About Experts Sitemap - Group 25 - Page 8 2015-01-20

Geology: geology, san andreas fault, geology books
san andreas fault, geology books, structural geology: Arfa In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement. Large faults within the Earth s crust result from the action of tectonic forces. Energy release associated with rapid...

Geology: geology, indepth info, google
indepth info, google, level of detail: Mudbusher: As I said before, the geology is too complex to provide the level of detail you are asking for in this forum. Do a search on google. There are several books available on the geology of Pakistan that will provide the indepth info you are seeking...

Geology: geology, cement clinker, amorphous mass
cement clinker, amorphous mass, color materials: There are no attached images. The clinker is basically manmade obsidian or volcanic glass. It is amorphous. Intuitively, I would think that the inclusions in the clinker may have been in their crystal state when the clinker cooled and did not crystallize...

Geology: geology, geological problem, dam capacity
geological problem, dam capacity, geological framework: Dear Sir, Dam reservoir sites usually have problem of induced seismicity, fault failures and silt. The solutions are usually related to the geological framework and dam capacity. I am not a dam related geologist so I could not provide you the solutions...

Geology: Help for career, geophysical data acquisition, earth science department
geophysical data acquisition, earth science department, petroleum exploration: My dear Prateek, Geology is a subject of science and like any other science subjects theories, Laws and postulates also are the part of Geology. Exploration of petroleum, minerals and gemstones are carried out based on the concepts of geological theories...

Geology: half life of elements, nuclear decay, precise measurements
nuclear decay, precise measurements, natural phenomenon: William, Scientists measure all sorts of natural phenomenon that we can t see, smell, hear, or live long enough to measure. The equations for nuclear decay are well known and with a little algebra and some very precise measurements, the half life of the...

Geology: hydraulic and hydropower engineering, underpinning foundation, geological strata
underpinning foundation, geological strata, geological problem: Dear Elias, Typical geotechnical solutions for geological issues with Dam may consist of: 1. Underpinning/foundation strengthening for weak geological formations. 2. Other dynamic soil improvement methods such Stone columns, Vibroflotation, vibrocompaction...

Geology: What kind of rock is this?, rock hardness, knife blade
rock hardness, knife blade, streak plate: At first glance it looks like a piece of a mentor but if it doesn t have enough iron to be picked up by your metal detector I doubt that. If you will make a few simple tests I will try to make another analysis. 1) I need several pictures of the rock; taken...

Geology: Logging, Electric logging response to rocks
Electric logging response to rocks: Thu Ya, Carbonate is a sedimentary rock, as you may be aware. Now we know that sedimentary rocks have porosity, permeability, and basically can be divided into three types: Clastics, Carbonates and Evaporites. Volcanic rocks have igneous origin, and are...

Geology: Petroleum Geologist Career Path, Geology, career
Geology, career: Taylor, In the discovered petroleum basins, the Geology these days is on the back-burner in comparison to the Geophysics. As the basin gets matured with the passage of time, relatively deeper, subtle and smaller traps are to be pursued; the geophysical...

Geology: Prognosis depth?, Well prognosis
Well prognosis: Yousaf, The first thing to do before you start to make a well prognosis is to collect the data from nearby old wells, and seismic line(s) that can be tied with existing well(s) and your well location, yet to be drilled. That will provide you the stratigraphic...

Geology: petrology of dattta formation, Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan, Datta sandstone, best section
Datta sandstone, best section: Waqas, You may be aware that there is a an Auto Rejection option as I believe this is a homework question . Your last question was a home-work question, but I still did not reject it. I do not believe in providing the fish but to help the questioner...

Geology: petrology od dattta formation, Datta sandstone, Salt Range
Datta sandstone, Salt Range: Waqas, Please read details of Datta Formation on p. 199-200 of Kazmi & Abbasi (2008) book Stratigraphy and Historical Geology of Pakistan . A paper by Mujtaba & Munir published in Pakistan Journal of Hydrocarbon research. Diagenesis and pore space development...

Geology: pumps, sulfide minerals, flotation cells
sulfide minerals, flotation cells, piston pump: The use of pumps in mining: A pump is a mechanical device used for transferring fluid from one point to another. There are several different varieties of pumps that are found in the marketplace, but the most common in use are the centrifugal pump and the...

Geology: pumps, manoharan, mechanical action
manoharan, mechanical action, mining areas: Dear Shahdain Thanks for your question, A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids, gases or slurries. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. Pumps fall into five major groups: direct lift, displacement, velocity, buoyancy...

Geology: Quality of the oil, viscosity of oil, petroleum studies
viscosity of oil, petroleum studies, mud logger: Dear Mr. Rahul, Thanks for your question, 1.Oil viscosity refers to how easily oil pours at a specified temperature. Thinner oils have a water-like consistency and pour more easily at low temperatures than heavier, thicker oils that have a more honey-like...

Geology: Rock, feldspar and mica, waxy luster
feldspar and mica, waxy luster, hand specimen: Joel: First, the rock looks like a mineral. The difference between a rock and mineral is like the difference between a brick and a house. Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic substances with a specific chemical composition and crystal structure....

Geology: rock, sand dredger, washita river in oklahoma
sand dredger, washita river in oklahoma, little specks: Tammy, The top layer is almost certainly quartz. The middle layer is most likely feldspar though it could be calcite or dolomite. The bottom layer is also likely to be quartz. The coarse crystal size means that they grew very slowly into what was once...

Geology: Stratigraphic column of sui gas field, Stratigraphy, Sui gas field
Stratigraphy, Sui gas field, Sui Main Limestone: Usman, Walaikassalam The best thing for you would be to get hold of my paper Sui Main Limestone (SML): Regional geology and the analysis of original pressures of a closed system reservoir in central Pakistan .The paper was published in AAPG Bulletin,...

Geology: seismic inversion, seismic reflection data, hydrocarbon reservoirs
seismic reflection data, hydrocarbon reservoirs, seismic inversion: Dear Bilal, Thanks for your question. Though I don’t have expertise in geophysics I have tried to get some information on your question so that you can get relevant information as required by you Seismic inversion is the process of transforming seismic...

Geology: sparkly specs + Rock left, mica schist, grained rock
mica schist, grained rock, gold fields: I have to think about this for a day or so! I know they have gold in NSW he might have gotten to the gold fields there. What I want to give you is a simple test, but I have to look through my books first, talk to you tomorrow. If that is gold there are...

Geology: Admission in BS Geology, structural geology, hard rocks
structural geology, hard rocks, islambad: Hello, I am afraid by the time you complete your BS you would be (27+4) 31. The professional career starts as a trainee and people prefer a fresh and young candidate compared to a fresh and old one. The only choice in Islamabad for geology is Bahria...

Geology: Assalam-o-Alaekum!!, lithostratigraphy, minor significance
lithostratigraphy, minor significance, helpful materials: Hello Ahsan, A formation is a fundamental unit of Lithostratigraphy. You might want to go in to the details of that disciplines. Try to Goolge it. Here is a generalized guide that everyone adopts. http://www.stratigraphy.org/upload/bak/litho.htm To...

Geology: Boyne Highlands area, geology of michigan, michigan geology
geology of michigan, michigan geology, glacial lakes around michigan: Hi Jim, Most of Michigan s surface is covered by sediments deposited by glaciers. Particles of all sizes, from face powder to house , miles-long ridges, ancient lake beds and shorelines, and much more. All are found here. The hills you mention are called...

Geology: Career as Mudlogging geologist, mud logging services, field instrumentation
mud logging services, field instrumentation, mitchell drilling: Dear Sriprakash, Thanks for your question, You can try for drilling companies like Mitchell drilling, Delhi and Geoservices, Weatherford Mud logging services, Oil field instrumentation for mud logging opportunities; you can get their contacts through website....

Geology: carrier in geology, petroleum industry, environmental industry
petroleum industry, environmental industry, necessary background: Afsal: To do much of anything in Geology, the petroleum industry or environmental industry, you must have a Masters degree. So determine what area you are interested in and then pick a school that can meet your needs. Maker sure that your professors have...

Geology: case rewievw, sindh university jamshoro, island of hispaniola
sindh university jamshoro, island of hispaniola, magnitude quake: A Samad: North of Hispaniola of which Haiti is a part runs a plate boundary separating Hispaniola and Cuba. This boundary fault forms the northern boundary of the Caribbean Plate with the North American Plate. It is a transform fault, meaning the two...

Geology: Earth impact, comet impacts, earth impact
comet impacts, earth impact, fire series: Joseph, The aftermath of a major collision involving Earth and a rapid fire series of comet impacts would be catastrophic. Even if a single comet 10 km in diameter were to strike Earth, it would probably spell the end of many species. If we were among...

Geology: The Elements, fission reactors, natural reactors
fission reactors, natural reactors, nuclear reactions in stars: David, Astronomers and astrophysicists measure the spectra emitted by anything in the universe that is (or was) hot. Each element emits a characteristic spectrum. I can t speak to the concentration of an element that is necessary for it to be detected...

Geology: Erosion, erosion, geology
erosion, geology, geography: Hi Lisa, You don t mention how old your students are but i am assuming they are younger than college. Here are a few sites I thought were pretty good. At least they should give you some ideas. http://www.kidsgeo.com/geology-for-kids/0059-introduction-to-erosion.php...

Geology: earth science, Plains, base-level
Plains, base-level, river terraces: Sagal, Plains provide the first major base-level for water coming down from the mountains with loads of sediments that gets deposited in the plains because of the sudden loss of energy. The erosional capabilities of the water are minimized in the plains...

Geology: exploration geology, hse requirements, exploration geology
hse requirements, exploration geology, multilateral wells: Dalbin, Multilateral wells are a much economical way of exploiting a known reservoir, both onshore and offshore. Offshore, in particular, is a very cost intensive venture and here this technology is most desirable to be used. From one offshore platform...

Geology: Is it fulgurite?, wildlife education center, oyster shells
Geology: Is it fulgurite?, wildlife education center, oyster shells, quartz sand

Geology: Master's Degree...is it the best time?
Geology: Master's Degree...is it the best time?

Geology: mudlogging results
Geology: mudlogging results

Geology: petrified egg, mackinac city, mackinac bridge
Geology: petrified egg, mackinac city, mackinac bridge, goose egg

Geology: Shiny silver rock.., kingdom of heaven, dupont
Geology: Shiny silver rock.., kingdom of heaven, dupont, dirt

Geology: Is it fulgurite?, geology curriculum, animal burrows
geology curriculum, animal burrows, animal footprints: Hi Sue, You re suspicions are correct; this isn t a fulgurite. Or perhaps I should say rather, that it doesn t look anything like a fulgurite. It is possible but very unlikely. It just doesn t have the proper shape or look . They usually have a rougher...

Geology: Galapagos Island Formation, Galapagos Islands
Galapagos Islands: The Galapagos are a group of volcanic islands located on the equator roughly 1000 km (600 miles) west of the South American coast. Like many oceanic islands, such as Hawaii, the Azores, and Reunion, the Galapagos are thought to be the product of a mantle plume....

Geology: GEOCHEMISTRY, thermal maturation, organic debris
thermal maturation, organic debris, oil gas industry: Ghulam: First, lose the capital letters, on line that is like screaming or raising your voice, very bad form. Geochemistry in the oil industry. The area you ask about has to do with the study of kerogen, the believed markers in oil that give us a...

Geology: Geography, earth quake, earthquake information
earth quake, earthquake information, seismic zones: Joshu Earthquakes occurs due to surface causes-tectonic causes-Generally highly mobile seismic zones will under impact of seimic waves/earthquakes **************************************************************** Refer paper Can Nigeria Expect New Earthquakes?...

Geology: Geology, deccan trap, marine nature
deccan trap, marine nature, western india: There are Paleocene silicified Tuffs in the Papro section of the Deccan Trap province of south western India. In the Bombay basin, sandstones, shales and coals of the Panna Formation occurred Early to Middle Paleocene, grading to limestones of the Jafarabad...

Geology: Geology-rocks, hardness
hardness: On the Mohs scale of hardness, diamond is a number 10 (the scale is from 1-10). Corundum is number nine...very hard but not harder tham diamond. I believe the Moh s scales is logarithmic, so the difference in hardness between steatite/talc and corundum is...

Geology: geology, travertine
travertine: Travertine is a dense, banded limestone, sometimes porous, that is formed either by evaporation about springs, as is tufa, or in caves, as stalactites, stalagmites, or dripstone. Where travertine or tufa is deposited by hot springs, it may be the result of...

Geology: geology, Scope, Geology
Scope, Geology, Geophysics: Shahab First thing first. Please use proper English language in all of your e-mails and messages. It is important because this is what you will face in practical life. A good report or draft i.e. a good command on the language, apart from the technical...

Geology: geology, shahab khan, petroleum geology
shahab khan, petroleum geology, geoscience programs: If you are a competent geologist with a good background in various classes, you should be able to find work. More and more schools are cutting back on geoscience programs, yet the demand is high during peak periods. Make sure you have a good balance of...

Geology: geology, Petroleum Geologist
Petroleum Geologist: Dear Shahab, Although the news is full of stories about recession and unemployment, the demand for geologists is stronger than in most other business sectors. There have been layoffs, especially in the mineral resources sector, however, the long-term outlook...

Geology: geology part-3, great rift valley, euler poles
great rift valley, euler poles, mississipi river: Euler Poles are a mathmatical construction used to describe instantaneous rates of rotation of one plate or continental fragment with respect to another. The relative angular velocities of the plates are calculated. A triple junction is the location...

Geology: ground water hydrology, ground water hydrology, borehole geophysics
ground water hydrology, borehole geophysics, electrical resistivity method: Hello Faiyas Your question is very general and I could spend pages answering and still not get to what you need. The Jacob Straight line method is a modification of Theis original calculations and is a valuable tool in estimation of hydraulic coefficients....

Geology: importance of a Turbidity of a completion brine, introducing solids, proper filtration
introducing solids, proper filtration, proper density: Dear Duman, Thanks for your question Completion fluids A solids-free liquid used to complete an oil or gas well. This fluid is placed in the well to facilitate final operations prior to initiation of production, such as setting screens production liners,...

Geology: what kind of rock is this????, thunder egg, thunder eggs
thunder egg, thunder eggs, gazillion types: Hi Connie, Thanks for the photo. In general terms what you have is a geode . There are a gazillion types of geodes but, mostly, they are holes filled with minerals. What happens is this; when rocks are forming sometimes holes can be generated. ...

Geology: Master's Degree...is it the best time?, Petroleum Geology
Petroleum Geology: Dear Ricardo, I sit on a committee that evaluates MSc and PhD students for academic awards. Below is a website listing all of the recipients and their affiliated universities. These are the best geology schools on the planet. The only additional university...

Geology: Midocean rift volcanic activity, mid ocean ridge, east rift zone
mid ocean ridge, east rift zone, mauna ulu: Dear Jo, Thanks for your question, I have tried to explain you by taking Kilauea as a case history, In addition to that I have given reference from where I have got the material. Hope these would be useful for your story. The delay in reply is caused mainly...

Geology: metamorphic rock, sheet silicates, hydrous minerals
sheet silicates, hydrous minerals, marble granite: Pstaats: What you are looking for does not occur. Metamorphic rock is an endpoint as such. Due to heat and pressure, sedimentary and igneous rocks recrystallize into metamorphic rocks. As such, there is not much more that can be done to them by those...

Geology: methane gas in well, methane gas, crew time
methane gas, crew time, state authorities: Your assumption about the one well is probably accurate. Agitation will cause the dissolved gas to leave solution. Are both the wells in your house, the cellar I suppose? If you are not using them, why not have them plugged or at least the one you are...

Geology: mudlogging data, mud logging, drilling mud
mud logging, drilling mud, oil additives: Hello Jason Well this is a good question. I assume you are asking regarding mud logging on an oil well. In this case I am not qualified to answer having only worked on water wells.I do know that some drilling mud used in oil wells has oil additives. ...

Geology: mudlogging results, oil in mud sample, mud weight
oil in mud sample, mud weight: Jason, It is important to know the mud weight before a conclusion could be made. A mud weight much heavier than the reservoir pressure would not allow the oil to mix with the mud, even from a good reservoir. On the other hand a lower mud weight may allow...

Geology: need help abt nari FM, Nari Formation, Indus offshore
Nari Formation, Indus offshore, Pakistan: Abdul Wajid You gave a very short notice. However, get hold of this paper published in the ATC 2009 Proceedings (Pakistan), which may be available in your libraray. SPE/PAPG ANNUAL TECHNICAL CONFERENCE 2009 November 17-18, 2009, Islamabad Reservoir...

Geology: One last Opinion, meteorite hunting, mystery rock
meteorite hunting, mystery rock, distinctive rock: Sorry - thought I answered this a couple of days ago. How do you know that there is nickel in the magnetic inclusions? Seems like you know a lot about this already. XRD is only going to tell you about the piece that gets pulverized. I think you would be...

Geology: oil and gas flowing wells, oilfield glossary, oil field services
oilfield glossary, oil field services, nozel: Hey Jason I am not an expert on oil and gas - most of my experience is with water wells. I agree with your logic here - greater open area to your well should increase flow rate. However if you are depending on formation pressure to push the fluid into...

Geology: oil and gas wells flowing, perforations, pay
perforations, pay, flow rate: Sorry for the delay! Yes. If the remaining unperforated interval contains gas (and no water), by stimulating the entire interval, you should theoretically get a higher flow rate (as predicted by Darcy s Law). Your analogy is a good one. In addition, you should...

Geology: PASSIVE MARGINS, passive margins, rifting
passive margins, rifting: RRobert, As you know passive margin (PM) is the transition between oceanic and continental crust which is not an active plate margin. It is constructed by sedimentation above an ancient rift, now marked by transitional crust. Continental rifting creates...

Geology: paleo groundwater, fletcher g driscoll, groundwater and wells
fletcher g driscoll, groundwater and wells, groundwater wells: Hello Ali, I am not sure what you mean by paleo groundwater or why you would need to look for old groundwater. The best source of information may be at your local university library. Groundwater and Wells by Driscoll and Groundwater by Cherry will give...

Geology: petrified egg, dinosaur fossils, chicken egg
dinosaur fossils, chicken egg, petrified egg: Jasen, You do find petrified eggs, rather nest of dinosaurs. So it is possible to find such things. if you found it from within a formation and you know its age then you can have an idea whether it could be that of a dinosaur or not. Most of the dinosaur...

Geology: picture in rock formation, point betsie lighthouse, sleeping bear dunes
point betsie lighthouse, sleeping bear dunes, thumb region: Hi Deb, Very interesting rock you have there. The discoloration could certainly be natural. I have seen many examples of natural occurrences that looked anything but. Nothing surprises me anymore. You mention that the palm tree feels a bit indented....I...

Geology: prospecting technique, surface rocks, source rocks
surface rocks, source rocks, ore dressing: Hi Muzaffar, You must understand that your question is impossibly complicated and involved to answer here. You don t mention what you are prospecting for or what you intend to mine. Different ores require different procedures. It is impossible to give...

Geology: question, gravity survey, frontcover
gravity survey, frontcover, google: Hello Amoako, Try to find the answer to your questions in these books. http://books.google.nl/books?id=yj7CMOMvxnMC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Introduction+to+geophysics&cd=6#v=onepage&q=Introduction%20to%20geophysics&f=false http://books.google.nl/books?id=oRP5fZYjhXMC&pg=PA6&dq=Introduction+to+gravity+survey&cd=5#v=onepage&q=Introduction%20to%20gravity%20survey&f=fals...

Geology: Rock ID, intrusive igneous rock, pegmatite
intrusive igneous rock, pegmatite, wikipedia: Hi Patrick, What you have there is a called a pegmatite . That s a very coarse-grained, intrusive igneous rock that s made up of large, interlocking grains. It formed under special conditions that allowed the minerals that normally form the rock to grow...

Geology: rocks, frost heave, groundwater
frost heave, groundwater, rocks: Hi Tracy, The term you are searching for is Frost Heaving . Most often frost heave describes how the ground can be deformed upward due to groundwater freezing, but it is also meant to include the expansion of rock due to water freezing and expanding. ...

Geology: Seismic Balancing, widuri, cspg
widuri, cspg, eage: This is a bit out of my area of expertise, but here is some material that might help you. http://www.cspg.org/conventions/abstracts/2009abstracts/119.pdf http://www.fugro-jason.com/readingroom/techpapers/Widuri_AVO_2003_EAGE.pdf There is also...

Geology: Shiny silver rock.., little holes, silver rock
little holes, silver rock, 3 pieces: Hi Angie, I have seen many examples of this kind of specimen before. It isn t a natural stone. It is a piece of metallic slag from a smelting operation. I don t know what the ore is that was used, nor how it got to where you found it. Many times it s...

Geology: Theory on glacial movement, mountains and valleys, fish bones
mountains and valleys, fish bones, glacial drift: Robert: You clearly have thought a lot about this. But consider, how cold would the earth have to be to support large scale equatorial glaciation. The rock record, from the Precambrian even, to the present, has evidence of temperate and even tropical conditions....

Geology: Back Thrust Mechanism
Naeem, The best way for you is to refer books on structural geology where you would find detailed mechanism and sketches to understand development of different types of fault. I may send you some papers on Kohat structural development subject to the copyright...

Geology: Turbidity of a completion brine, oil, definition
oil, definition, completion: Hello Duman My experience has been in groundwater resources so I needed to do some searching to find an answer - Google saves the day. The cleanliness of a brine is of paramount importance in order to minimise formation damage by solids contamination...

Geology: What is a 4 way closure, pool four, energy journal
pool four, energy journal, oil oil: In order for petroleum (which is less dense than groundwater) to be trapped, the rising petroleum needs structure of some sort to be trapped to form a hydrocarbon pool. Four-way closure refers to a situation where hydrocarbons cannot effectively escape and...

Geology: acid mine drainage, acid rock drainage, sulfide minerals
acid rock drainage, sulfide minerals, coal stocks: Dear Phillipa, Thanks for your question, as I was in field tour I could able to answer you today only. Sorry for the delay. Acid mine drainage (AMD), also called as acid rock drainage (ARD), refers to the outflow of acidic water from (usually abandoned) metal...

Geology: Bentonite, Bentonite, Kohat
Bentonite, Kohat, Pakistan: Mr Faraz Saeed, I consulted a book Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan by Kazmi & Jan (1997). The book gives comprehensive details of almost all mineral deposits of Pakistan with locations, chemical composition and even coordinates. For Bentonite it mentions...

Geology: Black Line, geologists, minerals
geologists, minerals, homework: Corey: That black line was probably created when there was a storm. The storm washed away a lot of the lighter minerals and just left the heavier ones, which turn out to be black. It is a question that geologists ponder all the time - about what gets saved...

Geology: CV Oil career, petroleum geology, page cv
petroleum geology, page cv, environmental geology: Ricardo: First, the Europass form is horrible. Why would you want to use something so bad? First off, as you say, Human Resource people look at hundreds, why not use one that sets you apart and makes you noticed? You don t want to be one of the herd....

Geology: earth formation, Earth, biological growth
Earth, biological growth, meteorite: Suresh Bansal, Every living thing (biological entity) has to grow with time, as long as they are alive; may it be human beings, animals, vegetation etc. The living things when become non-living, they disintegrate to become part of the Earth. This infinitesimal...

Geology: economic geology, www kosovo, economic geology
www kosovo, economic geology, vms deposits: I: I think looking at currently developed analogs and comparing them to your study area, would give you a better understanding of the potential that exists in the area you are currently evaluating. Here are some links to current Ophiolite mineralized deposits....

Geology: enternship, major oil companies, jamshoro
major oil companies, jamshoro, fild: Dear Mehmood, Thanks for your question, you may please contact your guide for this specific question as iam in India and only your guide can help you in this regard for internship programme. In mean time you can also see the web sites of major oil companies...

Geology: erosion, soil conservation service, homework questions
soil conservation service, homework questions, luck mike: Hi Kieran, We are not supposed to help with homework questions but I can give you some hints ;) If the brook is eroding toward the pool you could lose the pool at some point. The US Soil Conservation Service (USSCS) - http://soils.usda.gov/ - is concerned...

Geology: Bentonite, sodium bentonite, sindh
Geology: Bentonite, sodium bentonite, sindh, indian territory

Geology: earth formation
Geology: earth formation

Geology: Geology, fault scarps, normal fault
Geology: Geology, fault scarps, normal fault, fult

Geology: what kind of rock or egg is this, jackpot nv, geode
Geology: what kind of rock or egg is this, jackpot nv, geode

Geology: Geology, post secondary institutions, ali abbas
post secondary institutions, ali abbas, campus interviews: Dear Ali Abbas, Thanks for your question; as I was in tour I could not reply you immediately. Sorry for the delay. GPA means Grade Point Average the GPA can be used by potential employers or further post-secondary institutions to assess and compare applicants....

Geology: Geology, sediment deposit, sediment load
sediment deposit, sediment load, land slides: No. Only a few form in the deep sea. These are usually percipitates, like limestone. Shells from benthonic organism settle to the ocean floor and on their way they reach the compensation depth, that is the depth at which calcium carbonate will dissolve...

Geology: Geology, body fossils, trace fossils
body fossils, trace fossils, empty shells: Ali, Here is a brief intro...let me know if you require more information or clarification. Trace fossils, also called ichnofossils (sg. pronounced /ˈɪknoʊfɒsɨl/, from Greek: ιχνος ikhnos trace, track ), are...

Geology: Geology, Foot wall, hanging wall
Foot wall, hanging wall, fault plane: Ali, Following is a simple definition: Rocks that are located below the fault plane make up the foot wall of a fault, and the block which lies above the fault plane is a hanging wall .Just make sketches of normal and a reverse fault that will help...

Geology: Geology of Pakistan, Salt Range, Salt Range Formation
Salt Range, Salt Range Formation, Pakistan: A. Samad, I would suggest that the best way to know about any range or formation is to first look into books like Stratigraphy of Pakistan (Ed. Shah, 1977) and the recent works by Kazmi & Jan (1997), Kazmi & Abbasi (2008). If you still have some questions...

Geology: Groundwater Recharge, containment basins, surface reservoirs
containment basins, surface reservoirs, unconsolidated sediment: Abhishek: First I would think you would have to know the detailed subsurface geology. Is the aquifer confined by aquicludes and if so what are their distribution. How does the recharging water reach the aquifer? Is the aquifer unconsolidated sediment...

Geology: Groundwater Recharge, artificial recharge
artificial recharge: Hello Abishek, Artificial recharge is done in many parts of the world including tropical areas. Water is taken from a surplus supply, often surface water, and recharged thru injection wells or infiltration basins. Treated wastewater is also used in some...

Geology: gems, www galleries, luck mike
www galleries, luck mike, semiprecious: Hello Lidia, I think you will need to do some work to determine if your specimen is jade. Color alone does not allow determination and jade can occur in colors from white to violet (i just learned that!)determination can be made by hardness, crystal structure...

Geology: geological value/can i sell it and where, clear quartz crystal, quartz crystals
clear quartz crystal, quartz crystals, quartz rock: Quarts in the most abundant mineral on earth. If it is bull quartz, that is angular, milky white with cracks and crevasses, in it, it isn t worth much of anything. If it is a clear quartz crystal, or a section of one as large as you say, it may be worth...

Geology: geology, petroleum geology, chemistry and biology
petroleum geology, chemistry and biology, biology chemistry: Hi Diyana, I am not familiar with your education system in Brunei so I can not give you a definitive answer. I don t know if your current level of education is university or grade school. But I can say that the subjects you mention will provide a good base...

Geology: geology, webster online dictionary, oxford dictionary online
webster online dictionary, oxford dictionary online, secrets of the gem trade: Notes 1. ^ The Oxford Dictionary Online and Webster Online Dictionary 2. ^ Precious Stones, Max Bauer, p 2 3. ^ Precious Gemstone glossary of Jewelry 4. ^ Wise, R. W., 2006, Secrets Of The Gem Trade, The Connoisseur s Guide To Precious Gemstones,...

Geology: geology, coal bed methane, miocene rocks
coal bed methane, miocene rocks, coal seams: Mohsin, Coal bed Methane (CBM) In CBM technology the coal beds are fractured, if required, and water is extracted out to release the pressure that allows trapped gas within the coal seams to flow towards the borehole. The depth of Thar coal from 250-350...

Geology: geology job prospectus, geology job, medical geology
geology job, medical geology, fresh science: Dear Sooraj, Good question. Geology, science of earth, is a vast subject encompassing, Engg Geology to structural, to economic, paleontology, physical, mineral, and now medical Geology too! Further, it transgresses into gemology, geotechnical and...

Geology: geology(stratigraphy , paleontology), varve lake, sediment deposits
varve lake, sediment deposits, flood deposits: I can only give you general information, you will have to put it in the context of what your professor has taught in class. The answer to this type of question is usually expected to reflect the lecture notes or reading material assigned. Since do not know...

Geology: geology(stratigraphy), rocks reservoir, exploration geologists
rocks reservoir, exploration geologists, cap rocks: Stratigraphy has economic implication in that it is used to deduce the sedimentary history of a basin. Knowing in what order sedimentary rocks were deposted, helps exploration geologists determine which rocks have the potential for commercial petroleum deposits....

Geology: HELLO, massive quartz, quartz crystals
massive quartz, quartz crystals, mineral quartz: Hi Edina, Looks like you have a piece of massive quartz covered by quartz crystals. Quartz is a silicon dioxide mineral that is very common and comes in many different forms. Take a look at this URL: http://images.google.com/images?hl=en%26tbs=isch:1%26q=Quartz%26sa=N%26start=0%26ndsp=18...

Geology: Hello, fracture, fractures
fracture, fractures, kindness: Hi Erumsana, There really isn t much difference between them. A joint is a break in a rock where neither side of the break moves. A fracture is a break in a rock. The only difference might be that the rock on either side of the fracture may have...

Geology: Identification, model railroad enthusiasts, halite crystals
model railroad enthusiasts, halite crystals, lava flow: I am honestly stumped. I could make guesses about this being some sort of lava flow with crystals growing out of it (possible) to some sort of metamorphic rock (improbable) to a sedimentary greenstone with calcite or halite crystals.... I think you should...

Geology: What kind of rock?, garnet mica schist, u mass amherst
garnet mica schist, u mass amherst, rocks minerals: Ron: Thanks for the additional picture and the location information. I am not a petrologist or an expert in metamorphic rocks, so I will tell you what I think you have. The latest picture suggests to me that the crystals are metamorphic, that is they...

Geology: what kind of rock or egg is this, dinosaur egg, dino egg
dinosaur egg, dino egg, mudstone: Interesting!! It looks like there are radiating lines from a central sphere. Are there four grooves running along the exterior of the rock? At first I thought it was a geode (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geode), but the radiating lines and the four grooves...

Geology: Land Fertility, cow dung, redox properties
cow dung, redox properties, land fertility: Abhishek: Tropical soils are know for being highly leached by precipitation runoff. Lateric soils are typical of the tropics and even sub tropics. This is due to the high level of precipitation leaching nutrients from the soil. Organic rich layers are...

Geology: Lithosphere, oceanic and continental crust, oceanic lithosphere
oceanic and continental crust, oceanic lithosphere, plate tectonics: Hi Kashif, There is not enough space here to adequately answer our questions. I suggest you search around the net for plate tectonics or get a book discussing it to really answer your question. But I can summarize for you. I am going to assume you know...

Geology: lava plateaus, flood basalt, deccan traps
flood basalt, deccan traps, deccan plateau: Sagar: YOu should google the terms: Deccan flood basalt or Deccan Traps Columbian flood basalt paraguayan flood basalts basalt traps of paraguay http://www.bing.com/search?q=columbian+flood+basalt&form=QBRE&qs=n&sc=1-12 http://www.bing.com/search?q=deccan+flood+basalt&form=MSNH14&qs=n...

Geology: Master's Degree...too late?, environmental resources management, environmental geology
environmental resources management, environmental geology, mudlogger: I think teachers put too much emphasis on grades. Yes, grades are important, but with someone like you, with work experience, I think that will count for more, and what is most importatnt is if your skill set, matches what the employer is looking for. ...

Geology: Michigan Earthquakes, geological survey division, earth quakes
geological survey division, earth quakes, united states geological survey: Hi Mark, Since the 1700 s there have been 105 earthquakes recorded in Michigan but only 4 can t be explained away by epicenters outside of Michigan, or mine collapse or cryoseisms, or atmospheric shock, or explosions or a number of other things. There is...

Geology: Ore Refining, mercury vapors, mercury gold
mercury vapors, mercury gold, gold particles: Don: The first thing you would have to do is crush the ore, so a stamp mill or roller mill would be set up to crush and pulverize the ore (be careful of the silicosis due to the dust, most people think only coal miners suffered respriratory ill effects...

Geology: Petroleum geology, oil import bill, foreign exchange reserves
oil import bill, foreign exchange reserves, petroleum geology: Erumsana, Walaikassalam Energy is the fundamental requirement of the mankind. Almost all industries and technological activities are dependent on electricity which is mostly generated by using hydrocarbons as a fuel. Pakistan s oil import bill was...

Geology: petroleum geology of pakistan, Reservoirs, Source rocks
Reservoirs, Source rocks, Indus Basin: Ali, Geologically Balochistan can broadly be subdivided across the Chaman-Ornach Nal transform faults. The region to the west of the fault system-the Balochistan basin, is a least explored area where Pajgur formation (Miocene) is considered as a reservoir,...

Geology: petroleum industry, petroleum geology, engineering geologist
petroleum geology, engineering geologist, soil classification: Asad, If you have done the Petroleum Geology from UET, Lahore then there is a possibility. If you have worked on soil classification, water-wells or dam/constuction geology to become an Engineering Geologist then it has no relation to petroleum. I think...

Geology: Rock?? i found, magnetic rocks, farming equipment
magnetic rocks, farming equipment, lying on the ground: Seana: I honestly think you found a piece of metal, maybe from a piece of mining or farming equipment. I would not expect anything that big and magentic to be found in eastern Ohio. Fraser ____________________________________________________________________________________________...

Geology: rock, emery paper, lava flow
emery paper, lava flow, northern scotland: Hi James, Looks like you have a piece of basalt there. That is a volcanic igneous rock, a rock that lithified at or near the Earth s surface. Think, lava flow . A field description of a basalt would say things like; black , small grained (you can...

Geology: rock, environmental pollution problems, demolition concrete
environmental pollution problems, demolition concrete, concrete demolition: Dear Mahesh, Thanks for your question, I have answere to this question and also for its followup. for your quick reference iam pasting the same. I have got his information through internet and I found it answers all your questions. This deals about a product...

Geology: rocks, new york boroughs, continental glacier
new york boroughs, continental glacier, glacial streams: Mira: I have to say, that you kids are adaptive. I don t get any homework questions any more, I just get a lot of project questions. LOL Long Island consists of primarily glacial till, reworked along the shoreline. Glacial till is a mixture of sand...

Geology: Salt Range Formations and Stratigraphy of Pakistan, natural gas engineering, salt range
natural gas engineering, salt range, historical geology: Hizbullah, Salt Range represents the escarpment running south of Potwar, where the rocks are generally dipping to the north. It exposes rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Miocene. Most of these rocks i.e those belonging to Miocene, Eocene, Paleocene,...

Geology: Stratigraphy, bedding planes, flaky rocks
bedding planes, flaky rocks, energy conditions: Ali, The bedding phenomenon is a syn-depositional feature. The erosion of pre-existing rocks result in the deposition of the eroded material, but in reverse order than the previous one. So the layers of different materials lie on top of each other and...

http://en.allexperts.com/q/Geology-1359/2010/3/sedimentary-rocks-SW-england.htm


Geology: very shiny stone,rock,mineral???, box shape, shiny stone
box shape, shiny stone, specific gravity: Hi Donna, I have an idea on what it could be but without a better description, or a picture, I can t be sure at all. You don t mention the color but if it is silver it could be a mineral called galena . It is usually cubic, and has a high specific gravity...

Geology: stratigraphy, relevant materials, additional material
relevant materials, additional material, bul: Dear Rashid, Thanks for your question, I saw your question just now and that is why delayed. You can go to following link and get some relevant materials regarding Pakistan geology as you want in the following link. for additional material you may refer...

Geology: Tectonics, convection currents, drive plates
convection currents, drive plates, least resistance: Hi Kashif, Actually Pangea began its breakup in Middle Jurassic to Late Jurassic. It began to form up in the Triassic. Plates move in different directions because the surface is a closed system so every plate contacts another, which contacts a third,...

Geology: Underground lake, byong sun, freerepublic
byong sun, freerepublic, chosun com: Dear Gareth Hart Thanks for your question You can find the in the following links, mentioned as The Disappeared Lake of Russia Found 100m Underground by Chung Byong-sun http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1424629/posts http://www.chosun.com/international/news/200506/200506170015.html...

http://en.allexperts.com/q/Geology-1359/2010/3/volcanic-eruption.htm


Geology: WaterTemperature, thermal gradient, water temp
thermal gradient, water temp, temperature increases: Ali: The temperature of water in the near surface stays the same year round except very close to the surface, where it is subject to freezing. Ground water temp is around 50F. The water temperature increases with depth according the the local thermal...

Geology: younger drias and climate, peat bogs, younger dryas
peat bogs, younger dryas, lake sediments: Karl: They used a combination of methods. Indication of glacial advances is one, generally by studying the ice through ice core analysis. Changes in plant communities in response to climate changes in another. The period is dated plus or minus...

Geology: Applicationof organic geochemistry in petroleum geochemistry, petroleum geochemistry, geochemistry department
petroleum geochemistry, geochemistry department, petroleum geologist: Rosa: That looks pretty comprehensive. Have you considered possibly looking at the effects of migration on the petroleum, such as water washing or fractionation? The actual fingerprinting of the oil, that is the C1-C25+ makup of the oil would fall...

Geology: Basaltic Magma/ Igneous Rocks, fractional crystallization, silica content
fractional crystallization, silica content, oxide minerals: Dear Nick Thanks for your question, Your question is mostly based on Fractional Crystallization and Bowen’s reaction Principle and as such we can get answer only by assumption. In nature the complexity increases. The attached figure may be useful for you....

Geology: Begining an exploration career path, geology career, geotechnical industry
geology career, geotechnical industry, environmental sci: Hello Dylan, I am glad to know about your interest and career interest. You have seen the environment, ecology and other things. I have no doubt about your knowledge. You may use your existing knowledge to jump in to the E&P companies. I am saying this...

Geology: Another blue rock picture, hand specimen, ellensburg wa
hand specimen, ellensburg wa, volcanic rocks: Agate and obsidian have the same chemical composition and appear very similar in hand specimen. They both have concoidial fracture and several other characteristics that are the same so in looking at them they are very similar. The most significant difference...

Geology: career in Geology, civil service exams, campus recruitment
civil service exams, campus recruitment, indian school of mines: Dear Harshal, Thanks for your question, don’t get confusion. Now there is lot of scopes for geology. Moreover every year we get advertisement for ONGC, GSI etc., and number of campus recruitment are also there in premier institutes. So study nicely in B.Sc.,...

Geology: About cracking the rock, environmental pollution problems, demolition concrete
environmental pollution problems, demolition concrete, concrete demolition: Dear Ram, Thanks for your question. Though iam not an expert in the specific field in which you have asked the question but it is wonderful question which any geologist should know. I have got his information through internet and I found it answers all your...

Geology: Depression in which Beech Creek Oregon is located., beech creek oregon, us geological survey
beech creek oregon, us geological survey, crystal beech: Crystal, Beech Creek lies on the edge of a roughly circular depression and it does have a vague topographic high in the center. However, the local topography is unlikely to be related to an impact event. If it were, you would be able to find some or many...

Geology: The Edwards Aquifer, edwards aquifer, rapid population growth
edwards aquifer, rapid population growth, porosity and permeability: Saleh: I don t as a rule do homework or take home tests. I am familiar with the Edwards, as I lived in Austin for a number of years. You are missing information on the annual precipitation, unless the instructor gave you a way to estimate it from the...

Geology: Evaluation of clay deposits, x ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope
x ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, microscope work: Dear Collins, First, you need to know which clays are present. This is usually done through thin section. Following that, XRD (x-ray diffraction) samples are analyzed to give you the concentration of the specific clays in you rock. SEM (scanning electron...

Geology: entry into the E&P industry, seismic data acquisition, wireline data acquisition
seismic data acquisition, wireline data acquisition, seismic data processing: Dear Dylan, Thanks for your message. Usually companies do not expect a lot in any specialized fields from fresh graduates but if you will have relevant courses at your credit it enhances your hiring opportunities. Your understanding about your career selection...

Geology: Basaltic Magma/ Igneous Rocks, molten material, earth surface
Geology: Basaltic Magma/ Igneous Rocks, molten material, earth surface, uplift

Geology: career in Geology, petroleum management, applied geology
Geology: career in Geology, petroleum management, applied geology, oil gas

Geology: sandstone formation of pakistan, nickname, diamond
Geology: sandstone formation of pakistan, nickname, diamond, alias

Geology: Unknown Shiny Metallic Rock, sound waters, silver sands
Geology: Unknown Shiny Metallic Rock, sound waters, silver sands, shimmers

Geology: faults, shear fracture, sedimentary rocks
shear fracture, sedimentary rocks, shearing stress: I: Faults occur along zones of weakness in rocks. Since sedimentary rocks are subject to the variables associated with the depostion of sedimentary rocks, those zones of weakness are hard to predict. In igneous rocks where the fabric of the rocks are...

Geology: About future, environmental waste management, american geological institute
environmental waste management, american geological institute, engineering geology: Hi Swagat, Geology is a multi-faceted discipline in every sense. Mining, volcanics, environmental, waste management, engineering, ground water, historical, planetary, petroleum, mineralogy, geomorphology are just a few of the areas you could study as a geologist....

Geology: Genral Geology, upper mantle rocks, mid ocean ridges
upper mantle rocks, mid ocean ridges, mid ocean ridge: A Samad, Continental and oceanic crust are fundamentally different in many ways. In general, oceanic crust is only about 7-10 km thick. In contrast, continental crust is far thicker (35-40 km). The typical composition of the upper part of oceanic crust...

Geology: Genral Geology&Geophysics, university of sindh, natural hazards
university of sindh, natural hazards, geophysics: Hello Samad, This question goes to seismologists mainly. Some animals have senses that work better than others. The senses operate against a threat or a danger.It is a postulate based on the observations of the ancestors. You can simply understand it by...

Geology: Geology, interview questions, geology
interview questions, geology, fresh incumbents: Ali, The basic requirement from the fresh incumbents is to find out whether the concepts about the subject are clear to them or not. Does he know: -Time scale - Hardness scale and their examples from minerals -What is the importance of Barite and...

Geology: Geology, streak, minerals
streak, minerals: Zbrar, Walaikumassalm The streak is the true colour of the pure chemical compound or mineral. It appears when the mineral is powdered to microscopic size, that is below about 5 micron. Streak does not change with impurities or other factors that influence...

Geology: Geology, streak of minerals
streak of minerals: Abrar, Walaikumassalam, The streak is the true color of the pure chemical compound or mineral. It appears when the mineral is powdered to microscopic size, that is below about 5 micron. Streak does not change with impurities or other factors that influence...

Geology: Geology, petroleum geology, oil field services
petroleum geology, oil field services, petroleum exploration: Dear Abrar, The UAE is still active in petroleum exploration and development. I work as a Hydrogeologist to develop water resources which is growing but not nearly as large as petroleum. If you are looking for a job or internship check with the big oil...

Geology: Geology, soil fertilizers, global positioning systems
soil fertilizers, global positioning systems, using global positioning systems: Faizan: I can give you my opinion, but this appears to be a class question. The instructor probably gave you what he expects to see in a correct answer either in class notes or in the text book. So my answer may not be exactly what he is looking for....

Geology: Geology, field thanks, theodolite
field thanks, theodolite, geology: Abrar, The procedures are clearly given in books like that of Levarson . Please go through the literature and if you still have any question I will be glad to answer. Basically these are: -Direct measurement by tape, taking care of the dip of the...

Geology: Geology, salam, climatic conditions
salam, climatic conditions, geology: Dear Abrar, Thanks for your question, In India regarding career in geology we don’t find any difference between both our countries. In any job only hard working is important. More over here we require mostly Hindi and English for speedy working in the field....

Geology: Geology, sindh university, internship in geology in pakistan
sindh university, internship in geology in pakistan: Dear Abrar I am glad that you are a good student and interested to know about oilfield. Sindh University is lovely place I have visited there last year. Internship; I don t think I can rightly answer this question; please contact local oil and gas Exploration...

Geology: Geology, petroleum geologist, professional geologist
petroleum geologist, professional geologist, spectacular work: Abrar, Normally the recommendations come from the institutes for the Internship. You may request your teacher to recommend you when the demand comes from the Industry. Meanwhile work hard to improve upon your results, because the competition is very...

Geology: Geology, dry density, california bearing ratio
dry density, california bearing ratio, materials engineer: Dear Shahzad, Road testing involves many materials such as asphalt, soil and sometimes concrete too. Your questions indicate you are interested in soils only. Regarding proctor, it determines max dry density of soils and optimum moisture content in laboratory...

Geology: Geology PT Boundary, sandro montanari, iridium layer
sandro montanari, iridium layer, carnic alps: Siem, I am not familiar enough with the Jurassic Coast to help you find the PT boundary. However, you might consider a vacation to Gartnerkofel in the Carnic Alps of Austria where the PT boundary is present. I m not sure if it is very well exposed but...

Geology: Geotectonics, indus basin, sediment supply
indus basin, sediment supply, salt range: Abrar, Indus basin occupies the NW part of the Indian Plate and probably was covered by an evaporatic basin where Salt range Formation was deposited. Later from Cretaceous onwards the collision of the Indian Plate with Eurasian Plate continued till Miocene....

Geology: Geotectonics, relative plate motion, homework question
relative plate motion, homework question, plate motions: Hello Abrar This looks like a homework question. We are not allowed to answer homework questions. Wikipedia has nice article on plate tectonics and some Google searches pulled up calculators for determining amount of absolute or relative plate motion....

Geology: Geotectonics, plate tectonics
plate tectonics: Abrar, The earth crust constitutes about two dozen mega plates which have been moving around over the geological times. Even the future has been predicted that what the earth’s surface will look like in millions of years from now. This dynamism of our...

Geology: I am a geolog graduate,but I want to pursue a maste degree in civil engineering!, post graduate course, queen mary college
post graduate course, queen mary college, concrete aggregates: Dear Ms. Sara, Thanks for an intersting career question. I understand you wish to pursue your masters in Civil related Engg after your graduation in Geology. You are at the right place in London as there are sevaral options available. Firstly there is...

Geology: geology, earth science class, united states geological survey
earth science class, united states geological survey, plate tectonics: Hi Manny, You don t mention what aspects of geology you are interested in but I will assume it s things like, what is that rock/mineral and how did it get there variety. You probably want to get introduced to different parts of geology until you find something...

Geology: geology, fossil organism, law of superposition
fossil organism, law of superposition, repetitive sequences: Stratagraphic data has to do with the sequence of rocks. It generally has to do with the timing of deposition of sedimentary and volcanic but also metamorphic rocks as well. Stratigraphy deals with unraveling the timing relationships of these to reconstruct...

Geology: geology, university of sindh, island arcs
university of sindh, island arcs, plate margins: Asad Ali, Plate tectonics is basically sea-floor spreading along the plate margins, and then their convergence elsewhere. From economic geology point of view the regions of sea-floor spreading are of interest. The spreading provides zones of weakness along...

Geology: geology, university of sindh, deformation of rocks
university of sindh, deformation of rocks, plastic deformation: Asad Ali, Shear or flow folding are rather synonyms. It is the only example of true plastic deformation of rocks; it means that it happens when the rocks are subjected to forces when they are in a very ductile state. The rocks under medium- to high-grade...

Geology: geology, Badin area tectonics, Pakistan
Badin area tectonics, Pakistan: Salman, Badin area of Lower Indus basin where Sinjhoro area exists, typically offers fault-block geometry having small to average size traps at Lower Goru level, below a basalt layer that marks the K/T boundary. The faults strike in a NNW-SSE orientation....

Geology: geology, Plate tectonics, passive margins
Plate tectonics, passive margins, hydrocarbons: Asad, Please go through my answer to RRobert Ihejirika dated 14 February, 2010, I have also copied here. The passive plate boundaries are areas of interest for petroleum exploration. Active plate margins, subduction zones etc are not suitable for hydrocarbon...

Geology: about gold, elemental gold, magmas
elemental gold, magmas, massive stars: Hi Saadat, You might be confusing me with another person who answered your question on gold. I don t have any record of your question but I think I can answer it for you. Elemental gold is created in the heart of massive stars and flung out into space...

Geology: can you help me figure out what this is?, copper smelting, tonawanda ny
copper smelting, tonawanda ny, copper ore: Hi Kelly, Looks like you have a piece of metallic slag there. Slag is a byproduct of the smelting process used to beneficiate metallic ores. You mostly don t get pure metals from a mine, most of the time it s some kind of composite. The metals have to...

Geology: Identification of rocks found in Osage County, Oklahoma, osage county oklahoma, northeast quadrant
osage county oklahoma, northeast quadrant, perfect circles: Clark, If you are referring to those rusty looking tumors . I suspect that there is a segregation of iron in the limestone that was probably original. When this limestone was first deposited, a steady rain of small plants and animals with calcite...

Geology: Indo-Australina plate, homework question, pangaea
homework question, pangaea, kashif: Dear Kashif, Please see the attachment. You will see the position of Australian plate, Indian plate and the others. All continents, which you see now, were together. The Pangaea existed about 250Ma ago. I have a short time. I believe it is a homework...

Geology: job, pipeline corrosion, major oil companies
pipeline corrosion, major oil companies, tertiary recovery: Akingba: The only advice I can give you is contact or list yourself on the websites of the major oil companies. During the 80 s there was quite a bit of interest in microbial prospecting for oil. An during the 90 s that moved over to the enviromental...

Geology: what kind of rock/crystal is this, google research, crystal shapes
google research, crystal shapes, quartz glass: Hi John, Yes it is difficult without a picture. I have seen pieces of glass that have been made smooth by waves at the beach - usually dull, smooth and sometimes some interesting shapes depending on the original glass shape. You were in the woods so this...

Geology: Law of superposition, age dating of fossils, law of superposition
age dating of fossils, law of superposition, folding faulting: Ali: There are a number of ways. First you can look for bed forms such as cross bedding or ripple marks. These features would be inverted and tell you the sequence is overturned. You can use the grain size in some of the beds. There are only one...

Geology: lithosphere-asthenosphere coupling, human time scale, plastic asthenosphere
human time scale, plastic asthenosphere, convection cells: Doug: Actually it is interesting you should ask that. Some people are now actually proposing the differencial rotation between the crust and asthenosphere as a possible mechanism for plate techtonics, rather than the older mechanism of convection cells....

Geology: Mountain Building, plate motions, saheb
plate motions, saheb, plate tectonics: Ali saheb Kindly read more from plate tectonics-books-journals-Plates are moving slow rate few cms per year-You have to study lot to understand behaviour of plate motions etc Lot of research published on plate motions-plate tectonics-search through web ...

Geology: metamorphic texture, mica minerals, parallel alignment
mica minerals, parallel alignment, orogenic belts: Asad: Foliation is alignment in metamorphic rock, perpendicular to the direction of the compressive stress that caused the metamorphism. Schistocity is readily identifiable in the field by mica minerals in layers. This layer is distinctly different from...

Geology: Neat Rock, granite gneiss, granite boulder
granite gneiss, granite boulder, pink quartz: Hi Kerry, Looks like your friend has a granite gneiss joining him at the campfire. That s a metamorphic rock that was made by adding tons of pressure and hundreds of degrees Centigrade to a granite boulder. The green band is filled with a mineral called...

Geology: Need suggestion to work in UAE, natural gas engineering, oilfield services
natural gas engineering, oilfield services, congratulations on your graduation: Dear Wajahat Ali Congratulations on your graduation, I would suggest applying with the oil companies and oilfield services companies. You can tell them you want to work in the UAE. You should plan on going wherever they want and after you have some experience...

Geology: Oil Exploration and appraisal, connate water, water flooding
connate water, water flooding, formation water: Rob, Connate water: Water trapped in the pores of a rock during formation of the rock, and is not movable or irreducible. It is not produced during the primary production. Formation water, or interstitial water, in contrast, is simply water found in...

Geology: Oil Wells, oil pool depth, oil depth. Oil seepages
oil pool depth, oil depth. Oil seepages: Dear Heather, Thanks for your question and I will try to address your curiosity with some additional explanations, if you find useful or not please let me know in both conditions. The depth of the oil bearing reservoirs and oil could be as shallow as...

Geology: oil exploration, isopach, facies
isopach, facies, volumetric reserves: Tosin Isopach maps It is important to find out the thickness trend of a formation in subsurface. Using the drilling results isopach contours are drawn. Such maps help in estimating the depth of formations for making the prognosis for exploratory wells...

Geology: oil & gas industry, green house gases, gases in the atmosphere
green house gases, gases in the atmosphere, burning of fossil fuels: Dear Mr. Rajpal Singh, Thanks for your question; it is really a very nice question which every human being should know this concept. I have tried to explain these global warming phenomena as a whole and in addition to that I have made a special note to cbm,...

Geology: Pan concentrate sampling, sediment sampling, stream sediment
sediment sampling, stream sediment, mr patton: Are you looking for primarily placer or hard rock epi-thermal enrichment? My fear of relying just on stream sediment and pan concentrate, your results might be skewed due enrichment by transport only. I understand that due to time constraints, you might...

Geology: Petroleum Geology, petroleum geology, confidence level
petroleum geology, confidence level, interesting subjects: Dear Barkat, Thanks for your question. You can always learn advanced things from a service company. To study in detail about its application you should go to exploration field. Depending on your confidence level and what you have learnt from present employer,...

Geology: Petroleum Geology, petroleum geology, gas migration
petroleum geology, gas migration, large fonts: Usman, Get hold of the Proceedings of Annual Technical Conferences in your library or may be available with your teacher. There are several papers on the topic. Make your presentation with text and relative figure on the same slide. Use large fonts....

Geology: Pyrite, sulfide minerals, quartz veins
sulfide minerals, quartz veins, ancient roman times: The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is an iron sulfide with the formula FeS2. This mineral s metallic lustre and pale-to-normal, brass-yellow hue have earned it the nickname fool s gold because of its resemblance to gold. The color has also led to the nicknames...

Geology: petroleum geology, Types of traps, hydrocarbons
Types of traps, hydrocarbons: Khalid, This kind of question is very basic and definitions are available in books on structural geology or petroleum geology. I am attaching a figure from the famous book of Leverson on petroleum geology. Stratigraphic traps develop due to an up-dip...

Geology: petroleum geology, indus basin, petroleum geology
indus basin, petroleum geology, hydrogen sulfide: Hira, There are two significant tectonic events in the Lower Indus basin which have most phenomenal impression on the geology, Mesozoic Rifting (from Jurassic to Early Paleocene) and compressional event from Eocene to most recent. The former was resulted...

Geology: platinum, platinum group element, inco ltd
platinum group element, inco ltd, dime creek: Read the following web-data 1. Term Paper on Geology. Essays, Research Papers on Platinum We offer free example essays on Geology, Platinum papers, ... The worlds best resource of platinum is found in the Russian Ural Mountains. ... How...

Geology: Rock identification, mineral chlorite, carbonate mineral
mineral chlorite, carbonate mineral, calcium carbonate: Jeremy, It helps to know the setting that the rock was collected in. Where is this dry lake? Was this the only stone like this or were there lots of them? Do you think the rock was from the lake or could it have come from a nearby road or railroad bed?...

Geology: rock, types of rocks, metamorphic rocks
types of rocks, metamorphic rocks, physical and chemical properties: Hello Ram, A rock is an aggregate of mineral. Each mineral that a rock contains, has its own physical and chemical properties. Therefore, to in terms of chemistry and temperature (and also pressure), a rock can also be altered by giving a specific conditions...

Geology: Sandstone reservoirs, sandstone reservoirs, geological journals
sandstone reservoirs, geological journals, historical geology: Haris, You are welcome. Yes the PAPG Proceedings are freely given to participants. If these are not in your library, someone who attended it must be having a copy. Ask your teachers. For describing a sandstone reservoir you will find relevant matter...

Geology: Sedimentology, regional geology, gulam
regional geology, gulam, reservoir rock: Dear Ali Gulam, Thanks for your question, I saw your question just now and that is why delay. You can go to following link and get some relevant materials you want. You can find some details in the regional geology part, for additional material you may refer...

Geology: Seismic response files/GSE format, sesmic activity, predicting earthquakes
sesmic activity, predicting earthquakes, response files: I am sorry, this is beyond me. I am not familiar with the GSE format, and I am not sure how to interpret the values. You might try these guys: GEONOR, Inc. 109 Greenwood Circle P.O. Box 903 Milford PA 18337 USA Tel: 570-296-4884 Fax: 570-296-4886...

Geology: Soft Earth Mounds in Arizona, google maps, earth mounds
google maps, earth mounds, arizona geology: Peter These mounds are near and dear to my heart. I did my doctoral dissertation on just such rocks for indeed inside every mound there is bedrock. I have driven and walked through this part of Arizona many times. This particular outcrop is the Triassic...

Geology: Soil, arid climates, soil engineering
arid climates, soil engineering, tropical climates: Dear Kashif, I am not an expert of soil engineering. However, I will just add a minor comment in it. The soil distribution is influenced by climate (i.e. weathering), the local geography, geomorphology (river profiles) and the man made features (e.g. dams)....

Geology: Stone in a pond, ornamental pond, small pond
ornamental pond, small pond, sandstone: I probably would not use ironstore in my pond. To be certain you would have to consider the chemistry of your water and how it would react with the rock, but you would be better off finding some granite, sandstone or some other less reactive rock. Hope...

Geology: Structural geology, Unconformity, disconformity
Unconformity, disconformity, shear folding: Abrar, As you know an unconformity, disconformity etc represent a break in deposition. The area gets exposed followed by erosion, then submergence and again deposition. The exposure results in the development of laterite, bauxite and other terrestrial deposits...

Geology: sampling, extractable gold, sediment sampling
extractable gold, sediment sampling, stream sediment: BLEG is trying to get a bulk value for mineralization in the rock. Nuggets weather from veins of mineralization. In doing field sampling we are trying to determine whether an area as a whole has a higher degree of mineralization, than another. We know that...

Geology: sandstone formation of pakistan, bahria university, hangu
bahria university, hangu, relevant materials: Dear Nauman, Thanks for your question, I saw your question just now and that is why delayed. You can go to following link and get some relevant materials you want. You can find some details for your questions in the following link. for additional material...

Geology: scholarship, european educational programs, geological study
european educational programs, geological study, ms programs: Dear Jemal, You may look for MS programs in the science abroad. You may apply in European educational programs offered by many universities inside the Europe. Try to search for the universities offering Geology subject. You may follow the following...

Geology: seismic methods, rms velocity, velocity analysis
rms velocity, velocity analysis, seismic velocity: Dear Hira, The velocity window is the velocity analysis run over a seismic data. You need to read about the velocity analysis. The window is normally given on a printed 2D section (Old style 80s). If you see such sections, with printed velocity window,...

Geology: stratigraphy and structural geology, historical geology, structural geology
historical geology, structural geology, sand beds: Hira, Sinjhoro (Sanghar area) falls in an area where Lower Goru sands are reservoirs for hydrocarbons. Sand and alluvium directly overlie Laki limestone in Sinjhoro area. Following stratigraphy is encountered: Eocene Laki ...

Geology: structural geology, structural geology, relevant materials
structural geology, relevant materials, bul: Dear Hira, Thanks for your question, I saw your question just now and that is why delay. You can go to following link and get some relevant materials you want. http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/2208/C/b2208-c.pdf Thanks, Manoharan Kothandapani alias Manoharan...

Geology: systematic mineralogy, systematic mineralogy, wmich edu
systematic mineralogy, wmich edu, ionic radius: Refer web sites # N ORIGINS OF THE VAST ISOMORPHISM OF THE PbZr, -,Ti,O, SYSTEM by NV Dergunova - 1992 - Cited by 1 - Related articles ionic radius difference between the substituting and substituted cations and rmin ... formation of a continuous solid-solution...

Geology: Tight Reservoir, cook inlet alaska, tight sands
cook inlet alaska, tight sands, volume calculations: Jennifer: A tight reservoir can be caused by poorly sorted sediment. Do not think of a reservoir as a uniform body of sediment, in this case, sand. Look at real life analogs. Sediments vary in characteristics across the body horizontally and vertically....

Geology: What type of rock do i have, septarian nodules, jay county indiana
septarian nodules, jay county indiana, quartz crystals: Hi Adam, Your specimen looks like a septarian nodule . This type of rock is more properly called a concretion but the common name is septarian nodule. It has to do with how it forms. Both types of rock are sedimentary and are generated by heat,...

Geology: Unidentified Rock, potassium aluminum silicate, digging a hole
potassium aluminum silicate, digging a hole, metamorphic rock: Hi Trisha, You don t mention where you dug up your rock, sometimes it s easier to identify a rock if you know in what part of the country it was found, but I think I can still ID it. It looks like a sample of muscovite schist. First, schist is a type...

Geology: Unknown Shiny Metallic Rock, iron sulfide, porcelain tile
iron sulfide, porcelain tile, rocks and minerals: Lonnie, Identification of rocks and minerals over the internet is always a challenge. This rock appears to consist of at least two minerals, the dark silver or grey mineral and a paler brass colored mineral. It is hard to tell from the picture but the...

Geology: Unusual shaped rock, geology department, natural formation
geology department, natural formation, weird person: Hi Debra, Your photo didn t come through, but I do have a pretty good idea of what you are describing. Some pretty odd things are out there. Some 30 years ago I too saw a rock much like the one you describe (I think mine was in Tennessee). It appeared...

Geology: usage of split ag, china tel, well digging
china tel, well digging, querries: Dear Santy Mathew, Thanks for your reply, However I got this material from internet. For further querries you can contact the following persons as given in the website. XIAMEN BESTLINK IMP. %26 EXP. CO., LTD. 8N, Yinsheng Building, Xiangyu Free Trade,...

Geology: Volcanic ash, volcano in iceland, hydrogen sulfide
volcano in iceland, hydrogen sulfide, pressure gases: I forgot one additional part. The mineralogy of magma can vary, from acidic or granitic magma, or basaltic or basalt magma. The firs is high in quartz and the other what we call ferro-magnesium minerals. One generates light colored rocks like quartz, the...

Geology: Volcano, volcanoes, drop down list
volcanoes, drop down list, volcano: Hi Rock, There are about 170 volcanoes in the U.S. (I also include a few in Canada since they are associated with the same range as the U.S. volcanoes). They are all in the western U.S. and are considered dormant but not extinct. Most have not erupted for...

Geology: volcano of islanda, effects of volcanic eruption, hazardous gases
effects of volcanic eruption, hazardous gases, effects of volcanos: Dear Heba, The volcanic eruption causes many environmental hazards. Specifically, when a volcano erupts, it comes out with hazardous gases,Pyroclastic flows, ashes and blasts. These can damage the ecology and the population living around. If you are interested...

Geology: Water in the Philipines, seasonal rainfall, homework questions
seasonal rainfall, homework questions, logical conclusions: Hello Michaela, This sounds like a good project and I am happy to point you in the right direction - however we are unable to answer homework questions directly. :) The Philippines are surrounded by salt water of course, so without expensive treatment...

Geology: Watersheds in Egypt, homework questions, luck mike
homework questions, luck mike, watersheds: Ivan, We are not supposed to help out with homework questions. I am a little puzzled about why you are so baffled . It took me two minutes on the internet to find the definition of a watershed - and to find details on the Nile watershed. I would suggest...

Geology: aquifer analysis, concentration distributions, areal distribution
concentration distributions, areal distribution, graph paper: Peter: I am not sure if you just want a X-Y plot or a map. For the first, just use graph paper and plot the cation concentration on the X axis and the depth on the Y axis. You should then see the concentration distributions according to depth. If it...

Geology: Your best guess as to the inclusions in this rock, metallic sheen, colorful rock
metallic sheen, colorful rock, best guess: Hi Dan, Beautiful rock there Dan!! From what I can see of it there is certainly Azurite (the blue) but I don t see any green that would signify malachite though. Pretty sure the clear mineral is quartz but some zeolites have that clarity and sheen. But...

Geology: Coastal Bluff x Coastal Cliff, coastal lines, coastal bluff
coastal lines, coastal bluff, geological terms: I would guess they are the same. Someone might describe a bluff as being on top of loose material (sand) like a dune being eroded. Someone might describe a cliff as being on top of bedrock, less likely to erosion. That is the only difference I can imagine....

Geology: Coral, threats to coral reefs, coral polyps
threats to coral reefs, coral polyps, coral animals: Alan, Coral reefs first show up in the geologic record about 450 million years ago. Ancient corals were solitary animals that were prolific enough for their remains to accumulate in extensive mounds or reef structures. Modern colonial corals date from...

Geology: Curious Rock, rock hounds, fremont island
rock hounds, fremont island, google: Hi Jake, It s really hard to tell what you have there. From the image it doesn t look particularly metallic so I would rule out galena and I couldn t say, for certain, if it s bixbyite but it certainly could be. There are hundreds of black minerals so...

Geology: carrer, bsc geography, geography geology
bsc geography, geography geology, geography course: Hello Wasim, I have come across a similar question earlier on. I am afraid to guide you about local institutes. Because, I really do not know. May be you communicate with the local people who have studied in the local institutes. They can tell you more...

Geology: Engineering Geology, cumulative frequency curve, boulder glacier
cumulative frequency curve, boulder glacier, bedrock surface: Mohammad, This is a common problem when drilling alluvium. One way of dealing with this problem is to examine surface exposures of the formation and measure the boulder diameters of as many examples as you can find. Next, plot the results in a histogram...

Geology: Exploration Geophysics, exploration activity, local publications
exploration activity, local publications, gas sector: Dear Jahangir, The common tendency of Pakistan s Oil and Gas sector is to keep most of the information in house. Such information are not published for public access. Therefore, like you, I am also not aware of this block. For the sake of confidentiality,...

Geology: Geology
Geology: Geology

Geology: Structure/Tectonics
Geology: Structure/Tectonics

Geology: silver rock, silver rock, railroad track
Geology: silver rock, silver rock, railroad track, neighbor

Geology: GEOLOGY, geology career, homework questions
geology career, homework questions, google: Yes sure, This site is meant for such purposes. Personal Note: Often, I have noticed that the questioners put their assignments to be solved by us. Therefore, I personally consider such questions as homework questions to be ignored, as it is suggested...

Geology: Geology, metallic and non metallic minerals, non metallic minerals
metallic and non metallic minerals, non metallic minerals, silver platinum: Many things in science and geology have no significance other than being a part of the overall picture but structural features are not one of these. Faults, fissures, joints all can be related to the movement of fluids within a rock. This movement of fluids...

Geology: Geology, rare earth elements, ionic radii
rare earth elements, ionic radii, accessory minerals: John, Rare Earth Elements (REE) aren t rare at all. Their cosmic and terrestrial abundance is not greatly different from copper and far greater than gold. REEs are what geologists call incompatible elements. Unlike the common rock forming elements (Si,...

Geology: Geology, basin architecture, indus basin
basin architecture, indus basin, basin falls: Jawad, The difference is in the stratigraphy which is encounterd in the two areas. Please get hold of the book Stratigraphy and Historical Geology of Pakistan by Kazmi and Abbasi (2008). Page 22 and 23- Table-2.3 and Fig. 2.8 summarize the stratigraphy...

Geology: Geology, hand specimen, clastic rocks
hand specimen, clastic rocks, doubt thanks: Nouman: You have most of the information already, you just need to know how to use it. First, sedimentary rocks are easy to differenciate from the other two fairly easily. You have already stated the fact that rocks formed by precipitation such as limestones...

Geology: Global Warming, rising sea levels, philippines project
rising sea levels, philippines project, nationalgeographic: Hello Michaela! :) Thanks for coming back with another question - I hope the Philippines project was a success!!! I don t know much more about CO2 and climate change beyond what is in the media. I remembered some good examples in National Geographic...

Geology: Ground Temperature for Geothermal Heating, shenandoah caverns, us geological survey
shenandoah caverns, us geological survey, shenandoah valley: Rebecca: I don t have that direct information, but the US Geological Survey may publish maps that show the subservice temperatures for that area. This may seem like semantics, but being a geologist, I would not refer to taking advantage of the relatively...

Geology: general geology, university of ilorin, petroleum geology
university of ilorin, petroleum geology, mining geology: Dear Durotoye, Thanks for your question,I saw your question from the question pool just now and that is why so much delay in answering. You may send the question directly to the experts in this field so that you can get answers quickly. Divisions in geology...

Geology: geology, joints, fractures
joints, fractures: Abrar, Joints are cracks (or fractures) found in most rocks either at the surface, or in subsurface. Depending upon the grain size and rock fabric the joint spacing could be different. For example, fine-grained rocks tend to have close-spaced joints, while...

Geology: geology, bedding plane, contact zone
bedding plane, contact zone, rock mass: Dear Mr. Devendhar, Thanks for an intersting question. It is indeed a challenging task to determine the presence and extent of a contact zone. I presume you mean contact zone between volcanic rock and the parent rock mass. The bedding plane or boundary...

Geology: geology /food technology, sc geology, career prospect
sc geology, career prospect, career guidance: Dear Mr. Sikander, Good question on career guidance. Please see my input or suggestions below: 1. Firstly, it is more of your interest and excellence in the subject you choose than the subject itself. Therefore, please do get yourself evaluated by...

Geology: Hazara geology, Hazara Formation, petroleum potential
Hazara Formation, petroleum potential: Muhammad, Hazara Formation (or Hazara Group- the name that has been formalized by the Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan-SCP) belongs to Proterozoic age (Precambrian). It is a thick extensive sequence of light grey, partly phyllititic slates intercalated...

Geology: HydrothermalVeins, gold mineralization, hydrothermal veins
gold mineralization, hydrothermal veins, vein deposits: See following webs in net 1. Hydrothermal Veins and Alteration Jump to Hydrothermal Vein Deposit‎: Example of proximal and distal zoning of base metal vein deposit of the type associated with porphyry ... www.dmtcalaska.org/course_dev/explogeo/.../notes08.html...

Geology: help identifying rock, dark reddish brown, square tile
dark reddish brown, square tile, flat shape: It sounds like it is chert, or a form of quartz. From the picture it almost looks like a tile. The rounded beveled edges, perfectly square shape and one inch size makes me think that it might be a fired terra cota tile. Someone may have discarded it or...

Geology: historical geology, global hydrologic cycle, elements and compounds
global hydrologic cycle, elements and compounds, water evaporation: Dawn, The origin of water on Earth is still being debated among scientists. Much of the water probably condensed from the solar nebula as the Earth and other planets formed. There is an hypothesis that some or even much water arrived shortly after formation...

Geology: historical geology, water evaporation, historical geology
water evaporation, historical geology, outer fringe: Yes, the quantity of water in all forms has remained constant probably since the Archean epoch. Current thought is that bolides, icy planetoids and icy asteroids millions of them, brought water to the Earth during its early formation. Most icy asteroids...

Geology: jobs availability, Jobs for girls, gender equality in geology
Jobs for girls, gender equality in geology, geological jobs for girls: Dear Virangi, Thanks for your interest in Geology and for sending me this question. I heard about Goa which is place worth to be travelling. I will try to answer you that may help and satisfy you. The primary qualification to start your geological...

Geology: Kimberlite??, spinel group, mineral assemblage
spinel group, mineral assemblage, kimberlites: The pictured rock sure looks a lot more like pumice than a kimberlite to me; however, without seeing the rock it is impossible to tell for sure. Kimberlites are generally much darker that the pictured rock since they are most composed of dark minerals. ...

Geology: Kimberlite??, rocks and minerals, gem show
rocks and minerals, gem show, good luck: I honestly cannot tell from the picture. Did the seller tell you where it came from? That is always the first question to ask..... Unless you have some reason to doubt the seller then accept it as kimberlite. You could get a guide to rocks and minerals...

Geology: what kind of rock/mineral magnifies?, marine construction company, cleavage planes
marine construction company, cleavage planes, double refraction: Different minerals have different optical properties. It a mineral is clear enough it is said to be optical grade. A clear optical grade quartz crystal will magnify. A clear calcite crystal will create a double image when placed over something like printed...

Geology: Magnetism, magnetic anomaly, magnetization curve
magnetic anomaly, magnetization curve, google search: Haider There may be information in your library or with geophysicists at your school. A simple Google search found these: http://books.google.com/books?id=O-wA0ocxAiIC&pg=PA29&lpg=PA29&dq=What+is+the+Effect+of+magnetization+on+magnetic+anomaly+curve%3F&source=bl&ots=1F53jUnMKU&sig=tVEpklix9p43Vf03fCRMEM8RM9c&hl=en&ei=bBYBTM-2INHH4gal__TLDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CEsQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=What%20is%20the%20Effect%20of%20magnetization%20on%20magnetic%20anomaly%20curve%3F&f=false...

Geology: Mountains, volcano paricutin, planets in the solar system
volcano paricutin, planets in the solar system, tectonic processes: Kristin, Mountains form on all the rocky planets in the solar system (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars). Mountains are also known on some moons as well. In general, mountains form by one of two processes, volcanism or plate tectonics. The most common...

Geology: Mountains, volcanoes, island arcs
volcanoes, island arcs: Nouman, The subduction is a process through which the rocks of the subducting plate get buried deeper with time and eventually reach a depth where they started to get melt. The melted rock than follows a path of least resistance to rise to the ground to...

Geology: about mountains, theory postulates that, mountain roots
theory postulates that, mountain roots, mantle material: ED, Tectonic plates do slide. In fact, they are in continuous slow motion. So slow that no one noticed they were even moving until the twentieth century. The boundary that plates move on is a ductile zone at the base of the crust. Plate motions are...

Geology: about mountains, mountain roots, plate tectonics
mountain roots, plate tectonics, lithospheric plates: Hi Ed, You ask a very complex question about plate tectonics and there really isn t that much space here to answer it entirely. You might want to go to this website. It gives a pretty good background on the subject. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/tectonics/#...

Geology: mysterious inherited rocks, mortar cement, track ballast
mortar cement, track ballast, silver minerals: Hi Jonathan, There are many kinds of silver minerals and it is difficult to tell one from another by just a picture. But I think I can tell what you have there. It looks like a metallic slag. That s the waste product left over after the smelting process....

Geology: Oil leakage, lift valves, oil leakage
lift valves, oil leakage, supplier id: Dear Rosa Nouri, Thanks for your question Leakage in wells are dangerous while considering the operational aspects such as safety, economy and environments. Normally leakage can take place under following conditions: • In the casing during drilling ...

Geology: Oil Production from Low resistivity sand, low resisitivity reservoirs, Pakistan
low resisitivity reservoirs, Pakistan: Rahul, Thanks. Sorry, your new question is beyond my expertise, hence regret. Please refer it to some other Expert. The following paper No. SPE 117497 was published in the Proceedings of Annual Technical Conference (2008) held in Pakistan (p. 23-32):...

Geology: oil and gas reservoirs, Pakistan geology, reservoirs in Pakistan
Pakistan geology, reservoirs in Pakistan, Stratigraphy of Pakistan: Asma, Thanks for your interest in Reservoir geology To know more about reservoir in the Pakistani oil and gas fields you can find information many publications by HDIP and GSP. SPE_ PAPG Annual Technical Conference has published their proceedings (1998...

Geology: Please guide me sir, stratigrapher, geochemist
stratigrapher, geochemist, paleontologist: Geology is the study of the Earth. It is a lot. You will need to specialize and be a stratigrapher, a paleontologist, maybe a geochemist or a structural geologist. There are dozens of specialities. I have no idea where you are located so I cannot recommend...

Geology: petroleum geology, mud logging
mud logging: I am not an expert in this field. However, Mudlogging is a specialized field where you will have to remain on your toes throughout your shift, where decisions may have to be made instantly. But, as of now, you would be in a training stage for such decisions,...

Geology: Red rock found, mineral id, mineral identification
mineral id, mineral identification, rockshop: Hello Dustin That is a nice find. Glad that you have an interest in mineralogy and rock hounding. Minerals are difficult to identify by color - hardness, luster, density and a few other properties are important that can only be tested by having it in...

Geology: Reservoir characterization, petroleum geology, reservoir characterization
petroleum geology, reservoir characterization, wrt: Dear Muhammad, According to what I have seen here in my career I would suggest Petroleum geology. You can take geophysics or seismic as additional subject. Petroleum geology gives you the wider base to do reservoir characterization Best regards Aze...

Geology: River Flow, francis turbines, drinking water supply
francis turbines, drinking water supply, dam purpose: Abhishek: If I understand the question correctly, you are asking how much water loss would be expected from the volume of water moving from the reservoir through the turbines in the generation of electricity. I am not clear if you are referring to loss...

Geology: River Flow, groundwater hydrologist, francis turbines
groundwater hydrologist, francis turbines, drinking water supply: Dear Abhishek Sorry I am a groundwater hydrologist and am not much help with surface water reservoirs. This looks like a homework problem and we are not allowed to answer homework problems. I am sure that your question does not contain all the information...

Geology: Rock found inside a rock, erosion processes, corn field
erosion processes, corn field, northern indiana: Hi Tim, Interesting rock....looks like you might have a piece of claystone (the light colored, bigger one) with a pebble inclusion. The pebble is darker and it looks to be a different type of rock than the claystone. What usually occurs in cases like this...

Geology: Rocks Rising, intrusive igneous rock, intrusive rocks
intrusive igneous rock, intrusive rocks, plate tectonic: Dear Nouman, Good question. Let me answer in summarised form: 1. Firstly, igneous rocks are also formed on the surface of the earth. These are called volcanic igneous rocks formed after cooling and consolidation of molten lava. Basalt is an example....

Geology: Sequence stratigraphy, well logs, sequence stratigraphy
well logs, sequence stratigraphy, seismic data: Dear Muhammad, For sequence stratigraphic analysis, you may use the following logs. 1- GR / SP log 2- Sonic / Neutron Density 3- Optionally, you may also use resistivity logs. For interpretation, I am attaching an example interpretation. Please spend...

Geology: Sequence stratigraphy, funnel shape, sequence boundaries
funnel shape, sequence boundaries, seismic reflections: Dear Robert, This is indeed an interesting question and it has been widely available on web also. However, I will spend a little time to give catch your attention. The sequence stratigraphy uses a concept of a change in depositional trend that is a result...

Geology: Smell-(propert of mineral), air molecules, rotten egg
air molecules, rotten egg, smeel: Hi Nouman, Most times there will not be any detectable smell to the specimen. Reaction with the air molecules can use up the volatiles that create the aroma. So you need a fresh surface in order to get any reaction. You have to scratch the surface or smell...

Geology: Stratigraphy of lower indus basin, historical geology, kazmi
historical geology, kazmi, abbasi: Sakhawat, Please get hold of the Proceedings of PAPG-SPE Annual Technical Conferenecs held annually in Pakistan, or Stratigraphy and Historical Geology of Pakistan by Kazmi and Abbasi (2008). You will find much more than what you have requested. It will...

Geology: Structure/Tectonics, Kallar Kahar lake, Pakistan
Kallar Kahar lake, Pakistan, salt plug: Haroon, As you know the Salt Rang Formation that predominantly is salt underlies Potwar Plateau. Being plastic in nature the salt flows due to tectonic forces, and may develop into salt plugs which penetrate the overlying sediments to reach the surface,...

Geology: science, geology rocks, solid materials
geology rocks, solid materials, enchantedlearning com: Hi Cameron, The geological name we give for an aggregate of solid materials is rock . The solid materials can be minerals or other rock types. So a rock is not a pure substance like a mineral or an element; it s a mixture of other materials. Here...

Geology: sedimentary Rx, early diagenesis, pore space
early diagenesis, pore space, pore water: Amr, Diagenesis is the first stage of lithification. When sediments are deposited, they consist of a range of mineral phases which are out of chemical equilibrium with each other and the pore water they have trapped. With burial and an increasing temperature,...

Geology: sedimentology class, eolian processes, alluvial fan deposits
eolian processes, alluvial fan deposits, sedimentary facies: This is obviously a class assignment so I will not answer it directly. Professors expect to see answers that match the material they have presented in class. They know what they presented in lectures and what is in the textbook. They know the answers they...

Geology: silver rock, size holes, aluminum foil
size holes, aluminum foil, silver dust: Hi Chris, Interesting rock. Without a picture it is difficult to tell what it is, but it might be a couple of things. Usually shiny rocks that look like aluminum foil turn out to be metallic slag. A waste product from smelting certain ores. Normally...

Geology: soil testiong, allah hafiz, moisture content of soil
allah hafiz, moisture content of soil, dry density: Dear Junaid, procor test is to determine the max dry density and optimum moisture content of soil. You use this values to compare actual field compaction. If this is lowqer than 90 or 95% then you have to compact the soil more. CBR is used to design the...

Geology: structural geology, enhancement filter, fresnel lenses
enhancement filter, fresnel lenses, nepal index: Mohd: You identify lineaments several ways. When I did interpretation of satellite images, you can look for alignments of features on the image and trace them on a clear overlay. Features such a linear stream segmemets, truncated topographic features,...

Geology: Tenacity And Hardness, tenacity, hardness
tenacity, hardness, minerals and metals: Nouman, As you also explained, the property of tenacity describes the behavior of a mineral under deformation. It describes the physical reaction of a mineral to externally applied stresses such as crushing, cutting, bending, and striking forces. Adjectives...

Geology: trying to find out the type of stone that I have, colorado state capitol, hardness of marble
colorado state capitol, hardness of marble, marble colorado: These rocks, if they are all the same, are either marble or agate, my first guess is marble. If they are marble you will be able to scratch them with a knife blade if they are agate you won t. The hardness of a knife blade is 5.5 the hardness of marble is...

Geology: Use of Remote Sensing, engineering geology, national remote sensing agency
engineering geology, national remote sensing agency, nitk: You can use latest data from CARTOSAT-1&2-for detail view of the area with smaller dimensions Contact National Remote Sensing Agency-Hyderabad for details You can read from my latest book-Engineering Geology-Vikaspublishers by Prof D.VENKAT REDDY-NIT...

Geology: volcanic island arcs, arcuate island arcs, volcanoes
arcuate island arcs, volcanoes: Sohail, Good question. As you may be aware that the island chains that occur in an arcuate shape are created through the collision of tectonic plates in an ocean setting. The plate boundary that results in island arcs is called a ‘subduction zone’ i.e...

Geology: Career Guidance, mud logging, job vacancy
mud logging, job vacancy, vacanies: Dear Sadasiva rao, Thanks for your question You can go to website of ONGC, OIL, Cairn energy, Schlumberger, Halliburton etc., and apply for your job whenever they publish job vacancy. Normally in Govt companies they recruit freshers without experience upto...

Geology: career planning, personal knowledge, further studies
personal knowledge, further studies, geophysics: Hello Taseer, Well, in oil industry, all disciplines are promising whether it is a geology or geophysics. It is all about your personal knowledge and perfection. If you do your job perfectly, then you are the best otherwise you are not. So, if you are doing...

Geology: characteristics of minerals, characteristics of minerals, small cubes
characteristics of minerals, small cubes, halite: Cleavage, streak, hardness would all remain the same. Halite(Salt) is a good example. It has cubic cleavage and no matter how small you crush it salt still looks like small cubes. The streak remains white, and the hardness stays the same too. Of course...

Geology: crystal or Diamonds, diamonds diamonds, jewelry box
diamonds diamonds, jewelry box, crystals: I m not sure exactly what the crystals are but I can assure you that they are not diamonds. Diamonds do not occur in cluster and over-growths as this group appears to be. Hardness is an important characteristic of all minerals. If you could let me know...

Geology: Development of a New Spring, google map, winter thaw
google map, winter thaw, mr patton: Here is an image I downloaded from google map. Is it anywhere close, or are you farther north? Keith Frank: I have a former Uncle in Law who owns Verdigris River acreage up north of Lake Oolagah, my ex s family was from Lenapah and Talaquah. ...

Geology: EARTH Science, angular unconformity, siliciclastic sediments
angular unconformity, siliciclastic sediments, 100 million years: Dear Asad, Thanks for sending a very interesting question and I will try to explain. Firstly, I like to describe the unconformity and its various types. A geological horizon that separates older from younger rocks and represents a depositional time...

Geology: EARTH Science, earth science, water vapor
earth science, water vapor, excitation: The atmosphere thins and water vapor lessens making the atmosphere less capable of retaining heat. Remember that heat is actually the excitation of molecules. So as the atmosphere thins at extreme elevations, it cannot retain or generate heat through molecular...

Geology: exploration geophysics, university of port harcourt, master degree student
university of port harcourt, master degree student, salam alaikum: Dear Ahmed, It is all qualitative, what I am going to say. You can predict relative impedance (density x velocity) information from it. You may some how predict the lithological contacts. You may also use them to tie the composite log with the seismic data...

Geology: exploration geophysics, university of port harcourt, master degree student
university of port harcourt, master degree student, seismic velocities: Dear Ahmed, I would start with Gamma Ray log interpretation and mark major sand zones. Try to find some markers with high gamma ray values like shales. See if the tops are interpreted on the logs. Using the seismic section where the gamma-ray log is overlaid...

Geology: exploration geophysics, shale compaction, university of port harcourt
shale compaction, university of port harcourt, port harcourt nigeria: Hello Akerele, It my pleasure to know you. Before, I answer to your question, I hope you will finish your thesis with success. About your questions, I can only talk about porosity. You can not determine the age of a rock from the velocity data. The seismic...

Geology: Fulgurite, sand grains, fulgurites
sand grains, fulgurites, coincidentally: It is definitely possible. Fulgurites are created when lightening fuses the sand grains together into a solid piece of rock. Check to see if you can see some bumps of individual sand grains in the sample. If so, this supports the theory that it is a fulgurite....

Geology: Plateform Geology
Geology: Plateform Geology

Geology: rocks, sliding rock, brevard nc
Geology: rocks, sliding rock, brevard nc, new apartment

Geology: stratigraphic column of balochistan basin, geological survey of pakistan, indus basin
Geology: stratigraphic column of balochistan basin, geological survey of pakistan, indus basin, groundwater resource

Geology: well bore collapse undersea, mud, alias
Geology: well bore collapse undersea, mud, alias

Geology: fossil, scanning electron microscope, ginger garlic
scanning electron microscope, ginger garlic, molten material: I have answered what I can below: 1.I have seen for sale fossils of ginger and garlic in an antiquity shop.They look like ginger/garlic but is rock hard. The price is about $8 each,which seems to be very cheap. The shopkeeper says they were found near...

Geology: fossil, calgary alberta canada, burgess shale
calgary alberta canada, burgess shale, hydrochloride acid: Most fossils are millions of year old but that doesn t mean that all fossils are that old. If conditions are right there probably could be fossils as young as maybe a couple of hundred years but I doubt that there are younger fossils. There are fossil...

Geology: fossil, scanning electron microscope, ginger garlic
scanning electron microscope, ginger garlic, soft plants: A) fossils are formed in three ways. The first is a mold. This is where the object is buried in sediment that later hardends into rock, and the object decays leaving a void in the surrounding rock which matches the object, in this case the ginger root. This...

Geology: fossil, crystallization in a cooling magma
crystallization in a cooling magma: Noor, As you now the magma crystallizes in stages as it cools down, and depending upon the temperature suitable for a certain mineral the successive solidification continues. So a crystal crystallizing later may cut across an earlier crystallized mineral,...

Geology: fossil, scanning electron microscope, ginger garlic
scanning electron microscope, ginger garlic, geologic context: Noor, Fossils composed of mineral material removed from their geologic context can be hard to date. If they are composed of organic material and less than 50,000 years old you can date them using the carbon 14 method. Fossils have little or no scientific...

Geology: fossil identification and stone/drusy/mineral storage, dawn dish detergent, south western wisconsin
dawn dish detergent, south western wisconsin, mineral storage: From the picture I would not venture a guess as weather this is a fossil and I surely can not tell what kind of fossil it is if it is same. You found the stone in SW Wisconisn, an area of significant glaciation and you found it with drusy quartz and other...

Geology: GEOLOGY, bachelor degree course, soil engineering
bachelor degree course, soil engineering, oil and gas companies: Hello Samadrita, Yes, ofcourse. You can let her to learn it. It will give her a very good career. There are several departments of Geology in India, and also there are several oil and gas companies. If she learns well, she can jump in to such companies...

Geology: Geology, abyssal plain, valley glaciers
abyssal plain, valley glaciers, paleozoic era: Hi Rachel Thanks for sending your questions. People have been generous with my ratings - especially considering that I always say that we cannot answer homework questions. I can tell you that 3)14)are incorrect, some of the others I am not sure with respect...

Geology: Geology, economic geology, baroda university
economic geology, baroda university, petroleum exploration: Dear Abishek, Thanks for your question. You are really fortunate that you are admission in M.S.Baroda. Just because you have got a very good and wonderful university i.e., M.S.Baroda university in your home town. Now through you i come to know they have...

Geology: Geology - the future, universities of uk, career in malaysia
universities of uk, career in malaysia, class degree: Hello Yii, You may check the universities of UK that offer Geosciences as subject. Click the following link and find A-Z list of the universities. http://www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/Pages/Default.aspx Over all UK is expensive. If you live outside the...

Geology: Geology/Gold exploration using remotesensing, hydrothermal mineral deposits, alteration zones
hydrothermal mineral deposits, alteration zones, vein gold: Anoop: Yes it is. Aster imagery is sensitive to the alteration minerals associated with hydrothermal mineral deposits. The problem is that it only works in arid areas, in other words it does not work well in areas where the ground is covered by thick...

Geology: Geology of Plateform, Salt Range Formation, Punjab Platform
Salt Range Formation, Punjab Platform: Naeem, Thank you, I am fine. You are right the Karampur Salt Range Formation (SRF) sample and the Baghewala samples match and they also match the equivalent Huqf formation of Oman, though at Karampur it is immature. But SRF with evaporatic depositional...

Geology: geology, presidency college kolkata, renowned college
presidency college kolkata, renowned college, indian school of mines: Dear Mr. Subir, Thanks for your question. It is very nice to hear and see that your daughter wants to study geology. Really this subject has a good future for girls. She can do this in Presidency College Kolkata and also in many colleges under Kolkata University...

Geology: geology, no doubt, quick response
no doubt, quick response, geology: Hello Abhishek, I always suggest others to jump in to a thing in which you are interested. No doubt geology gives a person to develop his/her career efficiently. I think it is equivalent to engineering in terms of money or may be more. But with out any...

Geology: geology, economic geology, streams and rivers
economic geology, streams and rivers, structural geology: I am not familiar with the schools in India. There are many good geology schools in the US, UK and Canada. It very much depends on what area of the profession you want to pursue. Most schools in geology have a history of concentration in areas that were...

Geology: geology, Geology of bahawalpur, bhawalpur
Geology of bahawalpur, bhawalpur, Cholistan geology: Dear Safdar, You have send me very interesting question; this is interesting because on surface there is no significant geology. This area is covered by unconsolidated alluvium and very recent sediments whereas areas closer to India are mainly desert....

Geology: glaciers, south axis, continental crust
south axis, continental crust, glaciers: Ju, Glaciers like liquid water do not flow uphill. It is accurate that the mass of glaciers can cause Earth s crust to bend and sink under their weight. Indeed some of the continental crust of Greenland is depressed below sea level. This is true particularly...

Geology: glassy green, geology department, volcanic activity
geology department, volcanic activity, waves: Dear Sara, Thanks. Most likely this is a by product of volcanic activity called OBSIDIEN. However, it would be too early to judge that without studying the sample. I suggest you take it to a geology department or a gemmalogist to make proper identification....

Geology: gold flecks in rocks, gold flecks, fools gold
gold flecks, fools gold, approximate area: Joe, Please post a picture of your rock so that I can have a better shot at answering your question. If you tell me the approximate area of the country your rocks are located in it would help too. For example if your rocks are in Indiana, there is not...

Geology: guidance regarding geology, petroleum geology, applied geology
petroleum geology, applied geology, engineering geology: Applied Geology course is more specfic and syllabus covers all aspects of geology related -You can study the course.Few universities are offering Applied Geology course-My book Engineering Geology is suitable for Applied Geology courses Prof DVREDDY-NIT...

Geology: Highs, Paleo-highs, Pakistan examples
Paleo-highs, Pakistan examples: Muhammad, To start with, in this small question of yours there are 3 spelling mistakes and a few of the format. Your this habit will make you do the same in exams, while writing an application or during your professional life. This will be damaging to...

Geology: Central Indus Basin/ Punjab Plateform, Chichali source rock, Punjab Platform
Chichali source rock, Punjab Platform: Qaisar, Ans.-1. A reservoir rock requires porosity and then essentially permeability for oil /gas to accumulate in one economical pool. There may be some secondary porosity in an evaporite but permeability is out of question. Evaporite rocks are unlikely...

Geology: Meandering stream and coarsening upward, geography section, meandering streams
geography section, meandering streams, energy section: Here is a good website on the difference between coarsening up and fining up. http://www4.uwm.edu/course/geosci697/rivers-deltas/rivers-deltas.html Also, the Wikipedia site had a good geography section on meandering streams. To answer your question, generally,...

Geology: non-cohesive soil, soil mechanics, google search
soil mechanics, google search, cohesive soil: Dear Muskaan, I am not an expert in soil mechanics but did find some information with a simple Google search. Also this appears to be a homework question and we are not allowed to answer these - it is better if you do your own research to develop your own...

Geology: non-cohesive soil, internet google, cohesive soil
internet google, cohesive soil, cohesive soils: Dear Muskaan, Soil structure, which defines the type of soil, is a critical element in the design and execution of any construction project. This aspect is more relevant in cohesive soils, as the degree of plasticity of the soil nearly defines the severity...

Geology: non-cohesive soil, cohesive soil, slope failures
cohesive soil, slope failures, soil materials: Muskaan: I am not sure what you are asking. Are you are asking what is the role of non-cohesive types of soil in construction material? Non-cohesive soil materials are size fractions of sand, gravel, cobbles and to a degree, silt. These size fractions...

Geology: non-cohesive soil, water storage capacity, solids group
water storage capacity, solids group, cohesive soil: Dear Muskaan Thanks for your question. Soil structure is the arrangement of pores and fissures (porosity) within a matrix of solid materials (soil particles and organic matter). The solid materials bond and aggregate to give the pores and fissures. The quantity,...

Geology: olivine with quartz, university of chicago press, cascade range
university of chicago press, cascade range, journal of geology: Dear Mark Mineralogists and petrologists will through more light on your question .refer papers This is the first page of the item you requested. .An Occurrence of Quartz-Olivine GabbroB. C. FreemanThe Journal of Geology, Vol. 42, No. 2 (Feb. - Mar., 1934),...

Geology: Plateform Geology, kirana hills, salt range
kirana hills, salt range, plateform: Naeem, Please read my answer to Muhammad about Paleo-highs which I gave a couple of days back. The next Paleo-highs are the Mari-Jaisalmer high and the Jacobabad-Khairpur high. Regarding SRF to be a source I explained in my previous response. I personally...

Geology: petroleum geology, Entrance test in petroleum exploration, Geological tests
Entrance test in petroleum exploration, Geological tests: Dear Sukanya, I am not sure what kind of the test that will be. I can only use my imaginations and can guide you. Since its an entrance test for advance degree I can imagine the expectations by your University. The questions should be from basic...

Geology: petroleum geology, geology textbook, petroleum geology
geology textbook, petroleum geology, post graduate course: I have no idea, as i have never written a test prior to acceptance into grad school. However, i would review a petroleum geology textbook from any year. Not much has really change regarding the basics of drilling technology over the last couple of decades....

Geology: petroleum geology, petroleum geology, geological survey of india
petroleum geology, geological survey of india, petroleum field: Dear Vishnu, Thanks for your question. You need not feel very much for this situation. it is not your mistake or others. I can say it is mistake of our geology department where they should check or at least intimate about this at the beginning itself. Similar...

Geology: Query, stratigraphic traps on seismic
stratigraphic traps on seismic: Shiamli, The stratigraphic traps can either be truncation due to unconformity, or pinch-outs of reservoir quality facies. Truncations are easy to identify as angular reflectors will truncate against horizontal reflectors above. In case of facies changes...

Geology: Question on columnar basalt, university of calabar nigeria, mid ocean ridge
university of calabar nigeria, mid ocean ridge, university of calabar: About 461,000 results (0.40 seconds) Search ResultsBasalt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Columnar basalt flows in Yellowstone National Park, USA. ... Columnar jointing in the basalt of the Giant s Causeway in Northern Ireland ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basalt...

Geology: Question regarding sandstone, cementing agent, water hardness
cementing agent, water hardness, household items: Calcite is EXTREMELY common in sandstones. I would avoid putting the piece in your aquarium if you value your fish. You may be able to pick up some dilute (5%) HCl at a rock store to test the sample if you really want to put it in your aquarium. All the best....

Geology: Rock Identification, magnetite crystals, st regis
magnetite crystals, st regis, bob bob: Bob: My guess is that it is magnetite. There are large deposits in the Adirondacks, so someone could have easily collected it and brought it to your garden, when it is was their garden! The red color tells me it is rich in iron. The crystals are all...

Geology: What is my rock?, first rocks, refraction of light
first rocks, refraction of light, oil shale: Steph: You probably have some pieces of coal. Read the rest of my answer below. I was considering a number of possibilities and it finally dawned on me what you probably had.... You say it has facets? This bears a bit more looking into. First, rocks...

Geology: rock found while drilling, gold gold gold, usgs geologists
gold gold gold, usgs geologists, quartz veins: Readthe following web sites-Your rocksample may contain traces of gold-conformation required- You can obtain porcelain plate-take streak rub -expected gold grains on streak plate if it gives golden yellow -it is gold-if it gives greyish black streak it may...

Geology: rock info please, stony meteorites, bbq tongs
stony meteorites, bbq tongs, iron meteorite: Dan, Your rock does not look metallic to me so we can rule out a nickel iron meteorite. It could be a stony meteorite. Stony meteorites frequently have a crust or remnants of a crust of melted rock. This could be a dark glassy coating or patches of a...

Geology: rocks, reservoir rock, porosity
reservoir rock, porosity, rocks: A good reservoir has to have good porosity. Ideally it will also have good permeability. It also needs to be accessible. It could be all these things but not have any oil or gas in it. _______________________________________________________________________...

Geology: rocks, volcanic glass, river bottom
volcanic glass, river bottom, coal: Matthew - it looks like obsidan (aka volcanic glass). To that angular it is either obsidan that someone dropped into the river or it is some industrial waste product that has found its way there. I would be curious to know where in SC you found this. ...

Geology: Sargodha High, Sargodha High, stratigraphy
Sargodha High, stratigraphy: Abdul Samad Bhutto, As per Kazmi and Abbasi (2008) Sargodha High was already there before the sedimentation started. Its age is about 600 million years. We do not get different stratigraphy on its either side. The Trans-Indus %26 Potwar stratigraphy...

Geology: Seismograph, planet hope, seismograph
planet hope, seismograph, internal structure: Jack: A seismograph tells you how fast and when the Earth moved. By carefully studyign the wave forms recorded, we can begin to tell how far away the earthquake was centered. It can also be used to help understand the internal structure of hte planet....

Geology: Strange Rocks, strange rocks, quality isnt
strange rocks, quality isnt, chemical composition: Brian, The rocks you have found are not rocks at all. They were once single crystals of another mineral. Before taking a shot at what mineral they once where let me explain how they came to their present composition. Crystals form with specific geometries....

Geology: Structual Geology, Thin-skinned deformation, thick-skinned deformation
Thin-skinned deformation, thick-skinned deformation: Muhammad Saqib, Thin-skinned…………..basement not involved in deformation Thick-skinned…………basement involved in deformation Thin-skinned deformation refers to shortening that involves only the sedimentary cover due to a basal decollement, and basement...

Geology: stratigraphic column of balochistan basin, geology dept, historical geology
geology dept, historical geology, kazmi: Nauman, Please refer Stratigraphy and historical geology of Pakistan by Kazmi and Abbasi, 2008. On page 192 a detailed stratigraphic chart of Balochistan is available. You will find detailed lithology in respective Periods. Make a chart yourself and...

Geology: Tectonic, thrust belts, island arcs
thrust belts, island arcs, thrust belt: Hello Qaisar, Yes I am doing fine. I supposed that this is a homework question. Nevertheless, I will try to write in simple words. So, here are the short answers. Q-1: Geology can only explain How? It never explains why? Qaisar, always remember, the...

Geology: well bore collapse undersea, weight values, rock layers
weight values, rock layers, gulf oil: your question I have seen through some news that it was almost a vertical well at the time of drilling. There is always possibility of having over pressure at deeper depth; the main cause for this is overburden pressure which is due to the weight of sediments...

Geology: white spot deposit on rock, reddish rock, irregular edge
reddish rock, irregular edge, bird droppings: Cinamint: It could be one of the following: A) Bird droppings B) Paint C) Lichen. Not being able to see it up close, it is hard to tell. Bird droppings will wash off or smear with a little water or spit. Paint will not. Lichen will flake...

Geology: Academic letter of intent for a graduate school, Academic letter of intent
Academic letter of intent: Chima, Here is from someone who did the same recently for her academic letter. Please also check the links for more details. ----- I m quoting the following from www.ehow.com: Step 2 State the title of the job for which you are applying, how you...

Geology: bentonite clay, sampling of economic deposits, bentonite
sampling of economic deposits, bentonite: Engr Bakht Zamin, As the sampling is from a quarry or an outcrop of Bentonite, the trenching is a best way to take a representative sample. As you know, a sample should be representative of the deposit i.e. 1. It should not be weathered or altered....

Geology: Career advice question?, rare earth metals, geology concentration
rare earth metals, geology concentration, computer systems business: You realize that generally speaking your answer to this question is as good as mine; since it is more related to the economy than geology but I will give you my opinion. I have been a geologist for about 40 years and have worked on every continent except...

Geology: colorful rock, geology department, colorful rock
geology department, colorful rock, suitable answer: Zach, With the description you have given, it is difficult to give any suitable answer. Only physical examination, and if required a thin section would be of help. The best thing would be to go to a Geology Department, if available in your neighborhood....

Geology: depositional environment, gravel beds, stream deposits
gravel beds, stream deposits, alluvial fan: I don t see how the the facies sediments at the top of the structure could be the source for the material lower in the structure. The way I would look at it, is each facies was deposited by a separate sedimentary event. Probably from an outside source. ...

Geology: Environmental Geology vs Petroleum Geology, petroleum geology, applied geology
petroleum geology, applied geology, canadian petroleum: Joyce: First I would evaluate your academic curricular background and compare it with one for a degree in petroleum that you can find on line at a university website, like the University of Texas, or Kansas at Lawrence, or University of Oklahoma, or the...

Geology: engineering geology, engineering geologist, road alignment
engineering geologist, road alignment, engineering geology: Dear Rafat, Current construction practices stress a significant role for an engineering geologist for all types of constructions mentioned above. Recently published data, by a Geological Society publication, shows 25% input increasing upto 50% progressing...

Geology: Fossil ID, lake champlain, fossil hunting
lake champlain, fossil hunting, trilobite: I really think you probably found pieces of a small trilobite. You need to look at what else is in the rock, was it a high energy environment, suggesting something ripped these things apart and deposited them. Even if the storm was miles away up the shelf...

Geology: Fossil ID, north hero, genus
Geology: Fossil ID, north hero, genus, fragment

Geology: Garnet, garnet crystals, garnet group
garnet crystals, garnet group, middle english word: The garnet group includes a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. The name garnet may come from either the Middle English word gernet meaning dark red , or the Latin granatus ( grain ), possibly a reference...

Geology: Gemstones locator, ground penetrating radar, gemstone identification
ground penetrating radar, gemstone identification, localizer 3000: Musonda Kindly gothrough on googly search the following sites to know -methods of gemstone identification in the field-Prof DVREDDY-NITK-INDIA 1. Metal detector - Terms and definitions - OKM Metal Detectors A magnetometer is a scientific...

Geology: Geology, foliated metamorphic rocks, foliated rocks
foliated metamorphic rocks, foliated rocks, foundation rocks: Dear Margie Thanks for your question Foliated rocks are normally not suitable as foundation rocks.They indicate areas of weak zones. Particularly if there are cracks or weak mineralization in foliated zones may act as conduit for water and further this may...

Geology: Geology, private sector participation, economic mineral deposits
private sector participation, economic mineral deposits, economic geologist: I am an economic geologist and have worked in well over 100 commodities. Your topic should be something of interest, to you, and yet something that there is information available to research. Just from a short cruse on the internet about minerals in Nigeria...

Geology: Geology Further Studies, petroleum geoscience, how to write a proposal
petroleum geoscience, how to write a proposal, suitable topic: Johnny, You are welcome. Yes you can apply for either of the two. The serialized response to your queries is as under: 1. Yes. 2. Yes, you may have to write an initial research proposal. You may either consult your prospective professor before,...

Geology: general geology, world gold council, karnataka india
world gold council, karnataka india, state of karnataka: Rafat, If you use your Internet browser you will find answers to all such questions. I found these doing the same. You do not need an Expert for such minor queries. 1. A bay is a small body of water forming an indentation of the shoreline, larger than...

Geology: geology, indus basin, petroleum geology
indus basin, petroleum geology, pakistn: Hello Amber, The D.G. Khan is central Punjab, which geologically lies in the Central Indus Basin (1980s classification). You can find the geological information of central indus basin in the local text book (Petroleum Geology of Pakistn by Iqbal A. Kadri)....

Geology: geology, geology of Dhodak, Sulaiman Range
geology of Dhodak, Sulaiman Range, D.G. Khan: Dear Amber Thanks for your question and thanks for your trust on me. Petroleum Geology can not be fit in into cities or districts. I will try to give a summarized overview about the area within DG Khan and its environs. This area is located between...

Geology: geology, medical geology, fresh science
medical geology, fresh science, economic climate: Dear Parvej, Firstly, I have no local knowledge of colleges in your geographic area. I will try to answer your second query on SCOPE of Geology as follow: Geology, science of earth, is a vast subject encompassing, Engg Geology to structural, to economic,...

Geology: geology, petroleum geology, andhra pradesh india
petroleum geology, andhra pradesh india, structural geology: Vishnu, I am glad that instead of getting depressed you look for the alternatives. The best way to live! Structural Geology is increasingly playing an important role in petroleum industry. And it is obvious that as simple plays are decreasing with time...

Geology: geology, banaras hindu university, baroda university
banaras hindu university, baroda university, anna university chennai: Dear Sarvagya Thanks for your question. You are right now in one of the best institute in Geology, ie Banaras Hindu University, I had very good professors who have studied in BH when I studied at Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad.. So be assured that you are...

Geology: geology of chakwal, khewra, chakwal
khewra, chakwal, salt range: Azaz, Chakwal is located in East Potwar where the Paleocene unconformity has cut deeper so that the Hangu Formation (Dhak Pass Beds) directly overlie Early Cretaceous Lumshiwal Fm or further east even the Permian. The main reservoirs in the area are Sakesar...

Geology: geology of rajanpour, Sui Main Limestone
Sui Main Limestone: Azaz, You can find a paper on Block-22 that falls in Central Indus basin, in ATC 2008 Proceedings (p.153-170) by Moghal et al. This covers geology of Rajanpur area also. However, broad domal structures like Sui, Mari, Kandhkot-Qadirpur gas fields represent...

Geology: hydrogeology, seasonal variation, remedial measures
seasonal variation, remedial measures, question analysis: Dear MVS Reddy Thanks for your question, Analysis and interpretation of surface and ground water requires knowledge both in geology and chemistry. You should know the various components present in the water and also try to infer from where these components...

Geology: identify this rock, john farndon, minerals of the world
john farndon, minerals of the world, geology dept: Rick-USA you can rub/scratch yellow mineral on unglazed porcelain plate-If it gets golden yellow streak it is gold-If it gets grayish yellow streak it is chalco pyrite or pyrite U can seek more from USGS-or university geology dept Prof DVREDDY-NITK-INDI...

Geology: Kallar Kahar lake, kallar kahar, heavy rains
kallar kahar, heavy rains, evaporation: Jan, The only reason I can think is that the evaporation is higher than the water supply, unless a channel in the underlying sediments including salt has developed from where the water is draining out. If it is just evaporation then water supply to the...

Geology: Kallar Kahar, khewra salt mines, siwaliks
khewra salt mines, siwaliks, quaternary deposits: Jan, Kallar Kahar is located in NW of Khewra Salt Mines, and Siwaliks and quaternary deposits cover the area around Kallar Kahar. Kallar Kahar well-1 drilled through a thick Salt sequence.The Kallar Kahar Lake is probably located in the depression that...

Geology: what kind of rock is this?, mortar cement, track ballast
mortar cement, track ballast, silver minerals: Hi David, There are many kinds of silver minerals and it is difficult to tell one from another by just a picture. But I think I can tell what you have there. It looks like a metallic slag. That s the waste product left over after the smelting process....

Geology: What kind of rock?, quartz minerals, two round rocks
quartz minerals, two round rocks, quartz crystals: They look like they could be geodes. Geodes are infilling of voids in limestone or other rock, by quartz crystal growth. In some cases geodes are solid microcrystaline quartz marked with growth bands. Others are hollow and display nice quartz crystals....

Geology: Michigan petrified wood, gravel pits, geology departments
gravel pits, geology departments, michigan state university: Hi Scott, Sorry but I don t know of any sources of Michigan petrified wood. A search of the Net didn t turn up anything either but I do know that both Michigan State University and the University of Michigan have done studies on petrified wood in an effort...

Geology: Non-Metallic Minerals, non metallic minerals, metals
non metallic minerals, metals: Hi Kashif, Metallic and Non-metallic refer to ways that a mineral can be identified. They have to do with the way light is reflected off the mineral s surface. If it looks like a shiny coin then the mineral is said to be metallic. If it doesn t, then...

Geology: neutron log, CNL, porosity
CNL, porosity: Sadiq Memon CNL (compensated neutron) logs, also called neutron logs, determine porosity by assuming that the reservoir pore spaces are filled with either water, oil or gas and then measuring the amount of hydrogen atoms (neutrons) in the pores. Because...

Geology: Obsidien?, geology department, orange color
geology department, orange color, volcanic activity: Most likely these are by product of volcanic activity with glassy lustre (called OBSIDIEN). However, it would be too early to judge that without studying the sample. I suggest you take it to a geology department or a gemmalogist to make proper identification....

Geology: paleontology of nari formation and gaj formation, fossil assemblage, indus basin
fossil assemblage, indus basin, depositional environment: Marrium, I am sorry that in the first place I am not a paleontologist, secondly it s a very short notice for me to find out from the literature. From your subject matter I understand that Nari formation crops out at Cape Monze? - First describe the...

Geology: Is this petrified wood?, civil war artillery, lower chesapeake bay
civil war artillery, lower chesapeake bay, canon ball: James: I went to school in Norfolk. You say it has the weight of a rock. It looks like it is spalling, and from the scaling it might be a piece of rusting iron, or a clay concretion. Iron when submerged rusts and adjusts to the pressure at depth, as...

Geology: petrophysics, rock physics, reservoir characterization
rock physics, reservoir characterization, log analyst: Hi Hany, Yes, you are right. In order to work in integration field like reservoir characterization you need extensive knowledge in petrophysics, geology, geophysics and rock physics. Remember all these subjects are part of finding oil and gas, even if you...

Geology: question regarding geology, environmental geologists, petroleum geologists
environmental geologists, petroleum geologists, applied geology: Amiksha: I can t really make any recommendations. It depends alot on what you want to do, what aspect of geology your are studying. Not all fields of geology offer good opportunities for employment. Internships are usually only offered to those in very...

Geology: Regarding a Mechanical Engineering (BE) graduate joining for Mtech Petroleum Exploration, private sector industries, petroleum exploration
private sector industries, petroleum exploration, steel plants: REFER WEB SITE -IN GOOGLY Job Prospects & Career Options Mechanical Engineering finds applications in all fields of technology. They could work in many industries including private or public sector industries of various types, and their work varies by...

Geology: Reservoir Geology, john hazlewood, exploration geologist
john hazlewood, exploration geologist, possible career paths: Dear John, I have the least experience to explain this answer. However, I would only say a thing that since late 90s (or may be last 15 years), the service companies have really brought different people from various domain to one platform. Now a days in...

Geology: Stratigraphy of Lahore Region., stratigraphy, Lahore
stratigraphy, Lahore, Pakistan: Sultan Afzal, There is no deep drilling, in and around Lahore. However, the nearest 3 wells are: -Pabbi-1 (drilled at Pabbi anticline west of Jhelum): It was drilled to 3240 m and remained in Miocene (TD was in Murree Fm). -Warnali-1 and Lilla-1 were...

Geology: Subsurface geology, gravity anomalies, subsurface geology
gravity anomalies, subsurface geology, economic geology: Without significant research I can not answer this question. I have little doubt that there are methods and the first method that I would look at is Side Looking Radar . We used this method on the Arizona Strip to determine sulfide bodies over 2,000 feet...

Geology: silver rock, mortar cement, track ballast
mortar cement, track ballast, silver minerals: Hi David, Your picture didn t come through well so it s very hard to see anything, but I can make out something. There are many kinds of silver minerals and it is difficult to tell one from another by just a picture. But I think I can tell what you have...

Geology: silver rock, lead sulfide, silver rock
lead sulfide, silver rock, specific gravity: The picture is so dark that I can t tell you anything except that galena is a lead sulfide and in deposits it does have value but a small piece like you have does not. Galena is relatively soft at about the hardness of your fingernail and has a specific gravity...

Geology: stone - pebble or geode?, geology department, beige colour
geology department, beige colour, geodes: Hi Sue, Sounds like you have an interesting rock you there. That s a pretty fair description but without a picture it s very difficult to tell if you have a geode or not. However, we might be able to make a guess. You don t say where you got the stone;...

Geology: stratigraphic correlation, kohat, wadia
kohat, wadia, kashmir: Arshai Fatima, I suggest you go through the book on geology by Wadia that should be available in your library. You can then compare the rocks of same age to get an idea about the stratigraphic correlation between the two regions. Regret that I am not...

Geology: Thrust fault, thrust faults, fault geometry
thrust faults, fault geometry, normal faults: Muhammad, In extensional regime you may only find normal faults like a horst-graben geometry, where the base of horsts is broader than the top. Thrust faults are generally unlikely, but they may develop if the area is later subjected to even a short-lived...

Geology: What type of rock is this?, basal cleavage, phyllosilicate mineral
basal cleavage, phyllosilicate mineral, specific gravity: You might be able to get a few bucks at a rock shop but generally they want flat pieces. You may be old enough to remember when the see-through glasses of ovens and stoves was a little cloudy and didn t look like glass or plastic these were mica. Mica...

Geology: Valley in hot, Mountains are cold, Heat in the valleys and cold in mountains
Heat in the valleys and cold in mountains: Dear Shirley, I am not surprised to see your message and very interesting question, in fact its a very valid question. Let me tell you that I am not an expert of this subject; let me try to answer you. If you are not satisfied with my answer you can send...

Geology: Water problem, water well, drawdown
water well, drawdown, aquifer: Samad, As you know, when the water is pumped out an inverted cone is created in the well-bore with maximum depth close to the pump head. When this cone goes below the pumping head the water production stops. As the pump is shut down the water table again...

Geology: Water pumping, water well pumps, water discharges
water well pumps, water discharges, energy efficent: Ned: I am assuming that the pumps are simply pumping and the water discharges into a pond or artificial creek or something like that and so are just pumping continuously. Could your put some kind of pressure regulator on the pumps and pump to a holding...

Geology: weird rock, iron furnaces, furnace chamber
iron furnaces, furnace chamber, earths magnetic field: Nick: It is not a meteorite. You have a sample of vesicular iron. It could be magnetite. Magnetite is a form of iron usually used a ore that has its own magnetism, so repels other magnets. The holes are vesicles,pockets formed when the iron was molten,...

Geology: white stain on rock(s), capillary action, natural gases
capillary action, natural gases, coal gas: Cinnamint: Yes, if the white is an accumulation of salt, it will taste of salt or bitter. A slight touch of the tongue or moisten your finger touch it then taste your finger will tell you if it is a salt accumulation. The black carbon looking stuff...

Geology: Applications of gravity method at plate boundaries, gravity anomaly maps, application of gravity
gravity anomaly maps, application of gravity, gravity measurements: Haider: Are you speaking of gravity anomaly maps made from Satellite Altimetry, or more conventional gravity measurements? The former obviously allows us to see features underlying the oceans that heretofore were unknown. The latter might be more detailed...

Geology: absolute aging of rocks, datind, absolute age
datind, absolute age, rock layers: Hello Nicole, The absolute ages of a rock is always measured through radiometric dating. Several radiometric parent isotopes are used to date a rock e.g. potassium, thorium, uranium, carbon, argon, lead, and nitrogen are the most common. Regards, Farruk...

Geology: Which Career Combination to take?, rock and minerals, petroleum engineering
rock and minerals, petroleum engineering, core experience: Dear Edgar, I think I have responded you in your first question and this question is another follow up. Please let me know if my first answer does not satisfy you and then I can reply you again in your new question. My kindest regards Syed Tariq...

Geology: Which Career combination is better?, petroleum geologist, phd engineer
petroleum geologist, phd engineer, rig time: Edgar: The Petroleum Engineering path would probably be the best for the following reasons. You would come in at an entry level, but there are fewer P engineers than geologists. It may require travel and rig time so you need to weight that against your...

Geology: WHich career path is better?, petroleum geologists, petroleum geology
petroleum geologists, petroleum geology, rock and minerals: Edgar When I got out of school there were no jobs for petroleum Geology. I worked in many low paying jobs before getting a job in Hydrogeology. Since then the Oil market has seen at least 2 peaks and two bottoms. Now many petroleum geologists are out of work...

Geology: about career planing, petroleum geology, gelogy
petroleum geology, gelogy, structural geology: Sayed Mehmood Shah, Walaikumsalam You did not mention which branch of geology you plan to specialize. However, as I understand, you will be allotted an area for fieldwork by your teacher in your final year. Depending upon your subject you may have to...

Geology: dating of tafoni, zagros mts, natanz iran
zagros mts, natanz iran, salt weathering: Davood: Using your coordinates, I looked on Google earth, and it looks to me that the granite boulders you refer to come from the large granite mountain to the south west. Considering the drop in elevation from the mountain to the location of the boulders,...

Geology: Earth shifting, magnetic pole shift, southern atlantic anomaly
magnetic pole shift, southern atlantic anomaly, planets in the solar system: Hello Kagsabua, I think you found a wrong expert to answer to this question. Because I personally don t know who is right and who is wrong. The doomsday calculations are philosophical and based on many assumptions. On the other hand the astronomical calculations...

Geology: Earth structure, magnetic inclination, magnetic declination
magnetic inclination, magnetic declination, magnetic north pole: Sarwar: Quickly we are getting outside my area of expertise. Mag declination is simply the measure of the difference between the geographic north pole and the magnetic north pole. The magnetic pole wanders around, and we need to know how much so that...

Geology: Fault, types of faults, fault plane
types of faults, fault plane, hanging wall: Dear Nouman, the terms hanging wall and footwall came from mining. If you are standing in a mine along a fault plane the rock hanging above your head is hanging wall and the rocks at your feet belong to foot wall. Except the cases where the fault is...

Geology: Faults, foot wall, hanging wall
foot wall, hanging wall, faults: Nouman, Walaikassaalam Following is a simple definition: Rocks that are located below the fault plane make up the foot wall of a fault, and the block which lies above the fault plane is a hanging wall .Just make sketches of normal and a reverse...

Geology: Folds, anticline and syncline, plunging anticline
anticline and syncline, plunging anticline, axial plane: Nouman: The preferred terminology is dipping. The limbs of an anticline dip away from the axial plane of the fold. The axial plain also describes the strike of the fold. The limbs of a synclinal fold dip toward the axial plane. In an anticline...

Geology: Faults, foot wall
Geology: Faults, foot wall

Geology: Geology - Better direction, petroleum geology, engineering geologist
petroleum geology, engineering geologist, minimum guidance: Edgar, You are welcome. BHP of Australia is one I know that deals with both oil and gas and mineral prospects. Yes, it is prudent to continue with your core experience. However, your idea about Environmental Management (EM)is a practical one. HSE...

Geology: Geology - Masteral or Petroleum career path, education masters program, petroleum geology
education masters program, petroleum geology, petroleum exploration: Edgar, Thanks for interesting question and i think that my answer would not be straight forward nor my answer will be unique solution. Usually a person of your age and experience must have known their strengths and shortcomings very well and can judge himself...

Geology: geology, shear waves, centre of the earth
shear waves, centre of the earth, physicist: Hi Patrick, I don t really know answer of why but we do know that somewhere below the mantle the rocks are in fluid form because we do not experience shear waves on the other side of the earth as a result of an earthquake while we do experience compressional...

Geology: geology, insulation layer, temperature gradient
insulation layer, temperature gradient, centre of the earth: Patrick, As you know the original matter in the universe was extremely hot. The matter gradually cooled down to form the gigantic blobs of hot gas, and with further cooling the blobs shrunk to form the red-hot solid mass. With further cooling the outer...

Geology: geology, liquid outer core, iron composition
liquid outer core, iron composition, nickel iron: Hi Patrick, The center of the Earth is actually made up of two parts; a solid, metallic inner core and a liquid outer core. Both are of nickel/iron composition but the outer core is liquid because it is not under enough pressure to solidify. The inner core...

Geology: geophysics, project approach, job opening
project approach, job opening, first degree: Ana, These days oil companies encourage research projects on their data. For your research project, approach any oil company well in time. They do provide both the software and the classified data from their concessions. This will be an applied kind of...

Geology: Mierals and their geological setting, mineral calcite, homework question
mineral calcite, homework question, deposites: Kashif: Some of the minerals form in more than one setting. Quartz can form in igneous and sedimetary (marine (chert nodules) and terrestrial (mineralization replacement like petrified wood, and diagenisis of sediment, like quartz cementation) settings....

Geology: Minerals Identification, hand specimen, types of minerals
hand specimen, types of minerals, shiny appearance: Part of your study should be developing the knowledge to identify minerals in a hand specimen, perhaps with some minor magnification. Part of that process is understanding what minerals are likely to be found together in the sample based on what it is and...

Geology: Obsidian In Mid to North Michigan in the lower pennisula, copper mills, railroad ballast
copper mills, railroad ballast, peninsula michigan: Jessie, It has been about 2.5 billion years since there was a volcanic eruption in Michigan. Volcanic glass is very unstable and is generally transformed to crystalline rock in a million years or less. It is very unlikely that what you found is natural...

Geology: Pangea, 100 million years, proterozoic
100 million years, proterozoic, supercontinent: Hi Ali, Pangea began forming about 306 million years ago, and broke up about 200 million years ago. There are thought to be many consolidations and breakups the earliest we are sure of is the supercontinent called Rodinia. It started forming about 1,100...

Geology: Pangea, Pangaea, Pannotia
Pangaea, Pannotia, Rodinia: Ali, The following I have downloaded from Wikipedia. If you browse through internet you would easily find answers to so many of your other queries. Hope it provides full answer about Pangaea, otherwise you get more information as mentioned above. The...

Geology: Rare Earth occurences, powder river basins, rare earth elements
powder river basins, rare earth elements, powder river basin: Alan, Rare Earth Elements are not very rare. They are found in many rock types across the globe in trace amounts. Economic concentrations of REEs, like all ore deposits, are not common. Ore grade REE occurrences are found in very unusual rocks called...

Geology: Renewable energy, cruising sail boats, geothermal area
cruising sail boats, geothermal area, storage batteries: Jane: What are you powering? Your home? First you have to understand the basics. Solar and wind are used to charge storage batteries. A solar array and wind mill both have disadvantages and advantages. The solar array is limited to periods of available...

Geology: ROCK/FOSSIL ID, drainage ditch, digging a ditch
drainage ditch, digging a ditch, stone quarry: Evelyn: I am honestly stumped. I would guess that this is some sort of igneous rock at first glance and the goofy shapes are some mineral that forms when the temperature and pressure in the magma are just right (which would go along with all the quartz...

Geology: Rock, dark volcanic rock, empty holes
dark volcanic rock, empty holes, rock hammer: Hi Ellie, Interesting specimen you have there. It s a very good picture but I am not sure of its size. Since you are thinking of Geology, and you already are a good photographer, next time you take a rock pic put something in the frame with it. Normally...

Geology: Rock to know, petrified wood, question thanks
petrified wood, question thanks, second image: Hi again Altaf, I m glad you had the time to check out the images I mentioned. The new pic you sent still looks like petrified wood. The images I directed you to might not look exactly like your rock, but I have seen many examples and I still believe that...

Geology: repositioning my career, mud logging, mba marketing
mud logging, mba marketing, petroleum technology: Busari, Thanks. I do not know what field you are in. However, I have noted that unless you obtain a full-fledged degree, the courses do not really help to boost your career. For example you do an MBA (Marketing etc)in evening classes that will add...

Geology: Stratigraphi, fields of geology, mineralogists
fields of geology, mineralogists, rock layers: Stratigraphy, to me, is one of hte most important fields of geology. Stratigraphers have to be paleontologists, mineralogists, sedimentologists and more. We have to be able to look at a rock in outcrop and develop and understanding of its genensis based...

Geology: silver rock, mortar cement, track ballast
mortar cement, track ballast, silver minerals: Hi Shannon, There are many kinds of silver minerals and it is difficult to tell what you have without a picture. But it is most probable that you have slag . That s the waste product left over after the smelting process. Slag can be glassy or metallic,...

Geology: straange...!1, geologist job, luck mike
geologist job, luck mike, global economy: Iqbal j, I know it can be discouraging but do not give up. The oil industry employees mos geologists and many of them are being let go right now do to oil prices and global economy - so you have much competition whether you want to work in oil or not. When...

Geology: Temperature of Chilean mine, geothermal gradient, copper ions
geothermal gradient, copper ions, northern andes: Paul: The change in tempertures within a given area of the Earth is called the geothermal gradient, and it can vary considerably from one are to the next. Generally, the temperature in a cavern or cave is equal to the mean average temperature at the surface....

Geology: Are training effective for hiring?, southeast asia area, petroleum training
southeast asia area, petroleum training, bachelors of science: Edgar: These courses might help you land a job as an entry level technician on a rig or working for a service company, or potentially in an office doing geotechnical work. They will not land you a job as a geologist or geophysicist which requires a Bachelors...

Geology: Calcite and calcium carbonate, calcite crystals, calcium carbonate
calcite crystals, calcium carbonate, aglomeration: Calcite is a mineral. It is the stable polymorph of CaCO3 which is calcium carbonate. There are other forms of calcium carbonate as well, Aragonite and vaterite, but they change forms at high temperatures so we do not see them in natural conditions as they...

Geology: Career Question, petroleum geologist, petroleum geology
petroleum geologist, petroleum geology, petroleum engineer: Andrew, Firstly, my sincere apologies for delayed answer as I was in the middle of hectic travelling schedule. I tend to agree with your understanding in general that bachelors in the petroleum engineering is considered ample to start the career. However,...

Geology: Carrier path, environmental science degree, oversight work
environmental science degree, oversight work, grunt work: Shawn: You had me confused for a second. The spelling is career, not carrier. Actually, the career route is opposite of what you suggest. The consultants do all the grunt work. You will have to pay your dues in the field first, work your way up to...

Geology: The difference between petroleum geoscience and Exploration geology, petroleum geoscience, geoscience job
petroleum geoscience, geoscience job, exploration geology: Dear Steve, Without looking at the details I cannot judge about the content taught in the course. Petroleum geoscience sounds like a lot more associated to petroleum industry. If it covers the geophysics part at least for a little than I would recommend...

Geology: drilling, electrochemical behavior, mud systems
electrochemical behavior, mud systems, resistivity measurement: Dear Apanda Thanks for your question The effects of the KCl-based drilling mud on electric logs were of particular concern because of the relatively high invasion profile. A principal aim of well logging is to provide quantitative information about porosity...

Geology: Expert Advice, petroleum geology, petroleum engineering
petroleum geology, petroleum engineering, nitk: Andrews Petroleum geology comes under earth sciences-geological field Petroleum engineering comes under engineering requires basic degree in engineering civil-mining-chemical etc These courses offering in postgraduate level-Any way search more on web site...

Geology: earth sciences, oil, porous
oil, porous, impervious: Because oil travels through porous rock and not impervious rock. Examples of porous rock are limestone and sandstone. Examples of impervious rock are salt and shale. Tectonic movements cause deformation and faulting in oil bearing sedimentary rocks. Where...

Geology: Geo Marketing Jobs, gas exploration company, oil and gas exploration
gas exploration company, oil and gas exploration, geo marketing: Dear Balaram, I would suggest that you should get your foot in Oil and Gas Service companies like Schlumberger, Weatherford, RPC etc. which have a widespread network and a lot of possibilities. This will allow you to market as well as use your geological...

Geology: Geochemistry, mantle convection, kimberlite pipes
mantle convection, kimberlite pipes, isotopic ratios: For one, Eclogite is more rare than Peridotite. Peridotite is the predominant rock of the upper mantle, whereas Eclogite is thought formed from subducted basalts and gabbros along suduction plate boundaries. It is also present in kimberlite pipes as xenoliths....

Geology: gelogy, lava domes, lava dome
lava domes, lava dome, gelogy: Dear Mary Thanks for your question, Rhyolitic magma normally create a eruption of high-silica lava Felsic lavas (dacites or rhyolites) tend to be highly viscous (not very fluid) and are erupted as domes or short, stubby flows. The effects of such type...

Geology: Hydrology, soil retention, agriculture sector
soil retention, agriculture sector, nitk: Hydrology involves hydro logic cycle-mainly concentrates on surface water-stream flow -runoff -infiltration etc Agriculture requires hydro logic characters of soils-water system -inflTRATION capacity of soils-soil retention capacity etc Kindly read basic...

Geology: islands, rock minerals, volcanic lava
rock minerals, volcanic lava, universal solvent: Harry: The soil and sediment, (my professor use to say dirt was what you washed from your cloths, but soil, was the basis of all life as we know it since without it there would be no plants) come from a process called weathering. Lava, is an extrusive...

Geology: Minerals, river zinc, geological activities
river zinc, geological activities, elemental silver: Hi Madeline, Your question could be taken a couple of ways. I will assume that you are asking what the host rock of silver ore normally is. Silver is predominantly found in hydrothermal deposits. That means that hot to super hot groundwater both dissolved...

Geology: Mining - Geology. Introduction and Resources, geology courses, colorado school of mines
geology courses, colorado school of mines, geology degree: Iron ores are widely distributed and are formed under many conditions. Iron is found in large amounts in many igneous rocks, some of which are rich iron ores. Some sedimentary rocks also are rich enough to mine for iron, and many rocks, sedimentary and igneous...

Geology: MSC SEISMOLOGY, exploration geophysics, assalam
exploration geophysics, assalam, seismology: Dear Umar, AOA It s very nice that you are searching about the subject before starting your MSc. I would suggest to go with MSc geophysics if the option is available as it might have a broader appeal having math and physics as background. Seismology...

Geology: Petroleum system, petroleum migration, migration pathways
petroleum migration, migration pathways, petroleum system: Dear Ayad, Although I do not know any specifics about Iraq but overall in order to learn a petroleum system you have to recognise and learn a few things. 1- Source rocks and their ages 2- Capacity of the source rocks to produce oil and gas and the timing...

Geology: Petrology, alkali feldspar, mineral assemblage
alkali feldspar, mineral assemblage, microscopic crystals: Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic (extrusive) rock, of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically 69% SiO2 — see the TAS classification). It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic. The mineral assemblage is usually quartz, alkali feldspar...

Geology: Rock, mortar cement, track ballast
mortar cement, track ballast, silver minerals: Hi Caleb, There are many kinds of silver minerals and it is difficult to tell one from another by just a picture. But I think I can tell what you have there. It looks like a metallic slag. That s the waste product left over after the smelting process....

Geology: what rocks are these, agate geode, gypsum crystals
agate geode, gypsum crystals, mindat org: Hi Amanda, Nice minerals you have there. Your pictures are pretty clear and I think I can identify them for you. 1, 2, 3, and 6 are varieties of agate; that s a microcrystalline variety of quartz. Quartz is a mixture of silicon and oxygen and is usually...

Geology: Sequence Stratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy
sequence stratigraphy: Mushtaq, In my answer I had avoided to use the word unconformity, but it provides a major time line as the area gets exposed and remains as such for a variable length of time. An unconformity can be considered as opposite to the maximum flooding (MF). Off...

Geology: sedimentology, sedimentology
sedimentology: Shabeer, Compared to a geologist who describes lithology, thicknesses, distribution, stratigraphy and structure, generally in the field, a sedimentologist goes in micro-details of grain size and shape, cementation, diagenesis effects, texture, sorting etc...

Geology: structural geology, correlation maps, hydrocarbon exploration
correlation maps, hydrocarbon exploration, geothermal gradient: Dear Faiz, Thanks for your question Three conditions must be present for oil reservoirs to form: a source rock rich in hydrocarbon material buried deep enough for subterranean heat to cook it into oil; a porous and permeable reservoir rock for it to accumulate...

Geology: structural geology, oilfield glossary, salt domes
oilfield glossary, salt domes, structural geology: Hello Faiz Structural geology controls where hydrocarbons are found. Traps are formed when impermeable strata overly a hydrocarbon reservoir. Anticlines and salt domes are two good examples of traps. Faults can form traps if the conditions are right. ...

Geology: structural geology, petroleum reservoirs, geologists tools
petroleum reservoirs, geologists tools, structural geology: Structural geology is necessary to be able to explain and predict the formation of structural traps that form petroleum reservoirs. It allows the geologist to explain the forces that formed the structure and predict the possible occurence of structures in...

Geology: Where to study Engineering Geology MSc in Europe?, chalmers university of technology, queen mary college
chalmers university of technology, queen mary college, geology applications: Dear Stefan, good career oriented question. In my view, Queen Mary College of Geomaterials UK is most suited for engineering Geology applications in Construction industry. For general MSc in Engg geology there are atleast 25 + universities in UK alone. there...

Geology: troposphere, Troposphere
Troposphere: Zeid, The thicker troposphere at equatorial regions compared to poles is a function of temperature. As you know the temperatures are higher in equatorial regions and much colder in the polar regions. The higher temperatures in equatorial regions warm the...

Geology: troposphere, water vapors, altitude increases
water vapors, altitude increases, aerosols: Dear Zeid, I will keep it short and simple. The troposphere is dependent on temperature and pressure. Just remember the relationships: 1- The temperature of the troposphere decreases as altitude increases Because of drop in temperature (or simply...

Geology: troposphere, equator 2, meteorological event
equator 2, meteorological event, generic answer: This is not really a geology question but I will try to give you a very generic answer. There are two reasons the the tropospheric is thinner at the poles: 1) Temperature - the temperature is a factor relieve to any meteorological event. The temperature...

Geology: Zircon dating, accessory minerals, ernest rutherford
accessory minerals, ernest rutherford, isotopic ratio: Michael: Zircon has always been the mineral of choice, since the advent of Uranium Lead isotopic ratio dating. It is the mineral of choice because of its survivability. It has been found to be the oldest mineral on earth due to its resistance to weathering....

Geology: 10 current big oil and gas fields of pakistan, Current big Oil and Gas fields, Pakistan
Current big Oil and Gas fields, Pakistan: Yasir, The first column shows the original reserves, while the last column (Balance reserves) will tell you the current situation. All of these fields are on production. This is the reserve situation as of 2009. Field Oi / Condensate Gas...

Geology: Choti Well-SML, SML, Choti-1 well
SML, Choti-1 well, Laki: Sajjad, West of Sulaiman deep lies Sulaiman Range, where Early Eocene (Ypresian) is represented by the Shaheed Ghat shales (new name for Ghazij shales), which directly overlie the Dunghan limestone. Any Eocene carbonate (Laki or SML) is not present in the...

Geology: Development Advice, colorado school of mines, gold vein
colorado school of mines, gold vein, part time employment: The Colorado School of Mines already has a mine in Idaho Springs. The mine is called the Edgar and is used by students to learn underground mapping and core drilling but yes that is a wonderful thought. I ran a gold mine named the Bessie-G west of Durango...

Geology: d interior of the earth, earths structure, uk earth
earths structure, uk earth, center of the earth: Hi Abisola, What you studied is true; as you go deeper the ambient temperature does rise, to 5,000-6,000 degrees Centigrade at the Earth s center. So you would think that things should be well and truly melted. But what complicates it is, pressure also...

Geology: Earthquakes, glacial rebound
glacial rebound: Dear Sophie, You are right that the earthquakes are mostly along the plate edges. In the center of the plates there may be isostatic rebound. Isostatic rebound mainly happend when after the last ice age the glaciers receded. The plates were pressed under...

Geology: earthquakes, seismic body waves, liquid outer core
seismic body waves, liquid outer core, solids and liquids: Dear gani sravani Thanks for your feed back, You can refer following books and also any books that you find in your library. You can also consult the reference cited in the books 1.Principles of seismology by Agustín Udías Vallina 2. Applied Seismology:...

Geology: Future of geothermal energy, feldspar minerals, hot water heater
feldspar minerals, hot water heater, geothermal energy systems: Kevin: As is always the case, it is a matter of cost or cost effectiveness. So long as other energy sources are cheaper, geothermal does not stand to be economic. When talking about Geothermal you need to distinguish if you are talking about commercial...

Geology: GeoEngineering or Environmental Geology, onetcenter org, bls gov
Geology: GeoEngineering or Environmental Geology, onetcenter org, bls gov, remediation firm

Geology: Geology Of bitrism Block, e mail adress, ms thesis
Geology: Geology Of bitrism Block, e mail adress, ms thesis

Geology: fossils, petroleum geologists, one hundred years
petroleum geologists, one hundred years, ancient environments: Phil, Fossils are used in the oil and gas industry to determine the age of the rocks that are penetrated during exploration and production drilling. The small marine creatures that constantly rain down on the sea floor after they die serve as a sort of...

Geology: G&G Sofwares, exploration geophysicist, geoframe
exploration geophysicist, geoframe, sofwares: Sajjad: I worked on GeoFrame for a number of years. I switched companies in 2002. At that time development of GeoFrame has essentally ceased. They have only done bug fixes and not much else. A lot of my former team were the last people working on GeoFrame...

Geology: Geochemical fingerprinting, permian extinction, element iridium
permian extinction, element iridium, mass extinctions: Tom, The concept of geochemical fingerprinting is based on a comparison of naturally occurring elements, chemical compounds, or isotopes in one sample versus another. Trace elements within rocks or minerals can sometimes be used to link a sample to its...

Geology: GeoEngineering or Environmental Geology, health services field, piles of money
health services field, piles of money, environmental geology: Rachel: Like the name, I guess it goes back to the crush I had on Rachel Ward back in the 80 s. As a great baseball player once said, If you see a fork in the road, take it. All kidding aside, I get a lot of questions about this kind of thing and...

Geology: Geologic Time Scale, geologic time scale, minerology
geologic time scale, minerology, john dear: Dear John, I am not sure if I am answering to your question adequately. But I think you are suggesting to use a term that is understandable according to you. I think in Geology, we normally use a standard term i.e. Geochronologic scale. The age of a rock...

Geology: Geologic time Scale, global climate change, inventor of the internet
global climate change, inventor of the internet, age of the earth: If the age of the earth is represented by the twelve hours on a clock, then modern man s existence is represented by the last second before midnight, 11:59:59. So by this, you can see that in the span of geologic time, we are insignificant. We are at the...

Geology: Geological Basins of Pakistan, Sedimentary basins of Pakistan, flooding
Sedimentary basins of Pakistan, flooding, Jhelum river: Hafeez, Thanks. With reference to your involvement in hydrology you may also like to refer the book Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan by Kazmi and Jan (1997). A good 65 pages cover hydrological aspects of the country.I would also like to share with you...

Geology: Geology Of bitrism Block, Lower Goru, Badin area
Lower Goru, Badin area, report writing: Zeeshan, Walaikassalam I do not have much of a specific information on the block. The general information about stratigraphy (Lower Goru as a reservoir, Sembar as source rock), (intra-formational shales of Lower Goru as seal, structural style (horst/graben)...

Geology: Geology Related, petroleum geology, subjects
petroleum geology, subjects: Ali, I am glad that you have planned a nice career for you. Priority-wise - 1. Physics and Maths, 2. Physics and Chemistry. It is now your choice, both are suitable. Meanwhile you should go for GRE. As you intend to go abroad endeavor to improve your...

Geology: Geology and Tectonics, historical geology, kazmi
historical geology, kazmi, extensive reading: Jahangir, Your thirst of learning can only be catered through extensive reading of the books on the subject of Geology. Following books are helpful: 1. Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan by Kazmi & Jan (1997). 2. Stratigraphy and historical Geology...

Geology: Global seismology, global seismology, unstable slopes
global seismology, unstable slopes, stiff springs: Kevin: Seismologists likely are in all those places. However, there is absolutely no way to predict when an earthquake is going to occur with any degree of precision. Remember that San Francisco in this country was struck during the World Series in 1989....

Geology: Growth, reservoir characterization, rock physics
reservoir characterization, rock physics, scope of work: Dear Sajjad, Every geophysicist have his or her own pace in learning and it also depends upon the environment of work. After few years of experience as geophysicist one should look for more understanding of geology and broaden the knowledge by getting involved...

Geology: geology, geology science
geology science : Dear Faiz, Good career related question. Firstly, I must tell you that its not the subject, but your excellence in it, which opens the doors of good job opportunities for you. For example, I know several medical graduate who are barely making their living...

Geology: geophysics, earthquake seismology, geophysicist
earthquake seismology, geophysicist, geophysics: Dear Saad, That is a very good plan. I would like to know why do you like geophysics and other question is how much you like it. Geophysics is a very specialized subject and largely only applies to oil and gas industry with smaller number of research fields...

Geology: geophysics, Geophysics
Geophysics: Saad, Walaikassalam Are you in 2nd year of intermediate or Geology? If you are in college then take good care of maths and physics, and off course good results. If you are in 2nd year of BS, then after completing it you will have to take admission in...

Geology: geophysics, Geophysics
Geophysics: Saad, The answer is same as before. You have got good marks, and particularly in maths and physics. You are a good candidate to pursue Geophysics. Check the Quaid-e-Azam Univ. website. Apply there, and you are likely to get the admission. In petroleum...

Geology: H2S-Water Flushed structures, H2S in oil and gas, Potwar oilfileds with H2S
H2S in oil and gas, Potwar oilfileds with H2S: Dear Sajjad, There are many oil fields in Potwar (Meyal, Dakhni, Pariwali, Balkassar, Joya mair) and Sui gas field in Marri Bugti area where higher content of H2S have been found in the hydrocarbon. All these reservoirs are carbonates. Hydrogen sulfide...

Geology: Help about books., geology books for beginners
geology books for beginners: Dear Hasan, Thanks for your question and I appreciate your interest in Geology. Following books are useful for the beginners. 1) Principles of Physical Geology by Arthur Holmes; Nelson , London 1965. 2) Basin Analysis Philip A. Allen and John R...

Geology: HRL as Source Rock, Habib Rahi, source rock
Habib Rahi, source rock, hydrocarbon migration: Sajjad, I know the location of Choti-1, and what was drilled in the well. But I have no information about the type of trap and the petrophysical characteristics of the 428 m of carbonates recognized as SML. West of the well, in the Sulaiman Range, we find...

Geology: Mineral, mineral quartz, softer than quartz
mineral quartz, softer than quartz, clue: Randy, I really can t make much sense out of what I see in the image and knowing that it is softer than quartz is a slim clue at best. Every thing that we own has a story behind it. You have developed a bond with this unusual object. Tell me its story...

Geology: mineral ID, mineral pyrite, scratch test
mineral pyrite, scratch test, driftless region: Hi again Dave, Glad the last answer helped. The image you sent does not look like a meteorite to me but I do see what looks like a greenish-gold coloration at the pointed end that is oriented away from the quarter. Couple that with your description that...

Geology: OilGasBadin-AxialBelt, source rock, Axial belt Pakistan and petroleum prospecctivity
source rock, Axial belt Pakistan and petroleum prospecctivity: Dear Sajjad, Thanks for your continuous volley of question; I appreciate for your interest in the subject. You are always welcome with your questions. The axial belt is a north-south trending mountain belt, comprising of Kirthar Belt (southern part)...

Geology: OilGasBadin-AxialBelt, Type II and III source kerogen in Indus Basin
Type II and III source kerogen in Indus Basin: Dear Sajjad, The generation and subsequent production of oil or gas depend upon the following key factors 1) Amount of Organic carbon: source rock should have at least or more than 1 % of rock weight. Organic matter can be classified into two major...

Geology: Open-pit mining and water pollution, sulfide minerals, open pit mining
sulfide minerals, open pit mining, canadian mining company: First, my apologies for the late reply. I was away for a week and had limited internet access. Based on your description of the situation I think that careful study of the hydrologic conditions and modeling of future conditions will be needed to satisfy...

Geology: Pabi Hills, Pabbi hill, bottom seal
Pabbi hill, bottom seal, lateral seal: Sajjad, Walaikassalam, Pabbi Hill: On this large surface structure, Shell drilled a wild-cat Pabbi-1 in 1983. The well was drilled to a TD of 3240 m in Murree Formation where a thrust was interpreted to be present. It was anticipated that the second...

Geology: Petroleum Geology, university of the punjab lahore pakistan, king saud university riyadh
university of the punjab lahore pakistan, king saud university riyadh, petroleum geology: Dear Nisar Ahamed, Thanks for your question and happy to know that you have done your course from University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan & specialization in “Petroleum Geology and Sedimentology”. You can try to pursue your higher studies in your own...

Geology: Petroleum Geology, scholarships, foreign admissions
scholarships, foreign admissions: Nisar, The best way for you is to use Web/Net for the purpose. There are opportunities available. But I know that opportunities for scholarship are based on offers made by our government through advertisements and through competition. Or your University...

Geology: Petroleum Geology, university of the punjab lahore pakistan, graduate record exams
university of the punjab lahore pakistan, graduate record exams, petroleum geology: Nisar: There are probably more than I can count, and each one has many sub categories and facets that one could persue in doing research. Here are but a few: Invertibrate Paleontology related to petroleum Exploration Stratigraphy Structural Geology...

Geology: Petroleum Geology, university of the punjab lahore pakistan, petroleum geology
university of the punjab lahore pakistan, petroleum geology, colorado school of mines: Dear Nisar, Although there are a lot of good institutions in US and Canada, some of them are prohibitively expensive and rarely give scholarships. Colorado School of Mines and University of Texas at Austin are the one come to mind for Petroleum Geology....

Geology: petrified wood found in opencast coal mine, coal india ltd, nitk surathkal
coal india ltd, nitk surathkal, india geology: Dear Samit You are miming engineer knows about mining geology.Coal formation due to bio-geochemical process of vegetal matter- Some tress/ undergone petrification process You can sent to coal India Geology division or report to concerned geologist-You can...