About Experts Sitemap - Group 25 - Page 8 2015-04-21

Genetics: genetics, eye color, my baby
eye color, my baby, skin tone: Hi Jasmine! When you make egg cells, your body takes all your genes, shuffles them like cards, and then deals out one-half a deck to each egg cell. Guys do the same thing with sperm cells. When a baby is made, your and your significant other s DNA half-decks...

Genetics: our baby skin color, skin color, skin tone
skin color, skin tone, genetics: Hi Isaac! Skin color is a very popular question. Unfortunately human pigmentation is something we don t understand all that well yet genetically. Genetics can be thought of as the cards we re dealt at conception. What does this mean? When you make...

Genetics: Babys possible hair color, baby hair color
baby hair color: Hi Erin! When you make egg cells, your body takes all your genes, shuffles them like cards, and then deals out one-half a deck to each egg cell. Guys do the same thing with sperm cells. When a baby is made, your and your significant other s DNA half-decks...

Genetics: Dn/Ds VS McDonald Kreitman Test results?, McDonald-Kreitman test, silent mutations
McDonald-Kreitman test, silent mutations: Hi Aladdin! This IS confusing. I m trying to parse it. I m not sure I agree with this portrayal, mostly because we re making decisions about beneficial and deleterious after the fact about a total population. (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teleological_argument)...

Genetics: Eye color change, eye color, heterochromia
eye color, heterochromia, eye split color: Dear Kari; That s really cool! I ve never heard of split eyes like that before. :) It s quite likely that you had a mutant gene somewhere in the development cycle, probably just after the first progenitor iris cells split. Then half your cells carried the...

Genetics: Need Help, growth
growth: Hi Mark! I m sorry you re having such trouble in school. Everyone does to some degree, but knowing this still doesn t help when you re looking up at your bullies. Rest assured you re normal. Sometimes it takes boys a bit longer to shoot up in height. ...

Genetics: Babies Hair and Eye Color, baby hair, baby eye
baby hair, baby eye, baby skin: Hi Adara! Baby skin color and hair color are very popular questions. Unfortunately human pigmentation is something we don t understand all that well yet genetically. Genetics can be thought of as the cards we re dealt at conception. What does this...

Genetics: Eye and hair colour, baby hair color, baby eye color
baby hair color, baby eye color: Hi Katrina! Baby skin color and hair color are very popular questions. Unfortunately human pigmentation is something we don t understand all that well yet genetically. Genetics can be thought of as the cards we re dealt at conception. What does this...

Genetics: Genetics of Depression, Major Depressive Disorder, allele sharing
Major Depressive Disorder, allele sharing: Hi Jack! This is pretty hardcore for me. If you re in graduate genetics study, you might want to volunteer as an expert here yourself. What I think the authors intend: The literature shows if you are a woman with major depressive disorder, it is...

Genetics: International baby, baby, international
baby, international, skin color: Hi Alex! Really, you d have to have a baby for an answer. Skin color and hair color are very popular questions. Unfortunately human pigmentation is something we don t understand all that well yet genetically. Genetics can be thought of as the cards...

Genetics: Organ Cloning, cloning, somatic cell nuclear transfer
cloning, somatic cell nuclear transfer, genetic engineering: Hi Brooke! Shouldn t defining what therapeutic cloning is be the first thing you do for your paper? Surely your research has led you to several examples of what comprises therapeutic cloning. Some topics you may wish to discuss in your paper: Genetic...

Genetics: Baby Boy, baby hair, baby eye
baby hair, baby eye, baby skin: Hi Ashley! Baby skin color and hair color are very popular questions. Unfortunately human pigmentation is something we don t understand all that well yet genetically. Genetics can be thought of as the cards we re dealt at conception. What does this...

Genetics: DNA, DNA damage, aging
DNA damage, aging: Hi Shannon! Yes, it s possible for your DNA to be altered over time. This process occurs naturally, in fact. Whenever your cells copy themselves, there is a minor chance (about one per million base pairs or so) that an error will be introduced that will...

Genetics: genetics, start codon, stop codon
start codon, stop codon: Hi Vaishali! A lot of the time, biology just does things we have no explanation for. We can observe, and record, and summarize why we think something happens. Other times, it just Does That, and we don t know why. Fortunately, it usually keeps Doing That...

Genetics: Genetics., baby hair, baby eye
baby hair, baby eye, baby skin: Hi Lisa! Baby skin color and hair color are very popular questions. Unfortunately human pigmentation is something we don t understand all that well yet genetically. Genetics can be thought of as the cards we re dealt at conception. What does this mean?...

Genetics: Hair color of interracial child, Oriental baby, White baby
Oriental baby, White baby, baby hair color: Hi Sola! Congratulations on your new baby! Skin color and hair color are very popular questions. Unfortunately human pigmentation is something we don t understand all that well yet genetically. Genetics can be thought of as the cards we re dealt at...

Genetics: Polymerase Chain Reaction Plasmid, PCR, quickchange
PCR, quickchange, nicked replication: Hi Tony! It makes sense if you wrap your head around a circle. (Yay circular reasoning!) So when you melt a plasmid, you get two rings, right? Then you stick on two slightly altered primers. The DNA polymerase chugs all the way around the rings in theory...

Genetics: is it really all in there?, epigenetics, past lives
epigenetics, past lives: Hi Fernando! Your DNA is representative of all your ancestors. However, it is a selection of your ancestor s genetic material. It is not a summation, because you only have two copies of each gene. There is some evidence that developmental conditions...

Genetics: How is a baby's gender determined?, pregnancy, gender
pregnancy, gender, development: Hi Cherise! Please bear with me as I try to understand your question. 1) The gender of a developing baby is determined at conception. It is completely based on whether or not the baby s father s victorious sperm had an X chromosome or a Y chromosome...

Genetics: is polio a hereditary trait?, polio
polio: Hi Timothy! I suspect the bumps on the back of your ears are benign; at worst, they re possibly sebaceous cysts. If you re worried about them, consult your general practitioner. I m sorry your cousins have knee trouble. We don t think about how much...

Genetics: What skin tone can I expect my grandbaby to be?, interracial baby, skin tone
interracial baby, skin tone: Hi Debbie! Congratulations on your new grandbaby! Skin color and hair color are very popular questions. Unfortunately human pigmentation is something we don t understand all that well yet genetically. I get intteracial questions frequently, and appreciate...

Genetics: chemical warfare, chemical irritants, chlorine gas
chemical irritants, chlorine gas, noblis: Hi Brandon, This is not a Genetics question. But I was curious too! Well, it appears that the use of chemical irritants to ward off enemies dates back to antiquity. However, on a large scale, the first documented use of chemical agents was by Germans in...

Genetics: Children of Parents, type genes, gene interaction
type genes, gene interaction, many different ways: Hi, Ok- I think I was not very clear. First, I want to clarify that: children DO inherit mutations from either or both parents. However, given the way our genes are structured, they are passed onto sperms or ovum in a unique kind of cell division. This gives...

Genetics: genetic engineering, vampires
vampires: Hi Valentine! While it may be possible, it will be costly (likely millions of dollars) and take a long time (years, even with those millions). So I wouldn t worry about it overmuch. However, any incidental discoveries Richard makes about blood disease...

Genetics: genetic engineering, telomeres, telomerase
telomeres, telomerase: Hi Triston! Hydra do age. However, telomere research and aging is a very hot field in science, and there are many biologists and geneticists working on doing exactly what you suggest. :) Elizabeth Blackburn and her lab are perhaps the most famous in...

Genetics: xenotransplantation, transplantation, personalized medicine
transplantation, personalized medicine: Hi Victoria! I m afraid what you ultimately want is sufficiently vague that I can t answer it well. Can you be more specific? Are you writing a book or screenplay, or are you trying to find an avenue of research for a science project? How deep do you need...

Genetics: genetic engineering, hybrid cell, real vampire
hybrid cell, real vampire, vampire bat: Hi Melvin, The answer is NO. I presume you mean vampires as in vampire stories like Twilight Saga:). To start with, he would need a vampire genome, which alone can give rise to a creature with vampire characteristics (I guess they are supposed to look...

Genetics: what hair colour, dark brown hair, side hair
dark brown hair, side hair, olive skin: Hi, From the description of your family side hair color and your husband s side, I would say that the chances of having dark haired children are higher than having blonde children. This is because, the genes for dark hair are dominant over blonde hair....

Genetics: When do inherited mutations occur?, BRCA1, linked genes
BRCA1, linked genes, inheritance: Hi Angie! I m going to pull your question apart a little. Please bear with me. At cell division to make conception-ready cells, the total number of chromosomes is divided in half. Each conception-ready sex cell (called a gamete) has half a deck of chromosomal...

Genetics: Trying to understand article, anxiety, inheritance
anxiety, inheritance: Hi Jack! Part B is easier to answer - yes, that reading is correct. It is likely we learn and or inherit anxious behaviors from our parents. In part A Genetics accounts for only 30-40% of all transmission means to me that while genetic transmission plays...

Genetics: DNA profiling, variable number tandem, restriction enzymes
variable number tandem, restriction enzymes, dna profiling: Yes, you are correct. The differences in length arise from differences in the sequence pattern which arise out of inter-individual variations. But, technically this is reflected in the migration pattern on the gel. From your questions ..... How exactly are...

Genetics: genitic problem, protein hemoglobin, hair loss hair
protein hemoglobin, hair loss hair, beta thalassemia: Dear Surg, I am sorry to hear about your condition. Given that you have HBB gene defect, you have beta-thalassemia. There are two genes required for making this protein. Each gene comes from one of your parent. If your parents were related (married...

Genetics: will i grow, growth, height
growth, height: Hi Renee! It sounds like you have a healthy diet and get good exercise. If you do that, take a multivitamin a day and get a decent amount of sleep, you ought to continue to be in good shape. Congratulations! I ll bet that your body is done working on...

Genetics: Inheritance, freckles brown, physical resemblance
freckles brown, physical resemblance, dark brother: Hi, Thank you for providing such details. Given the pattern of inheritance for 3 generations this is the likely char. of the children of the two people: 1. Tan skin, Brown straight hair, Brown eyes, Medium height. 2. Almost white skin, Brown- blond...

Genetics: question, genes and dna, nobel prizes
genes and dna, nobel prizes, highest iq: Hi Sunil, Recent and several genome wide association studies unequivocally confirm that a substantial proportion of individual differences in human intelligence is due to genetic variation, and are consistent with many genes of small effects underlying...

Genetics: stem cell regeneration, stem cells, regeneration
stem cells, regeneration: Hi Crystal! That would be really cool. Eventually scientists might be able to accomplish that, but right now that idea is more in line with science fiction than science fact. There are scientists working on cellular signaling and communication as well as...

Genetics: Bending of DNA, RNA bases
RNA bases: Hello again :) If you look at the 3d structure of tRNA, you ll see that most of the bases are folded in and paired - except for the codon bases, which poke out. http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/101/motm.do?momID=15&evtc=Suggest&evta=Moleculeof%20the%20Month&evtl=TopBar...

Genetics: Cloning, cells tissues, developmental genes
cells tissues, developmental genes, competent cell: Dear Artur, I will start answering your question by first describing problems encountered when cloning with nuclei from live cells/tissues. Cloning with nuclei from living cells has a better chance of success. Many reasons include obtaining a nuclei...

Genetics: Cloning, poor expression, protein product
poor expression, protein product, expression levels: hi Ana, One reason is to increase the yield of the protein product of that gene. Some genes may have poor expression or may have poor transfection efficiency in some cell lines. For this reason, increasing the copy number of the gene in the plasmid, might...

Genetics: DNA as a job or a product, Role of DNA
Role of DNA: Hi Don. I m confused. Are you trying to write a job description for DNA itself, as in its rôle in the cell? Or are you an HR person for a biotech company trying to label positions for a hiring listing? DNA is a master copy. It is also a self regulating,...

Genetics: The future of cloning, genes chromosomes, dna helix
genes chromosomes, dna helix, cloning process: Hi Artur, Cloning is an evolving field. Manipulating the DNA and creating a cloned cell using the manipulated gene is theoretically possible. I would say that once the entire genome is unraveled- which is not far away as scientists are learning more and...

Genetics: Genetic modification., parasite, haploid
parasite, haploid, diploid: Hi Luc! Homologous recombination is an event where two sister chromosomes (or genomes) exchange genetic material between the two copies for editing and error checking. It s problematic for a haploid organism to utilize homologous recombination to transform...

Genetics: Genetics, native american descent, race families
native american descent, race families, genetic elements: Hi Diane, Since both of you share genes of one descent (black)- the highest likelihood, as you observed, will be children with black features. However, you both may also share to some extent, native American genes (I say this because, you described yourself...

Genetics: Hair genetic, recessive and dominant genes, cells and tissues
recessive and dominant genes, cells and tissues, hair structure: Hi Vivian, Straight or curly hair is definitely determined by genetics. Your baby is surely carrying genes which are making it curly. Wetting hair cannot change the genes and has nothing to do with making it permanently curly. Some genes for hair color...

Genetics: Was it the milkman? Hair/eye color., Hair color, eye color
Hair color, eye color, skin color: Hi Anthony! Yeah, that sort of depiction makes you wonder. Skin, eye, and hair color are very popular questions. Unfortunately human pigmentation is something we don t understand all that well yet genetically. A general explanation. Genetics can be thought...

Genetics: Question in sequencing DNA, nicked plasmid DNA, replication
nicked plasmid DNA, replication: You re right Jan, that explanation stinks. In bacteria there are usually several proteins that work together to initiate DNA replication and get things moving. There are even more in eukaryotes. Both of these systems have repair enzymes that come in to...

Genetics: Signalling pathways/Tumor cell lines-induction, tumor cell lines, starvation effects
tumor cell lines, starvation effects, tumor cells: hi Ivana, Many reasons have been put forward to explain effects of serum starvation. Serum starvation effects are cell type dependent and time dependent. Thus a uniform protocol may not work for all cells; besides, too little time or too long a time again...

Genetics: Ancestry DNA test trace regions
Hi Malcolm, The predictions of % lineage totally depend on correct sequencing of genes, the software that analyzes and how good the statistical algorithm is. So the % may not accurately predict your lineage. But it is possible to have a mix- and believe...

Genetics: eye color
Hi Tanya, Thanks for sharing your eye picture. Here are some examples. Some images are similar to yours but others are much more intense than yours. https://www.google.com/search?q=sectoral+heterochromia+iridis&espv=210&es_sm=119&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=B0SSUrPSJM7nqAGRooGgCA&ved=0CAkQ_AUoAQ&biw=1440&bih=802#imgdii=_...

Genetics: Could ivory be grown synthetically, synthetic ivory
synthetic ivory: Yes. After all, ivory is just huge elephant teeth, right? http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2014076/Science-real-bite-Full-set-teeth-grown-lab.html If you look at that article, you can see that scientists have made progress in growing...

Genetics: Blooms Syndrome
Hi Rod, The disease is not acute but has a high risk for various diseases. Affected individuals may develop dilated blood vessels and reddening in the skin, in response to sun exposure. People with Bloom syndrome have an increased risk of cancer. They...

Genetics: What will my Baby look like?
Hi Devin, There is a 25 % chance that your child will be fair colored with blue eyes. Looks like you may have one gene for blue but brown dominates. Assuming your husband has two genes for blue eyes, your child may also have a chance for hazel eyes. The...

Genetics: Hair Whorl
Hi Grace, Yes, hair whorls are genetic. It is also associated with right or left handedness (Klar, 2003). Parents who have clockwise hair whorls can have a child with opposite whorl if they carry a recessive allele. But it is hard to know unless we have...

Genetics: heterochromatin
Hi Ujjal, About 20%- 305% of the human genome is constitutive heterchromatin. Constitutive heterochromatin is localized near centromeres and telomeres, CHr 1, 9 and 16 and Y chromomoes. Earlier they were considered devoid of transcribing genes but more...

Genetics: rh-blood type
Hi Tracy Unfortunately kings and emperors presented two faces to their peoples, one the distinct regal presence honest compassionate and true to the monogamous beliefs, the other the devil who played the field usurped their powers and their majesty by sewing...

Genetics: Heterochromia iridium, author, heterochromia iridium
author, heterochromia iridium: Hello Rasa! Glad to hear about your novel :) There are six genes that pool together to make eye pigment; if you have very little pigment, you end up blue or gray. If you have lots, you get a dark brown eye. Each child inherits three genes for eye color...

Genetics: wildtype dogs, Backcross, dog breeding
Backcross, dog breeding: Hi Joan! Genetics can be thought of as the cards we re dealt at conception. What does this mean? When a lady makes egg cells, her body takes all her genes, shuffles them like cards, and then deals out one-half a deck to each cell. Guys do the same thing...

Genetics: Asthma., reply thanks, indian medicine
reply thanks, indian medicine, western medicine: Hi Prashant, Asthma is considered genetic disease. There are certain genes which have variations in them causing them to produce proteins when exposed to any triggering agent. These proteins attack one s own tissue. The gene variations therefore predispose...

Genetics: Asthma, causes of asthma, genetic combination
causes of asthma, genetic combination, reply thanks: Hello Prashant; In the reading you linked me to, asthma likely has roots both in genetics as well as environmental cues. Unfortunately it is unlikely that asthma is caused by only one gene; it may be a combination of genes that predispose a person to inflamed...

Genetics: Engineered mother's milk, protein metabolism, human protein
protein metabolism, human protein, mothers milk: Allen, You thinking is not off the track. Just as microbes can attain resistance over naturally produced proteins/antibodies, there is nothing special about this protein to not render microbes resistant. Only a long term monitoring of this protein metabolism...

Genetics: Genetic Engineering and climate, gmo crops, gmo crop
gmo crops, gmo crop, harsh climates: Charles, Not necessarily. GMO crops may not have features compatible with the native climate. Native growing plants are adapted to a particular climate over years. While a GMO crop can grow successfully, it may not always be a good solution. It depends...

Genetics: genetically engineered animals, science fiction novel, protective behaviour
science fiction novel, protective behaviour, nature and nurture: hi Camille, This is a tough question to answer scientifically. What defines a a protective behaviour- is hard to determine. Protective behaviour will no doubt have a genetic basis but it is the training provided to the animal combined with a sense of loyalty...

Genetics: genetics, gene combinations, nose shape
gene combinations, nose shape, genetic combination: Celeste, There is no specific gene for the nose shape or structure. These are multigenic traits which mean, many different gene combinations including your mother and father s genetic combination. The dominant combination will determine the shape and...

Genetics: Genetics Help, food scarcity, fellow animals
food scarcity, fellow animals, survival advantage: Hi Kierstyn, A heritable trait becomes advantageous only if it helps the animal to adapt and survive in its environment. However great a trait, if it does not help the animal to gain survival advantage, it will dwindle away. That said, let us look at 2...

Genetics: Genghis Khan, descendants of genghis khan, somatic chromosomes
descendants of genghis khan, somatic chromosomes, y chromosomes: Hi Paul, Theoretically, if carrying over even a fraction of a persons DNA bestows direct descendant title, then yes. However, all somatic chromosomes (1-22) undergo extensive recombination between paternal and maternal sets. Thus which each generation...

Genetics: Pure bred humans, india europe, gene sequences
india europe, gene sequences, north india: Parvez, I assume, by pure genetics, people with a specific set of traits that never gets mixed? Such pure genetics (good or bad) can occur only with absolute in-breeding. Thus, when people of one population never mix with people of another population...

Genetics: red hair in my beard?, novo mutation, germ cells
novo mutation, germ cells, jaw line: Hi Alex, If you are a Caucasian, then there is a good chance that some ancestral genes that came together, one each from your parent to give a red color beard. Unless something is known of your ancestry, it is difficult to say. The other possibility is...

Genetics: Synthetic biology, elements of the periodic table, distant planets
elements of the periodic table, distant planets, living organism: Hamad, The answer is definitely a NO. Cells are nno doubt made of same elements as those you find in periodic table, which are the same found on Earth and distant planets and objects in the Universe. However, to create a cell, requires more than that. DNA...

Genetics: Forensic Science (Labs) Specialization., http www youtube, forensic pathology
http www youtube, forensic pathology, forensic scientist: Hi Prashant, Forensic Sciences is not a part of medical degree. It is a specialization that does not require medical degree although a lot medical knowledge is taught and required. However, there is a branch of Pathology called forensic pathology MD degree....

Genetics: Genetic Environmental Effect Hypothesis, phenylalanine levels, dna sequence
phenylalanine levels, dna sequence, bh4: Hi Alex, A similar symptom as PKU is observed in children which does not respond to Phe restricted diet. This was first reported in 1975 in Lancet,Volume 305, Issue 7916, 17 May 1975, Pages 1108–1111. Deficiency of an enzyme Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)which...

Genetics: Genetic tests on MERRF, hand tremors, first cousins
hand tremors, first cousins, dna sequencing: Hi Alex, The symptoms you have mentioned are quite generic and could be shared by many other disorders. However, given that you have focused on two diseases and have also reviewed OMIM, you are much closer to gene tests. For both diseases I would recommend...

Genetics: Genetic Link to Alzheimers, apoe gene, model of the human brain
apoe gene, model of the human brain, inflammation of the brain: Hi Jermeka, I understand that you want to know gene mutations linked to the disease? Well, so far age is the highest risk factor but recent studies show that there might be a genetic factor to it. Genes that are known to cause the disease at even younger...

Genetics: Genotype, two partners, gene therapy
two partners, gene therapy, sickle cell: Hi Mr.Ogundipe, It is necessary to have more information as to Genotype. If the partners are heterozygous, then they can go for an IVF and select an embryo with the normal genotype. If however both are homozygous, it would not be possible to biologically...

Genetics: From microbe to man, do we share genes?, respiratory enzymes, gene sequences
respiratory enzymes, gene sequences, banana plant: Hi The short answer is Yes. Because at cellular level every living organism- plant or animal or a prokaryote, has to perform certain functions to be labeled as living . They need energy to live. Energy, I would say is the currency of life. That said,...

Genetics: Baby, dark brown hair, straight hair
dark brown hair, straight hair, blonde hair: hi Emily, Given your and your husbands hair and eye color, it looks like both of you are heterozygous for eye and hair color. That means you both carry one gene for light colored eye/hair and one for dark. Since dark is dominant, the ext appearance is dark....

Genetics: bone marrow and genetics, bone marrow donation, germ cells
bone marrow donation, germ cells, female cells: Hi Caroline, The short answer is a NO. The marrow cells are a type of stem cells but they are somatic cells or cells that do not take part in reproduction. During sexual reproduction, only the female cells- egg and male cells-sperm take part. The resulting...

Genetics: Could my dad have had a different father?, hazel green eyes, green eye
hazel green eyes, green eye, borm: Hi Cameron, His two parents could be a heterogzygous carrier for green eye. Since green color is recessive to brown, even if each of his parents carried one copy of the gene for green eye, the likelihood of having a green eyed child is less. It is 1 in...

Genetics: Biogenesis (sort of), asexual organisms, puddle lake
asexual organisms, puddle lake, living organism: Hi Ralph, They do have a type of sexual reproduction called Conjugation. In this process bacteria are capable of transferring pieces of their genes to other bacteria that they come in contact with. During this process, one bacterium connects itself to another...

Genetics: biology, gene expression, coding strands, DNA, RNA
DNA, RNA, genetic code: Hi Lily! This really, really looks like a homework question, so I ll just point you at what you need to know. In your coding strand you have a series of codons that indicate amino acids. (The Genetic Code.) These amino acids will be linked together by...

Genetics: Children of Two Pairs of Identical Twins, twins, twin children
twins, twin children: Hello Kelly! The likelihood of picking any ONE combination of your mother s and your father s genes is (minimally) estimated to be about 1/2^46 (forty-six chromosomes assorting perfectly, with no mutation events). On average you will have thirty mutations...

Genetics: Gene Regulation, consensus sequences, protein modification
consensus sequences, protein modification, cell metabolism: Hi Alhan, If you moved a gene to heterochromatic region, the most likely effect is that it wont express. These are regions tightly bound bound proteins and not available for transcriptions. Thus the cell may die, if this gene is a housekeeping one. Gene...

Genetics: Gene Regulation, gene regulation
gene regulation: Hello Alhan! Heterochromatin is typically not read as often as euchromatin. In the best of cases, the cell would be sick and grow slowly. Worst case, the cell would die from lack of a housekeeping gene. How do we know we have fewer gene regulators...

Genetics: Genetics, female offspring, male offspring
female offspring, male offspring, inheritance pattern: Ok. So say they have 120 offspring. 40 are female with bagged wings. 40 are female with normal wings. 40 are male. This argues that the bag-winged mother is a heterozygote, since she can only have normal children with a normal male if normal is...

Genetics: human memeories ann dna
Hello Tracy! Sorry this is late. Some memories are in fact coded in the proteins that act as the filing system for DNA. This field is known as Epigenetics and is very exciting right now. An excellent explanation for epigenetics is here: http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2009/10/21/2720208.htm...

Genetics: Two questions about genes?
Hey Alexander! You ve hit on two of three of my most popular questions; skin color, hair color, and the likelihood of green eyes. First, some quick notes on how inheritance works. When you make egg cells, your body takes all your genes, shuffles them...

Genetics: Deafness Defect Detection in Sonography Tests.
You need to read the following abstract for an indepth answer to your question. The development of fetal hearing , Peter G Hepper , BS Shahidullah ,Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review,Volume 6,Issue 03,1994,pp 167-179,DOI 10.1017/S0965539500001108 Regards...

Genetics: Eye and Ear Defects.
Hi Prashant, Vaccines can be developed if a gene mutation results in a protein that prevents the normal functioning. In most cases, the problem arises as a result of loss of gene function. In this case you would need to compensate for this loss - say- by...

Genetics: Eye and Ear Defects.
There is no guarantee on congenital defects in infants. The damage or loss of an organ at birth is not hereditary but congenital. The defect about deafness or blindness can be attributed to damage in poly genes but as yet no clear test is available to determine...

Genetics: Genetics: skin color heredity
Hi Faiza The area you need to investigate is Pigmentation http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/skinpigmentationdisorders.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melanin Check this url. They contain a fair amount of information covering your subject. Regards...

Genetics: Using an egg donor. Is she right for us? Question on physical traits
Genetics: Using an egg donor. Is she right for us? Question on physical traits

Genetics: Using an egg donor. Is she right for us? Question on physical traits
Hi Theo, I apologize for the delay in responding. As you already know, there are several genes involved in skin color genetics that result in the external spectrum of colors you see. Skin color depends on how efficiently the genes coding for melanin...

Genetics: Child hair color; platinum blonds?, hair color
hair color: Skin, eye, and hair color are very popular questions. Unfortunately human pigmentation is something we don t understand all that well yet genetically. A general explanation. Genetics can be thought of as the cards we re dealt at conception. What does...

Genetics: Human Body Temperature.
Hi Prashant, There several reasons for differential sensitivity to temperature among humans. Certain conditions like hypo- or hyper thyroidism can make one person feel colder or warmer compared to other people. Under normal circumstances, it depends...

Genetics: Inheritance
Hi Praveen, Genes for behavioral patterns in humans are not yet known completely, as they are known for morphological structure. However, genes for certain traits like aggressiveness have been documented. Remember that behavior is physiologically driven...

Genetics: Smartphone Applications for Viewing MRI Scan, CT Scan and X-Ray diagnostic images.
Hello Prashant, I am not in this field but I found this paper which might be of help to you: http://www.academia.edu/4641355/Smartphones_tablets_and_mobile_applications_for_radiology The above paper reviews the available applications for radiology...

Genetics: The controversy of cloning
Hi M Bearing in mind this is a paper for school Let me answer the questions in order Benefits and risks Benefits An almost carbon copy of a subject with all its good and bad points An opportunity to follow the development of any abnormalities again...

Genetics: mixing DNA
Hi Yousef, I am not sure if I understand correctly what you mean by mix DNA. If you want to randomly mix, you wont have a control of what gets integrated and 99.99 % of the times, it wont result in a viable cell. If you want to do a controlled and specific...

Genetics: Protein
Hi Mary, Great questions. You are correct in that every egg and every sperm have a complete set of genes... but completeness is a relative term (just like everything else in the physical universe perceived by life..but that is more of philosophy..so...

Genetics: Speech as Genetic Traits.
Vocal characteristics and intonation have no bearing on genetic inheritance.This can be determined by removing a baby from its birth environment where adults communicate in clicks and shrills and emmersing it in a modern location where adults use words. ...

Genetics: Genetic Engineering In Adults, genetic engineering, challenges
genetic engineering, challenges: Hi Robert! It should in theory be possible to transfer genes to alter pigmentation. However if you gave this in a virus to an adult, it may not reach all of the adult s cells, resulting in splotchy changes in color rather than an all-over transformation....

Genetics: Genetics, genetic engineering
genetic engineering: Hullo Robert! You ve hit upon the definition of genetic engineering. Essentially, one of the Holy Grails of modern medicine is to be able to adjust faulty genes in a person such that broken or disease causing genes can be fixed. In theory also, this...

Genetics: Is Linear IGA genetically inherited? Is it like a food allergy?, linear IGA, celiac
linear IGA, celiac, genetic predisposition: Hi Mia! I m sorry this is late. Linear IGA is one of those diseases that may have several causes. It is primarily diagnosed functionally by the blistering you mention. What makes the blistering is that your immune cells (warriors in the battle against...

Genetics: organelles, organelle inheritance, organelle construction
organelle inheritance, organelle construction: Hello Charlotte! The short answer is that many of them form and re-form from each other, the originals inherited from mother to child in a fashion similar to mitochondria. Centromeres, for example, duplicate themselves in mitosis and then assort one per...

Genetics: organelles and genes
Hi Charlotte, yes, you are correct. A live cell came from another live cell. The nuclear DNA has the information to create an entire organism as it has the information for the structural and functional component of every cell that makes up that organism....

Genetics: Peanut Allergies, peanut allergy
peanut allergy: Hi Mia! Scanning the research that s available right now, we re still not sure what exactly the trigger is for peanut allergies. The papers I m seeing use peanut extract (soupified peanuts) for their tests... which is a mixture of everything. It may be...

Genetics: Bacteria
Hi Praveen, Yes, phages can be used to destroy bacteria and has been known since 90 years. It gained much popularity in the Soviet and other European countries. However, due to inappropriate use, uncontrolled studies and the development of antibiotics pushed...

Genetics: Vietnamese Mum / British Dad, MY HAIR!, hair color, hair changes with age
hair color, hair changes with age: Hi Peter! Skin, eye, and hair color are very popular questions. Unfortunately human pigmentation is something we don t understand all that well yet genetically. A general explanation. Genetics can be thought of as the cards we re dealt at conception....

Genetics: Tests
Hi Gulraiz, Your WBC values could be associated with infection, and since you had appendicities it may be related to it (provided you did not have any other infection). But unless you had a test done after your surgery and recovery, it is hard to say conclusively....

Genetics: Baby'Complexion and Features
Hi Jordan, Thanks for your question. Since African-American features are dominant over the European features, your child is likely to share your looks. The child is likely to have your hair and texture but hair color could be light brown. Complexion...

Genetics: exceptions in blood types (Bombay or hh phenotype), Blood type, ABO group
Blood type, ABO group, inheritance: Hello Refah! You are a rare bird indeed, and this will require some explaining. Please be patient with me. ABO blood types come from sugar molecules attached to the surfaces of your blood cells. The immune system uses sugar encoding on cell surfaces...

Genetics: Genomic Imprinting, genomic imprinting, epigenetics
genomic imprinting, epigenetics: Hello Alex! Apologies for the lateness of this reply. This is almost out of my depth, and I considered rejecting this question. Gene expression involves many systems, and it is something that scientists are still figuring out how all the players come...

Genetics: Mixed race baby complexion, hair color, Mixed race baby, baby appearance
Mixed race baby, baby appearance: Hello Jordan! I love your picture. Skin, eye, and hair color are very popular questions. Unfortunately human pigmentation is something we don t understand all that well yet genetically. A general explanation. Genetics can be thought of as the cards...

Genetics: Genetics question
Hi Julie, Thanks for clarifying. Yes, you are correct that it is not very common to conceive fetus with trisomy 16, consecutively. Which means there is a scientific reason and I would like to slightly venture into a bit of genomics/genetics. Age as...

Genetics: Chimera cat
Great page! That was a fun read. Nope, if the pheomelanin was broken we wouldn t see deep orange. Are you certain the lighter patches are not simply where your kitty s Bulls-eye or mackerel tabby striping is evident? That light/dark patterning will...

Genetics: adaptive mutation
Hi Ameen, Adaptive mutations, as the name implies means 1) It is already integrated to the genes and 2) It aids the animal to survive in some manner-a particular environment. Genetic material is flexible and not all of us have the same code - so it...

Genetics: Thymine and Uracil
Hi Zoe, This is a popular Q and also has several theories proposed by many biologists. Reason for DNA not using Uracil: If DNA used uracil, the cell would have a tough time deciding whether the uracil was generated from a mutation leading to the deamination...

Genetics: Gene Manipulation on Adults
Hi Ryou, Genetic manipulation is genetic engineering technique. Switch on or off is a terminology for a method. The method involves changing certain gene sequences which are special sequences for each gene. These sequences are pretty much like a lock and...

Genetics: genetics (eye color)
Eric, The genes for brown and blue eyes requires two genes: OCA2 and HERC2. A working HERC2 is needed to turn on OCA2 and OCA2 helps to actually get the pigment made- and hence brown eyes. They need each other to make pigment. If someone makes a lot...

Genetics: ABT ACTING AS A MALE, nose shape, hormone replacement therapy
nose shape, hormone replacement therapy, germ cell: Hello Rishi-- There is no treatment to reverse homosexuality--it is now believed by some scientists that sexual preference has a genetic base--it is just like any other trait; hair color, nose shape, etc (although this phenomenon is not well categorized)....

Genetics: ADvance GEnetics, conformation of dna, transcription machinery
conformation of dna, transcription machinery, discuess: Hello-- Well, first of all, I would like say that there is a fundamental flaw in the question--the addition of histones does not necessarily mean that the DNA is going to assemble into nucleosomes--this process is mediated by histone acetylases and deacetylases,...

Genetics: Advance Genetics, dna polymorphism, paternal chromosomes
dna polymorphism, paternal chromosomes, male chromosome: Hello-- a) Imprinting is the difference between maternal and paternal chromosomes caused by altered methylation of segments of the genes. Since patterns of methylation of DNA govern which genes are accessible to transcription proteins, this mediates which...

Genetics: AFP test, extra chromosome, chromosome 21
extra chromosome, chromosome 21, amniotic sac: Ayat, There is a test that is definite for Down Syndrome, but the risk of miscarriage (spontaneous abortion) is higher than for normal pregnancy alone. The fact that your screen for AFP came out normal would lead your doctor to reason that the next test...

Genetics: Albinism, eye astigmatism, cause images
eye astigmatism, cause images, genetic history: Hi Linda-- Well, this is a difficult question to answer... First, most albinos possess a mutation that either encodes a non-functional pigment protein or yields a protein necessary for pigment integration inactive. Since your eyes are light brown, it...

Genetics: Alien Abductions?, abducted by aliens, fertile offspring
abducted by aliens, fertile offspring, alien abductions: Sam, When considering interspecies crosses, you first consider DNA at a larger level than just genes. That is, the chromosomes of two species have to match in both number and organization to create offspring that are both viable and fertile. That is...

Genetics: Alleles in Humans, dominant alleles, dominant allele
dominant alleles, dominant allele, recessive allele: Dominant allele will express the trait in both homozygous and heterozygous condition like A and B blood group while a recessive allele will express the trait only in homozygous condition.e.g O blood group. However if a recessive trait is sex linked, it will...

Genetics: Alleles, allele frequencies, biology homework
allele frequencies, biology homework, q values: Peter, This question is about proportion of alleles, that is, how many of each allele is present in the population. Given that each genotype is made of two alleles, we can make the predictions based on the phenotype frequencies. So, O blood has two...

Genetics: Allelic Freq/Hardy-Weinberg in ABO, dominant alleles, hardy weinberg
dominant alleles, hardy weinberg, hw problem: Hi Breann-- Just as in doing any HW problem, remember that all genotype frequencies must add up to 1: Therefore (p+q+r)=1. Now, this problem is tricky because you must combinine the codominance of A and B, the presence of a nul O allele and the dominance...

Genetics: Allergic rhinitis, allergic rhinitis, fluid cells
allergic rhinitis, fluid cells, ncbi: Hi Caroline, thanks for visitng me here at AllExperts! The best way to find studies on a particular biomedical topic is to use PubMed, a publicly accessible and taxpayer-funded interface to the Medline database that is widely used by the professional research...

Genetics: Amino acid, amino acid sequence, nucleotide sequences
amino acid sequence, nucleotide sequences, stop codons: Hi Jeff-- Well, the word METAPHYSICS corresponds to an amino acid sequence of: methionine.glutamic acid.threonine.alanine.proline.histidine.tyrosine.serine.isoleucine.cysteine.serine The amino acids can each (except methionine) be specified by several...

Genetics: Avian Flu Mutation & People, avian flu virus, health care staff
avian flu virus, health care staff, human receptors: Judy, You are correct in that the mutation that has transferred the virus to a few humans should be infective to other humans. And it has infected family members of those who have been infected; that is, it has been family groups that are infected. A...

Genetics: accelerated growth of plants., growth of plants, growth of trees
growth of plants, growth of trees, dynamic elements: Hi Dev-- Well, aside from supplementing them with nutrients and/or hormones, there really is no way to accelerate the growth of plants. Though gene splicing is possible, it is not possible to splice a gene for growth rate into another organism for several...

Genetics: acne and isotretinoin, plasma proteins, sebaceous gland
plasma proteins, sebaceous gland, granulation tissue: Hi Bill, Excellent question. The exact mechanism of action of isotreinoin is unknown. There are hundreds of hypotheses currently being explored. To the best of my knowledge, none has satifactorily explains how isotretinoin inhibits sebaceous gland function...

Genetics: adding genes or chromosomes to humans, gene therapy trial, extra chromosome
gene therapy trial, extra chromosome, faulty genes: It is not currently possible to add or delete entire chromosomes. Scientists are currently working on gene therapy, the goal of which is to deliver a normal gene to someone with faulty genes. This has been a slow work and was complicated by a death in a gene...

Genetics: albinos, oculocutaneous albinism, human genetic disorders
oculocutaneous albinism, human genetic disorders, biochemical mechanisms: Hi Katherine, thanks for visiting me at AllExperts! The word albino is taken to mean a very specific set of physical attributes. However, at the genetic level there are quite a few different mutations that can cause the albino phenotype ( phenotype means...

Genetics: alelle frequency stability, dominant alleles, dominant allele
dominant alleles, dominant allele, recessive alleles: Hi Again! Well, you make a good point and it is actually one of the paradigms of modern evolutionary genetics... Non-dominant alleles still exist because it often the dominant allele that is selected against. People often make the mistake of assuming...

Genetics: anatomy and physiology, calcium phosphate, anatomy and physiology
calcium phosphate, anatomy and physiology, bone tissue: Julia, Bone tissue is made hard by the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals into the extramembraneous layer of osteoblasts within bone. Bone is a living tissue with cells that are responsible for ensuring that the extramembraneous layer is intact and...

Genetics: antibiotic resistance, ampicillin resistance, kanamycin resistance
ampicillin resistance, kanamycin resistance, resistance genes: In my opinion, the answer is very simple and straight-forward. You simply had a too high concentration of kanamycin in the kan plate. Too much antibiotic would allow only those cells to recover that express the resistance gene at a much higher level (a consequence...

Genetics: antisense, antisense drugs, genasense
antisense drugs, genasense, drug manufacturers: Smita, I know nothing about this field, but I was able to find this news report that names a few antisense drugs undergoing clinical trials: http://www.drugresearcher.com/news/ng.asp?n=59704-isis-develops-antisense Perhaps you can look up the drug...

Genetics: asian-white babies, eye shape, asian features
eye shape, asian features, dark hair: Since the gene for blue eyes is recessive to the gene for brown eyes, there is always a chance a brown-eyed (or 2 brown-eyed people) could have a non-brown eyed child if the parent carriers the gene for blue eyes. There is no way to know if the person is a...

Genetics: WHO WILL MY BABY LOOK LIKE?, light brown eyes, curly brown hair
light brown eyes, curly brown hair, recessive genes: Dear NAT, It is very hard to say which parent will a child look like. But by general rule of inheritance in terms of dominant and recessive characters, brown eye, skin and hair color are dominant over light eye,skin and hair color. But if the dark featured...

Genetics: WHAT WILL MY BABY LOOK LIKE, dark brown eyes, dark brown hair
dark brown eyes, dark brown hair, genetic influence: Hello Holli, Well the genetics of eye and hair color is pretty complex because there are many genes that influence them. Likewise skin color. From what you have written, your baby is most likely to have brown eyes and brown hair, and skin tone that is a...

Genetics: Babies hair colour, dark brown hair, ginger hair
dark brown hair, ginger hair, mum dad: Kirsty, Every person has two copies of every gene, one from their mother and one from their father. If the two genes are the same, such as brown eyes and brown eyes, then the person is homozygous for that trait; if the two genes are different, such as...

Genetics: Babies looks, dominant genes, recessive genes
dominant genes, recessive genes, dirty blonde hair: KC, Wow. This is going to be difficult because you do have lots of recessive genes in your family that are masked by the dominant genes. Your boyfriend is easy, though, because he is homozygous recessive for blue eyes and blond hair-- this means that...

Genetics: Baby Blood Type, blood type test, rare events
blood type test, rare events, blood types: Two type A parents should only have the possibility of type A or type O children. Type AB really isn t a possibility, except for a few very rare events (They would take a lot to explain over an email). I would have the blood type redone. If it really is AB,...

Genetics: Baby's Complexion- A followup, c hairs, fair complexion
c hairs, fair complexion, parents and grandparents: Ah- my apologies on the emphasis. What I mean is as follows: The child s complexion depends completely on BOTH you and the mother. However, since your complexion and that of your wife depends on each of your parents, the child s complexion depends *technically*...

Genetics: Baby - eye color, baby eye color, blue green eyes
baby eye color, blue green eyes, light brown eyes: Tina, It is difficult to predict, as your husband has a chance (50%) of being heterozygous for green eyes and light hair, but you definitely are heterozygous for green eyes and fair skin. This means that you have a 50% chance of passing on those genes...

Genetics: Baby's hair color and eye color, dark blond hair, dominant traits
dark blond hair, dominant traits, reddish color: Aye, lass, your child would most probably favor the dad because he carries dominant traits and yours are recessive. The only thing we can be sure of is that the eyes will not be brown, but either green or blue (both recessive). There is a slight chance (25%)...

Genetics: Baby's resemblance, red hair and green eyes, homozygous recessive
red hair and green eyes, homozygous recessive, silent carriers: Donna, Your red hair and green eyes are both recessive to brown, although green is a dominant modifying gene to blue and only expresses on a homozygous blue background. This means that you are also homozygous recessive for blue eyes. Your partner is...

Genetics: Baby, dirty blond hair, dark brown hair
dirty blond hair, dark brown hair, information matters: I could answer this question more specifically if I knew more specific information. What, specifically did your mother look like? Your father? What did her father s mother look like? The father s father? I know you gave all of this information, but it...

Genetics: Babys Eye Colour and Complexion, genetic traits, safe delivery
genetic traits, safe delivery, maternal grandfather: Dear Vickie I will try to explain things as easy as possible Eye and hair color are not as such a simple genetic traits. however they are following certian pattern of inheritance Dark eyes are dominant to blue and green eyes, but since eye color is...

Genetics: Bacteria projects, bacteria growth, water surfaces
bacteria growth, water surfaces, gelatinase: Hi Quinn-- Well, if you haven t gotten ample growth yet, it s likely you need to increase the nutrient supply of the gelatin. The gelatin should remain solid at or around 25 degrees centigrade (room temperature). Some organisms do produce an enzyme...

Genetics: Bacterial Defenses, gram negative bacteria, bacterial virulence
gram negative bacteria, bacterial virulence, specific immune response: Hi Aravind-- LPS stands for lipopolysaccharide. Since E. coli is a gram negative bacteria, it has a coating of LPS on the outside of its cell wall. Humans have evolved a highly specific immune response (mediated by things called toll-like receptors) against...

Genetics: Baldness, male pattern baldness, baldness patterns
male pattern baldness, baldness patterns, dominant gene: Missy, I can t tell you with any certainty whether or not your child will be bald, but I can give some insight into baldness. From some newer info, the pattern of baldness inheritance is probably more complicated, but I will give you at least part of the...

Genetics: Bio/genetics, katie lane, daughter cell
katie lane, daughter cell, mitosis: Hi Katie Lane, thanks for visiting me here at AllExperts. Most multi-cellular organisms grow and maintain themselves by adding new cells, either to build more parts or to fix worn out parts. That occurs by mitosis , where one cell divides itself into...

Genetics: Bio informatics, bio informatics, sequence alignment
bio informatics, sequence alignment, algorithmic approaches: Hi Sravani-- Bioinformatics or computational biology involves the use of computers and/or algorithmic approaches in the analysis and integration of genomic, proteomic, or chemical data residing in databases. Bioinformatics includes applications for the...

Genetics: Biochemistry/genetics, light stimuli, plant molecular biology
light stimuli, plant molecular biology, wavelengths of light: John, This process is similar to phototaxis, which is seen in lower organisms as a response to light stimuli. The physical processes used to move petals are similar to the way our muscles move, however, they are not stimulated by a neurotransmitter response,...

Genetics: Biological heritage, biological heritage, fish corals
biological heritage, fish corals, jelly fish: Hi Jon-- Well, I can only give you a VERY rough estimate... The cnidarians (jelly fish, corals, hydras, etc.) are believed to have evolved somewhere around 570 million years ago. Now, assuming we keep the standard 20 years per generation, we take 570,000,000...

Genetics: Biology, helix shape, chain molecule
helix shape, chain molecule, home school teacher: Hello Wendy-- Regarding your questions: 1. The complementary sequence to G.A.T.C would be C.T.A.G., or choice B . 2. Emergence is the principle that a complex system cannot be fully understood by studying each of its constituent parts. For example,...

Genetics: Biology, renal tubule, arterial plaque
renal tubule, arterial plaque, triglcerides: Hello Again! 1. The actual damage that occurs in an infarct is due to oxygen deprivation, choice d . While you are correct that a blood clot can give rise to an infarct (as can arterial plaque), the underlying cause of the tissue damage is that the cells...

Genetics: Biology, generic answer, 1x2
generic answer, 1x2, f2: No problem!! Unfortuntely, this phenotype depends on the F1 genotype cross performed... so more details are essential. I don t need the specific genes, per se, but I do need something generic like A is dominant over a, B over b, etc. I can give a generic...

Genetics: Biology, white blood cells, biology book
white blood cells, biology book, lysosome: Dear Prem Lysosymes are a group of enzymes that are found in some white blood cells, their function is to lyse (destroy) substances in special compartments called LYSOSOMES Do more home work on the biology book and you will figure it our easily Dr....

Genetics: Biology/ Genetics, genotype aabb, aa aa
genotype aabb, aa aa, biology genetics: Hi Samone-- In response to your question, I assume you are referring to hybrid crosses (also called Punnett squares)? The probability of all possible offspring from two individuals can be predicted using Punnett squares... For example, given the following...

Genetics: Biology/genetics, biology genetics, dna gene
biology genetics, dna gene, regulatory molecules: Ibrahim, You have asked some tough questions. In fact, the genetics community is lacking a good definition for a gene because there have been so many surprises that have come from the sequencing of the entire human genome. For example, there are many...

Genetics: Biology, embden meyerhof pathway, electron transport chain
embden meyerhof pathway, electron transport chain, aerobic respiration: Hi Kimberly-- Regarding your questions concerning fermenatation and respiration: 1. Alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation differ in that the end-product is different. After a cell has finished the Embden-Meyerhof pathway and produced two...

Genetics: Biracial child, human genomes, fair complexion
human genomes, fair complexion, lengthy message: Hello, there are many characteristics in the human genomes which are polygenic including hair color, eye color , skin color and hair style. Polygenic means that is more than one gene is responsible for the trait (character). So collectively, the addition...

Genetics: Bisatellited marker?, high risk pregnancy, chromosome 21
high risk pregnancy, chromosome 21, unborn sister: Jenna, Does your sister also have Down Syndrome? If not, then this may be a normal outcome of an unbalanced translocation. That is, if your sister is not DS, then she may have been fortunate to receive the pair of chromosomes that does not cause DS;...

Genetics: Black father, White mother, Blonde child., son jeremiah, biracial children
son jeremiah, biracial children, light eyes: There are a number of babies that are born with light eyes that that turn darker. Also, babies skin and hair color can darken over time. Skin and hair color and influenced by different genes. If your husband has any lighter genes (masked by darker genes) and...

Genetics: Blone and blue, dominant genes, color genetics
dominant genes, color genetics, exact answers: Hi Frank, thanks for visiting me here at AllExperts! Sorry to say, I couldn t locate a reference to an original or first report of hair & eye color genetics and recessive/dominant genes. It most likely was first described in the 1920 s or 1930 s - genetics...

Genetics: Blood Groups, abo blood type, blood type o
abo blood type, blood type o, ap biology: ABO Blood type is controlled by three pair of allelic genes,A,B and O,of which O allele is recessive to A and B,while A and B are codominant. Thus a person of blood group A, geneotypically,is either AA or AO.Similarly a B group individual has genotype BB or...

Genetics: Blood groups, cell antigens, skin pigment
cell antigens, skin pigment, equatorial areas: Chris, Some blood groups have to do with antigenic recognition sites on the exterior of blood cells, while other groups are concerned with sugars attached to the blood cell surface. These groups are determined genetically and are passed on through generations....

Genetics: Blood Test and DNA Test, blood type test, security life insurance
blood type test, security life insurance, probate court: The laboratory can only give you possibilities what you re parents blood type may be. Thus, it is useless. For example, if you are type O with a genetic disposition of OO, one O from your father and one O from your mother... chances are your father may be...

Genetics: Blood Type and RH factor, rh factor, bloodtyping
rh factor, bloodtyping, typographic error: Hi Mommyxs7, thanks for visiting me here at AllExperts! First, congratulations! Now for your question: it is perfectly possible for a B-type parent and an AB-type parent to have an A-type baby. However, it is not possible for 2 Rh- parents to have an...

Genetics: Blood Types, rh antigen, rh incompatibility
rh antigen, rh incompatibility, red blood cell: Rachel, Blood types are determined based on the presence of red blood cell antigens, which are sugars that are attached to the outside of the red blood cell surface. If you are type A then you have only type A antigen; if type B, then only type B antigen;...

Genetics: Blood Types, gene combinations, blood types
gene combinations, blood types, type ab: Sorry, I see in the above that I got your wife s and your own blood type confused, but the answer still holds. Sometimes you can tell based on your parents blood types if you are AA or A0. If one of your parents was type O, then you know you have an O...

Genetics: Blood Types, red blood cells, bombay phenotype
red blood cells, bombay phenotype, abo blood group: Hi Billie-- The answer to your question is no; it is not possible for individuals with blood types B and O to conceive a child with a blood type other than B or O* for the following reason: The human ABO blood group, like all other traits, is controlled...

Genetics: Blood type inheritance, type inheritance, cell populations
type inheritance, cell populations, odd family: You are correct. The child cannot be O+ if the mother is AB- and the father O+. The only genotype possible for O blood is OO and the only genotype possible for AB is AB. When you cross these two individuals, you get either AO or BO. It is possible...

Genetics: Blood type, blood type o, bloodtype
blood type o, bloodtype, rh: Mary, Yes and here is why. The A, B, AB or O blood type is inherited separately from Rh+ or Rh-. First, two people with type O blood can only produce children with type O blood. The + or - is controlled by a different gene. The + gene is dominant to the -...

Genetics: Blood types, red blood cells, blood type ab
red blood cells, blood type ab, red blood cell: Beverly, Unfortunately, it is not possible for two type O parents to have a type A child. Perhaps the blood tests were incorrect (they have been known to fail in the past, especially with false negatives resulting in a genotype of type O blood). Your...

Genetics: Blood types, blood antigens, self antigens
blood antigens, self antigens, rh blood: Jackee and Allison, Your daughter is correct, and this is how: Blood typing is based on the type of blood antigens that your blood cells produce. Antigens are proteins that cause an immune response through the production of antibodies, such as IgG....

Genetics: Blood, experience shapes, humans and other animals
experience shapes, humans and other animals, dna test: Hi David, thanks for visiting me here at AllExperts! If you re asking can we tell if a sample of blood is human or not, the answer is yes. Several different laboratory tests can tell the difference between the blood from humans and other animals. A DNA...

Genetics: Blue Offspring In Humans, fugate family, blue people of kentucky
fugate family, blue people of kentucky, allexperts: Hi Kristy, thanks for visiting me here at AllExperts. I answered this same question at the end of January for someone else, please be sure to search through the question archive next time. You might find your answer faster! Blue Offspring Syndrome...

Genetics: Both parents having blond hair, recessive genes, blue grey eyes
recessive genes, blue grey eyes, eye skin: Dear Emily, No. It does not matter at all as to what genes you and your fiance have (dominant or recessive) wrt hair/eye/skin color. Similarity is a matter of concern wrt to disease causing genes or genes linked (physically close) to disease causing...

Genetics: Bowed Legs/Depression, blood calcium levels, metaphyseal chondrodysplasia
blood calcium levels, metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, bowed legs: Hello Ethel-- First, let me say that it s nice to finally have a personal story to respond to--the large majority of my questions are regarding homework. After reading the description of your condition, I must admit that I am somewhat stumpped... First,...

Genetics: Brain Cancer, brain cancer, coincidence
brain cancer, coincidence, meredith: Meredith, I received a question this morning from someone else doing a report on brain cancer-- what a coincidence! I referred her to a website http://www.oncologychannel.com/braincancer/ that talks about brain cancer in detail. I think that...

Genetics: Brain Cancer, brain cancer, brain tumors
brain cancer, brain tumors, allexperts: Hi Meredith, thanks for visiting me here at AllExperts. I can t tell you all that I know about brain cancer! That would take a very long time, and there s not enough space here to write it all down! What I can do is point you to a web site that has...

Genetics: Brain Cancer, virginia commonwealth university, mri magnetic resonance imaging
virginia commonwealth university, mri magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance imaging: Miranda, Generally brain cancer is diagnosed by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) after symptoms appear. Symptoms can be anything from visual changes to problems moving to personality changes. Solid tumors can be removed by surgery, and then the patient...

Genetics: Brain Cancer, central brain tumor registry, personal graphs
central brain tumor registry, personal graphs, atlasmap: Miranda, I don t have any personal graphs pertaining to brain cancer, but you may find something useful on any of these websites: http://www.schs.state.nc.us/SCHS/CCR/posters/naacr99/ http://statecancerprofiles.cancer.gov/faq.html http://tomcat.corda.com/nci/atlasmap/index.jsp...

Genetics: Brain Cancer, types of brain cancer, tumor suppressor genes
types of brain cancer, tumor suppressor genes, brain tumors: Miranda, All cancer is genetic, but not all cancer is inherited, or passed down from parent to child. What this means is that cancer happens when an individual cell in the body has a small mistake such as a mutation in a gene that is important for cell...

Genetics: Brain cancer and genetics, types of brain cancer, genetic therapy
types of brain cancer, genetic therapy, gene therapy: There are many types of brain cancer, so I need additional information on the type of brain cancer you are asking about. As far as it relates to genetic engineering: cancer occurs when the body s cells reproduce uncontrollably. Currently, the mainstay of...

Genetics: Bt toxin, bt toxin, national agricultural library
bt toxin, national agricultural library, bacillus anthracis: Hi Sam-- Sorry for the delay, my ISP has been down for the past two days... In response to your question about Bt toxin, it is a biological protein that is synthesized in a bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis. This organism comes from the same family...

Genetics: babies genetics, genetic diseases, kanan
genetic diseases, kanan, genotypes: Dear Tonya Not always the body weight is determined by genes There are certain genetic diseases that involve obesity but these are usually recessive and it has to be in both parents Diet and environmental factors play the major roles in the weight issues...

Genetics: babies hair color, dark brown hair, dark brown eyes
dark brown hair, dark brown eyes, red beard: Dear Tasha I think you have a good chance of having a red hair baby Since your first time, you have a red hair baby that s mean you are carrying the genes for red hair, this will be reflected in your second baby too. However, there is also will be a...

Genetics: babies hair color, light brown hair, rough calculations
light brown hair, rough calculations, kanan: Dear Natasha My guesses that you have a high chance of having a red hair baby this is because it is for sure that your husband is carrying a red hair allele with his brown hair allele. this will give more chance of having a red hair baby. Rough calculations...

Genetics: babies hair colour, dark blond hair, future thanks
dark blond hair, future thanks, red hair: It seems unlikely that he would have bright red hair. It s hard to know with your husband having black hair, because red hair is recessive to black hair. He could carry a gene for red hair, but you couldn t tell just by looking at him. Assuming he does have...

Genetics: What will our babies look like?, blonde hair color, light brown hair
blonde hair color, light brown hair, sibilings: Dear Karine As the information you gave suggests that your husband has the chance of giving a blue eye color gene and blonde hair color gene form his family side although it is not shown on him he is may be carrying these genes because dark hair and brown...

Genetics: my babies looks, brown eye color, hazel green
brown eye color, hazel green, boyfrind: Jessica, The chances are good, but it depends on whether your boyfriend inherited a blue gene from his heterozygous brown/blue father. If he did, then the chance is 50% of a blue-eyed child. If not, then the chance is zero, although your child would be...

Genetics: babies, dizygotic twins, state of north carolina
dizygotic twins, state of north carolina, fertilization: Hi Sammy, thanks for visiting me here at AllExperts. Yes, it is possible for a female to give birth to two offspring with different fathers. The female would need to have ovulated two separate eggs at the same time; this is how fraternal or dizygotic...

Genetics: my babiy's genes, light brown hair, medium height
light brown hair, medium height, straight hair: Chiara, Your child will most probably have green eyes because both you and your husband have green eyes (hazel is considered green), although they could be blue. The hair will most probably be brown because everyone else has brown. The height is usually...

Genetics: my baby, blue genes, blue eyed baby
blue genes, blue eyed baby, kanan: Dear Kristy the presence of blue eyes in your mom genes would mean you are carrying a blue gene but because of the brown is dominant you have brown eyes this means you have a 50% chance to pass the blue genes to your child and having a blue eyed baby for...

Genetics: My baby, sandy brown hair, light brown eyes
sandy brown hair, light brown eyes, hazel eyes gene: Hi Tiffany, Hazel eyes are carried by a recessive gene. A recessive gene is a minority gene that can only produce when both parents contribute the hazel eyes gene to the child. It is clear that your husband s parents both carry that gene. On the other...

Genetics: my baby, blue green eyes, color genes
blue green eyes, color genes, light brown hair: Lindsey, With this amount of variation in background between the parents, there are many possibilities and it is hard to predict. For instance, skin color is determined by several different genes, so if the baby inherits all lighter color genes from both...

Genetics: baby, dark brown hair, brown eyed baby
dark brown hair, brown eyed baby, hazel eyes: Given the number of brown-eyed individuals in your family you are correct to suspect the most likely outcome is brown eyes. You have one non-brown gene from your mom. If your bf has a non-brown gene ( no way to tell from his background ) you could have about...

Genetics: baby eye color, baby eye color, aunts and uncles
baby eye color, aunts and uncles, family backgrounds: Yes, given your family backgrounds, you could both have inherited genes for non-brown eyes. You can t tell this because your eyes are brown and brown is dominant over non-brown. Your son inherited the non-brown eye genes from both of you to have his eye color...

Genetics: baby eye color, baby eye color, brown hazel eyes
baby eye color, brown hazel eyes, color eyes: Dear Nicole with not knowing the eye color of your husbands. parents we could only guess the following if he is pure brown eyes then the baby will be brown eyes too if one of his parents have green or blue eye color then Brown eyes (Brown-hazel eyes)...

Genetics: another on baby eye and hair color, great grandmother, arm hair
great grandmother, arm hair, family trait: Lindsay, The extra information does change things. Your dad s green eyes mean that you are heterozygous for brown/blue so your chances of having a child with blue eyes just jumped to 50%, and green eyes are also a possibility. I still think brown hair,...

Genetics: baby genes, familial predisposition, bi polar disorder
familial predisposition, bi polar disorder, y chromosome: Hi Caitlin, Various mental illnesses have been linked to a familial predisposition from one generation to another. In order to answer your question, the first would be to explore if you carry the genes for the diseases. If only males were affected in your...

Genetics: My baby's hair colour changing dark to light?, dark brown hair, eumelanin
dark brown hair, eumelanin, celtic origin: Dear Kristy Well let me tell you some facts first Skin and hair pigment is made up of different types of melanin. There are two broad groups of melanin, eumelanin, which is brown, and phaeomelanin, which is red. Somebody with dark hair will have predominantly...

Genetics: what will my baby look like, population of the world, exact combination
population of the world, exact combination, green eyes: Angie, It is never certain what your baby will look like because the genetics of appearance are complicated and not well studied. We do know that brown is dominant to all colors, as is dark skin and hair (almost all the population of the world has brown...

Genetics: What will my baby look like??, recessive genes, dark complexion
recessive genes, dark complexion, dark brown eyes: Joanne, You have not given too much information, but just right. We need to know all the family history to make an accurate prediction. You are homozygous (both genes the same) recessive for blue eyes and fair hair and skin; your partner could be either...

Genetics: What will my baby look like?, reddish tints, homozygous recessive
reddish tints, homozygous recessive, dirty blond hair: Nichole, It sounds like you and your husband are both homozygous recessive for blue eyes and blond hair, so you can each only pass on genes for blue eyes and blond hair, and also for the green eye modifying gene. Therefore, your child will receive genes...

Genetics: What will my baby look like?, light skin tone, brown eye color
light skin tone, brown eye color, strawberry blond hair: Amanda, More than likely, the baby will look like the dad because dark traits are always dominant to light traits. Although there is the presence of blue eyes and light skin in the grandfather, the chances are very good that your child will be heterozygous...

Genetics: How would my baby look like?, olive skin tone, olive complexion
olive skin tone, olive complexion, light brown eyes: Noor, You and your husband may be heterozygotes, carrying silent recessive genes that could be passed on to your child. You may carry either blue or green genes for eye color, and light brown genes for hair color; your husband definitely carries a blond...

Genetics: What will my baby look like?, light brown eyes, dark brown eyes
light brown eyes, dark brown eyes, recessive genes: Simone, It all depends on your genes. Your husband may carry recessive genes for light hair and green eyes, however, these traits would only show up if you also carry recessive genes for the same traits. I would expect your child to have brown or possibly...

Genetics: What will our baby look like?, curly brown hair, light brown hair
curly brown hair, light brown hair, gold eyes: The genetics of pigments is influenced by several genes, so it is fairly common to have events that are suprises. I d guess your baby will have an olive skin since most in the family have that; either green or brown eyes would come as no surprise at all;...

Genetics: What will my baby look like??, mystery of nature, dark brown hair
mystery of nature, dark brown hair, complextion: Well, the genetics of these pigments is not simple because several genes are involved, but from your family history I would say your children are most likely to have brown eyes and hair, although the hair could be peppered with some red as an adult. Their...

Genetics: What are baby could look like..., light brown hair, blue green eyes
light brown hair, blue green eyes, strawberry blonde hair: There are several genes that influence pigment and that s one reason why it is so hard to predict with certainty, and why there are sometimes surprises. Given the family history you describe, your next child is most likely to have brown eyes and light brown...

Genetics: What will my baby look like?, brown curly hair, dark curly hair
brown curly hair, dark curly hair, light brown hair: There are several genes that influence pigment and that s one reason why it is so hard to predict with certainty, and why there are sometimes surprises. Well, blue eyes and light brown hair are at least 50% likley I would say and probably more likely than...

Genetics: what will our baby look like, light brown skin, light brown eyes
light brown skin, light brown eyes, dark brown eyes: To start with- Eyes: They will *probably* be brown. The gene for brown eyes is dominant, but since the father has a family history of brown eyes and you currently do (I am assuming neither of you have blue eyes from your parents), it is highly unlikely that...

Genetics: what will my baby look like?, medium brown hair, heterozygous brown
medium brown hair, heterozygous brown, dark brown hair: Jemma, The hair can be any combination of the types you have described, as hair is not controlled by a single gene, but multiple genes that each contribute to the traits of curly vs straight, and color, etc. Brown eyes are always dominant to blue, and...

Genetics: What will our baby look like?, blue eyes blue, blue eyes baby
blue eyes blue, blue eyes baby, blonde curly hair: Dear Christine The eye, hair color and skin complexion all are complex traits and can be explained on polygenic basis. ok I will explain the eye color since it is the easiest 1- you have blue eyes and your father and mother have blue eyes then you are...

Genetics: what will my baby look like, polygenic traits, dominant nature
polygenic traits, dominant nature, light colors: Dear Sabrina The color of skin trait is quite complex since it is polygenic and multifactorial. Let me explain some more.... Polygenic traits means that this phenotype is dependent on more than one gene, could be 2 ,3 ,4 ... etc Multifactorial is...

Genetics: What will my baby look like?, dear jennifer, olive skin
dear jennifer, olive skin, kanan: Dear Jennifer To have blue eyes it means you have two genes carrying the blue trait, Now your Bf is brown eyed, this means it most likely your baby will be brown eyes unless in the history of your bf ancestors blue or green eyes the chance to have a blue...

Genetics: what will my baby look like?, dark brown hair, medium skin
dark brown hair, medium skin, recessive trait: Ashley, This is how I answer this question: Every person has two copies of every gene, one from their mother and one from their father. If the two genes are the same, such as brown eyes and brown eyes, then the person is homozygous for that trait; if...

Genetics: What will my baby look like?, holly holly, curly brown hair
holly holly, curly brown hair, recessive trait: Holly, This is how I answer this question: Every person has two copies of every gene, one from their mother and one from their father. If the two genes are the same, such as brown eyes and brown eyes, then the person is homozygous for that trait; if...

Genetics: What will my baby look like?, medium complexion, olive complexion
medium complexion, olive complexion, brown curly hair: Rose, This is how I answer this question: Every person has two copies of every gene, one from their mother and one from their father. If the two genes are the same, such as brown eyes and brown eyes, then the person is homozygous for that trait; if...

Genetics: What my baby will look like, medium complexion, blonde curly hair
medium complexion, blonde curly hair, brown curly hair: Haley, Every person has two copies of every gene, one from their mother and one from their father. If the two genes are the same, such as brown eyes and brown eyes, then the person is homozygous for that trait; if the two genes are different, such as one...

Genetics: what will my baby look like, baby eyes, blond hair
baby eyes, blond hair, dark eyes: Brittany, You are homozygous (both genes the same) recessive for both blue eyes and blond hair, which means that you can only pass on genes for blue eyes and blond hair to your child. The father is probably homozygous for brown (very dark) hair and brown...

Genetics: What will my baby look like?, blue green eyes, dirty blonde hair
blue green eyes, dirty blonde hair, dark brown eyes: Janelle, Height is generally averaged when two people at extremes have a child; that is, the child is usually somewhere in between the two parents. This is because height is governed by several genes that have an additive effect in that the greater number...

Genetics: What will our baby look like?, honey brown eyes, skin complexion
honey brown eyes, skin complexion, fair complexion: David, I had to look up KP (I am assuming you mean keratosis pilaris?) because I had not heard of it before. It is an autosomal dominant condition, so the chances of your child inheriting this benign condition is 50%. It looks like it is fairly common,...

Genetics: who will my baby look like when born, mom and dad, recessive trait
mom and dad, recessive trait, dominant trait: J, First of all, I apologize for not answering your question sooner. I have been away without internet access, and was not able to answer any questions. Every person has two copies of every gene, one from their mother and one from their father. If...

Genetics: what will my baby look like,complexion?eyes?, homozygous recessive, skin complexion
homozygous recessive, skin complexion, recessive trait: Thomas, Gosh, what a beautiful sounding mix. I would predict based on your information that your child could have brown or blue eyes (your wife is homozygous recessive for blue eyes and can only contribute a blue gene; whereas you may be heterozygous brown/blue...

Genetics: Will my baby look more like me or their father?, caramel cappuccino, dominant genes
caramel cappuccino, dominant genes, small lips: Dear Sharelle Ok let may answer the second part of your question first. YES, detached earlobes are dominant to attached earlobes and there is an increasing chance for the baby to have a detached earlobes like one of his parents. about other facial...

Genetics: what will our baby look liek, light brown skin, exact estimate
light brown skin, exact estimate, light skin: Hi Christie I guess your child will have either brown or blue eyes (75% brown, 25% blue) and for the hair and skin color is more complicated and I would guess the child will be in between the colors of both of you but we could not determine how much because...

Genetics: what will my baby look like?, medium complexion, brown curly hair
medium complexion, brown curly hair, olive complexion: Hi Dina-- As with all things in genetics, I can tell you a statistical probability, but not a certainty... I ll do my best! Also, hair and skin are both traits that involve a large number of genes--far to complex to compute here... I can give you my...

Genetics: Our baby's looks, reddish tints, dark blonde hair
reddish tints, dark blonde hair, brown hair: Shelley, You are probably homozygous for brown hair and are homozygous for blue eyes and heterozygous for green eyes. Your husband is heterozygous brown/blue and also heterozygous for green eyes, and homozygous for blonde, probably heterozygous for red....

Genetics: Another baby prediction?, light freckles, northern european descent
light freckles, northern european descent, light brown eyes: These are great questions. Because the father of the baby has black hair and dark brown eyes your children are most likely to have a similar coloration, especially if all of his relatives have similar coloration. In your family as with many who have lighter...

Genetics: baby, brown curly hair, skin pigment
brown curly hair, skin pigment, pigment melanin: Lauran-Noelle, I would guess that your child will also have your and your husband s dominant traits; that is, dark is always dominant to light, so I would expect brown eyes and brown curly hair. However, if your husband has any ancestor with light eyes...

Genetics: babys skin, external genitalia, male babies
external genitalia, male babies, external ear: Usually, the adult color can be predicted by the external ear color or external genitalia (in male babies) even at birth. Other than this babies who appear to have a light color at birth may develop dark color as they grow up. It is a continuous and slow process...

Genetics: babys skin colour, afro carribean, statistical formula
afro carribean, statistical formula, brown hazel eyes: The skin color is the result of many genes and characteristics from each parent. I would conjeccture that that the child will be lighter than his/her father simply becacuse you are bringing an entirely Arian background. Given that the father is 1/4 afro-carribbean,...

Genetics: bad/good, psychological disturbances, ying and yang
psychological disturbances, ying and yang, raed: Dear Yazlynne As A scientist I only belive in facts but as a thinker I also belive of new ideas I am not aware of research studying the behavior of murderer s children. however, there are some studies of correlation between psychological disturbances...

Genetics: base pair, nucleotide base pair, indstate edu
nucleotide base pair, indstate edu, hydrogen bonds: Timothy, 1. Purines and pyrimidines are basic (alkaline) in terms of pH because of the ring structures of carbon and nitrogen, making them a possible proton acceptor. 2. The term base pair is used to describe the structure rather than describe the...

Genetics: A basic evolution question, tumor suppressor genes, cellulose plant
tumor suppressor genes, cellulose plant, carbohydrate structure: Hi Rylan-- Well, to answer your first question, yes, genes can and are altered during the course of an organism s life. If you consider the molecular process of something like cancer, then it is obvious that one or more genes, often tumor suppressor genes...

Genetics: bi racial children, medium brown complexion, medium complexion
medium brown complexion, medium complexion, dominant genes: Dear Joyce I guess the answer to this question is difficult, however I can only help with some expectations. Dark hair and dark skin genes are very common as dominant genes, this will indicate there is more possibility to have a darker hair and skin baby...

Genetics: big bang, big bang theory, sugary coating
big bang theory, sugary coating, zona pellucida: M, I am going to take the coward s way out and say that I am just a biologist and you are asking astrophysics questions... But I will say that our big bang created our universe-- we could be one in a million universes created by a million big bangs,...

Genetics: binary plasmid, selectable marker, agrobacterium tumefaciens
selectable marker, agrobacterium tumefaciens, binary plasmid: Hi Ellen-- A binary plasmid is a two-plasmid system--an example can be seen in Agrobacterium tumefaciens (a bacterium that causes tumor formation in plants (via T-DNA (tumor inducing DNA)). One plasmid contains the virulence gene (responsible for transfer...

Genetics: biochemistry, amino acid residues, termination signal
amino acid residues, termination signal, ribosome: Inas, I think that what you are asking is how does a gene contribute to the composition of an enzyme? The gene, which consists of a beginning (transcription start site) a middle (coding region) and an end (poly A termination signal), is a linear piece...

Genetics: biochemistry, alpha helices, protein residues
alpha helices, protein residues, pleated sheets: Arish, What type of bonds? Do you mean alpha helices and beta-pleated sheets or just hydrogen, van der waals, hydrostatic, etc.? There are hundreds of bonds in a globular protein, depending on the size and number of atoms within it. Each atom is bonded...

Genetics: biochemistry, mitochondrial respiratory chain, enzyme assays
mitochondrial respiratory chain, enzyme assays, enzyme assay: Cassie, Discontinuous and continuous enzyme assays are performed on a time schedule, and can be monitored continuously or discontinuously at intervals. A direct or indirect assay is not the same: direct assays measure the substrate uptake or catalysis...

Genetics: bioinformatics, human genome project, biology genetics
human genome project, biology genetics, biological molecules: Hi Nagla-- In response to your question concerning bioinformatics, there is HUGE need for scientists in this discipline. With the advent of the Human Genome Project (and other genomic endeavors), the need for individuals who can analyze and integrate the...

Genetics: biology, peptide bonds, protein synthesis
peptide bonds, protein synthesis, polynucleotide: Hi Jeff, thanks for visiting AllExperts! I hope you get to read this in the morning before your test. First, I have to say, it is NOT a good idea to wait until the night before a test to figure out what concepts you re not sure of. Second, if I just give...

Genetics: biology, endoplasmic reticulum membrane, peptide bonds
endoplasmic reticulum membrane, peptide bonds, hairpin loop: Jeff, I apologize for not getting back to you in time. It usually takes me a day to answer questions because I am working in the lab these days. I can answer your questions, though, if you are interested in the information. 1. RNA is generally found...

Genetics: biology, actin and myosin, thin filaments
actin and myosin, thin filaments, thick filaments: The answer is a. Actually,each muscle fibre is an elongated slender cell.It is multinucleate. Each muscle fibre contains many of thin and rod like myofibrilis,which bear characteristic cross stirations. These myofibrils are arranged in a number of sections...

Genetics: biology, electron transport system, plant and animal cells
electron transport system, plant and animal cells, body langage: 1) I think,the answer to this should be competition. Actually,competition is defined as interaction between individual of same/different species,where both suffer adverse effects.Usually,competition occurs when resources such as space,light and nutrients...

Genetics: biology, amino acid sequence, complementary strand
amino acid sequence, complementary strand, amino acids: Dear Anthony Any genetic book will provide you with a table of codon that resembles amino acids collect the amino acid sequence together and you will have you peptide you can use some tools in the www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov website Dr. Raed Kanan http://kanan.co.nr...

Genetics: biology class, social and cultural anthropology, biology class
social and cultural anthropology, biology class, social attitudes: Hi Joann, thanks for visiting me at AllExperts. It sounds like you re asking about social attitudes toward albinism. I m sorry I can t help with that, social and cultural anthropology is not my area of expertise. If you re looking for information on...

Genetics: biology lab, e coli bacteria, competent cells
e coli bacteria, competent cells, biology lab: Well, I would also tend to think that the lab strain would do a better job than the wild strain. I can think up only two possible reasons: 1) preparation of the competent cells was different and JM101 were less efficient in transformation due to faulty...

Genetics: biology, mrna strand, dna strands
mrna strand, dna strands, y chromosomes: Hello Affie-- 1. Klinefelter Syndrome 2. Turner Syndrome 3. Transcription 4. Wild type 5. Mutant type 6. Dominant 7. Recessive 8. Homozygous 9. Heterozygous 10. Genotype 11. Phenotype 12. Translation 13. Helicase 14. DNA Polymerase...

Genetics: biracial features, biracial children, genes
biracial children, genes, genetics: James, I think part of it is genetics, and part of it is cultural. For instance, on a demographics form that asks for race, a biracial person typically will pick black if biracial is not mentioned. In our society, there is sometimes an advantage to being...

Genetics: A bit confused..., facial features, green eyes
facial features, green eyes, blond hair: Hi Olivia, Nothing went wrong. Genetics is actually very complex. The human body has millions of genes called alleles. These alleles carry various information regarding eye color, facial features, hair color, etc. As far as eye color, green eyes and blond...

Genetics: blonde vs red hair, light blonde hair, hair coloring
light blonde hair, hair coloring, red hair: In order to have truly red hair in a child, both parents need to have a red hair gene. From your hair coloring, I would say it is most likely you don t have the gene. Your husband could. It s hard to tell because red hair genes are recessive to brown hair...

Genetics: blood, sickle cell hemoglobin, red blood cells
sickle cell hemoglobin, red blood cells, protein hemoglobin: Katherine, Red blood cells contain molecules of the protein hemoglobin, which has an associated heme group that is able to bind a molecule of oxygen through an interaction with iron. Once the hemes are charged with oxygen in the lungs, they travel in the...

Genetics: blood ab, red blood cells, intensive intervention
red blood cells, intensive intervention, amazing system: Harold, I see the point of confusion here. The immune system is an amazing system that only makes antibodies against foreign material, not your own body s material (unless it malfunctions). Because you have AB blood, you body doesn t make antibodies against...

Genetics: blood groups, double heterozygote, red blood cells
double heterozygote, red blood cells, rh type: Sony, In short, yes. And this is how: The B blood type can be caused by a homozygous (both genes the same) BB genotype or by a heterozygous (two genes are different) BO genotype. The A and B genes just mean that the blood cell produces either type...

Genetics: blood pressure, salt balance, excess amounts
salt balance, excess amounts, blood volume: Hi Chew-- When an individual consumes excess amounts of salt, his or her blood volume and thus pressure will increase. This occurs because the body attempts to maintain an osmotic gradient (salt balance). If your blood becomes too saturated with sodium,...

Genetics: what blood type, blood type, dad
blood type, dad: Crystal, You are correct. The child can only be O, but can be + or - depending on the gene the child receives from you. That is, if you are +/- (type +) and the father is -/- (type -) then the child could be +/- (type +) or -/- (type -). However, if...

Genetics: blood type, blood type o, genes
blood type o, genes, odds: Absolutely. Each parent has two genes that code for their blood type and they are one of the following: A, B, and I (also called O). A and B are codominant - meaning that a person with each gene expresses both. Both A and B are dominent - meaning that...

Genetics: blood type, gene combinations, case example
gene combinations, case example, type question: If the parent is A-, then the kids can only be negative. Rh + is dominant to Rh -, so if the parent is A+, she has either two + genes or a + and - gene. In the first case, no kids can be Rh- because they can t get a - gene from her. To be Rh- you have to...

Genetics: blood type, blood types, blood type
blood types, blood type, type o: Kim, It is possible for 2 type A people to have a type O child. Type O is recessive to type A. Each person has 2 genes that determine blood type. You and your husband both must have one A gene and one O gene, so you look Type A. Your daughter would have inherited...

Genetics: blood type, blood types, recessive
blood types, recessive, blood type: Hi, Blood types can be represented by A,B, AB or O. Whatever be the alphabet used to indicate, the general rule is that the dominant is represented by capital letter eg., A and the recessive as a . Sometimes I or i may be used for O group. I...

Genetics: blood type, abo blood group, early miscarriages
abo blood group, early miscarriages, abo blood type: ABO blood group is determined by three alleles, Ia, Ib and Io. When a person has genotype Ia Ia ,Ia Io ,Ia Ib ,Ib Ib ,Ib Io ,Io Io ,he/she has blood group as A ,A, AB, B, B, O respectively. The + or – is determined by Rh factor. The Rh factor genetic information...

Genetics: blood types, rh blood type, dominant traits
rh blood type, dominant traits, recessive traits: Hanan, You are correct about only parents passing on genes: grandparents only influence blood type by what they pass on to their offspring, or the parents. Inheritance is direct from parent to child. What they may be talking about, however, is that some...

Genetics: blood types, rh blood type, rh antibody
rh blood type, rh antibody, abo blood group: ABO blood group is determined by three alleles, Ia, Ib and Io. When a person has genotype Ia Ia ,Ia Io ,Ia Ib ,Ib Ib ,Ib Io ,Io Io ,he/she has blood group as A ,A, AB, B, B, O respectively. The + or – is determined by Rh factor. The Rh factor genetic information...

Genetics: blood types, blood types, genotype
blood types, genotype, allele: Dear Donna, I don t think this is possible. If your mother s siblings are correct about their blood types being type O and type A, that means those with type O inherited one O allele from each parent ( OO genotype), and those with type A inherited either...

Genetics: blood types, red blood cells, red blood cell
red blood cells, red blood cell, type ab blood: Donna, Yes, it is possible and here is how: The B gene codes for a sugar that sits on the outside of the red blood cell called a B antigen. Likewise, the A gene also codes for the A antigen on the outside of red blood cells. The O gene, however, does...

Genetics: blood typing inheritance, abo blood group, blood typing
abo blood group, blood typing, type ab: ABO blood group is determined by three alleles, Ia, Ib and Io. When a person has genotype Ia Ia ,Ia Io ,Ia Ib ,Ib Ib ,Ib Io ,Io Io ,he/she has blood group as A ,A, AB, B, B, O respectively. So,AB means Ia Ib and A means Ia Ia or Ia Io.The possible blood...

Genetics: blood, red blood cells, white blood cells
red blood cells, white blood cells, immune cells: Katherine, The main parts of blood are red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and plasma. RBCs carry oxygen to tissues using hemoglobin. WBCs are immune cells that fight disease, such as Tcells, Bcells and such. Plasma is the protein-rich...

Genetics: two blue eyed blond haired parents= brown eyed brown haired baby?, light brown eyes, egg cell
light brown eyes, egg cell, brown eyed baby: If 2 people have blue eyes, it is highly unlikely that they will have a brown-eyed baby, since neither carry a brown eye gene. If a mutation happened in a sperm or egg cell, it could be possible to get brown eyes, but this is a rare event. Hair color is more...

Genetics: why blue eyes for my 2ed son?, eye color inheritance, blue gene
eye color inheritance, blue gene, hair and skin: Eye color inheritance involves several different genes and it is not uncommon for a brown-eyed couple, or a green & brown couple to have a child with blue eyes. An easy way to think about it is you have two copies of each gene and if either copy provides...

Genetics: blue eyes/african, african ancestry, european ancestry
african ancestry, european ancestry, deceased father: Thank you for your question. I would say in both cases, it is most likely that these lighter colors are the result of some European ancestor in the family history. Mutations can also occur that can lead to lighter-skinned or eyed children, so that is also...

Genetics: blue offspring syndrome, fugate family, blue people of kentucky
fugate family, blue people of kentucky, methemoglobinemia: Hi Karon, thanks for visiting me here at AllExperts. Blue Offspring Syndrome is also known as Blue People of Kentucky-Fugate Family disease. It is a form of methemoglobinemia, and results from a deficiency of a very specific enzyme called NADH-cytochrome...

Genetics: body systems interelated with colorblindness, male pattern baldness, x chromosomes
male pattern baldness, x chromosomes, x chromosome: Hi again, Sandy. The nervous system is the primary one involved in the cause of colorblindness. For your paper, you might want to consider briefly summarizing what the other systems do, and how they connect/related to the nervous system. That should clear...

Genetics: bodytypes, cause of dwarfism, genetic variation
cause of dwarfism, genetic variation, dwarfism: A very complicated post, but I will answer as best I can. 1. When I wrote Himilayan, I was actually thinking Samoan, meaning that the typical body type was much fuller than a Nubian, but of medium height when compared to a midget or a Nubian. This is the...

Genetics: brown eyed baby, blue green eyes, blue eye
blue green eyes, blue eye, raed: Dear Paul I am sorry if I am late in answer I was away for some time Well theoretically no, It is supposed to be green or blue eye color, However, judging the color by naked eye is sometimes misleading I recommend to test the presence of the brown genes...

Genetics: brown eyed blonde, brown eye, color hair
brown eye, color hair, dark hair: Manny, You inherited the brown-eye gene from your mom, which is why you have brown eyes. Hair color is more complex. Your mother must have some lighter color hair genes that you inherited, along with your father s blond genes, to give you blonde hair...

Genetics: brown eyes- blue eyes, brown eyes blue eyes, brown eye color
brown eyes blue eyes, brown eye color, genetic syndromes: AJ, Blue depends on the genotype, or the two specific genes that a person has for that trait. Blue is a phenotype, or the way those two genes work together to express the trait. You can never know for certain whether a brown-eyed person is a heterozygote...

Genetics: Canis rufus floridanus -- My Favorite Wolf is extinct -- Any hope of bringing it back?, canis rufus, red wolves
canis rufus, red wolves, tasmanian tigers: I m sorry, but once an animal is extinct, it stays that way. While one could say that future technology might perfectly clone something (which has not, by the way, actually been achieved), a species MUST have variability in the genetic traits in order for...

Genetics: Casp-8 activation mechanisms, b cell receptor, caspase cascade
b cell receptor, caspase cascade, caspase family: Hello Ms. Richa Vyas-- I am only familiar with Fas/FasL:FADD independent caspase-8 activation in the context of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, so I will use it as an example (though I assume there is a similar, if not identical, mechanism functioning in other...

Genetics: Cat taxonomy, felix catus, genus and species
felix catus, genus and species, official organization: Hi again Bob, in TX search, the * are termination codons; The red M (ATG) is the modified start codon. I m not sure why the L s are red - they re pretty standard. For the mitochondrial code, ATA, TGA, AGA, and AGG differ from the standard genetic code...

Genetics: Cell biology, mitotic spindle, right angles
mitotic spindle, right angles, cell biology: Ambili, The astral rays are made by the centrioles and seem to anchor the centrioles into place at the poles. I have found it difficult to answer your second question, as most sources just state that the centriole pairs are at right angles to one another...

Genetics: Cell Division, number of chromosomes, haploid cells
number of chromosomes, haploid cells, haploid cell: Michelle, Mitosis involves doubling of the chromosomes as does meiosis; however, meiosis requires homologous crossing over for it to proceed, which cannot occur if there is only a diploid number of chromosomes, that is, there must be four copies (tetraploid)...

Genetics: Cell division, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, true nucleus
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, true nucleus, biology textbook: Bob, Is this a homework question? I can t answer homework questions. To help you out, it is important to note that prokaryotic cells have no nucleus, so there is no nuclear division (i.e. plasmid replication). Eukaryotic cells on the other hand have...

Genetics: Cells, electron transport chain, initiation codons
electron transport chain, initiation codons, nuclear genome: Hi Mistic-- The organelles involved in transport, modification, and packaging are the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. The ER is involved in protein modification (by addition of chemical groups (i.e. methylation, glycosylation, etc.). The modified...

Genetics: WHAT WILL OUR CHILD LOOK LIKE, medium brown hair, light blonde hair
medium brown hair, light blonde hair, heterozygous brown: Mary, I do not have your original question or my answer. Do you and your partner both have brown hair and eyes? Did I ask if you had any blue/blond in your family to determine if you were a heterozygote? Based on your dad s genes (he should have blue...

Genetics: WHAT WILL OUR CHILD LOOK LIKE, medium brown hair, dark brown hair
medium brown hair, dark brown hair, mousey brown: Mary, Please excuse the previous answer, as your questions came out of order. Most likely the eye color will be blue, but with a chance of green (hazel). Your eyes are blue with the green modifier and your husband s are blue, so the only possibility...

Genetics: Characteristics of E. Coli, e coli bacteria, acid hydrolysis
e coli bacteria, acid hydrolysis, human feces: Hi Aravind-- Glad to hear things are going well... 1. E. coli grows like any other organism. The life cycle can be described in terms of when they are inoculated into new media. First, there will be a so-called lag phase in which the organisms will...

Genetics: Child's Genes., recessive trait, dominant trait
recessive trait, dominant trait, heterozygote: James, I do get this question a lot, but every family is a little different. Every person has two copies of every gene, one from their mother and one from their father. If the two genes are the same, such as brown eyes and brown eyes, then the person...

Genetics: Child's Looks, dominant and recessive alleles, dominant alleles
dominant and recessive alleles, dominant alleles, physical manifestation: Well, firstly,dominant features wrt inheritance are present in every race and every individual resulting from random mating practices. So it does not make scientific sense to categorize natives of a particular nation as having a stronger influence over the...

Genetics: What will my Child look like??, blue eyes baby, dark brown hair
blue eyes baby, dark brown hair, facial characteristics: Dear Ashely the inheritance of facial characteristics it is a very complicated issue but we still know some information now since you have a brown eyes and your dad is blue eyes so you are probably carrying the Brown/blue complexion the same goes for...

Genetics: Chimeras, biology teacher, ashg
biology teacher, ashg, chimerism: Kristina, Are you talking about a chimeric mouse used in genetic studies? Or are you talking about a chimeric person (actually called a mosaic)? I also had some trouble locating a diagram of what is going on. However, the websites below explain it...

Genetics: Chimeras, embryonic stem cells, human embryonic stem cells
embryonic stem cells, human embryonic stem cells, human chimeras: Hi Erika-- Unfortunately, I am not aware of any studies in which human embryonic stem cells have been used to create chimeras... I would simply search for human chimera on google or another search engine and read some of the literature that is displayed......

Genetics: Chromosomes, sex chromosomes, male births
sex chromosomes, male births, x chromosome: Hi Al Dzina, thanks for visiting me at AllExperts. Your question is a very logical one. I always assume that questions are serious! The combination of YY is called non-viable or lethal , if those are the only sex chromosomes present. There are very...

Genetics: Chromosomes, science fiction story, reading science fiction
science fiction story, reading science fiction, extra chromosome: Hi William, thanks for visiting AllExperts! I have enjoyed reading science fiction for most of my life, and I m happy to provide some background info for you. Having an extra chromosome is a well-described birth defect in human beings. Of course, the...

Genetics: Cleftlip, cleft lip palate, clinical pathologist
cleft lip palate, clinical pathologist, unborn fetus: Hi Elizabeth, The exact cause of a child with cleft lip and/or palate often remains unknown. Various research have indicated that it may be inherited from the genes of one or both parents. These genes are usually dormant and may have affected one or both...

Genetics: Clone (follow-up ), dolly sheep, dolly the sheep
dolly sheep, dolly the sheep, female sheep: You must keep in mind that in context of cloning there are three terms-the mother, the host mother, the surrogate mother. The mother is the real parent of the clone. The host mother is one from whom the unfertilized egg is taken. The surrogate mother is one...

Genetics: Clone (follow-up), process of animal cloning, plant cloning
process of animal cloning, plant cloning, dolly the sheep: You are right in understanding that Dolly, the sheep was a creation without the presence of a sperm cell i.e. a clone of female can be produced without the presence of a sperm cell. I would also like to correct your phase ‘creation of life’ .Till now no one...

Genetics: Clone (follow-up), somatic cell nuclear transfer, donor nucleus
somatic cell nuclear transfer, donor nucleus, dolly the sheep: Pearl, Yes, Dolly was created with somatic cell nuclear transfer, and in this process, she was an exact genetic duplicate of her donor. She did not retain any nuclear genetic information from the egg. I read your original question to mean, can two...

Genetics: Cloned Cattle, dolly the sheep, quality meat
dolly the sheep, quality meat, future thanks: Marc, Cattle have been cloned in the manner of Dolly , the sheep that made big press a while back. However, the cattle are too expensive to produce to become part of the food supply yet. It is thought that this will become a cheaper way to produce cattle...

Genetics: "Cloning", sheep dolly, roslin institute
sheep dolly, roslin institute, information on cloning: Hi Karan, thanks for visiting AllExperts. There are several different meanings to the term cloning . I m assuming that you mean the duplication of an adult animal s physical form by creating a genetically identical embryo. A very good web site for...

Genetics: Cloning DNA, cloning, dna
cloning, dna, shane: Hi Emily-- Well, this question is difficult to answer because there are MANY, MANY characteristics that either allow or repress the synthesis/duplication of DNA. I encourage you to read one of my previous replies regarding transcription and translation......

Genetics: Cloning, stem cell technology, advantages of cloning
stem cell technology, advantages of cloning, human insulin: Hi Lance-- Well, this depends on what you mean by cloning . In the traditional sense, cloning was simply the process of inserting and replicating a foreign gene in another organism. For example, genticists were able to clone human insulin (for use in...

Genetics: What College to go to, massachusetts institute of technology, johns hopkins university
massachusetts institute of technology, johns hopkins university, university of california berkeley: Hi Leia- In response to your question, USNews listed the following ten schools as superior in their graduate genetics programs... 1. Harvard University (MA) 2. University of California - Berkeley 3. Johns Hopkins University (MD) 3. Stanford...

Genetics: Color Blindness, history of color blindness, red green colorblindness
history of color blindness, red green colorblindness, x chromosome: Assuming the wife has no famiy history of color blindness and is not a carrier, the actual answer is ZERO. This is due to the fact that the gene is carried on the X chromosome and is recessive. Since the father cannot give his son an X chromosome, it is impossible...

Genetics: Communicable Vaccine, h5n1 virus, virus vaccine
h5n1 virus, virus vaccine, intriguing idea: Adam, I have been thinking about this for a few days. It is an intriguing idea. I couldn t come up with a way that it would work. When a whole virus vaccine is given, it is either heat-killed or attenuated. The virus is altered in such a way as that it doesn...

Genetics: Complexion, skin complexion, dark colors
skin complexion, dark colors, grand parents: Dear Priscilla Let me explain some facts for you before answering your question. 1)Skin color is controlled by more than one gene ( an estimate of 30-40 genes) 2)Changes in Skin color can be affected by certain environmental factors such as UV light of...

Genetics: Cousin marriage, cousin marriage, recessive genes
cousin marriage, recessive genes, maternal grandmother: Saadia, Because you share some of your recent ancestor s genes (a great-grandparent) in common, you and your husband are at greater risk than the population at large of having a child with a recessive condition. On average, you share approximately 3% of...

Genetics: Crime gene, major stumbling block, defective genes
major stumbling block, defective genes, gene variants: Hi, I m afraid there is no such thing as a crime gene. What you are probably referring to is a gene called MAO (monoamine oxidase). There has been one (human) family where both copies of hte gene was mutated: the males were profoundly mentally retarded,...

Genetics: Crying!, cellular biologist, lacrimal glands
cellular biologist, lacrimal glands, emotional circumstances: Hi James-- In response to your question, the only thing I can offer is that crying, like any other neuropsychiatric (or thus ANY cellular) process, can be explained in terms of its biochemistry. Certain neurotransmitters in the brain (activated during...

Genetics: Curious about how my future child will look., dominant traits, future child
dominant traits, future child, recessive trait: Jennifer, Every person has two copies of every gene, one from their mother and one from their father. If the two genes are the same, such as brown eyes and brown eyes, then the person is homozygous for that trait; if the two genes are different, such as...

Genetics: Cystic Fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, disease gene
cystic fibrosis, disease gene, 2c: Tammie, CF is a recessive disease. This means you need 2 disease causing genes to have it. Let s call the normal gene C and the CF disease gene c . If you have 2 C s (CC) or 1 C and 1 c (Cc) you will look normal - no disease. If you have 2c s (cc) - you...

Genetics: Cytokinesis, nuclei, cytoplasm
nuclei, cytoplasm, nucleus: Hi Michael-- There would be twice the amount of DNA as a cell that had not undergone mitosis--the nuclei would be neither smaller nor larger--there would simply be two of them. Remember that the nucleus does not generally take up the entire volume of the...

Genetics: my career as a geneticist, universities in uk, postgraduate program
universities in uk, postgraduate program, goggle search: Dear Zuhair I am happy to see more people are interested in genetics I will advise you to apply through the Internet on many universities in UK, Canada and USA which will do master and Ph.D. programs in Genetics. Try a goggle search or yahoo search...

Genetics: cat color project, color inheritance, kittens
color inheritance, kittens, female cat: I am not familiar with the genetics of this color inheritance. Is black smoke dominant? Is it autosomal or sex-linked? These have to be known to answer this question. As far as sex, you have a 50:50 chance of having either sex of kitten. If you have more...

Genetics: cell bio, enzyme catalysis, van holde
enzyme catalysis, van holde, standard curve: Cassie, Wow! what a complicated question! This information will be found in any basic biochemistry textbook, so you might want to start there. I m thinking that the first part of the question wants something like enzyme activity is measured directly...

Genetics: cell biology, protein pathways, thyroid cells
protein pathways, thyroid cells, g protein: cAMP phosphodiesterase forms AMP to cAMP, which is the essential secondary messenger in the G-protein pathways. Therefofre, if you inhibit cAMP-PDE, you are essentially stopping the signal. In this system, the hormone signal would not reach the nucleus and...

Genetics: cell biology, sperm cells, egg cells
sperm cells, egg cells, germline cells: Neha, Typically, in a regular cell that is suspended in G0, there are not mutations because the DNA is not being manipulated , that is, replication is halted. DNA can be mutated through mutagens, that is, chemicals that disrupt the chemical composition...

Genetics: cell division', haploid cells, developmental genetics
haploid cells, developmental genetics, genetic element: Hi Kali-- First, let me state that developmental genetics and embryology are not my fortes, however, I will do my best to answer your questions. 1. Well, I do not suppose that there is any statistical probability that one gender will predominate in...

Genetics: cell division, chromatids, chromosome
chromatids, chromosome, shane: Hi Pooya-- Regarding your question concerning mitosis: A chromosome is simply comprised of two chromatids--one paternal, one maternal. Perhaps you are confusing chromatid with chromatin? Please let me know if I can be of further assistance! Shan...

Genetics: cell, ashg, faseb
ashg, faseb, genetics: Inas, There are a lot of ways that genetics can be taught in high school. It is tricky, however, because genetics requires a totally new vocabulary: it may be difficult to get the meaning across when you are also presenting new words. It is also important...

Genetics: cellular, molecular biology and DNA!, myelin sheathing, star trek next generation
myelin sheathing, star trek next generation, target cell: Hi Robin! Quite a story you re working on! I d be happy to offer my input... First, I m somewhat unclear on the aging virus--you said that the children with the engineered immune systems could disable the virion, however, people exposed to these children...

Genetics: what is the chance of my baby having red hair?, reddish brown hair, light brown hair
reddish brown hair, light brown hair, dark brown hair: Dear Jade Red hair is recessive to brown hair, However your partner has a red hair gene this is why he has reddish brown hair and... So I most likely say your child has a big chance to have red hair and brown eyes nice looking baby in my view :) Regards...

Genetics: more of a chance?, chance of having twins, male organs
chance of having twins, male organs, genetic predisposition: Hi John, The ability to produce more than one fetus is based on various theories of reproduction. 1. 1 sperm fertilizes one egg. The egg splits into two or three during the first cycle of replication. This will give you identical twins (monozygotic)...

Genetics: What are the chances of me having twins??, genetic tendency, having twins
genetic tendency, having twins, two eggs: Joanne, Identical twinning is not an inherited condition, but fraternal twinning is. For you to have a genetic tendency toward fraternal twinning, you would have to inherit it from your side, so your husband s family twins are not relevant in your case,...

Genetics: My chances of having twins, chance of having twins, chances of having twins
chance of having twins, chances of having twins, fraternal twins: Kim, Your husband being a twin will have no bearing on your having twins. If the twins in your family are identical, you should not have any greater chance of having twins than anyone else. If you have fraternal twins in your family, then you could have an...

Genetics: what are the chances of getting twins, having twins, female hormones
having twins, female hormones, fraternal twins: Brittany, Unfortunately, twins run on the mother s side only. It has to do with increases in female hormones that allow two eggs to drop from the ovary per cycle instead of one. Now, that does not rule out having twins; fraternal twins are actually quite...

Genetics: change of sex, secondary sexual characteristics, sex change operation
secondary sexual characteristics, sex change operation, total hysterectomy: A., When a sex change operation is performed, the gonads are removed and the exterior sex organs are changed to look like those of the other sex. It is less complicated for a male to become female (as opposed to a female becoming male) in structure, because...

Genetics: What could my child look like?, reddish brown hair, light brown hair
reddish brown hair, light brown hair, paternal grandmother: Kim, Every person has two copies of every gene, one from their mother and one from their father. If the two genes are the same, such as brown eyes and brown eyes, then the person is homozygous for that trait; if the two genes are different, such as one...

Genetics: What will our child look like, american spanish, brown eyes
american spanish, brown eyes, black hair: Jake, All I can say is that dark is dominant to light, so if your wife does not look African American, then the child will not either. The child will be somewhere between your two looks with blended characteristics. I would predict that the child will...

Genetics: What will my child look like, light brown eyes, medium skin
light brown eyes, medium skin, wavy hair: Elizabeth, You probably have one brown gene and one blond gene for hair color, and one brown and one blue for eye color. Your husband has one brown, one green, and one blue gene for eye color, but two brown genes for hair color. This would result in a...

Genetics: What will our child look like?, dark brown eyes, dark brown hair
dark brown eyes, dark brown hair, wavey hair: As you have already suggested, it is not as easy to predict a child s pigmentation when there is less known of the family history. Since your husband has such light-colored hair, and you know that most African-Americans have some european genes, it is most...

Genetics: what will my child look like?, dirty blonde hair, curly blonde hair
dirty blonde hair, curly blonde hair, blonde curly hair: Well, your fiancee s traits are recessive, meaning that the traits are covered up by quite a few other things. Blonde and blue are easily covered up by brunette and brown, for example. That he has two other children who were blonde/blue does not indicate anything...

Genetics: How will our child look like?, light brown skin, curly brown hair
light brown skin, curly brown hair, dark brown eyes: Dear Amanda; Inheritance of human characteristics are very complex process and involved many genes and environmental factors. One of this inheritance is the nose shape. It is so little known about the way the nose shape is inherited but there is strong...

Genetics: What will my child look like?, light blonde hair, pale complexion
light blonde hair, pale complexion, dark complexion: From your description of the eyes, you should have a 50% chance of having a non-brown eyed baby. Hair and skin color are a bit more complicated. For instance, skin color is determined by a number of genes, so it will depend on how many darker skin genes...

Genetics: What will my child look like?, olive skin tone, dominant traits
olive skin tone, dominant traits, recessive traits: Elizabeth, It is true that dominant traits will win out over recessive ones-- brown hair and darker skin are both dominant traits. However, green eyes are recessive to brown, so any child you have would have green or blue eyes. Hair color differs because...

Genetics: What our child might look like..., brown curly hair, strawberry blond hair
brown curly hair, strawberry blond hair, dark brown hair: Becca, Every person has two copies of every gene, one from their mother and one from their father. If the two genes are the same, such as brown eyes and brown eyes, then the person is homozygous for that trait; if the two genes are different, such as one...

Genetics: my child's nose, hook nose, nose shape
hook nose, nose shape, hair texture: Omar, These two traits are difficult to predict, since they are created by many genes working together instead of a single gene, such as the blue gene for eye color that is a single mutation away from brown. Children tend to have blended characteristics...

Genetics: our child, brown eye color, dark brown hair
brown eye color, dark brown hair, dark brown eyes: Dear Courtney; I would like to explain some facts about eye and hair colors. Firstly, eye color is determined by more than one gene (in fact, at least three genes), the phenotype you see such as green or vivid blue eyes is controlled by alterations in...

Genetics: chromomere, leptonema, gametogenesis
leptonema, gametogenesis, prophase: Hello lily-- A chromomere is a serially aligned beadlike granule of concentrated chromatin that constitutes a chromosome during the early phases of cell division. I must confess that I am not particularly familiar with grasshopper gametogenesis, however,...

Genetics: chromosome mapping, chromosome mapping, chromosome number
chromosome mapping, chromosome number, chromosome 6: Hi tilda-- p and q refer to the short arm and long arm of the chromosome respectively. As you correctly stated, the number before the arm designation is the chromosome number. The number after the p or q signifies the locus of a gene or marker......

Genetics: chromosome question, extra chromosome, kanan
extra chromosome, kanan, miscarriages: Dear Stephanie these abnormalities usually happen after fertilization or after an IVF so the outcomes are unpredictable However, Age of mother and previous miscarriages adds more risk of having a repeated syndrome an early test is advised (CVS or...

Genetics: chromosomes, chromosome x, study in italy
chromosome x, study in italy, juvenile diabetes: Since it is a metabolic disorder involving an error in the way the body produces insulin, there are many ways that the pathways involved can be damaged; hence, many genes involved. However, most of the research that I have looked at recently mostly finds genes...

Genetics: chromosomes!, tumor suppressors, chromosome breaks
tumor suppressors, chromosome breaks, professional development course: Eaman, 1--The map of chromosome Y can be found at the following website. There are too many genes to list here. http://www.gdb.org/gdbreports/GeneByChromosome.Y.alpha.html 2--Cancer is caused by mutations or irregular transcription of several genes,...

Genetics: cloning and gentic defects, somatic cell nuclear transfer, brain aneurysm
somatic cell nuclear transfer, brain aneurysm, genetic makeup: Hi Rob, 1- yes. 2- there are many *causes of death* such as aneurisms, massive cardial infarctions (heart attacks) etc, which are undetectable until they happen (or about five minutes earlier, but that s practically the same thing). One s genetic makeup...

Genetics: cloning, human reproductive cloning, human clones
human reproductive cloning, human clones, reputable scientists: Hi Shane, thanks for visiting me at AllExperts. Even with all of the media attention given to cloning issues, the points you bring up are sometimes lost in the mix. I assume your question means human cloning for reproductive purposes . As far as I am...

Genetics: coffee reduces liver cancer risk?, free oxygen radicals, coffee reduces liver cancer
free oxygen radicals, coffee reduces liver cancer, cinnamic acids: Hi Again! Well, as a matter of fact, I am still an undergraduate at the University of Kansas in Lawrence, KS. I will graduate in May of 2006 with a B.S. in cellular biology (minor in chemistry) with an emphasis in cancer biology. I have been working in...

Genetics: color eyes for my baby, brown hazel eyes, hazel green eyes
brown hazel eyes, hazel green eyes, human traits: Hi Andrea! Eye colour along with many human traits are defined by two or more combinations of genes. Because we do not not the exact genotype of your parents and your partners parents, along with you and your husband it is very difficult to predict the...

Genetics: what color hair and eyes will my baby have, homozygous recessive, light brown hair
homozygous recessive, light brown hair, blue genes: Candice, Light brown hair with green or blue eyes. You are homozygous for blue and heterozygous for green, so you will pass on a blue gene and possibly a green gene. Your husband has only blue genes (homozygous recessive), and only blond genes (also...

Genetics: colour blindness and albinism, dominant allele, colour blindness
dominant allele, colour blindness, mutant allele: Hi Dan-- Color blindness and albinism are two different types of genetic anomalies... Color blindness is generally sex-linked whereas albinism is autosomal. On the X chromosome, there lies at least a gene that encodes a protein necessary for color recognition--since...

Genetics: What colour eyes and hair will my baby have?, blonde curly hair, color possibilities
blonde curly hair, color possibilities, dark brown hair: What I can say is that the baby should have some color of non-brown eyes. With a curly-haired parent and a straight-hair parent, your kids should have wavy hair. There are a number of hair color possibilities here from lighter to darker depending on what genes...

Genetics: colour, french naturalist, skin colours
french naturalist, skin colours, physical isolation: Hi John, thanks for visiting me here at AllExperts! In terms of evolution, skin color is really no different from any other physical trait such as being tall or short, or having wavy/straight hair. After humans began moving out of Africa (the widely...

Genetics: confussed about son, lab corp, exact shape
lab corp, exact shape, blood relation: Ryan, I don t know how old your son is, but this type of ambiguity can t be good for him (or you). Regarding the paternity test, I would assume the test was done using a variety of genetic markers, and comparing if the markers seen in the child are compatible...

Genetics: creating a fetus, diploid organism, lower animals
diploid organism, lower animals, sexual reproduction: Hi Charles-- In many of the lower animals (amphibians and certain arthropods (insects)), a phenomenon known as parthenogenesis occurs. In this process, females are haploid clones of the parent (and thus, no fertilization by sperm is required). For a male...

Genetics: Very curious about eye and hair colour for my baby, medium brown hair, different nationalities
medium brown hair, different nationalities, skin coloring: Christina, I m afraid I can t add anything to what you ve already suspected - that with this mix of backgrounds, your baby could have any number of features- brown or light eyes and any type of skin coloring from light to darker depending on which genes your...

Genetics: Out of curiousity, blue green eyes, curly blonde hair
blue green eyes, curly blonde hair, light brown eyes: Hello Nicole, Firstly, I wish you safe delivery of your baby:) before proceeding , I would like to note that what I all of the traits you mentioned are considered as genetic complex traits because they are influenced by more than one gene and some environmental...

Genetics: What is cystic fibrosis..., autosomal recessive condition, chloride ions
autosomal recessive condition, chloride ions, cystic fibrosis: Hi Hector- Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive condition that affects approximately 1 in 2500 individuals (predominately Caucasian). Since this condition is recessive, two copies of the defective allele must be inherited in order to develop the condition--thus,...

Genetics: cytogenetic, philadelphia chromosome, werner syndrome
philadelphia chromosome, werner syndrome, cancerous cells: Afsane, The most exciting research coming out of the cytogenetics field involves chromosomal changes in cancerous cells. That is, when cells become cancerous, there is almost always a major chromosomal change that perpetuates the cancer beyond the immune...

Genetics: Are you my Daddy?, cleft chins, dark pigment
cleft chins, dark pigment, cleft chin: James, Unfortunately, blue eyes does not cancel you out-- only DNA testing can. You have brown eyes, so you could be homozygous dominant brown (two brown genes) or heterozygous dominant brown (one brown and one blue gene). If you are heterozygous, then...

Genetics: Dear ShowI have a question..., viral gene expression, virus genes
viral gene expression, virus genes, plant molecular biology: Tavackol, Do you know anything about the mechanism of the resistance gene? That is, is it an enzyme or a receptor or a signaling molecule? If you are looking at molecular markers, then rt-pcr would probably be your best bet. Is the virus turned on...

Genetics: Deselection of Genes, skin pigment, genetic mutation
skin pigment, genetic mutation, egg cell: Salvatore, Think of this in terms of reproduction advantage, not survival advantage. When a mutation occurs, it is usually in one or two individuals in the group. If the mutation has no impact on survival ability, such as in your case pigmentation in...

Genetics: Determining Paternity, genes, siblings
genes, siblings, offspring: Absolutely, an A+ father and O+ mother can have O+ children. I answer this question in complete detail in an earlier answer that I encourage your to read. I do not know what you mean when you ask about the relationship between an A+ father and O+ children,...

Genetics: Distinguishing between Mitosis and Meiosis II, mitosis and meiosis, phases of mitosis
mitosis and meiosis, phases of mitosis, maternal chromosomes: Hi Brenda-- Regarding your question concerning mitosis and meiosis: The fundamental premise behind meiosis is to reduce the chromosome number in a sexual organism. So, if you observe the chromosome number in a given cell during any part of mitosis (except...

Genetics: Distinquishing what is alive., dna and rna, planetary development
dna and rna, planetary development, logical conclusions: Hi Allan, thanks for visiting me at AllExperts! There are many moral and ethical issues about what constitutes human life, with those arguments mostly centered on abortion and human cloning. Your question is about all life in general, so my answer is based...

Genetics: DNA, faternal twins, gene locus
faternal twins, gene locus, hereditary material: Identical Twins also referredto as faternal twins result when an fertilized egg during the cleavage of this single zygote into two cells, somehow become separated. Each of the two cells may then be implanted in the uterus separately and grow into a complete,...

Genetics: DNA, fraternal twins, identical dna
fraternal twins, identical dna, identical twins: Eddie, Identical twins have identical DNA because they were split from the same fertilized egg. Fraternal twins do not have identical DNA, but are as identical as any two siblings, because they are the result of two separate fertilized eggs at the same...

Genetics: DNA, dna question, dna definition
dna question, dna definition, biological parents: KS, It is called adoption if you and your parents do not share the same DNA. You must share half of your DNA with each of your biological parents. I am assuming that the question is about allografts, that is, a non-identical donor of the same species...

Genetics: DNA, dna mutation, dna question
dna mutation, dna question, dna definition: I couldn’t get your question completely. I might help you if you could send me some more information. However,I would like to tell you that non-disjunction is a process in which homologous chromosomes fail to pair or seperate properly which may result in...

Genetics: DNA, human somatic cells, chromosome sets
human somatic cells, chromosome sets, trisomy 21: Hi Zac-- Human somatic cells (all cells not involved with human reproduction or gametogenesis) are classified as diploid (2n), meaning that all normal human cells have two sets of chromosomes (one of maternal origin and one of paternal origin). Though...

Genetics: DNA, purine adenine, dna molecule
purine adenine, dna molecule, adenine and guanine: Hi Sarah- 1. If you were to analyze the molecular structure of the backbone of DNA, you would observe that it is composed of alternating phosphate and sugar molecules. Thus, phosphate groups are one of the major structural components of DNA (and RNA)...

Genetics: DNA, helix shape, phosphodiester backbone
helix shape, phosphodiester backbone, purine and pyrimidine bases: Michelle, Basically, DNA is a polymer of acidic components called deoxyribonucleotides that are cytosine, guanine, thymine, or adenine. The components consist of a sugar base which is a deoxyribose ring (meaning that it contains 5 carbons with a hydroxyl...

Genetics: DNA, sid altman, unifying concepts in biology
sid altman, unifying concepts in biology, nobel laureates: Hi Dorothy, thanks for visiting AllExperts! At this point in our planet s history, Living and DNA basically go together. That s one of the beautifully unifying concepts in biology. But it wasn t necessarily always that way. Over the years there have...

Genetics: DNA, difference between dna and rna, dna and rna
difference between dna and rna, dna and rna, what is the difference between dna and rna: Hi Arish, thanks for visiting me here at AllExperts. DNA is the chemical building block for genes; it has 2 strands wrapped around each other in a helix. Making a copy of the DNA (as is necessary when a single cell divides to make 2 cells) is called replication....

Genetics: DNA, number of chromosomes, species changes
number of chromosomes, species changes, cellular life: Hi Catherine, thanks for visiting me here at AllExperts. The quality and quantity needs to remain the same ONLY if the organism s offspring are going to generally look and function like the parents, and be able to generate more offspring that have the...

Genetics: DNA, mitochondrial dna, sperm cells
mitochondrial dna, sperm cells, daughter cells: Susan, There are mitochondria containing mitochondrial DNA in every cell of the body, including egg and sperm cells. When egg and sperm fuse during fertilization, the sperm sheds its cell body forcing only the nucleus of the sperm into the egg, thus leaving...

Genetics: DNA, codon and anticodon, triplet code
codon and anticodon, triplet code, adapter molecules: Nat, First of all, I apologize for not answering your question sooner. I have been away without internet access, and was not able to answer any questions. The triplet code is a sequence of three nucleotides that signal the tRNA adapter molecules to...

Genetics: DNA construct, target tissue, nuclear localization
target tissue, nuclear localization, antibiotic sensitivity: Hi Ellen- I apologize for the delay... A DNA construct is an artificially constructed segment of nucleic acid that is going to be transplanted if you will, into a target tissue or cell. For example, in my research lab, we study a protein called APC--(summary...

Genetics: DNA copying mistakes, friedreich s ataxia, external ophthalmoplegia
friedreich s ataxia, external ophthalmoplegia, dna replication: Hi Josh-- I apologize for the delay--I ve been experiencing problems with my internet connection. In reality, many conditions are the result of errors in DNA replication--conditions like cancer are sometimes caused by improper duplication, this results...

Genetics: DNA finger printing, polymerase chain reaction, dna finger printing
polymerase chain reaction, dna finger printing, nucleotide sequences: Hi again! DNA fingerprinting is a technology that uses both biochemical and physical phenomenon to view an individual s genetic identity. First, the individual s DNA is isolated and replicated (many times) using a process known as PCR (polymerase chain...

Genetics: DNA - fragment analysis, dna fragment analysis, restriction maps
dna fragment analysis, restriction maps, target signal: Hello-- Restriction maps are simply graphical representations of enzymatic cleavage sites. Since restriction endonucleases cleave DNA sequences at highly specific sites, one can assemble a map of all restriction sites and then determine which fragments...

Genetics: DNA and genetics, dna replication, phosphate groups
dna replication, phosphate groups, dna chain: Nat, The significance of the 3 -OH group allows the polymerase to add a phosphate to the growing DNA chain. Without the 3 -OH group, the polymerase cannot elongate the chain. This is why we use primers, which are strings of DNA that contain a 3 -OH end...

Genetics: DNA, Proteins, tryptophan operon, lac operon
tryptophan operon, lac operon, rna polymerase: Hi Nabil-- 1. The process of controlling which genes are expressed and when they are expressed is regulated by a highly complex mechanism. There are several basic mechanisms by which this occurs: First, there are what we call inducible genes. A good...

Genetics: DNA and RNA, sugar phosphate backbone, solenoid coils
sugar phosphate backbone, solenoid coils, circular molecule: SM, Generally, I do not directly answer homework questions that can be found in your textbook. 1. Bacterial DNA is packaged into the cell, as eukaryotic chromosomes are packaged into the nucleus. However, because the original molecules have different...

Genetics: DNA/RNA, dna and rna, dna rna
dna and rna, dna rna, amino acid sequence: Dear Zahra; Where ever you have AUG , you will have a start site in this case you have two start sites, which means you will have 2 transcripts 1- AUG ACC AGG AGU 2- AUG ACG AGG AUG ACC AGG AGU the second one is taller than the first one with three...

Genetics: DNA and RNA, dna and rna, difference between dna and rna
dna and rna, difference between dna and rna, rna polymerase: Hi Stephen-- DNA and RNA are both polymers that belong to a general class of biological molecules known as nucleic acids. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the fundamental molecule that stores genetic information in all organisms (except some viruses)....

Genetics: DNA related, first cousins, first cousin
first cousins, first cousin, sister share: Janice, This is a little complicated, math-wise, and easier to explain with a diagram, but I ll try to explain it here. You have 1/2 of your mother s genes and 1/2 of your father s genes. Your first cousin also has 1/2 of her mother s genes and 1/2...

Genetics: DNA replication, dna ligase, dna polymerase
dna ligase, dna polymerase, dna replication: Laura, The Okazaki fragments (named for the Japanese scientist who discovered it) are the small, newly synthesized pieces of DNA formed on the lagging strand of the chromosome. During replication of chromosomes, the DNA polymerase can only move and...

Genetics: DNA Test for paternity., paternity tests, dna test
paternity tests, dna test, dna sequence: Cindy, Depending on what it means to have 7 out of 13 matches , this could be interpreted in different ways. For instance, if the test is for blood types, then the number of matches may vary because they are testing the phenotype, or how the gene is expressed....

Genetics: DNA test, oj simpson murder trial, oj simpson murder
oj simpson murder trial, oj simpson murder, staggering odds: Beth, The test is very accurate, and has the same accuracy whether one man is tested or several. Nowadays, the tests are performed using PCR, which is generally fail-safe. The results of the test (if all genetic markers match) are compared to a database...

Genetics: DNA testing for Fragile-X syndrome, fragile x syndrome, dna test
fragile x syndrome, dna test, dna testing: Ayat, If you were negative, then your baby will have one of your negative genes: the father will contribute the other gene. Your mother s carrier status has no effect on your children if you have already tested negative, that is, you know that your genes...

Genetics: DNA, dna alphabet, relevant genes
dna alphabet, relevant genes, aminoacids: Hey Angie, let me see if I can rephrase this stuff - in English :-) DNA is the stuff our genes are made of. It s like a scroll that contains the instructions to make all the bits and pieces for a cell. A cell is quite a complicated little thing, and it...

Genetics: Dominant vs Recessive genes, incomplete dominance, recessive genes
incomplete dominance, recessive genes, homework questions: Hi Brian, Please note that I do not do homework questions. I only respond to questions relating to Medical Genetics and its diseases. I will only make one exception; however, I will refuse future questions. Both parents have to be carriers of a recessive...

Genetics: Double helix, double helix, dna code
double helix, dna code, human genetics: There is so much information in our DNA that more is not needed. However, should more be needed there are several possibilities. For example, we have several different hemoglobin genes, which are evolved from one hemoglobin gene by duplication of an ancestral...

Genetics: will they have their dads red hair?, light blonde hair, dark blonde hair
light blonde hair, dark blonde hair, light brown hair: Katelyn, The chance of red hair depends on you and if any one of your ancestors has had red or blond hair. If anything, the hair will probably be reddish because of the contribution of your husband s red hair genes (he has two copies of the red gene, and...

Genetics: deafness, bones of the middle ear, membrane bones
bones of the middle ear, membrane bones, auditory area: With nerve deafness, the tympanic membrane, bones of the middle ear, cochlea, and the auditory canal can all be perfectly normal and receive sound perfectly. The problem is that the nerves are not conducting the information to the auditory area of the brain,...

Genetics: defence against disease, rna virus, immune suppression
rna virus, immune suppression, virus infection: Kath, I can t seem to find this information after screening lots of webpages. --Mostly because all the information is concerned with vaccine response. I did gather that the measles virus causes a switch from humoral (T-cell mediated) to cell (B-cell mediated)...

Genetics: describe the biochemical structure..., valence electrons, ring structures
valence electrons, ring structures, fats and proteins: Kathie, The major food sources are generally hydrocarbons, that is, molecules made up of chains of carbon with hydrogen and other elements attached. This typically results in a carbon surrounded by four bonds (because carbon has four valence electrons,...

Genetics: disorders, electrical impulses, nerve fiber
electrical impulses, nerve fiber, scar tissue: Hi Vignesh, thanks for visiting me here at AllExperts! Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease that affects a substance called myelin that surrounds nerves in the brain and the spinal cord. Myelin acts in a similar way to the insulation around an electrical...

Genetics: dna, dna hybridisation, dna hybridization
dna hybridisation, dna hybridization, dna strands: Hi Cassie-- Well, one of the fundamental uses of DNA-DNA hybridization is in evolutionary biology and phylogenetics. DNA-DNA hybridization measures the degree of genetic similarity between complete genomes by measuring the amount of heat required to melt...

Genetics: dna dna hybridisation, dna hybridisation, dna hybridization
dna hybridisation, dna hybridization, mrna: Hi cass-- DNA/DNA hybridization is a method used to determine how similar two species are--by denaturing two organisms DNA and observing how much they anneal (come together), you could extrapolate how genetically similar they are. On the other hand,...

Genetics: dna molecules, dna molecules, protein production
dna molecules, protein production, dna sequence: Stephen, I think that your speaker used a much too simplistic view of genetics with the result of confusing you (and probably the rest of your classmates) with this information. First, DNA is like a blueprint for an organism. It is basically the instructions...

http://en.allexperts.com/q/Genetics-1795/dna-ribosome.htm
rna polymerase ii, mrna molecule, dna sequences: Hi Smr-- The general maxim of protein synthesis is: DNA-------------- mRNA--------------- Protein Transcription Translation The first step in transcription is the association of the RNA polymerase II enzyme to the gene--this is achieved...

Genetics: dna testing, paternity dna tests, dna testing
paternity dna tests, dna testing, shane: Hi Karen- This really depends on the lab and the nature of the test... I believe that for paternity DNA tests, most labs generally take between five to seven business days (after receipt of the sample) to return the results. Some labs offer a rush option...

Genetics: dna triple helix, dna double helix, dna and rna structures
dna double helix, dna and rna structures, dna and rna: Smita, I would have to look this up to give you accurate information for your presentation, so I have included a website that gives a pretty good explanation with diagrams about using antisense oligos as drug therapy. It is specific to AIDS drugs, but...

Genetics: dna, dna fingerprint, dna molecules
dna fingerprint, dna molecules, suspense novels: The DNA fingerprint is in the form of an autoradiographic film, similar to an X-ray film. On this film, you see a series of black bands that show the banding pattern of radioactively labeled DNA molecules. Look at the first figure at the following website....

Genetics: dominance in genes/hair and eyes, anglo saxon, bleach blonde
anglo saxon, bleach blonde, color possibilities: Lauren, Let me tell you which features are dominant and maybe this will help you sort things out. Brown eyes are dominant to non-brown. Skin color is determined by several genes. It depends on how many dark and light genes you have as to what your skin color...

Genetics: Is there a drug to stop growth?, juan carlos cruz, growth spurt
juan carlos cruz, growth spurt, slow metabolism: Hi, Juan Carlos, First, I should tell you that this is not my field of study, but I like to respond to all questions instead of giving a stock answer. Your endocrinologist is the best person to answer your questions about growth after adulthood. However,...

Genetics: Editing journals, editorial staffs, postdoctoral advisor
editorial staffs, postdoctoral advisor, public library of science: Hi Sabitha, thanks for visiting me here at AllExperts. That s a great career option for scientists, and as you know it s a critically important part of how our peer-reviewed scientific literature functions. It would be best to identify as many journals...

Genetics: Education, hannah hannah, mental stamina
hannah hannah, mental stamina, plant genetics: Hannah, I am assuming from your questions that you are in high school or early college? This is a great time to start thinking about your career, especially if you want to go into a field that requires a lot of training, such as genetics. To let you know...

Genetics: Effect of Electricity on Bacteria, bacteria in petri dishes, petrie dish
bacteria in petri dishes, petrie dish, petri dish: Hello Aravind-- How did the interview grade turn out? I hope my responses were of some assistance... Regarding your questions concerning microbiology: 1. It is safe to pass 1.5 V of electricity through a petrie dish... In my research laboratory...

Genetics: Electricity and E. Coli, national science fair, petrie dish
national science fair, petrie dish, chemistry student: Hi Allison-- 1. Your school (perhaps the physics department?) should have some power sources with variable output... If not, you could attempt to use a large battery with a rheostat, but I would not recommend this... Simply connect wires to the electrodes...

Genetics: Embryonic stem cell research, embryonic stem cells, types of stem cells
embryonic stem cells, types of stem cells, somatic cell nuclear transfer: Ashley, Embryonic stem cells are cells that have been taken from an embryo, or the mass of cells that develops through cell division of the zygote. The zygote can be from a fertilized egg (egg and sperm) or from a somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which...

Genetics: Eukaryotic Molecular Genetics, rna polymerase ii, eukaryotic molecular genetics
rna polymerase ii, eukaryotic molecular genetics, types of mutations: Hi Cara How could a new mutation in an interacting protein suppress the temperature-sensitive lethality of the original mutation? Temperature sensitive mutations usually involve amino acid substitutions which destabilise the protein, so it denatures...

Genetics: Evolution, living organisms, physiologic responses
living organisms, physiologic responses, genetic sequence: Hi Peter-- Sorry for the delay... The statement you have posted is, for the most part, entirely true--in response to the last question, all adaptation must begin with mutants as changes in the genetic sequence is the ONLY way living organisms acquire...

Genetics: Evolution, animal behaviorist, cuisinarts
animal behaviorist, cuisinarts, evolutionary terms: I m not sure that I understand what you are asking, but I will try to respond anyway. First, Man s development results in leisure time: that is, the development of tools and the refinement of tools allows man to do his job more quickly and thus free up...

Genetics: Evolution, genetic evolution, share tasks
genetic evolution, share tasks, leisure time: Hi Edward, thanks for visiting AllExperts. Yours isn t exactly a genetics question, but I ll answer as best I can. The main concept here is that human genetic evolution has given us capacities that lions don t have, and we ve used those capacities to construct...

Genetics: Evolution, evolution evolution, evolution works
evolution evolution, evolution works, steady improvement: Hi Ed, thanks for visiting AllExperts. You ve asked an interesting question. I appreciate the definition of progress you ve provided; it s always best to clearly define terminology at the start. I ll work with that. For the first meaning, movement...

Genetics: Evolution, homo erectus, skin colours
homo erectus, skin colours, sperm count: Steve, So by modern humans you mean specifically Homo sapiens? Yes, I believe that 150,000 years would be plenty of time to evolve the original H. sapiens into what we are today-- that would be from 7500-10,000 generations to amplify the population and...

Genetics: Evolution, moral ramifications, inuit community
moral ramifications, inuit community, oxygen capacity: Evolutionary theory states that there is a net movement toward better surival, not perfection . However, if we simply optimize the genes, we lose genetic variability, which is the BASIS for adaptability. Therefore, if there was a sudden shift in the environment,...

Genetics: Evolution of people, evolution of human beings, somatic cells
evolution of human beings, somatic cells, dear james: Well James; Unfortunately this occurs only in movies I will be happy to know such things exist but it is too complicated to happen. There are other things to consider, for example if you learn something and you stored it in your DNA then how you are...

Genetics: Evolution, weathering and erosion, evolution natural selection
weathering and erosion, evolution natural selection, proof of evolution: It Doesn t. Evolution is an attempt to sidestep the scientific method by providing a theory of origins that cannot be proven except through circumstantial evidence that has never been cerified scientifically. For every so-called Proof that evolution is true,...

Genetics: Evolutionary genetics, bulging biceps, artificial insemination
bulging biceps, artificial insemination, evolutionary genetics: Gordon, To date, there is no evidence that this occurs. That is, environmental influences on the parent are not passed on to the future offspring unless those offspring are also subjected to the same environmental stress; that is, in your example the offspring...

Genetics: Evolving genes, skin color change, random mutation
skin color change, random mutation, gene mutation: John, Animals do evolve through random mutations which are very rare (we have developed a system of DNA repair that corrects almost all mutations that occur), but these mutations must be in the germline cells, that is, sperm and egg cells, for this mutation...

Genetics: Eye Color, color genes, genetic model
color genes, genetic model, allexperts: Hi Ron, thanks for visiting me here at AllExperts! Well, it *used* to be thought that a simple genetic model could explain eye color. Blue-eyes were thought to be recessive to Brown-eyes, so that if both copies of a person s eye color genes were blue-color,...

Genetics: Eye Color, recessive allele, sperm cells
recessive allele, sperm cells, germline mutation: Jonime, Your daughter is easy-- your husband must have a recessive allele for blue eyes, so your daughter inherited a blue allele from each of her parents. That is, green eyes are a result of a different gene system that changes the color of the iris only...

Genetics: Eye Color, kanan, blue eye
kanan, blue eye, raed: Dear Shannon To have blue eyes for the baby there must be two copies of the blue eye gene one form father and one from mother So your chances to have the blue color depends on that your family history of blue eyes Regards Dr. Raed Kanan http://kanan.co.nr...

Genetics: Eye Color, statistical probability, mom and dad
statistical probability, mom and dad, color eyes: Hi Karen- As with all things in genetics, I can tell you a statistical probability, but not a certainty... I ll do my best! First, a little background... Human eye color is governed by three genes, EYCL1 (gey), EYCL2 (bey1), and EYCL3 (bey2)... The...

Genetics: Eye color, hazel green eyes, recessive trait
hazel green eyes, recessive trait, recessive gene: Ally, Every person has two copies of every gene, one from their mother and one from their father. If the two genes are the same, such as brown eyes and brown eyes, then the person is homozygous for that trait; if the two genes are different, such as one...

Genetics: Eye color, dark brown eyes, hazel eyes
dark brown eyes, hazel eyes, eye color: Diana, Not likely. Both green and blue are recessive to brown, so the fact that the eyes are green or blue means that they do not have a gene for brown eyes at all. Thus, they cannot pass on a gene for brown eyes. That being said, it is possible to have...

Genetics: Eye color, brown eyed baby, brown eyes
brown eyed baby, brown eyes, eye color: Kathy, First of all, I apologize for not answering your question sooner. I have been away without internet access, and was not able to answer any questions. Yes, one of the parents must have a brown gene because brown is dominant to all other colors....

Genetics: Eye color, brown pigment, blue green eyes
brown pigment, blue green eyes, blue eye: Melissa, It sounds like the eyes are not quite fully colored ; That is, if they still look muddy, then they may not be at their full color. If they do stay blue, then this recessive color is because your husband has donated a blue eye gene and because...

Genetics: Eye color, brown eye color, pigment molecules
brown eye color, pigment molecules, brown pigment: Cody, Eye color cannot be changed once it is established, unless a tumor in the iris grows at a later date. The reason for this is that the color is determined by specific proteins that are present in the iris (the colored part of the eye) and the genes...

Genetics: Eye color?, light eyes, blue gene
light eyes, blue gene, brown eyes: Jeannie, For your child to have blue eyes, you would have to be a silent carrier of blue, which seems unlikely because all of your family have brown eyes. Your partner has a 50% chance of passing on the blue gene, but the eyes would only be blue if you...

Genetics: Eye color, caucasian populations, asian populations
caucasian populations, asian populations, eastern descent: Eye color is a multigenic trait, which means that many genes control this trait. And not all the genes are known. Although very rare, it is possible for a pure asian or middle eastern person to have blue or green eyes, provided they harbor certain mutations,...

Genetics: Eyes color, blue green eyes, eyes color
blue green eyes, eyes color, brown eyes: Brad, 100%. If you marry a woman with blue or green eyes, your chances of having a child with brown eyes is 0. Your chance of blue eyes is about 50%, green the other 50%. This is because brown is always dominant to blue, so if you had a gene for brown...

Genetics: ear shape and paternity, ear lobes, ear shape
ear lobes, ear shape, dna tests: K, First, ear lobe shape is not sex-related, but in certain cases, it could be used to help determine paternity (see below). There are 2 ear lobe shapes - unattached (ear lobes hang free) and attached. The gene for free ear lobes is dominant to the gene...

Genetics: effective alleles, diploid organisms, mutation rate
diploid organisms, mutation rate, population size: Reza, I m sorry, but I have never heard of this before, and from reading over what you sent, I m afraid I couldn t make heads or tails of it either :) The actual population would be the number of individuals in a given pop n - if this helps. Was this a quote...

Genetics: electrophoresis of serum etc., positive electrode, tertiary structure
positive electrode, tertiary structure, kanan: Dear Dennis All proteins are carrying negative charge before electrophoresis because you are treating then with surfactants so they will be migrate to the positive electrode the pH is dependent on the protein some proteins require acidic , others basic and...

Genetics: evolution, google search, chicken claim
google search, chicken claim, rex reason: Hi Jeff-- Well, I am by no means a paleoentologist, and actually, not much of an evolutionist either... I m not sure that a geneticist s opinion would be all that helpful since we do not have the T-rex genome sequence for comparison. I did do a google...

Genetics: evolution and chromosome number, chromosome numbers, chromosomal anomalies
chromosome numbers, chromosomal anomalies, chromosome number: A copy Cytogenetics by Swanson, Mertz, and Young woul answer a lot of your questions. Your library will most likley have it. Your question is very good and has a variety of answers. For example, wheat is hexaploid, having 6 copies of ancestral chromosomes...

Genetics: evolution, greek philosophers, cause and effect relationship
greek philosophers, cause and effect relationship, evolutionists: What evolutionists will never tell you is that evolution is based more on faith than scientific proof than they care to admit. After reading the short article I ve included, you might want to consider going to answersingenesis website for proof that evolution...

Genetics: The experiment, salt molecules, testing electricity
salt molecules, testing electricity, nutrient agar: Hi Aravind! 1. Though nutrient agar will (like all matter) have some electrical resistance, I would not imaging that you would have a problem passing a current through it--it contains water (a polar molecule) as well as some electrolytes (ionic salt molecules)--both...

Genetics: could you explain how antidiretic..., hormone adh, small quantities
hormone adh, small quantities, conserving water: Katherine, I typed antidiuretic hormone into Google and got this website as a first hit: http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/hypopit/adh.html Basically, antidiuretic hormone, or vasopressin, is responsible for conserving water...

Genetics: An extra pair of chromosones, extra chromosome, liver cells
extra chromosome, liver cells, doom the movie: Todd, As far as we know, having an extra chromosome would be a disadvantage because our cells are programmed to check for 23 pairs, not 24. So, during cell division the extra chromosome (or one of our normal chromosomes) would be lost in the cell division....

Genetics: eye color, old baby girl, eye color
old baby girl, eye color, hair color: Hi Sandie, thanks for visiting me here at AllExperts! Genetics experts have differing opinions about predicting eye/hair color. And it can t be done with certainty, it s always a probably or likely type of answer. One of the other genetics experts...

Genetics: eye color, blue eye, blue eyes
blue eye, blue eyes, eye color: Peggy, Only if the child is adopted. Blue eyes are always recessive to brown, so to have blue eyes means that the parent has two copies of (is homozygous for) the blue eye gene. This also means that the parent can only pass on blue eye genes. Therefore,...

Genetics: eye color, different colored eyes, heterochromia
different colored eyes, heterochromia, different colors: Brit, Heterochromia occurs during development when one progenitor cell of the cells that will become the iris (the colored part) is mutated to encode a different eye color. In this case, the mutation probably occurred after this progenitor cell split into...

Genetics: eye color, congratulations on your new baby, hazel green
congratulations on your new baby, hazel green, dads side: Congratulations on your new baby!! I m very sorry, but I cannot answer this question at this time, as it is too involved. Please see my previously answered questions if you would like to try your hand at predicting genetics. Keep in mind that genetics are...

Genetics: eye color, inter racial couples, skin pigmentation
inter racial couples, skin pigmentation, interracial couples: Hi Patrick-- The alleles governing skin pigmentation and eye color are independent of eachother. Blue and green eyes are simply seldom seen in African Americans because they would be selected against in the environment in which this population evolved...

Genetics: eye colour, dominant and recessive genes, hazel eyes
dominant and recessive genes, hazel eyes, allele: There are several genes that influence pigment and that s one reason why it is so confusing. brown is usually dominant over blue, but your family has hazel and green as well -- probably on all different genes so it depends who inherits what. The hazel color...

Genetics: eyes, dark brown eyes, color possibilities
dark brown eyes, color possibilities, sister light: Thank you for being so concise, clear, and upfront with your colors! You have no idea how much simpler that made everything. The bottom line: 7/8 of a chance your child will have brown eyes 1/8 of a chance your child will have blue-green/hazel or some...

Genetics: eyes, silent carriers, blue eye
silent carriers, blue eye, brown eye: Rex, Yes, but the two dark eyed people must each be a silent carrier of a blue eye gene. The reason that they would be silent carriers is that brown is always dominant to blue. That is, the eyes are blue only if the person has two copies of the blue eye...

Genetics: Fetal Genetic Testing, columbia college chicago, health care premiums
columbia college chicago, health care premiums, fetal genetic testing: Hi Maria, thanks for visiting AllExperts! In my personal view, you ve hit the nail on the head. Part of every scientist s job is to communicate knowledge to the public, not just to other scientists and physicians. Unfortunately, as a profession we haven...

Genetics: First time Rat breeder, punnet squares, fur color
punnet squares, fur color, rat breeder: Dear Dephney Punnet squares does not depend on how many offsprings you will have but it will depend on how many genotypes you have as i can see there are more than one gene for the fur color (blk,wht,brown) which will not allow to do a punnet square...

Genetics: Fragile X prenatal test results, fragile x syndrome, prenatal blood test
fragile x syndrome, prenatal blood test, distant descendants: Dear Tanya I know things are confusing but I don t think you have risk at the moment .. read below for details The grey zone is the most important point about mutations in the fragile X syndrome gene mutations with CGG repeat number in the grey zone ...

Genetics: Frequencies in populations, hardy weinberg law, recessive allele
hardy weinberg law, recessive allele, aa aa: I think u must be aware of Hardy-Weinberg law . According to this law,if A and a are two alleles of a gene and their frequency is given as p and q (p+q=1) then the genotypic frequencies of genotype AA , Aa and aa is p*p ,2*p*q and q*q respectively....

Genetics: Alien Abductions?, genetic mutation, alien race
Genetics: Alien Abductions?, genetic mutation, alien race

Genetics: accelerated growth of plants., sustainable farming, air compression
Genetics: accelerated growth of plants., sustainable farming, air compression, emersion

Genetics: asian-white babies, blue eyes
Genetics: asian-white babies, blue eyes

Genetics: Biology, penn foster
Genetics: Biology, penn foster

Genetics: Biology, moderate exercise, triglycerides
Genetics: Biology, moderate exercise, triglycerides, renal tubule

Genetics: Black father, White mother, Blonde child., maury, mom
Genetics: Black father, White mother, Blonde child., maury, mom

Genetics: Blood type inheritance, transfusion service, blood group
Genetics: Blood type inheritance, transfusion service, blood group, inheritance

Genetics: Blood types, different colors, parents
Genetics: Blood types, different colors, parents

Genetics: Bowed Legs/Depression, medals and trophies, bowed legs
Genetics: Bowed Legs/Depression, medals and trophies, bowed legs, leg exercises

Genetics: Brain Cancer
Genetics: Brain Cancer

Genetics: another on baby eye and hair color, light brown hair, dark brown hair
Genetics: another on baby eye and hair color, light brown hair, dark brown hair, dark brown eyes

Genetics: What will my baby look like?, mixed race, dad
Genetics: What will my baby look like?, mixed race, dad

Genetics: what will our baby look like, light brown hair, blue eyes
Genetics: what will our baby look like, light brown hair, blue eyes, dad

Genetics: What will my baby look like?, red hair and green eyes, lashes
Genetics: What will my baby look like?, red hair and green eyes, lashes, brown eyes

Genetics: what will my baby look like?, south american origin, dark brown eyes
Genetics: what will my baby look like?, south american origin, dark brown eyes, biology book

Genetics: What my baby will look like, straight hair, alleles
Genetics: What my baby will look like, straight hair, alleles, curly hair

Genetics: who will my baby look like when born, mom and dad, medium skin
Genetics: who will my baby look like when born, mom and dad, medium skin, light skin

Genetics: what will our baby look liek, beautiful baby
Genetics: what will our baby look liek, beautiful baby

Genetics: what will my baby look like?, hazel eyes, medium skin
Genetics: what will my baby look like?, hazel eyes, medium skin, skin colour

Genetics: blood types, element of chance, genotype
Genetics: blood types, element of chance, genotype, sperm

Genetics: blood typing inheritance, blood group, alleles
Genetics: blood typing inheritance, blood group, alleles

Genetics: two blue eyed blond haired parents= brown eyed brown haired baby?, brown eyes, eye color
Genetics: two blue eyed blond haired parents= brown eyed brown haired baby?, brown eyes, eye color, variance

Genetics: blue eyes/african, recessive allele, snp analysis
Genetics: blue eyes/african, recessive allele, snp analysis, maternal lineage

Genetics: brown eyes- blue eyes, dominant genes, eye color
Genetics: brown eyes- blue eyes, dominant genes, eye color, ayes

Genetics: Characteristics of E. Coli, gram negative bacteria, gram negative bacterium
Genetics: Characteristics of E. Coli, gram negative bacteria, gram negative bacterium, research in microbiology

Genetics: Child's Genes., dominant gene, brown eyes
Genetics: Child's Genes., dominant gene, brown eyes, dad

Genetics: Cousin marriage, first cousin, intelligent children
Genetics: Cousin marriage, first cousin, intelligent children, computer scientist

Genetics: Crime gene, vagrancy, significant influence
Genetics: Crime gene, vagrancy, significant influence, testosteron

Genetics: What will my child look like?, light eyes, green eyes
Genetics: What will my child look like?, light eyes, green eyes, dad

Genetics: color eyes for my baby, green eyes, blue eyes
Genetics: color eyes for my baby, green eyes, blue eyes

Genetics: DNA, fraternal twins, identical twins
Genetics: DNA, fraternal twins, identical twins, egg

Genetics: DNA, human biology, genetic codes
Genetics: DNA, human biology, genetic codes, rare condition

Genetics: DNA, dna
Genetics: DNA, dna

Genetics: DNA and RNA
Genetics: DNA and RNA

Genetics: DNA related, genealogical relationships, genetic relationships
Genetics: DNA related, genealogical relationships, genetic relationships, kinship

Genetics: Eye Color, blue eyes, mom
Genetics: Eye Color, blue eyes, mom, parents

Genetics: Eye color, color genetics, thetech
Genetics: Eye color, color genetics, thetech, eye color