it originated in England in the late 19th century and It is thought that manufacturers created...

Geology: Weathering, geology, weathering
geology, weathering, age: Weathering is very variable depending on the climactic area and the type of rock that is being exposed to the effects of weathering and the minerals of which it is composed. If this is a class question, there is probably some context the teacher gave you,...

Geology: النيازك المقترب منالارض
Dear Mr. Mohamed Saad, Goodmorning and Fraternal Greetings! Thankyou very much for your question to me and my answer is as follows Meteorites are samples of space rock that fall on to the Earths surface from space. Most meteorites are fragments of small...

Geology: النيازك المقترب منالارض
Dear Sir, my answer is as follows Meteorites are samples of space rock that fall on to the Earths surface from space. Most meteorites are fragments of small planets shattered by collisions early in the history of the Solar System. These remnants now...

Geology: an academic request
Zigede, There is standard procedure of getting admission, in any country, for higher education. You need to approach different universities directly by submitting applications and your credentials, along with a proof of your financial status. You have...

Geology: an apeal for educational purpose
Dear Zigede, Thanks for sending me your question. Please contact to University Technology Petronas in Malaysia. This university has very credible position and it provides scholarships to the students specially for the Masters program. www.utp.edu.my...

Geology: beach rocks
Mason: Hello. I spent some time in Quito back about 24 years ago. Okay, first if you look at a geologic map of Ecuador you will notice that there are linear bands of different rocks east and west of the Andes. The Andes gave their name to a particular...

Geology: blueish stone
Hi Patricia, Very nice pendant! You asked about the blueish stone but since both are blue I am not sure which you want information about......so I ll talk about both. The big one is called Labradorite . It s a plagioclase feldspar mineral made up...

Geology: Crystals
lORIE Read the definition as given below crystal are studied -morphological features using -measuring axes-plane of symmetry-center of symmetry U can read crystallography subject Many books are available on crystallography- Minerals under natural conditions...

Geology: Dig Up a Rock Can you Please Tell Me what it is
I may be able to answer the question but I need you to do a few things. I need to know where exactly you found the rock . I got my MS Degree in Geology from the CSM and worked in Colorado for many years so I am familiar with most of the mining districts....

Geology: Gasoline as an oil by-product
Hi Mike, Interesting question, and the simple answer to the ...we will never get away from the use of gasoline as long as oil is drilled... part is no. But science seldom likes a simple answer so there might be a yes component. First a quick background...

Geology: geology, breccia
breccia: Breccia in this environment can be either those produced because of flow of fluids in general and hydrothermal fluids in particular, and those produced by tectonic forces. Fluids can dissolve limestone and hence create voids that might not be able to support...

Geology: help identifing these two rocks
Hi Joseph, You have a couple of nice looking samples there. The one on the left is a called a geode and the other is the mineral amethyst . Let s discuss the geode first. Geode is Greek for earth-like and is a, basically, a hole filled with crystal....

Geology: Identidy Rock or Fossil?
Hi Tanna, Nice specimen you have there. It s a bit blurry but I am sure it s what we call a porphyry . That s an igneous rock, one that was completely melted and then lithified. When rocks are heated enough to melt, all the various elements are...

Geology: jobs of geology
Dear Ali, I think your concern about future job opportunities for you is quite valid. However, it s very difficult to tell you how things will unfold in future and how many jobs will be available in Pakistan and elsewhere. Since there is no hard data about...

Geology: jobs opportunities of geology
Dear Ali Murtaza, No need to be demotivated and first you focus your attention towards studies and only then you get to worry about jobs. First, you need to know there are always jobs for best candidates and those with market oriented skills. 2D-3D Seismic...

Geology: lamprhorlite bomb pipe
Obviously you are interested in identifying where the kimberlite pipe might be. The image you sent is not adequate resolution to be of much help to me. Where did you find the bomb, was it in a stream or lying in teh soil? From the image it looks like...

Geology: lamprhorlite bomb
The simple answer is yes. From your recognition of the rock as a lamprhorlite bomb or tuff you know something about geology; but the problem is that just because you have a lamprhorlite doesn t mean that you necessarily have diamonds but it is a good starting...

Geology: Landfill leachate
John: A generic answer will probably not be of much use. Landfills are different, what comes out depends on what went in. NJ has kind of a reputation for being a float on plumes of one form or another from the former industrialization. If a landfill...

Geology: Mineral rock?
Hi Charles, No images came through so I still can t tell what you have. But I can say it isn t a fossil. I don t think it s phonolite, but I can t be sure. Tap it with a hammer (don t hit it too hard). If it has a metallic ring it might be phonolite,...

Geology: MS thesis topic
Mike: It can be a risk. What an interviewer might ask is why did he do work on something that was basically an academic science project rather than on something that would further his knowledge in the line of work he planned on pursuing? Hard rock geology...

Geology: petroleum prospect
Dear Motaz, Thanks for sending me your question. Petroleum prospect is any yet to drilled structural, stratigraphic or combination trap that have been identified in surface or subsurface by a team of experienced geologists, geophysicist and engineers...

Geology: Rock
Jan: What you appear to have is part of what is called a cone in cone structure. The rock looks to be limestone, with veins of calcite threaded into the radial fractures around the circumference. A suite of cone in cones looks The formation of...

Geology: Rock cluster identification
I can t really see it well enough (in the picture) to tell you what is in it but having seen similar clusters many times in the field (mostly in Colorado) I expect that it is pegmatite. Pegmatites are a very crystalline, intrusive igneous rock composed...

Geology: specimen identification
This rock is quartz/chert with a pyrolusite coating. The rock itself is quartz/chert SiO2 the most common mineral on earth with minor amounts of iron (turning the quartz red). Quartz is clear with no tract minerals contained. Pyrolusite is a mineral consisting...

Geology: stratigraphy of Pakistan, stratigraphy, Pakistan
stratigraphy, Pakistan: Asad, Do you want to just complete your assignment or prefer to learn and understand the fascinating stratigraphy of Pakisan? This forum is meant to teach how to catch the fish ! I recommend that you read the book Stratigraphy and historical geology...

Geology: Track Ballast - Alternative Materials.
Anything that you produce may be of assistance but there are two or three important items that any theoretic chart is going to miss. Some of these missing criteria are the location, quality/specifications, quantity/reserves, impurities. I could make a chart...

Geology: Track Ballast - Alternative Materials.
Dear Mr. Prashant, some of the requirements of ballast are : Hard rock un altered that can be broken easily into fragments with sharp edges and it should be available cheaply as near as possible. so it may vary from site to site depending upon availability....

Geology: Track Ballast - Alternative Materials.
Okay, it seems that the question is a class exercise that does not hold to the boundaries of economics or rationality. In other words it is an intellectual exercise with no anchoring in reality. The instructor is asking you to consider materials for...

Geology: well site question
Dear Waqar Ahmed, Thanks for sending me your question. Casing is very important for any drilling well as it provides the safe pathway for bit to drill new formation. Therefore, it s essential that seat of the casing should be anchored in a formation...

Geology: heed help identifying rock
Geology: heed help identifying rock

Geology: Follow up question about well site fluorescence evaluation.
The LWD too can take several measurements including natural Gamma Ray, Spectral Gamma Ray, Electrical resistivity, Density and Neutorn. Gamma Ray is the best tool to identify the lithology and I would recommend to observe closely the GR response while taking...

Geology: Geochemistry or Hydrology?
The outlook for either should be very good. I would suspect that, at least to some extent, your choice depends on where you would like to live. Although hydrologic work exist in the whole of the US, and to a lessor extent outside of the US,there is probably...

Geology: geology, Stratigraphy of Sindh
Stratigraphy of Sindh: Dear Shakeel, Please find the attached image about the Stratigraphy of district Khairpur which is self explanatory. (reference: AAPG Bulletin V 93, No 5, May 2009 pp-595-615. Berger A. et. al) The limestone of Kirthar Formation of Upper-Middle Eocene...

Geology: heed help identifying rock
Susan If it were me I would take the money and run. My first guess is that this is a piece of industrial waste, probably from a steel mill. You don t say where in western MI it came from, but if it is from lower MI and from the shores of Lake MI, then...

Geology: petroleum geology
Salman, The best way for you is to visit your library. Several books on Structural Geology would be available there. The one basic/old book is by Leverson. By studying yourself and making sketches of different traps you will be able to understand and remember...

Geology: petroleum geology of gujar khan area, Gujar Khan, petroleum prospect
Gujar Khan, petroleum prospect: Abdul Basit, Gujar Khan probably lies at the eastern end of the potential hydrocarbon habitat of Potwar. In an anti-clockwise manner Miss Keswal, Adhi and Rajian oilfields are present on the west of the city. There is no surface expression of a structure...

Geology: Salam Sir, Khewra sandstone
Khewra sandstone: Naveed, Walaikassalam The sedimentary features like cross-bedding, mud-cracks, ripple marks are common in Khewra Sandstone across Potwar and Khisor Range. However, in Khisor Range (Saiyiduwali Section) the upper pat of the formation grades into glauconitic...

Geology: Structural Geology, Thesis subjects, selection
Thesis subjects, selection: Muhammad, You have indicated a wide range of subjects of your interest. You must see which of the subjects carries maximum published literature. So your priority needs to be based on your understanding/preference out of your list of choices, and the...

Geology: Water forming on Earth
Don I am guessing if you could solve these questions you would be a very famous (at least in geological circles) man............. I think these are the types of mysteries that geologists are tryign to solve. You could do a little reading on oxygen...

Geology: Well site identification of reservior fluid with oil based mud during drilling, Wellsite geology; oil based mud and reservoir oil shows diference
Wellsite geology; oil based mud and reservoir oil shows diference: Dear Rahul, I have responded similar question and forwarding you the answer I have given few months ago. Please Do Rate it it. REgards Tariq Dear Ali Mohammad, Thanks for sending me this question. It is common that oil is mixed with...

Geology: Well site identification of reservior fluid with oil based mud during drilling
Rahul, I think the important aspect is ROP. Is it smoothly rotating and gaining the desired depth and that there are no drilling breaks. Is the core being cut as per design i.e. vertical or following the desired angle. The fishing related symptoms are to...

Geology: dip azimuth
Dear Muhammad Musa, Thanks for your question. True dip; dip of a stratum is the angle between the bedding and a horizontal plane and is measured in a vertical plane that strikes at right angles to the strike of the bedding. Apparent dip is any angle...

Geology: best lithology for casing point, casing shoe
casing shoe: Muhammad, Claystone is prone to getting mixed with water very quickly. Being at the casing shoe it creates a void below the shoe, which gets bigger with time. It endangers the integrity of the bond. The losses in a limestone can be cured, anyway, particularly...

Geology: claystone as bad lithology for casing point, claystone, casing shoe
claystone, casing shoe: Muhammad, I have given the answer in a previous mail too. Unlike other lithologies the clay stone will readily become soft and get mixed with water and mud. Even during the drilling phase the integrity of the shoe strength may be compromised. It would...

Geology: depositional environment
Dear Muhammad Musa, The age of Tobra Formation is Early Permian overlying unconformably on Early Cambrian and found in Punjab Platform and Potwar basin area in outcrops and wells. Based on the lithological studies of the rocks of Tobra is comprised of boulder...

Geology: Depositional environment of Khewara s.stone
Dear Muhammad Musaa, Thanks for you question and thanks for your previous answer s rating. Khewra Sandstone of Early Cambrian age is well exposed in Salt Range, Punjab Pakistan in the Khewra and Nilawahan Gorges where it was best studied with visible...

Geology: petrophysics...-----SP Log
Dear Mr Muhammad Musa, Thanks for your question. Please note that there are other factors as well which effect the SP values such as hydrocarbon content in bed, borehole diameter, Invasion, shale content in permeable bed and bed resistivity. SP needs...

Geology: Drainage area of a well
Drainage area of well is the circumference aroud the well which feed oil, gas and water towards well bore to flow. As a thumb rule, 640 acres or 1 squrae mile area is considered a drainage area but it depends on the measure of permeability of the reservoir....

Geology: I found this today some kind of petrified egg?
Cheri, An egg has quite a smooth outer surface, and the thickness of the shell is smaller. The outer white ring in your specimen is too thick to be considered as the shell of an egg! Even the shape does not match to a petrified egg. The picture gets blurred,...

Geology: WATER AQUIFER, artesian aquifer, shallow depth
artesian aquifer, shallow depth, drilling: Muhammad, At that depth it is most likely to be an artesian aquifer. Subject to how high is the pressure, the mud-weight has to be designed. You may either continue with an overbalanced mud if the pressure is not high, and the rock strength of the deeper...

Geology: Hydrology
Hi Ireida This is a bit outside my field of expertise - you should talk to some professors or industry experts. I am not sure I can tell you the difference between a Geotechnical Engineer and an Engineering Geologist - sorry. I think that soil and fluid...

Geology: Interesting Discovery and Perspective
Hello Michelle Thanks for your email. It sounds like you have found something interesting. I would love to see some pictures of your discovery. I may be able to tell you what kind of rocks they are but probably not who made the designs. If they were carved...

Geology: limestone with secondary porosity?, secondary porosity, induced
secondary porosity, induced: Muhammad, The two conventional ways are, as under: For sandstone (clastics in general) we go for Hydraulic Fracturing. A designed liquid, which contains solid micro-globules is pushed into the reservoir rock that enters the fractures created due to the...

Geology: Meteorite?
Yes it is in my field and it sounds like pyrite. The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool s gold, is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. This mineral s metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue give it a superficial resemblance to gold, hence...

Geology: Ore deposits, Ore Deposits and Abundance of Elements
Ore Deposits and Abundance of Elements: Dear Keith Different names assigned to different fluids sometimes is arbitrary and the distinction between them is not always so straight forward. Hydrothermal fluids are formed at the end of fractional crystalization processes of magma. During the crystalization...

Geology: petrophysics
Dear Mr Ahmad, Thanks for sending me your question. It s fantastic that you have read a lot about Petrophysics and you are ready start logs interpretation. SP or Spontaneous Potential is the first log run by Schlumberger brothers in a well borehole during...

Geology: petrophysics
Following is the answer of your question; Track One(extreme left); 4 curves, Bit size, SP, Caliper, Gamma Ray and SP Track two (middle); Resistivity (induction or laterolog with MSFL, shallow and deep resistivity curves) Track three (extreme right)Neutron,...

Geology: petrophysics
Dear Muhammad Musa There is no right and wrong answer but you have to see complete dataset of logs. Keep in mind that all wireline logs read and measure several physical properties of the wellbore, formation and formation fluids. There are factors affecting...

Geology: Question about possibility of sinkholes
A good question, I live in India and have no knowledge of geology the Serbia-Vojvodina-West Bacca town of Odzaci but would try to reply to your query. Normally sinkholes are not to be expected in non-limestone terrains/karstic areas. There is a possibility...

Geology: regaridng artificial islands
Dear Ameen, Good morning and Fraternal Greetings! Thank you very much for your question. My answer is as follows The Palm Jumeirah was created by pouring sand fill onto the 10.5-metre-deep seabed using dredgers. Above sea level, 3 metres of the reclamation...

Geology: reservoir sandstone with secondary porosity
Dear Musa, Good question but difficult to answer as there is not enough data about the secondary porosity reservoirs of Pakistan. However, we have to understand the processes responsible for creating secondary porosity in sandstone. Secondary porosity is...

Geology: Rock Finding
The so called carving as seen in the pics. seems to me be the intrinsic part of the rocks. My suggestion is to show the same to : (1) nearest office of Archeology to say if indeed it is ancient carving? (2) nearest office of a geologist ot Geological Survey...

Geology: Rocks Finding
Michele I honestly don t see much evidence of any carving there. On the Rock 1 photograph what I do see is some evidence of intrusive igneous activity, where a fault opened in a rock and hot magma intruded and incorporated broken peices of the host rock.....

Geology: SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENT OF CHORGALI FORMATION, Environment of deposition of Chorgali Formation
Environment of deposition of Chorgali Formation: The environment of deposition of Chorgali Formation is intertidal to supratidal. This interpretation is based on the presence of forums (benthonic), stromatolites and vanish evaporaites. Ref http://www.slashdocs.com/kykwhh/microfacies-and-environment-of-deposition-of-chorgali-formation-khair-e-murat-range-punjab-pakistan.html...

Geology: tremors
EQ waves spreads in all direction, due to anisotropic behavior/conditions within the earth s interior and alluvium these waves might get attenuated locally resulting in feeble tremors in comparison to other areas due to the same event. To my belief there...

Geology: True dip and Apparent Dip
Dear Muhammad Musa, The definition of Apparent dip is any angle measured in a vertical plane that is not perpendicular to the strike line. Take an example; Open a book and keep on a table tent or like a A. The top part is strike line. The two limbs...

Geology: well site coring, casing point
casing point: Waqar, I suggest you read the paper published in the Proceedings of the PAPG-SPE ATC 2013 (pages 156 to 174. That may give an answer to Q:1 of yours. In the recent past I have given an answer to the similar question, which you may like to review also. ...

Geology: work flow
Dear Mr Ahmad, I am sure your company have provided you informative training about your company s objective of field development which will help you a lot to start your job. Following are my suggestions Collect wells reports and logs of the field...

Geology: Career planning, Paper writing
Paper writing: Mr. Geologist, The key to good writing is what one of the Editors of the daily Dawn said, and I quote To write well Sir, you have to read well Sir! So read as much as you can on the subject and otherwise. You write a paper on your subject of interest....

Geology: determining stone and rock type
There are not easy ways to determine many rock types; even a geologist can be wrong with out a lab analysis. Because I and others have seen many samples of the above mentioned rock types and know their basic constitution we can determine about 90 - 95 percent...

Geology: determining stone and rock types
zohre Dear Sir/Madam Rock is aggregate of mineral-Any natural cut into required size is called as stones Identification of rocks on the basis visual -recognition of minerals Granite consists of quartz and feldspars-u have to identify minerals next only...

Geology: fuel geology
Dear Mr.Shariq khan Thanks for your question, You may refer Coal fields of India published by GSI and also following papers for your reference Coal seam correlation of an Indian Gondwana coalfield: A palaeobotanical perspectivemore by Deepa Agnihotri ...

Geology: fuel geology
Shariq You know how to use the internet I think - yes? The palynological, particulate organic material (palynodebris) and biopetrological aspects of the main lignite seam encountered in NLE-27, NLE-35 and NLE-36 borehole sections in mine III of the Neyveli...

Geology: Geologic time and Layers of the earth
Ben: I lived on Okinawa back in the 1960 s and rode out a few typhoons during my time there. No fun. I ll try to help you out, but these questions sound like homework. I don t mind assisting, but what I don t have is the context needed to give you...

Geology: Interview
Ivy: What made me what to be a geologist....well, I kind of backed into it. I had friends when I was a kid, who were rock hounds that is they collected rocks and minerals. I really didn t know much about it, and ignorance is bliss, so I didn t really...

Geology: Micropalaentology and petroleum exploration
Dear Mr.Ravi, Micropalaeontology is highly useful for petroleum exploration in identifying age of the formation.you can refer http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fosrec/ONeill.html and also some atandard text books written by M.Anantharamakrishnan on micropalaeontology....

Geology: Mountains
Mountains are landforms so to speak formed due to endogenetic (tectonics on different scales) or exogenetic (erosion-deposition ways. So weakness or density is really not directly connected with mountains - they can be of any kinds of the rocks we find in...

Geology: MUD-LOGGING
Dear Mr.Waqar Ahmed, Some important questions are what is mudlogging and what are various parameters, instruments and measured parameters and its uses in mudlogging in oil and gas exploration. Well site coring is nothing but retrieval of core samples during...

Geology: Natural H2S in oils or from recent SRB activity
Dear Dev, Thanks for sending me your question. Please accept my sincere apology. I hate to offer the excuse for not responding you earlier due to my engagements but I have to admit that I should have responded your earlier. The temperature and pressure...

Geology: Petroleum Geology
DEAR HASAN, WALIUK ASSALAM Thanks for sending your question. I can give you a summary of the application of petroleum geology in the real world. Only two examples from several other important aspects which I believe are very crucial; Petroleum exploration...

Geology: Petroleum Geology oF Pakistan, Literature, Petroleum Geology
Literature, Petroleum Geology: Hasan, This is a tall order! There is a considerable literature, on the subject, available for you to understand the Petroleum Geology of Pakistan. Kadri (1995), many Proceedings volumes of PAPG-SPE ATCs, Kazmi and Abbasi (2008), HDIP s Hydrocarbon Journals...

Geology: petrophysics, Archie Law
Archie Law: Hi Musa Thank you so much for putting an interesting question. Infact Archie is the basis for all the modern Petrophysics. In 1942 Archie gave his classical empirical formula which set the basis of petrophysics. At that time only clean formations were...

Geology: petrophysics
Dear Muhammad Musa, Sorry for delayed response due to my business related engagements. Hope you don t mind it. This is little long answer and probably you would appreciate it. Sw from porosity: Yes but you need to know some other information, it...

Geology: Reserve_Estimations
Walikum assalam I don t have all the information which requires to comment professionally but I will try to answer this question with limited information. I read this news in www.dawn.com and was really amazing flow rate for any oil with 22 API gravity....

Geology: rock artifact?
Okay, now the new picture opens up at least one other possibility. Do you know if there were any old iron or other types of smelters in the area? The rock definitely has some flow pattern to it, and looks a lot more glassy in this picture than in the first....

Geology: rocks
Dear Rhoda, Good morning and Fraternal Greetings! I have seen the rock sample you have sent. It is difficult for me to know exactly what type of rock it is unless I could see with my naked eyes. More over some of the physical properties like Hardness, specific...

Geology: straitigraphy, Petroleum geology, literature
Petroleum geology, literature: Sadaqat, Do you know that so much literature on the subject is available for you to undertake most of the asigments? Kadri (1995), many Proceedings volumes of PAPG-SPE ATCs, Kazmi and Abbasi (2008), HDIP s Hydrocarbon Journals etc etc. Refer them and you...

Geology: geology
Dear Adil, I would suggest you to study petroleum engineering. I can foresee that in coming years petroleum engineers will be in high demand by industry. Although, getting admission in the university of your choice for studying petroleum engineering is...

Geology: Geology, Choice of subjects, oil exploration
Choice of subjects, oil exploration: Adil, How good are you in Maths? Your choice depends on this question. The simple sequence of events in oil exploration is as under: A Geologist selects a prospective area, on which seismic surveys are conducted. A Geophysicist then interprets the seismic...

Geology: ID of minerals
The rock is a sandstone conglomerate with most of the minerals (whites, yellows and grays) being quartz. The red appears to be plagioclase felspar but I can t tell for sure since there is no structure to the mineral. Below is a link to a somewhat similar...

Geology: Mountain water
Hi Chris All of the water flowing down the Pyrenees originates as rain or snow melt. Even in the summer rivers will flow because the water seeps into the ground becoming groundwater which also flows downhill until it springs out into streams and rivers....

Geology: offshore
Dear Hasan, You are right that thickness of the sediments below sea floor is very limited in majority of the oceanic areas specially in the middle of the oceans. However, petroleum exploration is usually confined to the shallow to relatively deeper continental...

Geology: petroleum geology
Thanks for your sending me your question. An ideal sandstone reservoir should have high porosity (between 22 to 30%) and high permeability (greater than 500 Md). Sandstone without or minor cementation or slightly compacted are considered excellent reservoir....

Geology: Questin about fossil shells., Questions, relevant Expert
Questions, relevant Expert: Dario, I do not mind your rating. But I do have comments on your remarks: 1. I showed my inability as I am not an Expert in that field. I could not answer, because I do not know this subject. Geology has so many other branches. How many times have you...

Geology: research proposal, Writing guidelines
Writing guidelines: Zia, I just responded to one questioner (21/7/2014,Peter)you may find it useful,as far as the proposal part of your question is concerned, and some other suggestions are also there. It is said that To write well Sir, you have to read well Sir ! (not...

Geology: research proposal
Zia: I found this article: http://www.paas.com.pk/images/volume/pdf/790607620-19.pdf You might want to take it a bit further and try to refine the tests the did, but categorize the expansive clays through mineralogical analysis of the actual percentage...

Geology: What is the rock
Michael Sorry for the delay in responding. I think that what you have found is chert or some sort of other concretion often found in these conditions. These types of rocks would be consistent with what the Indians would use to make tools. Frase...

Geology: Seminar Topic, Thesis topic
Thesis topic: Peter, Good that you have reached the final year, and hope that your CGPA would be much above the average! The area is unknown to me, but I can provide you some guidelines and suggestions for selecting a topic, and other requirements for writing a paper...

Geology: Shells that found in a beach
Dario: No.1 is a pectin, it has the typical flattened rear hinge. The others look to be brachiopods. Brachiopods were once the most common shelled creature found in the ocean, with over 12000 species recognized. They date from the Cambrian to modern...

Geology: thesis, Bhawalpur area, Punjab Platform
Bhawalpur area, Punjab Platform: Alishba, Bhawalpur area falls on the Punjab Platform. Please go through the following papers published in the Proceeding Volumes of the PAPG-SPE ATCs. The year has been mentioned against each of the papers. Refound Exploration Opportunities In Infracambrian...

Geology: Unusual Rock?
Dale: What you have looks to be a siliceous concretion. The irregular crystals look to be silica, and as you observed there is also some iron cement thrown in as well. Most concretions form during digenesis when dissolved silica, iron or calcite move...

Geology: determining rock type
Dear Zohre Read the Petrology -book Rock identification can be done by megascopically-microscopically and chemical -analysis Simple identification on the basis of observation and identification of minerals in rocks- -To analysis rock -easily- Mineral...

Geology: determining rock types
Dear Zohre Even after Studying geology for sometime, identifying the most common rocks in the field can be very hard. So, it is not easy to practically teach you how to identify them. Nevertheless, you can find a general description of the sedimentary and...

Geology: Field geology
Dear raheel, The Early Cambrian Kussak formation is composed of relatively soft, green grey and purple, glauconitic sandstone and shales. the glauconite is the very important identifying mineral. The Khewra sandstone of Lower early Cambrian age is purplish-brown,...

Geology: Found a "rock" in a cave. Don't know what it is.
I have been an expert on all experts for ten or so years and this is the first time that I do not have a clue about a rock. I have also been a caver for 30 or so years and have never seen a rock like this in a cave. The one thing that I will say is that;...

Geology: Found a weird "rock" in a cave. Don't know what it is.
Hi Rhianna, What you have there is called a speleothem , more commonly called a stalactite or stalagmite. Speleothem is a generalized term for this type of formation, normally found in caves. Groundwater moves through rock and, most often, carries...

Geology: Petroleum geology of Pakistan
Walikum assalam Tanzilya Thanks for sending me this question and please accept my apology for delayed response as I was on annual vacations and I am just able to respond your question now. Petroleum exploration was initially started in Pakistan near...

Geology: Petroleum technology from ku have job market ?
Nasir, In any subject it depends on how you learn and how dedicated were you to your studies! These days a candidate is evaluated/selected more on how much his/her concepts are clear, than the GPA. The three steps are followed. The preliminary interview...

Geology: rock
Hi again Sirine, Thanks for the pic. They do look like pyrite nodules. Pyrite does have modern uses; the paper industry uses the sulfur dioxide that s made from it, sulfuric acid is made from it, and it s used in lithium batteries. But those uses are only...

Geology: well info, Punjab Platform
Punjab Platform: Kamran, Te wells is located on the Punjab Platform. The subsurface is a monocline gently dipping to the west. At Bhawalpur East-1 well, the Siwaliks are directly overlying Sakesar limestone. The well was drilled into the basement and was a dry well. The...

Geology: city water or ground water/spring
Matt: What part of Arkansas do you live in? The first thing I would do is look at the ground water table in your location. Generally the ground water table runs parallel to the ground surface, but not always. If you look at the lie of the surface you...

Geology: geography
Dear Anwar javed, Thanks for sending me this question. Your question is related to Environment and water management and I am not an expert of these fields but I will try to answer your question. Unexpected massive rains and heavy snowfalls may cause...

Geology: Geology, Moghal Kot, Fort Munro
Moghal Kot, Fort Munro: Muhammad, Southwest of the Rakhi Nala we have a minor gas accumulation at Jandran-1 well (Kadri, 1995)in the Moghal Kot. I am not sure, but in southern Kirthar Range hydrocarbons (gas) are also reported in wells. So Moghal Kot is part of the petroleum system....

Geology: geology
Hasnain, I think you can. But you may have to do it in two years, not one. Where did you do your Bachelors? It is best if you visit the websites of universities that offer Petroleum Geology, or visit the Departments directly. They would be the right people...

Geology: gold mining
The way gold extraction form Quartz is that the gold bearing quartz must be ground to a size of at least 200 Mesh which is about face powder size or less than 0.1 mm (100 m), but sometimes sizes smaller than 710 m are required. There is a tendency for the...

Geology: identify please
Dear Mr. Kolin, Good morning and Fraternal greetings! It is very difficult for me to identify the rock unless I see it with naked eye. Some of the physical properties like color, transparency, hardness and other properties are required to be studied. Please...

Geology: Msc Petroleum Geology
I would advice you study Petroleum Engineering (PE) which has increasing application in the petroleum industry. The demands of PE has been increased many fold in the last few years due to more complex nature of drilling and well completions practices. The...

Geology: Obsidian found in Michigan? Unknown rocks found
Hi Tammy, As you saw from Scott s email, the possibility of obsidian in Michigan is a recurring question. I still haven t found any evidence of in situ obsidian from any sources, so I am hesitant to say it is from a deposit in Michigan. Indeed, I believe...

Geology: Petroleum Engg
Dear Mr Muhammad, Thanks for seeking my advice on your son education. In Pakistan, there are other Universities offering Petroleum engineering for Bachelors degree other than UET, Lahore. Others are Institute of Petroleum of Natural Gas, Mehran University...

Geology: please answer, CSS
CSS: Sara, Thanks for your question, i don t think i am the best person to be asked a question like that. I tried to gather some information but i couldn t so i regret to answer this question. If in future i get any valueable information i would paste that here....

Geology: research proposal for master, thesis
thesis: Hello Ok here is a quick response, You can work on the fractured clastic or carbonates of Kohat fold and thrust belt wells, where you can work on variation of m factor with depositional and deformational changes. Work with variable m technique or integrate...

Geology: Rock? With fossilized bones- many bones
Hi Kim, Very interesting specimen you have there. Technically it s a bioturbated mudstone. Bioturbated means that the sediment was disturbed by living things; animals, plant roots or, in this case, worms. The structures you are seeing are not fossil...

Geology: mine
Dear Mr.Ehsan, Thanks for your question. Design for dump in open cast pit mine involves in the study of slope, flow direction of water and nature of subsurface formation study. The site selected should contain low permeable formation, low to moderate slope...

Geology: what are these
Hi Kolin, Thanks for sending a follow-up to your question. This new picture and a review of the other two got me to thinking about another possibility. Chert and Flint are cryptocrystalline minerals that look very glassy. In my experience they are not...

Geology: 7.5 pound agate, sturgeon bay, bay michigan
sturgeon bay, bay michigan, agates: Sure Lori, send the picture to : geologyexpert@yahoo.com But I ll bet you have a sample of the Lake Superior agate. If you do then your friends are correct and it is a once in a lifetime find. They are getting rarer, especially the larger ones. IF...

Geology: Abrasion of Rocks, grade science class, 9th grade science
grade science class, 9th grade science, limestone surface: Dear Shelby, Marble is lot harder and abrasion-resistant than limestone. In fact when limestone undergoes metamorphism ( high pressure and temparature treatment) it becomes Limestone. If you look at a limestone surface under the microscope, or just a...

Geology: Acreage and creeks, stream erosion, personal preference
stream erosion, personal preference, acre tract: Hi Carla, I don t think I ll be able to help much on this question. Without seeing the property, or knowing where it is, I can t tell how much, if any, stream erosion there will be. I assume there will be some, but if the creek isn t flowing too fast or...

Geology: Admission In Sindh University, sindh university, allah hafiz
sindh university, allah hafiz, american nationalist: I would encourage you to get admission in Geology. I also like to suggest to carefully study what a geology means and what a geologists do in their professional life. Jobs opportunities always change with market trend. Most important thing in professional...

Geology: AGE OF ROCKS, geology teachers, chemical weathering
geology teachers, chemical weathering, rock quarry: Teresa, Without seeing the rocks it is hard to answer your question with any certainty. Let me speculate a bit though. Since you live in a warm wet climate and your quarry is probably shallow, the rings you see are most likely caused by chemical weathering....

Geology: Air Pockets, density of water, cement blocks
density of water, cement blocks, air pockets: Chandra, I would have to side with you. Here is my reasoning. Air is much less dense than water, therefore it rises in water. The average human being is about the same density of water (we are made up of about 65% water [78% at birth]). With our lungs full...

Geology: Alfred Wegener, continents and oceans, alfred wegener
continents and oceans, alfred wegener, mt vesuvius: ALFRED WEGENER (1880-1930) German climatologist and geophysicist who, in 1915, published as expanded version of his 1912 book The Origin of Continents and Oceans. This work was one of the first to suggest continental drift and plate tectonics. He suggested...

Geology: Amazon River Headwaters, convection cells, amazon river
convection cells, amazon river, venezuela columbia: George, The headwaters of any stream are not a single point on a map but a line that follows the topography separating one river basin from another. For example, it is just as valid to say the headwaters of the Mississippi are in Yellowstone park where...

Geology: Answer these questions please!, mineral crystals, kitchen cupboard
mineral crystals, kitchen cupboard, oxygen isotope: Hi Vanessa, You have a lot of questions which I will try to answer very concisely for you. 1) Sedimnetary rocks show layers because the are fomred by slow falling of particles. Over time these particles change in compositon or size, thus appearing as unique...

Geology: Answer them as soon as possible!, economic minerals, sedimentary rocks
economic minerals, sedimentary rocks, seed crystal: These look like homework. I ll help point you in the right direction. 1) think about where sedimentary rocks were deposited. It is called water. 2) It affects its viscosity and the rate of crystalization. 3) Two different methods, absolute, using...

Geology: Anticipation of Earthquake, anticipation, earthquake
anticipation, earthquake, advancement of technology: Sorry for late reply. It is a common question regarding the earthquake. With advancement of technology now a days experts are able to predict an earthquake in advance. Exact anticipation is depends how deeply they are monitoring the area and it can vary from...

Geology: Appalachain Plateau, appalachian mountain chain, appalachian plateau
appalachian mountain chain, appalachian plateau, northern appalachians: Hi David, The Appalachian Plateau was formed when rivers and streams began the process of eroding the original Appalachian Mountain chain. They carried the sediment from the mountains and deposited at theie feet creating a flat plain. How the mountains...

Geology: Aqua Geode???, tiny crystals, google search
tiny crystals, google search, rock hound: Hi Ed, Sounds like a good geode you have there. It probably is not filled with liquid. That should have leaked away long ago. But you never can tell since Geology is the contrary science that it is. Most probably you have what I have heard called a Shaker...

Geology: Area of Tectonic Plates, physical geology, tectonic plates
physical geology, tectonic plates, etal: Hi Andrew, There isn t much information on plate areas. I found this PDF that has the areas of at least some of the plates: http://www.lithosphere.info/papers/drag-tecto02.pdf And this site advertises a book called Physical Geology , by Plummer etal...

Geology: Arizona gold nuggets in schist, gold placers, quartz matrix
gold placers, quartz matrix, gold nuggets: Dave, A quartz matrix is not always present in veinlets and veins that have gold. The matrix may have been calcite or siderite if the system was highly enriched in carbon dioxide and depleted in silica when it formed. The fact that this gold is coming...

Geology: absolute age, zircon crystals, source rocks
zircon crystals, source rocks, geologic material: Absolute age is the numeric determination in years of a geologic material, rock or fossil. The date can be in a range of years. These are determined by radiometric techniques, using the half life or rate of decay of the radio active materials and the accumulation...

Geology: age halfway, earth rocks, metamorphic rocks
earth rocks, metamorphic rocks, formation of the earth: Rocks were formed under the geological process and geological time.Igneous and metamorphic rocks were formed during the formation of the earth.Rocks even today formed during volcanic eruption lava cooling also result volcanic rocks.Most of rocks formed million...

Geology: ancient sea levels, ancient sea levels, medieval warm period
ancient sea levels, medieval warm period, north american continent: True, and any look at the ocean current maps will show you that the same current that keeps Britain and Scandinavia ice free would have done the same for southern Greenland. Proxy evidence? That s the trouble with the whole global warming debate. I...

Geology: apatite, phosphate minerals, cl ions
phosphate minerals, cl ions, petroleum geologist: Dear Kyaw, I am not a geochemist, however, please find below an except from Wilkipedia about apatite. Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH-,...

Geology: apatite, rare earth elements, granite pegmatites
rare earth elements, granite pegmatites, clay minerals: Apatite-Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH)-HEXAGONAL FORM,COLOUR=GREEN,BLUISH GREEN,BLUE ,VIOLET COLOR LESS,RED STREAK=WHITE.LUSTRE=VITREOUS,HARDNESS=5,density 3.2-3.2.most apatites fit given above in which F,Cl and (OH)are present in varying amounts though the pure end...

Geology: asking, dolomite limestone, sedimentary environments
dolomite limestone, sedimentary environments, sedimentary structure: herow gharib, These are great questions. They are a little general, so I will write what I can and let you respond if you need additional information. Sedimentary deposits are recognized in the field by their characteristics. They are either clastic or...

Geology: asking, petroleum migration, giant fields
petroleum migration, giant fields, prosity: Answer: Q1. The term super giant is a loose term and can not be classified through any discrete number. Once any field larger than 1 billion barrels was considered as giant and perhaps more than 10 billion is as super giant. Since the trend of the large...

Geology: asking, sulaimani, master science
sulaimani, master science, relative age: Hi Herow, These are some mighty complicated subjects so rather than try to tackle them here let me give you a couple of Internet sites to look at. I think they will help. The first concerns your question on oil migration and plate tectonics. Simply...

Geology: astronomy, cycles of the moon, religious reference
cycles of the moon, religious reference, pagan: Hi, Haseeb... I am not familiar with the term humans moon and have not been able to locate any references to it. Is it possible that you have the wrong word? In what context did you find this term? It may be a religious reference - there are many religions...

Geology: Barnett Shale (Texas) geology, barnett shale texas, bureau of economic geology
barnett shale texas, bureau of economic geology, texas bureau of economic geology: Hello, Todd, Sorry it has taken me so long to answer. I was out of town last Weds-Sun and I forgot to put in my vacation break on AllExperts. I suggest you try the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology s website (they re in Austin; I worked there when in...

Geology: Basic Geology questions, convection cells, rio de janeiro brazil
convection cells, rio de janeiro brazil, geology questions: At formation the earth was belived to be molten, it was probably a mass of solar material that coalesced and began to cool, picking up debris in its gravitational field. 2) Don t know the largest, when does a meteor become an asteroid, and asteroid a planet?...

Geology: Basic Geology, lithospheric plates, what is basalt
lithospheric plates, what is basalt, pyroxene: Dear Samson, These are really very questions. For the fisrt one, BASALT is an ultrabasic igneous rock, fine grained, and consisting of plagioclase and pyroxene, whereas Granite is totally opposite. It is acid igneous rock course grained and is quartz feldspar...

Geology: Best way to enter the industry, petroleum industry professionals, petroleum economics
petroleum industry professionals, petroleum economics, motor mechanics: Dear John Petroleum industry professionals can be categorized into two. Hard core petroleum people or soft core (both terms are my self styled.....) Hard core people works on drilling locations such as wellsite, land on offshore. These include ellsite geologists,...

Geology: Black Sand, bethany beach delaware, new jersey shore
bethany beach delaware, new jersey shore, black sand: Marc: You are right, the processes are the same at Bethany as they are at Stone Harbor. The source is the same also. As for experiments, this is a physics problem more than a chemistry problem. See if you can try to make a wave tank. Start with a long,...

Geology: Boulder threatening my house, anwar khan, desk study
anwar khan, desk study, slopy: Dear Liz, It is indeed a matter of concern. More often than not, the looks of boulders on a slopy rock mass, can be deceptive (they are lot more stable than they appear). However there are number of important factors which aid in designing the remedial measures...

Geology: Brazilian Student - Geology Unit, geology unit, rocks and minerals
geology unit, rocks and minerals, study geology: 1. Why some rocks are so hard while others are so soft? Mineralogy, type of rock (igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic) type of cementation, where it formed. Did you really mean rock, or did you mean mineral? 2. How many years does a diamond take to...

Geology: Bs - 1 Geology, university of sindh jamshoro, ahsan
university of sindh jamshoro, ahsan, mineralogy: Hello Ahsan Thanks for your question. There are several online sites available for learning geology but one site I would particularly like to refer is as follows http://geology.about.com/library/weekly/aa112298.htm I am hopefull you will get good...

Geology: Business and Geology, mineral exploration industry, exploration geology
mineral exploration industry, exploration geology, geology graduate: Drew Thanks for sending me your question. I will try to briefly answer you. As you must be aware that geology could be applied in variety of earth related disciplines. Oil and mineral exploration are among few of them but have very strong economic impact...

Geology: basalt, geology department staff, oceanic basins
geology department staff, oceanic basins, mantle material: Hi Jaxs, Basalt is the most abundant rock type on the surface of the Earth. Most of the oceanic basins are made of basalt. New basalt is formed at the spreading ridges in the basins (see http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/developing.html ) from remelted mantle...

Geology: black rock with sparkles, hematite, zillions
hematite, zillions, trip to florida: Hi Lou, Without seeing the rock it is somewhat hard to tell but I suspect that, almost certainly, your rock is Specular Hematite. If it s rather heavy for it s size and the sparkle that you see looks like it s coming from zillions of individual specks on...

Geology: black sand beaches, weathering agents, sand beaches
weathering agents, sand beaches, beches: Dear Mitch Beaches were formed due to geological action.Sand along beached indicates about the geological action of oceans.Sediments were brought to the oceans by the weathering agents -mostly by rivers or glaciers.Generally black beches may be clay type...

Geology: black sand, black sand beach, lava bed
black sand beach, lava bed, hawaii beaches: Hi Jessica, You are correct that the material that forms the black beaches is basalt. There are two types of black sand beaches; one where the grains are very sharp and one where the edges have been rounded over. It s how the lava enters the water that...

Geology: black sandbeaches, gold placer deposits, rare earth elements
gold placer deposits, rare earth elements, mineral separations: Mitch: This is an easy one. First, I am assuming you are not living near a volcano, where a lot of the sand is black due to being volcanic ash or the breakdown of volcanic rocks like basalt into sand. Iwo Jima is an example of a volcanic island with black...

Geology: why is blue agate blue?, blue agate, agate blue
blue agate, agate blue, microscopic inclusions: V Nice of you to ask this question just now. I am visiting with a geologist who is also a serious mineral collector. I asked his opinion and he is showing me a specimen of blue agate filling an old fracture in a volcanic rock. The color is the same as...

Geology: C. Robert Reszka JR, field geologist, geology departments
field geologist, geology departments, kean university: Hi Cynthia, I can give you a few suggestions for help. The first is the New jersey Geological Survey. Their website is: http://www.state.nj.us/dep/njgs/ They should be your best bet. They might be able to send out a field geologist (that s one of...

Geology: Carbonate Environments, carbonate environments, weathering and soil
carbonate environments, weathering and soil, marine environments: u can see related webs to get the answers Petrology Questions Planet Earth I: Weathering and Soil Jointing is also produced by tectonic activity. ... the term is usually only used when looking at large, gravel sized grains in by Prof DVREDDY-NITK-INDIA...

Geology: Carbonate sedimentation rates, e mail address, sedimentation rates
e mail address, sedimentation rates, sunlight conditions: Dear Satish, Your ancient rates seem acceptable. However, given ideal conditions, carbonate growth rates can be much higher than the average rates suggested in the literature. If nutrient supply, sunlight conditions, relative rate of sea level/water depth,...

Geology: Career related, petroleum minerals, formation of earth
petroleum minerals, formation of earth, study earth: Geology is exteremly interesting subject and I encourage you to continue with your interest to become a Geologist. You may get formal education by enrolling yourself in any university or college which ever good for you. Once you will get into the education...

Geology: Carreer, carreer, geologist
carreer, geologist, physicist: Hi Thomas, Well, I ve always been interested in natural things and how they worked. I wondered why a mountain or hill was where it was, or why a river looked like it did. I wanted to know about minerals and how rocks formed. I was planning on being a Physicist...

Geology: Caves: Stalagmites/Stalagtites, collapse features, lava fields
collapse features, lava fields, deepest caves: Hi Antoinne, I m not entirely sure of your question. Under the subject you write; Caves: Stalagmites/Stalagtites but in the question you say I would like to know exactly what kind of environment that these caves grow in, where most of these caves are...

Geology: Cleavage, crystallography, cleavage
crystallography, cleavage, clarification: Hi Michelle, Try this site it s pretty comprehensive and contains information on both cleavage and crystallography; http://www.rockhounds.com/rockshop/xtal/part1.html Hope this helps, but if you need anymore clarification just let me know. Bo...

Geology: Clue, beauty pool, sunset crater
beauty pool, sunset crater, beauty sleep: Hey Jay... I think you stumped me on this one - the only thing I can find that is close is the Sleeping Beauty Mine in Arizona. This is a place where they supposedly mine some of the finest turquoise in the world. Maybe that is it? Sorry I can t be of...

Geology: Coal, formation of coal, natural occurrence
formation of coal, natural occurrence, coal fields: Hi Chelsea, I m not an expert in the Indiana coal fields but there is some general information that will help. As you state; both coal and oil are made of organic material. Their differences lie in what kinds of organic material. Coal is predominantly...

Geology: Cobble stones, mt st helen, geology graduate
mt st helen, geology graduate, cobble stones: Hi Again Asim, I used the Mt. St. Helen example to give you an idea of how even large rocks can be moved, and consequently how their edges can be worn down. Smaller rocks will have their edges worn down the same way, by bouncing along in the water. In addition,...

Geology: Continent geology, mr c, continents
mr c, continents, geology: Hi Kevin, Here are three sites that will give you a lot of information on the continents. Finding two things on each should be a snap. http://www.ri.net/schools/Central_Falls/v/218/t7con.html http://worldatlas.com/geoquiz/thelist.htm http://geocities.com/Continents_2000/...

Geology: Convection Currents, convection currents, convection cell
convection currents, convection cell, core cells: Johann: To understand a convection current or convection cell, you do not have to look any farther than a boiling pot of water. Any liquid when heated, expands. The molecular density decreases as the molecules move more rapidly and collide pushing each...

Geology: Coral Reef, coral reefs, coral reef
coral reefs, coral reef, calcium carbonate: Hi Juliana, Coral reefs are formed from the skeletons of tiny animal called a POLYP that s not even as big as the nail on your little finger. They settle on a hard surface, usually an existing reef, and secrete a little cup called a CALYX. The polyp also...

Geology: Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, dallas geological society, cretaceous tertiary boundary
dallas geological society, cretaceous tertiary boundary, dallas area: John: I am not that familiar with the Dallas area. Here is a link to the Dallas Geological Society. They usually have guidebooks from former field trips run by the Society. I would be surprised if they didn t have one that has a location for the C/T...

Geology: Crevillente Mountains, plate tectonics, black marble
plate tectonics, black marble, map of spain: Hi Liz, sorry its taken me a while to respond. I ve had a good look on the web myself and have found that there are some papers available but they are all pretty specific - and detailed. It appears to me that the area you are looking at is another collision...

Geology: Crude oil/petrolium, ali akbar, gas carbon dioxide
ali akbar, gas carbon dioxide, syed ali: Dear Angus, Here are some disadvantages of the crude oil. When Crude Oil burned they produce the gas carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas and is a major contributor to global warming. Transporting oil around the world can produce oil spill, pollute...

Geology: canyon formation..., coconino sandstone, formation of the rocky mountains
coconino sandstone, formation of the rocky mountains, redwall limestone: Hello again, Peter, You ask some very good questions. The Colorado Plateau rose during formation of the Rocky Mountains over millions of years. The mountains and plateau probably resulted from a collision of two continental plates (continental drift),...

Geology: career advice, qatar petroleum, saudi aramco
qatar petroleum, saudi aramco, diploma certificate: Dear John, Degree in Economics with specialisation in Petroleum Engg sounds like a pretty hot deal for future prospects. Current Industry reqauirements show that petroleum Engg/ Geology qualified staff are in better demand than their peers in other...

Geology: career advice, petroleum geology, petroleum science
petroleum geology, petroleum science, petroleum exploration: Hi Geology is fantastic science which offers you countless observations opportunities about Earth and ongoing processes affecting its face. Petroleum exploration is aggressively in progress and since the technology has changed the facet of its role,...

Geology: career guidance, imperial college london, biological sciences program
imperial college london, biological sciences program, colorado school of mines: Thanks dear for sending me an interesting situation. I have feelings that you have taken few decisions about yourself without involving any one from your family or friend. I am sorry I can t respond about your question of biological science as I have little...

Geology: career guide, petroleum geology, structural geology
petroleum geology, structural geology, petroleum exploration: Dear Kamran, Thank you very much for sending me question about career in geology. I wish you could send it be with more details. You have not mentioned how many subjects would be enough to meet degree requirements. If selection is just one subject it...

Geology: career guide, petroleum geology, structural geology
petroleum geology, structural geology, environmental geology: Kamran: There are job opportunities in petroleum geology and environmental geology. Petroleum pays more than environmental. Truly petroleum and structural geology are related as are environmental and hydrology. So I am not sure of the distinction in...

Geology: career guide, petroleum geology, structural geology
petroleum geology, structural geology, karnataka india: Dear Kamaran A student must have basic subject in Geology first .You are already studying.However specialization in UG level does not matter much.However each subject you are mentioned is unique and possessing scope. If you are planning to work in Gulf countries...

Geology: career guide, environmental geologists, petroleum exploration
environmental geologists, petroleum exploration, structural geology: Kamran, The best direction to go is the one that looks the most interesting to you. In short, follow your heart. You will spend much of your life working on whatever profession you choose so you had better like what you are doing. Of the list you provide,...

Geology: career guide, petroleum geology, exploration geology
petroleum geology, exploration geology, structural geology: Dear kamran, I a biased in my opinion, but i would suggest that Petroleum geology and mineral exploration are the two growing components in the field of geology. With the price of oil rising and metals prices rising as well, there is a huge growth potential...

Geology: carrier guide, sargodha university, petroleum exploration
sargodha university, petroleum exploration, structural geology: Dear Kamran, I am glad that you are keen to know about the attractive GEOLOGY subject in context of career in Pakistan. Can I ask why you are looking your career only in Pakistan as we are living in a Global village? Anyway, I would suggest Petroleum...

Geology: casing design, pore pressure prediction, slurry density
pore pressure prediction, slurry density, cement slurry: Dear Yaseen, Here are the fundamentals.... The pressure of the subsurface formation fluids, commonly expressed as the density of fluid required in the wellbore to balance that pore pressure. A normal gradient might require 9 lbm/gal [1.08 kg/m3], while...

Geology: class project, wayne state university in detroit michigan, rocks and minerals
wayne state university in detroit michigan, rocks and minerals, wayne state university: Hi Sarah, I d be happy to answer your questions. Where did you study? I got my Bachelor of Science in Geology and did my post graduate work at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. How long did it take you to become a geologist? ...

Geology: clay minerals, silicate minerals, chemical decomposition
silicate minerals, chemical decomposition, clay minerals: Clay minerals are formed by chemical decomposition of pre-existing silicate minerals.The most wide spread are the clay minerals ,which are hydroussilicates all with the phyllosilicate structure and with very small grain size generally less than 0.004mm in...

Geology: clay minerals, layer silicates, sheet silicates
layer silicates, sheet silicates, clay minerals: Dear May, The rough geology of clay is a sedimentary material with grains smaller than 0.002 millimeters in diameter. Fine-grained, hydrous, layer silicates that belong to the larger class of sheet silicates known as phyllosilicates. Their structure is composed...

Geology: clay minerals, clay minerals, minerology
clay minerals, minerology, hydroxyl groups: Hi May... Although my minerology professor, Dr. Geiss, would be very disapponted, I m going to have to refer you to one of the other experts here - judging from the profiles, I think Keith Patton would be a good choice. His profile is here: http://www.allexperts.com/expert.cgi?m=1&catID=1359&expID=63880...

Geology: clay smear, petroleum geology, hydrocarbon deposits
petroleum geology, hydrocarbon deposits, mineral composition: Hello Kyew... I m going to suggest that you send this question about clay smearing to one of the experts who has a background in petroleum geology. I m not very familiar with this concept, but I know it is important to the location of hydrocarbon deposits....

Geology: clay smear, mineral composition, rupture strength
mineral composition, rupture strength, claystone: In lithified sediments, clay smear is primarily formed by abrasion, and secondarily, by shearing of the host rock walls (Lindsay, et al 1993). In unlithified sediments it is formed by shearing and injection of ductile mud beds into the fault zone. (Lehner...

Geology: clay smear, mineral composition, claystone
mineral composition, claystone, fault plane: Kyaw Clay mineral formed under smeared fault plane or others=Clay stone formation depend upon the chemical,mineralogical factors .Thickness of the clay stone also depend upon the accuimulated clay content -diagenetical factors-accumulation,consolidation ,geomechanical...

Geology: what is a clean up solution..., geologic time scale, noaa website
geologic time scale, noaa website, weather patterns: aj The Earth has experienced many warming and cooling cycles over the last several billion years (e.g., the Ice Ages and Green House stages of the last 50,000 years). These cycles are natural and are not stoppable. Shifting continents and celestial cylces...

Geology: coal, peat swamps, peat bogs
peat swamps, peat bogs, hydrocarbon compounds: Dear hassanjaved, I am sure there is a way. To begin with: Coal is formed when peat is altered physically and chemically. This process is called coalification. During coalification, peat undergoes several changes as a result of bacterial decay, compaction,...

Geology: coal, slow deposition, formation of coal
slow deposition, formation of coal, pore spaces: Chelsea Colwell, Thanks for the great question! Coal generally forms in swampy environments, usually near a shoreline...similar to the environment of the Florida everglades and the Mississippi delta. The primary component of coal is plant remains such as...

Geology: Why is color the least reliable..., anwar khan, homework question
anwar khan, homework question, diagnostic tool: Dear Sabrina, Color is not a reliable tool to identify a mineral or a conglomerate of minerals because it changes significantly with the degree of weathering and alteration of a mineral. However color can be considered an indicative parameter. Meanwhile...

Geology: columbia plateau basalt, columbia plateau, plateau area
columbia plateau, plateau area, plateau basalt: Hi Ron. I looked into this a bit (I ve had alot going on, sorry it took so long!) It seems that your area experienced these basalt flows about 17 million years ago (Miocene period). The basalt is, as you had said, is about 6000 feet thick, however when...

Geology: commercial petrology, dimensional stones, economic viability
dimensional stones, economic viability, rock mechanics: Geological aspects of commercial rock deposit plays significant role in formation of rock deposits in nature. Geology of rock deposit is one of the most significant factors in exploration, assessment of quality, quantity, economic viability. Geological parameters...

Geology: composition of island, new zealand geography, great barrier island
new zealand geography, great barrier island, coastal features: Here you go: http://sci.waikato.ac.nz/evolution/geologicalHistory.shtml http://www.otago.ac.nz/geology/ http://www.teara.govt.nz/1966/G/GeologyNewZealandsGeologicalHistory/Introduction/en http://www.showcaves.com/english/nz/Geology.html http://www.tourism.net.nz/new-zealand/about-new-zealand/geography.html...

Geology: conglomerates on Andalucian coast, sierra nevada mountains, coastal mountain ranges
sierra nevada mountains, coastal mountain ranges, mica schists: When the African plate drifted southward, it happened so slowly that water solowly migrated into the rift between africa and europe. This was not a fast event and therefore, no waterfall was created. Plate tectonics allow plates to move at rates of millimeters...

Geology: continental drift...., greenhouse effects, continental positions
greenhouse effects, continental positions, continental drift: Hi Lee, Check out this site.....animations, globes, past worlds and future continental positions, background text....this is the best site on the web, that I am aware of, that concerns plate tectonics. Enjoy, and if you have any questions just contact me...

Geology: Why is the core of the earth hot?, core of the earth, magnetic field of the earth
core of the earth, magnetic field of the earth, rotation of the earth: Robert, The core of the Earth is hot because of the tremendous pressure and temperature created by the overlying rocks. The pressures in the core of the earth are extremely high as are the temperatures. At these high temperatures and pressures rock cannot...

Geology: the core, seismic wave velocity, shear wave velocity
seismic wave velocity, shear wave velocity, earth crust mantle: Dear Arthur Jones The compositional layering and iuts composition -done on the basis of varipus scientific study -even to day still we are probing for inner details of the earth. The experts in this field brought out the compositional layering of the earth...

Geology: correct description of boulders, quartz sandstone, appalachian mountains
quartz sandstone, appalachian mountains, white rocks: Dear Elizabeth, White quartz boulders are certainly white. However, not all white boulders are quartz. If the boulders are examined closely and are thoroughly white, then they may be entirely quartz (although this is quite rare). If upon closer inspection,...

Geology: more about the countries that sank, minoan civilization, legend of atlantis
minoan civilization, legend of atlantis, eruption of the volcano: Deron: I assume you are asking if the legend of Atlantis has any basis in truth. Well there are some events in antiquity that some scholars feel gave rise to the legends of lost continents and civilizations. You are probably familiar with Conan the Barbarian...

Geology: A couple of questions- please answer asap!, usgs earth, rocks and minerals
usgs earth, rocks and minerals, kinds of minerals: 1.Continental drift process ill not affects the mineral formation.Continental drift separation of continents resulted breaking down of the land mass in that process the break away portion and remaining portions may be the same rocks and minerals.For instance...