About Experts Sitemap - Group 35 - Page 11 2015-05-05

Metallurgy: TTT DIAGRAM, heat treatment of metals, avner
Metallurgy: TTT DIAGRAM, heat treatment of metals, avner

Metallurgy: what types of materials uses, n heat treatment process uses in producing a railroad wheels?, railroad wheels
Metallurgy: what types of materials uses, n heat treatment process uses in producing a railroad wheels?, railroad wheels

Metallurgy: Welding question, flat position, electrode
Metallurgy: Welding question, flat position, electrode, amps

Metallurgy: weldability of 304 and 316 SS, carbon alloys, corrosion problems
Metallurgy: weldability of 304 and 316 SS, carbon alloys, corrosion problems, stainless steels

Metallurgy: welding alloyed white cast iron, acetylene torch, filler metal
Metallurgy: welding alloyed white cast iron, acetylene torch, filler metal, white iron

Metallurgy: Yield Strength, strength thanks, yield strength
Metallurgy: Yield Strength, strength thanks, yield strength, relationship

Metallurgy: fatigue, fatigue cracks, fatigue failure
fatigue cracks, fatigue failure, term fatigue: I am going to refer to Materials Science and Engineering, an Introduction, 5th edition by W.D. Callister Jr., pages 209-225. I will sumarize here. Fatigue is a form of failure that occurs in structures subjected to dynamic and fluctuating stresses (e.g....

Metallurgy: flat blanks/brushed stainless, selection criterion, grade steel
selection criterion, grade steel, burrs: Flat blanks is a description of the type of cutting the material went through. Blanking is basically where a part is cut between and punch and die in a press. The extra term flat simply means that the edges where the part was cut are flat (i.e. don t have...

Metallurgy: About my future, michigan tech university, colorado school of mines
michigan tech university, colorado school of mines, doctorate level: Dear M. Mozammel; I am afraid that I don t know many folks in that field. I am a physical metallurgist but did attend Michigan Tech University and Colorado School of Mines where there are many process metallurgy people but I have not kept up with them. ...

Metallurgy: Galvanizes steel corrugated sheet, sheet steels, galvanized sheet
sheet steels, galvanized sheet, corrugated sheet: Good morning; I don t have an great amount of experience with galvanized sheet steels but my guess is that it refers to either the coating thickness or the mechanical propeties of the sheet. Different suppliers and producers have thier own labeling so this...

Metallurgy: GOLD!, fire and brimstone, aqua regia
fire and brimstone, aqua regia, scrap gold: Actually, there are some very good schools, depending on where you are located. Missouri, Nevada, California, New Mexico, Arizona and Utah all have extremely good schools available. Do you want to go with a pyrometallurgical (furnace, fire and brimstone...

Metallurgy: Gold and aluminium seperation, dangerous combinations, aluminum base
dangerous combinations, aluminum base, carbitol: Hi Russ, The separation of gold and aluminum is largely trivial. The reason that there is not more information on it on the web is that the processes and materials involved can be hazardous, even lethal, and many people, being leary of law suits, etc....

Metallurgy: Gold Extraction, california gold country, gravity separation
california gold country, gravity separation, visible pieces: Do you have a good furnace available? If so you might want to consider a lead / zinc separation. You can get all of the gold into the zinc, which is easily separated using HCl. This is an old method, but works very well. Lead does not present much of...

Metallurgy: Gold Refining Problem, coal kiln, small coal
coal kiln, small coal, air pockets: Good morning Waheed; I am a physical metallurgist with very limited background in processing but if I am hearing you correctly the problem you have is the bubbles remaining in the water bucket. It appears the bubbles are remaining in suspension or sticking...

Metallurgy: Grain size and Lattice Spacing, dimensional arrays, unit cells
dimensional arrays, unit cells, space lattice: Hi Jason, Lattice spacing is a characteristic of any crystaline material. There is no relationship between grain size and lattice spacing. The symmetry observed in crystals as exhibited by their crystal faces is due to the ordered internal arrangement of...

Metallurgy: gold, gold question, leaching process
gold question, leaching process, approximate percentage: Melting is probably not the answer. Most such gold is plated on the surface and is amenable to a mild leaching process, which is a lot cheaper, less dangerous, and largely non-polluting. Do you have access to chemicals, etc? I have processed a lot of this...

Metallurgy: gold casting, plaster of paris, turbine blades
plaster of paris, turbine blades, automobile engine: In general, the plaster used in gold investment casting is standard plaster of paris or other such material, it has a fine but inconsistent grain size and, for the most part, water based. The other parts you mentioned are generally a higher precision, and...

Metallurgy: gold dental fillings, dental fillings, platinum content
dental fillings, platinum content, aqua regia: Sorry for the delayed response, I have been doing field work away from my office. You certainly have enough material to make a separation worthwhile. Since you are a chemist, you are likely to be familiar with organic separations. Extremely pure gold, .9999999...

Metallurgy: gold recovery, sodium chloride solution, mercury cathode
sodium chloride solution, mercury cathode, graphite plate: Hi, An interesting collection of questions, is the mercury being mixed directly with the fine ore? A centrifugal system would certainly separate the mercury assuming you could maintain a fluidized bed and that there were not large differences in the sizes...

Metallurgy: gold reduction, stannous chloride, gold purity
stannous chloride, gold purity, metal ions: It really does not matter the concentration of gold in the DBC, it will respond well to very small concentrations or it will generally load up at about 25 grams of gold in a liter of DBC, this does not present a problem, as the DBC is completely re-useable,...

Metallurgy: gold reduction, copper anode, aqua regia
copper anode, aqua regia, alka seltzer: Your method is fine, but a couple of details might be helpful. You do not have to use full strength aqua regia, I use 50% with DI water quite successfully. You need to be careful to let the leaching solution stand on the slimes for long enough to be effective,...

Metallurgy: gold refining, ingot mold, mercury gold
ingot mold, mercury gold, homestake mine: You are very much on the right track. Before proceeding, however, are these samples of metal natural or man-made? If they are natural, they may be of considerable value, far beyond the gold content. Is the silvery metal soluble in nitric? If it is mercury,...

Metallurgy: gold in a true ounce, ounce of gold, troy ounce
ounce of gold, troy ounce, ounces in a pound: Hi James, It seems that what you want to know is troy ounce not true ounce. troy ounce defined by the troy system of mass. In troy weight, there are 12 ounces in a pound, and a troy pound is 5760 grains (about 373.24 g), rather than 7000 (about 453.59 g)....

Metallurgy: gold work hardening, tombs of egypt, gold alloys
tombs of egypt, gold alloys, electrical stress: Pure gold will not work harden. High quality gold found in the tombs of Egypt show no evidence of hardening. Alloys are different. Work hardening is caused by the restructuring if the crystal structure within the metal in such a way as to modify its parameters....

Metallurgy: gold, native elements, mineral processing
native elements, mineral processing, revers: Mimi; I am sorry but I am a little unclear about what you are asking. If you are looking to prospect for gold than panning is by far the least expensive. Since gold is heavier than most native elements found in the rivers it is best to let gravity do the...

Metallurgy: Hammer Isolation, fool proof method, blacksmith shop
fool proof method, blacksmith shop, dirt floor: That may work, but a more fool proof method would be making the buffer layer out of marble. About a 6 thick layer of marble is very useful in isolating vibrations from sensitive equipment, so it would more than work for your application if its plausible...

Metallurgy: Heat affected zone in a weld, heat affected zone, input position
heat affected zone, input position, welding technique: Hi Gopakumar Heat affected zone is measured regarding the microstructure changes in the weld. For example in steels this is the area around the weld zone which has undegone a transformation. In other words this is the area which had been austenitized. For...

Metallurgy: Heat Treat Requirements, rockwell c, carbon grades
rockwell c, carbon grades, heat treat: Bill; A 1/2 round 1060 as-quenched in oil should get you about 59 HRC at the surface. I believe that the smaller diameter 1065 would get you into the 60 plus HRC range on the surface if quenched in oil. It would also get you a core about 10 points lower....

Metallurgy: Heat Treatment of 316L Stainless Steel, stainless cylinder, cylinder life
stainless cylinder, cylinder life, two occasions: The process sounds fine. My guess would be that some material with a heavy oil coated is being run prior to your material and is leaving a caked contaminated that is then burned onto your material. I would ask your heat treater to thoroughly clean the coils...

Metallurgy: Heat transfer ratios, heat transfer characteristics, stainless steel 316l
heat transfer characteristics, stainless steel 316l, frozen food products: Yes, that makes sense. If you look closely at the slush machines in convenience stores as well as the juice holding pitchers in restaurant buffets you will notice a metal core. It is cooled and removes heat from the container. If the radius of the container...

Metallurgy: Heat transfer ratios, frozen food products, sacrificial anodes
frozen food products, sacrificial anodes, titanium alloys: I have no idea about the alloy frozen food trays are made of. However, I do know that you need an alloy capable of getting passivated (so that it does not corrode in corrosive environments) at the same time that has a good thermal conductivity. I can only...

Metallurgy: hardening, hardenability, critical temperature
hardenability, critical temperature, steels: It is the ability of a metal to become hard (and inevitably brittle) under a given cooling rate. Therefore, the higher the hardenability of an alloy, the lower the cooling rate required to harden the metal. We have more heard about the hardenability in steels...

Metallurgy: hardness, steel rollers, hard as steel
steel rollers, hard as steel, spring pressure: Aluminum, while it is incredible for some applications due to it being light weight, is a very soft and weak metal. There really isn t any way to get it any where near the hardness of steel. What people are doing for applications requiring light weight,...

Metallurgy: heat treatement of steel, chemical composition, heat treatment
chemical composition, heat treatment, steels: The difference in chemical composition and/or cross section of your parts is probably the reason for such scatter. The hardening and tempering temperatures in steels are functions of their chemical composition. If you are sure they are of the same composition,...

Metallurgy: heat treating, metal bender, metal pins
metal bender, metal pins, steel pins: First of all, make sure you have carefully read the instructions on your bender s catalogue and then check if you are bending mild steel. I suppose there is nothing you can do to solve this problem since as far as I know, pins in such application are heat...

Metallurgy: hi pops!, three rivers, dr bob
three rivers, dr bob, fun time: Well hello to you to; This was a bit of a suprise. Notice the quick response. Hope you are having a fun time at school, it does sound like you are. Now this is the first time I have ever said this on this service, but I love you. Take care and I ll...

Metallurgy: high temperature alloys, platinum group metals, rare earth metals
platinum group metals, rare earth metals, temperature alloys: Hi, There are literally thousands of high temperature alloys. Many are iron based, others are titanium based, and still others use more exotic metals such as rhenium, the platinum group metals, and others. Chromium, tantalum, palladium, manganese and beryllium,...

Metallurgy: Ieon ore/phosphorus, bessemer converter, phosphorus content
bessemer converter, phosphorus content, cast irons: Sidney Gilchrist Thomas (1850–1885) was an English metallurgist who, in 1879, solved the problem of removing phosphorus from pig iron by using a magnesia lining instead of silica in the Bessemer converter. The steel produced from phosphoric ores (such as most...

Metallurgy: what is Iron Ferrite, what..., radio frequency electronics, rf radio frequency
radio frequency electronics, rf radio frequency, stainless steels: Hello Philip! Well, there are a few definitions that match your question. First, ferrite is the name metallurgists give to the body-centered-cubic phase of iron and it s alloys. The body-centered-cubic phrase refers to the way the atoms are arranged...

Metallurgy: Iron making, old dog new tricks, artistic field
old dog new tricks, artistic field, refresher class: Hello Johann; First, I need to apologize for not getting back to you much earlier but my computer really has been down ...really. I am always happy to hear about folks that take an interest in the metals I love. I would first contact ASM International -...

Metallurgy: knifes, wusthof, solingen
wusthof, solingen, knives: Hi Andrew, Actually to determine quality chefs knives is out of my expertise! The only thing I can say is that Solingen is a city in germany which is famous for it s knives. I ve seen the berman and benz knives, but I haven t tried them. But they look like...

Metallurgy: Low Drag Coefficient Metals, babbitt bearings, slew ring
babbitt bearings, slew ring, bronze alloys: Good afternoon Don; The first thing that popped into my head when reading your situation was Babbitt Bearings . The ones I remember most were the lead alloy babbitt that they cast into a shell. However, you have a pretty heavy load and so I looked at high...

Metallurgy: light weight metals, hello bill, space plane
hello bill, space plane, alluminum: There are many metallic and composite combinations lighter than aluminum, but not a lot lighter, and stronger. Some are very heat resistant, others are very chemical resistant. As for strength, you have to be more specific about the type of strength you...

Metallurgy: low temperature carburizing, degree celcius, rich atmosphere
degree celcius, rich atmosphere, nut shell: Good morning p.thiyagu; I don t really have the time to explain indepth but in a nut shell the whole issue with carburizing is that your are soaking carbon, a very small atom, into a steel, in most cases. When you refer to any material, it might not be...

Metallurgy: Material, titanium hydride, air bubbles
titanium hydride, air bubbles, bubles: Hi David, PM materials are not so porous, it can not be said that there is air bubles in PM materials. Pores are in microscopic scale in these kind of materials. The materials I can recommand are foam materials. Because of adding ingredients like titanium...

Metallurgy: Material recommendation, stainless steel vs. chrome, ferritic stainless steel, material recommendation
ferritic stainless steel, material recommendation, stainless steels: Good morning Keith; You are providing only a vague idea of what your product is so I can only provide a very limited idea of what I would look at if I were producing a part. My thoughts are that the more you have to handle the part the more potentual for...

Metallurgy: Material, air bubbles, foam materials
air bubbles, foam materials, aerogels: Good morning David; I belive that you are asking about foam materials. Probably the most common example of this would be styrofoam. But, just about any material can have voids introduced during processing. I have personally seen foam aluminum, glass and...

Metallurgy: Melting points, hottest part of a flame, stainless steels
hottest part of a flame, stainless steels, equilibrium conditions: You may find the melting range of some frequently used stainless steels below. Steel is an alloy and istead of a unique melting point, has got a melting range which is the range in which under equilibrium conditions, liquid and solid phases coexist. 304:...

Metallurgy: Metal Hardness, soft carbon steel, coumpounds
soft carbon steel, coumpounds, gram quantities: There is no commonly available substance harder than a diamond, or even close. There have been some very exotic laboratory coumpounds which approach the diamond, some possibly slightly higher, but these are extremely expensive to produce, have only been produced...

Metallurgy: Metal Jug., copper tin, tin alloy
copper tin, tin alloy, petina: Good morning Sonia; The pinkish-brown sounds like maybe a petina on a brass or bronze. The color after cleaning makes me think it is probably a bronze (copper/tin alloy) If, as you indicated, it is pretty ornate, snake handle and all, I would guess that...

Metallurgy: Metal strength, cross sectional area, stress state
cross sectional area, stress state, minor factors: Good afternoon Mike; Lets see if we can reason together on these..... #1 Since tensile strength (lb/in2)is a function of cross sectional area (csa) the rod would be higher since it has more csa. If you made them both with the same csa then we might have...

Metallurgy: Metal strength, strength of metals, yield stress
strength of metals, yield stress, work hardening: Hi Mike, About your first question: the two tubes have the same material, steel, so they have the same tensile strength and it¡¦s about 300 to 400 MPa. Let¡¦s consider strength as the highest force they can resist before yielding, and I guess this is what...

Metallurgy: Metal threading, home depo, metal pipes
home depo, metal pipes, blind hole: Good morning David; You need a tap and die set . The tap puts threads on the inside and the die put them on the outside. The original tap and dies were all hand done and you can certainly still get hand tooling for this job. As a matter of fact if you...

Metallurgy: Metallurgical Microscopes, metallurgical microscopes, inverted microscope
metallurgical microscopes, inverted microscope, light source: A microscope is a micrope for most purposes. There are two main things you will want to check out in terms of using this scope for other things. First, make sure the light source on the scope is usefull in seeing whatever it is you want to see. Certain...

Metallurgy: Metallurgical microscopes, metallurgical microscopes, metallurgical microscope
metallurgical microscopes, metallurgical microscope, plethra: A metallurgical microscope is an inverted scope with light sources designed for magnifying structures of metallographically prepared specimens. The magnification is really no different than most normal upright scopes. Companies including Nikon and Olympus...

Metallurgy: Metallurgy, moisture condensation, thought bob
moisture condensation, thought bob, tempered steel: Good afternoon Mike; I must say that I have heard many interesting tales but this one is new to me. The only thing I can think of that might be detrimental to the steel might be that corrosion may be accelerated where it is in contact with the concrete....

Metallurgy: Metallurgy, European to U.S., mechanical values, st 52
mechanical values, st 52, max mn: Morning Allen, Again I could only find specific data for St 52 (DIN 2391 - 1.0580) Composition is C 0.22% max Si 0.55max Mn 1.60% P 0.050% S 0.050% Approximate mechanical values:- Tensile strength 510 - 610 N/mm2 Yeild point 355N/mm2...

Metallurgy: Metallurgy, mechanical metallurgy, world war ii
mechanical metallurgy, world war ii, welding techniques: Hi Chau, This question demands a deep historical research. Now I can point out the world war II as a historical event that cause a great progress in metallurgy. For example it was during WWII that germans started manufacturing single body ships whith the...

Metallurgy: Metals/ingredients used in stainless steel, stainless stell, austenitic stainless steel
stainless stell, austenitic stainless steel, composition c: Hi Dennis, The Stainless steel 18/8, is an austenitic stainless steel and nickle alloy. It s symbol is: X 12 CrNi 18 8. And 18/8 is it s trade name. Chemical composition:C(0-0.12), Cr(17.0-19.0), Mn(0-2.00), Ni(8.00-10.0), P(0-0.045), S(0-0.030), Si(0-1.00)....

Metallurgy: Metals, hastelloy c, conversion plants
hastelloy c, conversion plants, coal conversion: Hi Jacob, SUPERALLOYS are heat-resisting alloys based on nickel, nickel-iron, or cobalt that exhibit a combination of mechanical strength and resistance to surface degradation. Super- alloys are primarily used in gas turbines, coal conversion plants, and...

Metallurgy: Mn Ore Prospect and Processing, sumbawa indonesia, process engineer
sumbawa indonesia, process engineer, exploration rights: Hello again Paul; I would contact one of the University Departments, such as my undergraduate schools, Michigan Technological University. I looked up the Head of the Institute of Materials Processing, Jiann-Yang (Jim) Hwang, email: jhwang@mtu.edu, That...

Metallurgy: material?, enameled copper, google search
enameled copper, google search, graduated cylinder: The best way to identify it would probably be done using density. Do the following experiment. Take a graduated cylinder and fill it with water up to a point higher than the piece of wire you are identifying is tall. you can cut it if you wish. Then place...

Metallurgy: mechanical properties, composite material, porosity
composite material, porosity, questioner: Not to the best of my knowledge, but you can do qualitative porosity tests with compressed air or other gas... I don t know why the questioner chose to give a negative rating to this answer, and I certainly don t see anything impolite about it, perhaps...

Metallurgy: what medal conducts heat best?, electrical conductivity metals, crc handbook of chemistry and physics
electrical conductivity metals, crc handbook of chemistry and physics, crc handbook of chemistry: Hi Gina In physics, thermal conductivity, (showed by the latin capital of landa), is the intensive property of a material which relates its ability to conduct heat. Thermal conductivity is the quantity of heat, Q, transmitted through a thickness L, in...

Metallurgy: medieval metallurgy, learning about rocks, life in the middle ages
learning about rocks, life in the middle ages, gold tin: Where are you now, time wise? I have been in the field, but am back at home for a week and could answer questions for your current time period. Did you know that Jason s Golden Fleece was actually a gold recovery mechanism? BTW, I home schooled my nine children,...

Metallurgy: melting point of metals, melting point of metals, gold zinc
melting point of metals, gold zinc, copper gold: I m really sorry for the lengthy delay. My wife and I had a baby Monday and I just haven t had time to answer any questions. As for your question: Melting points Copper 1084 C Gold 1064 C Zinc 419 C Nickel 1455 C Aluminum 660 C Hope this answers...

Metallurgy: metal adhesives, mechanical bond, metal surface
mechanical bond, metal surface, time thanks: Good mornign Nick; By metal adhesives I am assuming that you are looking toward bonding two metals together. Probably the best mechanical bond systems use polymer based adhesives, like super glue or two part epoxies. These do not penetrate the metal surface...

Metallurgy: metal hardness, rockwell c scale, rockwell hardness scales
rockwell c scale, rockwell hardness scales, vickers hardness: Hello Mike! Boy, this smells like a homework question! I hope I can get the answer to you in time! In General- and I have to qualify that by saying I m considering the metals to be in the annealed condition, the aluminum is 1100 alloy, the T6 (not annealed,...

Metallurgy: metallurgy, free energy change, grain surfaces
free energy change, grain surfaces, energy term: Hi Koushik, Primary Widmanst¨atten ferrite either directly grows from the austenite grain surfaces, whereas secondary Widmanst¨atten ferrite develops from any allotriomorphic ferrite that may be present in the microstructure. Widmanst¨atten ferrite can form...

Metallurgy: metallurgy, welding research council, american welding society
welding research council, american welding society, magnetic techniques: Hi Sasilumar, First a definition: Ferrite Number, an arbitary standardized value designating the ferrite content of an austenitic stainless steel weld metal. It should be used in place of percent ferrite or valume percent ferrite on a direct replacement basis....

Metallurgy: metallurgy, magnetic elements, ceramic materials
magnetic elements, ceramic materials, workability: Hi Susan, Brass is alloy of copper and zinc, of historical and enduring importance because of its hardness and workability. But brass is not magnetic, the basic magnetic elements are Iron, Cobalt and Nickel and their alloys. Then there are the new ceramic...

Metallurgy: metallurgy, thick plate steel, mechanical stresses
thick plate steel, mechanical stresses, phase transformation: Hi Karl, The temperature yo mentioned is not enough for anealing steel. Full anealing is done for steel at about 1300 degree F (higher than A1 line temperature in Fe-C phase diagram). Generally, 700 degree F is not considered as a high temperature for steels....

Metallurgy: metallurgy, fcc structure, alloy composition
fcc structure, alloy composition, carbon steels: Hi Jit, Martensite crystals ideally have planar interfaces with the parent austenite. The preferred crystal planes of the austenite on which the martensite crystals form are designated habit planes, which vary according to alloy composition. In steels,...

Metallurgy: metallurgy, grain size measurement, non ferrous alloys
grain size measurement, non ferrous alloys, sn alloys: Grain size in alloys and pure elements is a function of their solidification rate. The higher the solidification rate, the smaller the grains are. Determination of grain size in pure elements is rather difficult since it is difficult to correctly locate the...

Metallurgy: metallurgy, term durability, field assignment
term durability, field assignment, fine grain: My apologies for the delay in answering your question. I have been working on a field assignment. This is not my primary area of expertise, but I believe you are correct, in general. Grain size in steel also effects long term durability, cracking at bends,...

Metallurgy: metallurgy, pearlite, nickle
pearlite, nickle, thicknesses: Hi Koushik We should use additionals which tend to form graphite flakes, like silicon and nickle. By increasing the amount of nickle (when Si exists) the straucture changes from coarse pearlite to fine pearlite and then to martensite. This practice gives...

Metallurgy: metals seperation, computer recycling, price of gold
computer recycling, price of gold, true computer: Hi Les, Please excuse the delay in responding, due to a death in my immediate family, I have not been able to allocate the time as I normally do. I operated a metals recycling business for several years, using mostly computer parts and eyeglass frames....

Metallurgy: molten metal settling, binary phase diagram, density difference
binary phase diagram, density difference, zinc content: Sorry for the late response. And sorry if my previous answers have not been clear enough. In my previous answer, I tried to convey this message that the melting point of individual elements does not tell which one will solidify first (maybe I should not have...

Metallurgy: Non-distructive testing..., ndt expert, aerospace business
ndt expert, aerospace business, odd mixture: Good afternoon Tim; You did not mention where in the U.S. you are located but it really doesn t make that much difference. It is my experience that NDT is an art form. I have met some really good ones in the aerospace business and they get into a very odd...

Metallurgy: ndt using ultrasonic, ultrasonic testing of materials, blow holes
ultrasonic testing of materials, blow holes, material type: Ultrasonic Testing of Materials, Krautkramer, 4th Edition, is a good start. I don t know what your level of experience is with UT, but this book is a good one one to reference. Typical casting defects and their detection methods are discussed on page 423....

Metallurgy: I need to build a stand for my motorcycle, 304l stainless steel, thanks in advance
304l stainless steel, thanks in advance, carbon steel: Good morning Chris; I am sorry but you probably can do as good a job of searching the net as I on this one. Quite frankly though I think I would draw up what you are looking for and go find a nice little tool & die shop and have them give you a hand with...

Metallurgy: need help, lightest element, electron structure
lightest element, electron structure, heavy hydrogen: All metals are not heavy. Hydrogen is a metal, and is the lightest element known. Lithium, also a metal is the third lightest element, there are many heavy elements that are not metals. If you google the definition of metal you will note the properties...

Metallurgy: Oxidation, plain carbon steel, lubricant oil
plain carbon steel, lubricant oil, natural enviroment: Hi Victore, Af the nail is a plain carbon steel, the only natural enviroment which may make it get oxidized is humidity along with heat (the hotter the place is, the faster the oxidization occures). Vapour from water helps it to undergo a chemical reaction...

Metallurgy: Oxidation, hydro carbons, lubricant oil
hydro carbons, lubricant oil, fish tank: Good morning Victor; I trust that I am not just answering the school question because it is good for your son to think through the problem. In that light, I will offer some observations.... The question involves oxidation or rusting of the nail. This occurs...

Metallurgy: Phase Diagram, phase diagram, composition
phase diagram, composition: A phase diagram is a temperature vs. composition diagram that shows what phase will be present under a set of given temperature and composition. A good example of one is at the following link: www.steeldiagram.com I hope I was able to answer your question...

Metallurgy: Post weld heat treatment, post weld heat treatment pwht, upper transformation temperature
post weld heat treatment pwht, upper transformation temperature, post weld heat treatment: Hi Sue, According to ASME section IX, first you should determine the welding process you applied. Then ASME indicates wheather post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is an essential, supplementary essential or nonessential variable. Change in welding condition...

Metallurgy: Powder Metallurgy - Design & Engineering, powder metallurgy process, optical interference
powder metallurgy process, optical interference, butterfly wings: Hi Alok, Titanium (and Niobium) start out silver-grey in color. They produce an exquisite range of colors when heated (torch) or anodized (electrolytic bath). This process DOES NOT INVOLVE THE USE OF PAINTS, DYES, ETC. And I should add this fact thet in...

Metallurgy: Proeutectoid Ferrite, plain carbon steel, iron carbon diagram
plain carbon steel, iron carbon diagram, tie line: Hi Frank, The calculation is so easy if you have the iron-carbon diagram in your mind. Proeutectoid ferrite is ferrite formed before eutectoid transformation. At 0.8 wt% carbon we got 100% austenite before the transformation and at 0.02wt% carbon we got...

Metallurgy: Properties of Nickel, ferrous alloys, amswer
ferrous alloys, amswer, monel: Hi Greg I can not say the amswer is yes, but if you ask me if nickel produces sparks I d say yes. Monel and nickel form almost identical spark streams. The sparks are small in volume and orange in color. The sparks form wavy streaks with no sparklers. So...

Metallurgy: PWHT of A519 GR. 4130 material, alloy steels, minimum temperature
alloy steels, minimum temperature, phase change: Stress releiving of alloy steels (like 4130) have no temperature outlined in the spec of the material. However, it is common practice to stress relieve 4130 between 1050-1200 F. This is high enough to relieve the stress with out being hot enough that the...

Metallurgy: post welding heat treatment, welding metallurgy, stainless steels
welding metallurgy, stainless steels, robert welding: Hi, These should provide some answers... Steels: Microstructure and Properties (ISBN: 0750680849) Bhadeshia, Harry Honeycombe, Robert Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels (ISBN: 0471473790) JC Lippold MiCon 78: Optimization...

Metallurgy: Quenching Effect During PWHT, heat blanket, 4130 steel
heat blanket, 4130 steel, heat affected zone: Please notice that this is the first time I have come across a PWHT question that I intend to answer. Actually, welding is not my field of expertise but as this is more of a heat treating question, I have a comment that might help. By gradual decrease of...

Metallurgy: Questions about Steel, aluminum alloys, copper aluminum
aluminum alloys, copper aluminum, george krauss: Good morning Ed; Your question is a little broad, OK very, very broad. I believe that you are asking about the quenched and tempering of steels and the hardness possibilities. 1st, the 440C is a stainless steel that is a grade of stainless called martensitic...

Metallurgy: Reply received?, acetylene torch, metal separation
acetylene torch, metal separation, borax: Hi Fred, Please excuse the delay in responding, due to a death in my immediate family, I have not been able to allocate the time as I normally do. You might be able to solve the whole problem with the sulfuric acid, depending on the amount of material...

Metallurgy: Rust on iron nail -- water or isopropyl alcohol, culligan water softener, iron nails
culligan water softener, iron nails, iron nail: Water is what I would describe as a stable compound in terms of its physical properties. Over a pretty wide temperature range (0-100C) there really isn t a lot going on and it stays almost exclusiviely in the liquid phase. Isopropyl alcohol on the other...

Metallurgy: refining mine material, ore type, refinary
ore type, refinary, grs: I will check with some contacts in the industry and get back to you, I am on the road so it may take a few days. My guess is that if your material is good enough you should be able to find a processor who will front the funds necessary to concentrate it in...

Metallurgy: Seeking general information about metals, metals handbook, george krauss
metals handbook, george krauss, time kind: Mr Rainer; Your asking for quite a bit. Steel and Stainless make up a VERY wide range of materials. Throwing in tooling, heat treating and surface treatment just about covers 80% of the metallurgy field. I would suggest that you start with the American...

Metallurgy: Separate gold from brass?, aqua regia, rose color
aqua regia, rose color, gold plate: Hi Fred, A 14K chain should be about 58.3% gold by weight. Gold is easy to separate from brass. Do you have a furnace capable of cupelling? On the chemical side, do you have the ingredients for aqua regia? If you will let me know what you have to work...

Metallurgy: Separating gold from brass, acetylene torch, tile roofing
acetylene torch, tile roofing, roofing tile: First, I am sorry to take so long in answering. I have been doing desert field work away from the lab. I don t think the centrifuge is necessary. If you have a large amount of material, a kilo or more, you could try melting it and pouring it into preheated...

Metallurgy: Separation Techniques, magnetic mixture, platinum metals
magnetic mixture, platinum metals, metallurgical methods: Mass spec will certainly work, but I have found better initial results using x-ray flourescense analysis. There are numerous labs here in the US that do all types of testing, they are easily located using Google. I like Acme up in Canada as well, they do...

Metallurgy: Seperation of metals, pipe temperature, vacuum pump
pipe temperature, vacuum pump, inert gas: I would try positioning a thermocouple at various points in the pipe. I would also tap a line into the pipe with an inert gas of some type (i.e. Argon). When you re ready to lower the temp, just open the valve and flood the pipe with Argon. Simple Thermodynamics...

Metallurgy: Sheet Metal Emosses, carbon steels, stainless steels
carbon steels, stainless steels, moment of inertia: Eric; It is a bit early in the day to attempt this but I ll give it a stab. While I am not a mechanical engineer type, I believe that the embossment depth is a linear relationship initally but it saturates out pretty quickly. The workhardening is a material...

Metallurgy: Sheet Metals, ryerson tull, beryllium copper
ryerson tull, beryllium copper, allegheny ludlum: Doug, I probably should have clicked on the I m too ignorant to answer THIS question button, but you asked for any thoughts, so I ll give it a fly- Can you use HSLA steel? The High Strength Low Alloy steel won t have the 120 ksi yield, 130 ksi tensile...

Metallurgy: Silicon and Molybdenum, high temperature properties, stainless steel strip
high temperature properties, stainless steel strip, chem milling: Good morning Pete; In 302 stainless silicon is added to nominally 1.00 percent by weight. It is very good for improving castability in the initial ingot production end. it also is a good deoxidized addition meaning that it helps remove inclusions and ceramic...

Metallurgy: Solution Annealing, carbide particles, deformation twinning
carbide particles, deformation twinning, minor alloying elements: Clearly you have some specific alloy issues possibly relating to an engineering or design problem you are working on. It appears to me then you are seeking some free consultation. I ll cover some basics but you need to be talking to a local metallurgical...

Metallurgy: Solution annealing, inert atmospheres, heat treating furnace
inert atmospheres, heat treating furnace, protective atmosphere: Solution annealing is carried out by heating up the alloy to a temperature in which typically only one phase is stable. This temperature depends on the alloy to be solution heat treated; for precipitation hardenable Al-Cu base alloys, solution annealing temperature...

Metallurgy: Stainless Steel, spectroscopy methods, stainless steels
spectroscopy methods, stainless steels, electrical resistance: As far as I am concerned, there is no physical distinction between these two grades of stainless steels since there are very similar compositionally. However, it might be possible to differentiate them rapidly by comparing their electrical resistance (measurable...

Metallurgy: Stainless Steel, stainless steel pipe, convection currents
stainless steel pipe, convection currents, stainless alloys: Good afternoon Glyn; Your question is a little vague bringing thoughts such as....., 8 or 6 schedule 40 pipe? What is the product? What is the product temperature? Is the product flowing or just sitting still? but enought of that. As I noted, I am not...

Metallurgy: Stainless Steels, stainless steels, nitronic 50
stainless steels, nitronic 50, metallurgical engineer: Still looking for some free engineering consulting I see. At least you have narrowed it down to the Nitronic 50 alloy. I just finished providing some basics on this alloy and you might consult ASM International for specifics on this alloy. If you are doing...

Metallurgy: Stainless screw thread in titanium block, titanium screw, screw thread
titanium screw, screw thread, conveyor system: I wouldn t really advise using Titanium as a replacement. Titanium oxidized at a rate exponentially faster than steels, which will cause buildups around the threads leading to them not fittling correctly over time. The 304 stainless should work pretty well....

Metallurgy: Stainless steel/heat treating inquiry, rockwell c, stainless steel heat
rockwell c, stainless steel heat, martensitic transformation: For the H-900/H-925 situation, your process is set up to give H-925 (see below). Cond. Hardening Temp and time Hardness (Rockwell C) Tensile Strength (MPa) A Annealed 36 1100 H900 482°C, 1 hour 44 1310 H925 496°C, 4 hours...

Metallurgy: Stainless steel, alloy steels, chromium oxide
alloy steels, chromium oxide, stainless steels: Good morning Siju; A quick answer is that stainless steels have at least 11 to 12% chromium in the alloy. Why 11 to 12% minimum you might ask? That much is required to provide a continious layer of protective chromium oxide on the surface. An alloy steel...

Metallurgy: Steel AISI 1026 melting ponit, aisi, melting point
aisi, melting point: The melting point of 1026 steel is right at 2800 F, give or take a degree or two depending on how much carbon is present (more carbon will lower the melting point a degree or 2 while less will raise it a degree or two). I hope this helps you out. Ratings...

Metallurgy: Strange Question, strange question, piece of bread
strange question, piece of bread, insulator: Hi Rick, Stainless steel is mostly used for today pans. Although Stainless steel is not a good conductor of heat amongst steels, I am not very hopeful that you can make a pan for your purpose. As a trial you may like to try copper for the area you want to...

Metallurgy: Strength of Cast Irons, ductile irons, cast irons
ductile irons, cast irons, grades of steel: Generally, steels are considered to have better mechanical properties and also ductility. However, there are some types of cast irons like ductile iron which, in contrast to other types of cast irons, are not brittle. The strength of this ductile irons can...

Metallurgy: Substitute for 1020 steel, medium carbon steel, hsla steels
medium carbon steel, hsla steels, low carbon steel: Because of the need for weldibility and use in a high strength application, HSLA steel would be a good selection upon reflection. As for suggestion of a particular type, my experience with HSLA steels is somewhat limited so I m not entirely familiar with...

Metallurgy: How does salt and water solutions clean a penny?, vinegar and salt, copper oxide
vinegar and salt, copper oxide, carbon hydrogen: Good morning Kristina; I have been thinking about this overnight but I am not a chemist so I am unsure of the reactions. I do know that the penny gets shiny when you remove oxygen and impurities like sulfur from the surface. So lets reason together on this....The...

Metallurgy: separating gold from mercury, california mining journal, chamois leather
california mining journal, chamois leather, sweat glands: Hi, sorry for the delay in responding, I have been on the road. The separation of gold from mercury is a very old problem. The 49 ers actually used potatoes in an oven to do it, and then ate the potatoes, don t do that... There are a couple of ways to...

Metallurgy: sepeartion of iridium,mixed with gold of 10-24 karat, copper silver zinc, room temperatures
copper silver zinc, room temperatures, carbitol: First, as a note, Dibutyl Carbitol and Diethylene Glycol Dibutyl Ether are different names for the same solvent. It is re-usable and has no explosive characteristics. You have to be careful with the fumes, some people are reactive to them, headaches,...

Metallurgy: seperation anxiety..., fathi habashi, non ferrous metals
fathi habashi, non ferrous metals, emeritus professor: You need to find relevant books on extractive metallurgy of non-ferrous metals. There are useful handbooks on extractive metallurgy written (or edited) by emeritus professor Fathi Habashi which might help, though what you are looking for is a very specialized...

Metallurgy: settling of 380 alloy follow up, density of aluminum, centrifugal acceleration
density of aluminum, centrifugal acceleration, aluminum alloys: As may be deduced from the example in my previous answer, small rotational speeds may lead to significant centrifugal accelerations compared to gravitational acceleration. So, you do not need to worry about the gravitational force as it would be small in comparison...

Metallurgy: silver plating adhesion test iaw ASTM B571, thin coatings, thin coating
thin coatings, thin coating, chisel: Good afternoon Dave; I just read the ASTM B571 specifications and do not believe that Table 1 is in error. I realize that the coating is very thin but in reviewing most of the tests recommended for silver they attempt to get the coating to blister, crack,...

Metallurgy: sodium, sodium compounds, metallic sodium
sodium compounds, metallic sodium, preparation of organic compounds: Hi Sivaraj, I m so sorry to say that my knowledge about sodium is so general; and i think that i know anything about it more than you. But i bring here some general information: Sodium is present in fair abundance in the sun and stars. The D lines of sodium...

Metallurgy: Is there software that will allow me to build a model and be able to test the heat transfer, heat transfer properties, abaqus
heat transfer properties, abaqus, thermal characteristics: I consulted one of my friends to answer your question because this is not my field of expertise; I have just heard of some names. These are some software capable of modeling heat transfer in solids (listed by priority of use in your case): 1- Ansys 2- Abaqus...

Metallurgy: My son (9yrs.) is working on a project with the question phrased as follows: Which metal conducts the most heat?, electrical conductivity metals, thermal conductivity
electrical conductivity metals, thermal conductivity, copper gold: Hi Melanie Thermal conductivity is the quantity of heat, Q, transmitted through a thickness L, in a direction normal to a surface of area A, due to a temperature difference, under steady state conditions and when the heat transfer is dependent only on the...

Metallurgy: spring steel, stainless steel strip, inch legs
stainless steel strip, inch legs, corrosion resistance: Good morning Taum; Your tool design sounds interesting. 1.25 inch legs are not very long but if, as you indicate, it is working pretty well using a spring. I might suggest then that you explore using stainless steel strip. A cold rolled, 301 type stainless...

Metallurgy: square tube vs square bar, square tube, deform
square tube, deform, wall thickness: yes, especially if the wall thickness of the tube is not heavy. A bar is always stronger, as there is more metal to deform and more layer resistance to deformation. The difference in strength is countered by the difference in weight. The bar is definitely...

Metallurgy: stainless steel, thin oxide film, stainless steels
thin oxide film, stainless steels, cast irons: Hello Rahul, Chromium plays a key role in stainless steels since it forms a very thin oxide film on the surface of such steels. The Cr2O3 oxide film prevents the alloy from further oxidation and even reforms after alloy s surface is scratched. Depending...

Metallurgy: stainless steel at cryogenic temperatures, liquid methane, stress cracks
liquid methane, stress cracks, liquid hydrogen: Hi, Assuming a two hour load time, insulation in good condition and steel in good condition with no existing stress cracks at the welds, and a pre-cool period prior to rapid loading, the unit should hold up OK. If you start with a totally ambient unit,...

Metallurgy: ABout stainless steel grdae 201, stainless steel grade, specific heat capacity
stainless steel grade, specific heat capacity, modulus of elasticity: I am not an expert in these things, as per my profile, but here are the basic specifications for ASTM 201 Stainless Steel: Subcategory: Alloy Steel; Metal; Stainless Steel; Austenitic Key Words: EN 1.4372; ASTM 201; JIS SUS 201 Component Wt. % ...

Metallurgy: stainless steel metallurgy, liquid immersion, steel metallurgy
liquid immersion, steel metallurgy, tight tolerance: If your casting process is very well thought out and controlled (i.e. computer simulation and tight tolerance control), a cast structure can be every bit as good as a forged one. The toughest thing in terms of making quality casting like this is being able...

Metallurgy: stainless steel, food contamination, charcoal grill
food contamination, charcoal grill, steel grates: I would think that 316 would be a better choice, it has better corrosion resistance at high temperatures and may have better food contamination characteristics as well. It cleans up very well, while 304 can pit on you. Be careful about your supplier, try...

Metallurgy: steel, gas turbine engine, carbon steels
gas turbine engine, carbon steels, stainless steels: Good morning Miguel; I believe that the three classifications that you are referring to, relative to carbon steels, are the Ferritic, Austenitic, and Martensitic steels. These classifications are based on the crystal structures available in the carbon/iron...

Metallurgy: strength of stainless steel, electric arc welding, tungsten electrodes
electric arc welding, tungsten electrodes, stainless steels: There are a wide variety of stainless steels that vary in composition, weight and cost. Most are hard, strong and can be formed by bending. Surgical stainless, used in knives and blades being an exception. You could refer to wikipedia for more information...

Metallurgy: strength of stainless steel, corrosion resistance, pitting corrosion
corrosion resistance, pitting corrosion, stainless steels: Hello Shelly! Let me start with a few basics, OK? The 18/8 and 18/10 designations are older terms, and refer to the amount of chromium and nickel alloyed with the iron, to comprise the stainless steel. The 18/8 name has been pretty much replaced, in the...

Metallurgy: suggest me about project, materials science and metallurgy, west bengal india
materials science and metallurgy, west bengal india, material sci: Are you not already a B.S. student? If you are a student you need not to find any other institution and you can start a project in your current university (NIT). First, you need to find a professor in your department who is interested to assign projects to...

Metallurgy: Tempering, strength metals, silver alloys
strength metals, silver alloys, heattreatment: Hello again Ted; I think your friend was pulling you leg. Pure metals are very rarely used in jewelry because they are too soft. Alloys of silver, gold, platinum give you the higher strength metals because when you mix them together the slight difference...

Metallurgy: Testing stainless composition, stainless steels, exact grade
stainless steels, exact grade, chemical composition: Usually, one can simply guess the general type of stainless steel i.e. tell if it is ferritic (or martensitic) or austenitic though there are some other types of stainless steels like precipitation hardening and duplex types which have some specific applications....

Metallurgy: Tin, fcc structure, copper tin
fcc structure, copper tin, tin alloy: Good morning Sean; I would suspect that the reported high compression strength is due mostly to the crystal structure. High purity tin (Sn)is has two general crystal structures or phases: a body centered tetragonal (BCT) beta phase and a face center cubic...

Metallurgy: Titanium alloys, titanium alloys, ti alloy
titanium alloys, ti alloy, wear resistance: While Titanium is very strong, it is not overly hard or tough. Consequently, it wears pretty easily. The only real suggestion I can make for improving these properties in a Ti alloy would be increasing your aluminum % to around 8 while decreasing your vanadium...

Metallurgy: Titanium tube, corrosion resistance, material requirement
corrosion resistance, material requirement, yield point: Hello Marc; You never mentioned the environment so it is hard for me to comment on your choice. If you are talking about a general outdoor environment it would probably be just fine. As for the mechanical properties, I am not a mechanical engineer so the...

Metallurgy: Titanium, modulus of elasticity, titanium alloys
modulus of elasticity, titanium alloys, aluminium alloys: Hi Ted, I really appologize for being so late in replying your question. Titanium is used primarily in components that require a combination of high strength, low density, corrosion resistance and acceptable mechanical properties at limited elevated temperatures....

Metallurgy: TTT DIAGRAM, physical metallurgy, matterial
physical metallurgy, matterial, metallurgical engineering: Hi Samkit, I d like to explain the matterial to you, but i m afraid dear it takes time and needs to be explain with aid of some diagram. but if you tell me your email address i might answer you. so send me an email to b_shalchi_a@yahoo.com first. I appologize...

Metallurgy: Tungsten VS Titanium, gas turbine engine, turbine engine components
gas turbine engine, turbine engine components, tantalum alloys: Hi Trevor TUNGSTEN Tungsten has high tensile strength and good creep resistance. At temperatures above 2205 OC (4000 OF), tungsten has twice the tensile strength of the strongest tantalum alloys and is only 10% denser. However, its high density, poor low-temperature...

Metallurgy: what types of materials uses, n heat treatment process uses in producing a railroad wheels?, railroad wheels, plastic deformation
railroad wheels, plastic deformation, constant contact: Hello Alice Because the railroad wheel will be in constant contact with the railroad, there will be alot of wear and plastic deformation on the railroad wheel and railroad itself. A steel called Hatfield steel is used for the amnufacture of this product....

Metallurgy: Uses for metals such as led, cadmium, mercury..., hex chrome, society of automotive engineers
hex chrome, society of automotive engineers, corrosion resistance: Hello Andy; Lead, cadmium, mercury, bromine, and hex chrome are all considered not good for the environment and either are or in the process of being phased out. Most of these are in the battery side of the business as well as plating for corrosion resistance....

Metallurgy: Do u have an idea 4 me ?, islamic azad university, sophisticated projects
islamic azad university, sophisticated projects, necessary facilities: As you are a BS student, you would better choose a simple project, i.e. a project which is feasible at your university so that it gets finished very soon, which is also within your areas of interest; you may hopefully get involved in more sophisticated projects...

Metallurgy: Do u have an idea 4 me ?, islamic azad university, tehran iran
islamic azad university, tehran iran, best regard: This is a tough one, as I am not familiar with your local metallurgical issues, but you might consider something in the area of re-cycling of metallic products for new uses, or the investigation of methods of improving metallurgical processes to make them...

Metallurgy: Vehicle accessories, shiny appearance, rust protection
shiny appearance, rust protection, chrome coating: For starters, with steel vs. stainless steel you are not going to see any major structural difference, so one is going to be just as good as the other in terms of strength or longevity. The difference there is that stainless steel contains chrome, which will...

Metallurgy: Wear Resistance of Titanium, rockwell c scale, titanium alloys
rockwell c scale, titanium alloys, amazon link: I guess the first item to clear up is that Titanium in elemental form is so soft, it doesn t even register on a rockwell C scale. With that being said, I would guareentee that you are using a titanium alloy of some type, most likely a Titanium-Aluminum-Vanadium...

Metallurgy: Welding question, reverse polarity, arc welder
reverse polarity, arc welder, circular patterns: O-boy, stick welding. This is a real art form and as a friend of mine noted, who was a true artist, you have to burn to learn . First off you did not mention the type of welder you have and that can make all the difference. I like the Miller welders...

Metallurgy: weldability of 304 and 316 SS, metal injection mold, metal injection molding
metal injection mold, metal injection molding, metallurgical engineer: Good morning David; OK, lets reason together here. Both are austenitic stainless so, yes they can be pretty easily welded but, and this is a big but,...they can and are very different animals. You have not provided much information on the 304 and 316...

Metallurgy: welding alloyed white cast iron, malleable iron castings, flake graphite
malleable iron castings, flake graphite, cast irons: Hi Unfortunately, white cast iron is generally considered unweldable, while spherical, and malleable irons are generally easier to weld than gray iron. I give you some information about repair welding of these mentioned cast irons: Gray cast irons (flake...

Metallurgy: welding of low alloy steel(p9), pwht, alloy steel
pwht, alloy steel, smaw: Sorry, I really can t help you on this, I know very little about welding technology, you might check the ASTM standards for pressure vessels, I know that it is very critical that they be handled properly, especially if they are to be used at higher pressures....

Metallurgy: welding me, duplex stainless steels, duplex stainless steel
duplex stainless steels, duplex stainless steel, chemical compositions: Hi Sujoy, Frankly, i don t give you any special opinion about the case Duplex and super duplex stainless steel; but in general it s true for welding of all types of austenitic stainless steels -and you must know that we can assume duplex s. steels as austenitic...

Metallurgy: would this work, concave mirror, thin strand
concave mirror, thin strand, copper wire: in brief, unlikely... copper is an excellent heat sink and therefore hard to melt in this manner, depending on its mass. in addition, you are using a mirror to concentrate the sun s energy, the magnifier will not add any energy to the system, it may focus...

Metallurgy: Yield Strength, hardness values, rough value
hardness values, rough value, t6 aluminum: Hi Vic Generally, converting hardness values to strength gives approximate values. For Rockwell B hardness, I did not find any relationship to tensile strength for values less than 65 HRB. In addition, I do not think you can extract Yield Strength from...

Metallurgy: Yield strength of metals, shoulin monks, strength of metals
shoulin monks, strength of metals, sure what type: Boy, this is a risky procedure. Bismuth is pretty brittle, but in a heavy bar it is still quite tough. If you cast a bismuth bar and used water to make it bubbly inside, like swiss cheese, it would be a lot weaker. That will work with other metals as well....

Metals: Aluminum, pitched sound, slow response
pitched sound, slow response, apologies: Greetings Dwight, My apologies for my slow response as I have been at an all consuming Jewellery Conference since last week....my head is still spinning from information overload. The easiest way would be that Alu will not attract a magnet, it is soft...

Metals: Blueing 18% nickel-silver, gilding metal, nickel silver
gilding metal, nickel silver, sorry cant: Greetings, In my experience, nickel silver is hard to colour blue. You can turn it green for certain, but all the blue recipes that I know are for bronze or gilding metal. Also its my experience that patina on Nickel isnt very hardy, whereas it close to...

Metals: cutting gold, slow response, jeweller
slow response, jeweller, straight line: Greetings Gary, My apologies for my slow response as I have been at an all consuming Jewellery Conference since last week....my head is still spinning from information overload. Ideally this should be possible, however I d need to see exactly how the setting...

Metals: gold fabrication, simple casting, silver rim, tops
Metals: gold fabrication, simple casting, silver rim, tops

Metals: gold fabrication, simple casting, charcoal block, fire brick
charcoal block, fire brick, scrap gold: Greetings, The borax will dissolve in a simple pickle solution 15% sulphuric acid at 45C. You could either just place the gold pre melt over the carve section and heat until molten and then you could push it down with a piece of steel. Gold is cohesive...

Metals: Large metal plate, flower design, peice
flower design, peice, 100 years: The answer is below if you take the time to read it. How am I meant to know what you have preceisely without doing an assay on it? Or for that matter without seeing a picture of the peice - I am simply responding to your discombobulated description. ...

Metals: Melting metal, cast iron skillet, propane torch
cast iron skillet, propane torch, foundry sand: Greetings Jan, My apologies for my slow response as I have been at an all consuming Jewellery Conference since last week....my head is still spinning from information overload. You will need Oxy-Acetylene with cutting tip @ 80/180 and a ceramic crucible....

Metals: Melting Silver to make bars, silver ingots, nasty chemicals
silver ingots, nasty chemicals, silver bars: Hello John, My apologies for my slow response.....I ve had some well needed time-out and failed to turn on my haoliday message. If you wish to make silver bars that are 925, then you simply need to get a cruble and ingot mould and melt with borax and then...

Metals: plaster investment for gold casting, slow response, information overload
slow response, information overload, plaster: Greetings Grace, My apologies for my slow response as I have been at an all consuming Jewellery Conference since last week....my head is still spinning from information overload. All the investment palsters are similar, but the one I know - supercast -...

Metals: my question, borax, gold leaf
borax, gold leaf, air pressure: I would try using a kiln with some borax as flux. If it really is gold leaf then it will become liquidus to a state that you can pour it into a mould. It s similar to using a torch except there isnt the air pressure from the flame..... Hope this helps,...

Metals: restoring antique brass or copper, visual clue, copper plate
visual clue, copper plate, mild steel: Greetings, If a magnet sticks then it is likely that you have plated mild steel. If it is copper in colour then this is quite common as usually platers will first do a copper plate, which allows the top coats to easily attach, but also so that they can...

Metals: 50 lbs of gold (talc dust), copper content, oceania region
copper content, oceania region, businees: Greetings, I think your Philly calculations are probably correct. The powder probbaly contains brightenners etc. In the case of the Karat weight, you have to take into account that each of those weights are base upon 24K being fine, thus 18K is 75% etc....

Metals: gold refining, usa patriot act, gold nugget
usa patriot act, gold nugget, gold refining: Hello Tom, The best deal that you will get should be that you are charged a refining charge, and then you will receive market price on the day of purchase. This will fluctuate with the world market..... I cant suggest anyone in the US, however I could...

Metals: gold and silver electroplatting, cast alloys, soft metals
cast alloys, soft metals, imatation: Greetings, My apologies for the slow response.... I am a traditional jeweller, making primarily one-off original pieces. To my knowledge, you need to use a good electro-plater - rather than setting up yourself - as the chemical involved are both serious...

Metals: Melting silver onto bone/ soldering to silver leaf, molten silver, pleasant smell
molten silver, pleasant smell, silver leaf: Greetings, My apologies for the slow response.... You are absolutely correct, the bone will burn and let me tell you it s not a pleasant smell. You get a feel for how it may have been in the death camps when you smell burning bone. And you are correct...

Metals: Metal alloys, copper tin, metal alloys
copper tin, metal alloys, electrum: Greetings, I m not really aware of any specific names in current times. I guess it to do with quantities of metal, because otherwise, gold and silver is either 9K, 14K or 18K gold etc.... Gold and copper would also fit in this rating. http://www.gold.org/jewellery/technology/alloys/index.html...

Metals: silver spoon, silver spoon, silver co
silver spoon, silver co, private consumer: Greetings, My understanding is that Milford Silver Co, were a larger industrial cutlery concern ie they primarily made cutlery for the better hotels etc As always they also make for the private consumer.... It was/is quite commonplace Have a look at...

Metals: Brass polishing, polishing compounds, dircetion
polishing compounds, dircetion, electrical plates: Greetings, Hard to assess without seeing them close up, however Either you aren t cutting deep enough in the intial polish and simply shining up the metal and thus exposing the marks. Or the mop is too rough for brass and you arent polishing fine enough...

Metals: An odd egg handmade in sterling silver..., triangular shapes, outer rim
triangular shapes, outer rim, correct person: Greetings, I started to answer your question twice now and somehow lost the info. My apologies for the delay. The style sounds like late Art Nouveau, so I m guessing that would place it around 1920 1930. However this style remains popular still today...

Metals: Patinas, copper patinas, copper carbonate
copper patinas, copper carbonate, simple recipes: Greetings, You need to find a book by Michael Rowe caled The Bronzing, Colouring and Patination Of Metals This will contains all your recipe desires. I think it probably water copper carbonate and ammonia, which is applied to the warm piece by brush...

Metals: possibly a badge, cricket stumps, cricket bat
cricket stumps, cricket bat, metal badge: Hello Deb, Could you email me a pic along with where it was found and where you are located and hopefully I can give you an idea of the badge and perhaps put you in touch with someone local. Also let me know if there are any marking on the rear. Cheers,...

Metals: retardants for silver tarnishing, silver tarnishing, brain tumors
silver tarnishing, brain tumors, sterling silver: Greetings, I think what you are talking about is Rhodium Plating. Rubidium is not used much outside of research. In the real world rubidium s main purpose is as a photocell component and due it s slight radioactivity, it s also been used to locate brain...

Metals: aluminum foil, lead pencils, aluminium foil
lead pencils, aluminium foil, aluminum foil: Greetings, It may have been that in the past you would find tin foil, and I m guessing that the name has followed on from here. However aluminium foil is aluminium and not tin. Its probably a bit like people talking about lead pencils, which are in fact...

Metals: Buying gold with other currencies, gold bullion coins, euro currency countries
gold bullion coins, euro currency countries, reality gold: And thus 1000Euro will buy the same quantity of gold in say Paris, as the exchanged ammount in US dollars would in NY on any given day. The gold price is variable and is the same worldwide. I m wondering how you think you ll be making a killing? Of course...

Metals: working with gold, gold, melt
gold, melt, crucible: Greetings, And apologies for my very slow response. I am in fact on holidays from All Experts and have been since April...the oddness of computers etc I suppose. Your message was logged sometime in May, however the first time I saw it was just now when I...

Metals: Why copper ?, food service applications, composition of stainless steel
food service applications, composition of stainless steel, kitchen pots and pans: The amount is usually equal or less than 1%. It is used to create a harder surface. Copper is also used on the bottom of lower cost kitchen pots and pans to provide a uniform heat to the food. Stainless steel doesn t transfer heat evenly or uniformly....

Metals: Structual column modifications, handrail, structural steel
handrail, structural steel, AR400: It shouldn t, if you are talking about handrails. Proper diameter welding rods with the correct amperage and technique will do no harm to the steel. Most structural steels have little alloy so if they are heated and cooled the structure of the steel is unchanged....

Metals: Repairing Holes in Metal Garage, oxygen acetylene torch, double car garage
oxygen acetylene torch, double car garage, scrap metal dealer: Hi Craig If you have a scrap metal dealer near you, you can buy a piece of similar thin steel siding for less than one dollar. If thin galvanized steel is easier to get, that will work just fine. I would stay with steel since you are going to be painting...

Metals: Silver marking, glasgow office, glasgow area
glasgow office, glasgow area, sterling silver: Hey Michelle, Sorry for the delay, I am on Sabbatical and not meant to be receiving any questions. Not to worry though. Take a look at this site. If the Lion is standing then it sounds like the piece was made in the Glasgow area - or at least Assayed at...

Metals: Strengthening or hardening of sterling silver, sterling silver, tumblers
sterling silver, tumblers, ovens: Hey Benjamin, Heating and quenching works with steel and nickel, but in the case of SS you will only soften it. As far as I know, the only way to harden SS is through work ie Work Hardening. Attention should be taken when heating so that only minor normalisation...

Metals: CARBON STEEL, high carbon steel, spring steel
high carbon steel, spring steel: I m not certain where the spring steel question fits in. The designation 1090 tells what is the chemistry of the steel. The 10 indicates a plain carbon steel; no alloys are present. The 90 indicates it contains 0.90% carbon - very high carbon...

Metals: Welding of galvanized steel pipe to black steel pipe, welding galvanized
welding galvanized: His concern is exactly the opposite of why zinc coating or galvanized is used. The reason black pipe is galvanized is FOR corrosion resistance. When you weld these two together, grind back the galvanizing so it is not introduced into the weld puddle. ...

Metals: Blending welds on Restaurant Equipment, Stainless steel, flap disc
Stainless steel, flap disc, stainless finishing: Great question. The fastest and easiest way to blend the welds is with a Flap Disc style grinding wheel. It fits onto a 4-1/2 hand grinder and looks like it has small sections of tough sandpaper along the face. This works very well on stainless...

Metals: Certified Mill Test Reports, ASTM, ASME
ASTM, ASME, Mill Certifications: While the ASTM and ASME codes require different things be included, neither require any specific reporting information that I have been able to determine in checking with different sources. The Mill Certs for each heat contain infomation as determined by...

Metals: copper, Copper, Melting Point
Copper, Melting Point, Copper Pipe: Copper melts at 1357.77 K, 1084.62 °C, 1984.32 °F. If you have water running through the copper pipe, it will be very difficult - almost impossible to melt, since the water will remove the heat. What you are describing is the principal...

Metals: Cannon drilling, drill cast iron
drill cast iron: I would ask the person selling it on eBay to email you with the name of someone who bought one if these in the past & ask them how hard they found it to drill. The instructions are there in the add. A reminder: NEVER use cutting oil or coolant drilling...

Metals: cast Iron Pulleys, welding cast iron, cast iron
welding cast iron, cast iron, cast iron pulley: Paul If you added photos, they didn t come through, although I have an excellent image in my mind due to your remarkably detailed account of the piece of cast iron. I have been unable to determine what your question is however. I have written a book...

Metals: raw material speceification, wood chipper
wood chipper: Hi Brad I do a significant amount of work with wood handling within pulp and paper mills and am very familiar with wood chippers. Since many of these are cast to shape and then machined to size, I believe it is a casting designation, which is why it doesn...

Metals: welding ?s, tig, warp
Metals: welding ?s, tig, warp

Metals: Solder, solder, electrical solder
solder, electrical solder, plumbing solder: They are both going to melt about 425 degrees F. The only difference between the two solders is the electrical solder has a rosin core, for flux type cleaning on electrical components where a conventional flux could damage components. There are some...

Metals: Successful cast iron welding, how to weld cast iron, cast iron welding procedure
how to weld cast iron, cast iron welding procedure, welding cast iron: Due to the high carbon content (2.5% to 5% Carbon), when you weld cast iron, the carbon will attempt to migrate away from the heat. Unless the welding alloy can keep the carbon in suspension, it solidifies into a layer commonly referred to as the heat affected...

Metals: welding ?s, welding, brazing
welding, brazing, sheet metal: There are plenty of ways to weld a car door back together. Most body shops use a .023 diameter wire feed (MIG) welder since it doesn t have high heat input to warp the door. It sounds like you are asking about using a torch and either gas welding or...

Metals: patina for bronze, verdigris patina, skilled craftsman
verdigris patina, skilled craftsman, copper carbonate: I ll answer the last question first. Yes you can freeze the appearance you want with an automotive type paint. You may request a flattening agent to be added if you don t desire a shiny finish. As always all loose material must be removed (brushed off)...

Metals: Engineering materials, high carbon steel, mild steel
high carbon steel, mild steel, engineering materials: The major difference is in the amount of carbon. Stainless often has less than 0.05% carbon. Steel can vary from mild steel having less than 0.30% to high carbon steel having over 0.70%. Cast iron will have 2.5% to 5.0%, this is why cast iron cracks...

Metals: Stainless Steel Corrosion, stainless steel, stainless steel corrosion
stainless steel, stainless steel corrosion, corrosion issues: Thank you for providing me with enough information to provide some guidance. Many people are very confused when they see stainless steel rust . This can happen with any of the 300 series stainless when they are exposed to contact from mild steel sparks....

Metals: Finely ground iron filings, iron filings, google
iron filings, google, thanks in advance: Eddie Contact machine shops in your area or Google for iron filings. The finer the filings, the less material is taken off, and the longer the grinding takes. All this translates into higher costs. I do not know of a company that grinds as fine...

Metals: How do I know what it is, ingot, precious metal
ingot, precious metal, cheers: Greetings, You haven t given me much info apart from the fact that it s an old ingot. Is it large or small? Is it yellow or white? If white, is it bright or darker grey? And how heavy is it? If it were a precious metal ingot then it would feel quite heavy...

Metals: flexible metal product, light weight metal, work harden
light weight metal, work harden, bending metal: There is a problem with what you are hoping to do. All metals work-harden when bent, meaning their structure changes due to the bending. This means each successive time they are bent, they become more resistant to bending again. Most people have seen...

Metals: Setting for Burmese Ruby, carat gold, educated guess
carat gold, educated guess, marine captain: Hey Molly, I wouldn t even hazard a guess short of viewing them. This is mostly because I don t know how different Karratted Metals react with your skin etc - they quite often oxidise in differing hues depending on specific skin acid etc. The metal could...

Metals: Remelting 14K Gold Jewelry, gold quality, rule of thumb
gold quality, rule of thumb, gold jewelry: Grewet9ngs, Rule of thumb is that you use 50 % new material when catsing...however what you re suggensting i s verging upon madeness becaesue you dionbt know what else is in in the melt. How much solder was used? what was the solder? was it electro plated?...

Metals: Rhodium Plating, natural colour, white gold
natural colour, white gold, cheers: Greetings, You could try, but unless you can set a stone without marking the ring at all, then the answer would be no. It would be far easier to plate after setting. However, I personally detest rhodium plating as I think it creates head-aches for the client....and...

Metals: cuttintg and drilling stainless, drill stainless steel, cutting stainless steel
drill stainless steel, cutting stainless steel, stainless: Thank you for the question Jim. Many people have difficulty when cutting and drilling stainless steel. This is due to the large amount of nickel and chromium present in the stainless. Standard 304, 316 versions have about 18% chromium and 8% nickel. ...

Metals: Rhodium, life got in the way, testing solution
life got in the way, testing solution, gold and silver: Greetings and apologies. I started looking for testing solution when got your message a couple of weeks back, and was unable to find any.....and then life got in the way. To be honest, I m surprised that it seemed difficult to find. My advice would be...

Metals: 6011 A welding rod, 6011, 6011A
6011, 6011A, buzz box welder: After searching online a bit, I realized why you asked your question here; there is nothing online regarding 6011A. A bit of background then an assumption: Background: 6011 is a deep penetrating, carbon steel electrode. The American Welding Society...

Metals: Nickel, Nickel, fumes
Nickel, fumes, Exposure limits: Fumes from casting or welding must be carefully dealt with for potential health effects. In reviewing my documentation for nickel alone, as you have found, there is not much information available. Nickel in industry is often accompanied with Chromium or...

Metals: The formation of metal during plating, mr coombs, copper deposit
mr coombs, copper deposit, conductive ink: Hello Eddie, Apologies for the delay...I ve been off the grid in Bali for weeks and only returned last night. I think you ll find that if you leave the item in the bath long enough it will in fact connect...there is a point when you go form electro-plating...

Metals: Behaviour of metal during chemical etching, high school physics, mr coombs
high school physics, mr coombs, isotropic etching: Hello again. Probably not perfectly round, as etching at length usually results in a loss of control...it will round up a bit, but at some stage it will probably undercut.... Best I can suggest is try it and see...it will be random and no two outcomes will...

Metals: Soldering Iron?, soldering iron, acid core
soldering iron, acid core, rosin core: Hello Craig I m glad your prior answer helped out - let s see if this will do so as well. What you have is a large soldering iron designed for very thin sheet metal soldering, so you have the right tool for the job. Be certain to use the right solder...

Metals: the strength of thin steel sheets, Stainless Steel, 18-8 stainless
Stainless Steel, 18-8 stainless: Hello Eddie Thank you for the drawing - it helped with the answer, or perhaps more questions. There are several type of stainless steels, although the most common will contain 18% Chromium and 8% Nickel. They are therefore known as 18-8 Stainless. ...

Metals: Medieval Swords, japanese swords, medieval swords
japanese swords, medieval swords, combat scenes: Hey, I ve only just received this question...weird. The answer depends upon the skill of the swordsmith. It s like any quality tool, you can buy something Swiss or Indian. they both do the same thing. Well sort of. That was the beauty of Japanese...

Metals: comparison 1.0037 (S235JR) - 1.0332 (DD11), S235J, DD11
S235J, DD11, 1015: Florian, thank you for your question on these European steel designations. The S235J steel is a plain low carbon steel, commonly referred to in the USA as grade 1015. The only alloy it contains is 0.5% copper. The DD11 steel is also a plain low carbon...

Metals: Thermal expansion issues with stainless steel, linear thermal expansion, contraction rate
linear thermal expansion, contraction rate, steel question: Eddie Thermal expansion is usually expressed as X(a number) times 10 to the negative fifth power . Meaning the actual growth is very slight, but measurable. Living in Wisconsin, USA, we see temperatures heavy equipment experience from -25 degrees...

Metals: Corrosion of stainless steel, 304 stainless, 316 stainless
304 stainless, 316 stainless, 254 SMO: Hello Dave and thanks for the question. You are correct that there are a great many factors involved with determining what stainless steels can withstand. While you are no doubt looking for a simple the maximum is ___% , it is indeed not that simple....

Metals: stainless steel, MIG shield gas, Argon, Helium, CO2, , welding stainless steel, shielding gas
welding stainless steel, shielding gas: I have included this information on different shielding gases and where they are used. It also includes some benefits and drawbacks as well. Exactly which gas should be used in your process would require detailed conversation on the product you are making,...

Metals: Copper Refining
A square decimeter is approximately 4 square inches. Do your own math: 0.5 amps per. 0.5 volts per. Total the surface that submerges and divide by 4 square inches. The answer will give you total volts and amps. Only count one plate as the electricity passes...

Metals: Hardness to tensile conversion, Brinell hardness, tensile strength
Brinell hardness, tensile strength, AR400: As you pointed out, Brinell hardness does seem to have a direct relationship with strength. I am not aware of a definitive conversion chart as such. The main reason is the strength of steel is determined through chemistry, prior to the quench and tempering...

Metals: Separation of Metals Through Chemical process
It s good that you are wise enough to ask first as some combinations of chemicals that you have listed would surely blow you into another dimension. Since you obviously have omitted to learn chemistry, you can have from me a simple method: Mix nitric acid...

Metals: Aluminium
Lee, The fast answer is no - there is no connection between heat and scratches. The scratches are only caused by abrasion of a harder object against the softer aluminum case. Heat has nothing to do with the scratches. If you were concerned about the...

Metals: Electrodeposition of Gold Sodium Thiosulfate
The rise in pH is normal and can be controlled with diluted sulfuric acid or even muriatic acid (HCl). But this also indicates that gold sulfide is dropping off the anode along with free sulfur. Agitation (constant stirring) will help get you consistency...

Metals: Melting in induction furnace (follow up question)
There is a possibility that the iron oxide formed is gathering nitrogen and oxygen from the air via the electric magnetic field and making a nitric acid gas. I suggest that you protect the preheated metal with a cheap inert gas like argon. As you mentioned...

Metals: Melting in induction furnace
You are making iron monoxide which is pyrophoric. That is what is attacking your acidic lining. Either lower the temperature to someplace below 900C or pump carbon monoxide into the induction furnace. Also, falling metal can also crack the lining, find a...

Metals: Lead alloy, indium, iridium
indium, iridium, smuggler's nickel babbitt: Dumi, you might be screwing up! 1st of all reducing nickel from these is beyond profit. 2nd if you are working the nickel babbitt bars from the Japanese 2nd world war, a lot of them are not what they seem. They are massive amounts of iridium with 7 to 8%...

Metals: Lead alloy, zinc, Parkes Process
zinc, Parkes Process: Lead is refined in a pot. An air compressor pumps air into the molten mass of raw lead using either a ceramic tube or one made of steel (the steel one is corroded and must be extra long, like a automobile brake line). Sulfur, copper, base metals are oxidized...

Metals: use of gas
90% He, 7-1/2% Argon, 2-1/2% CO2. CO2 alone will cause a weak weld and some nickel will vaporize as nickel carbonyl. You asked for the best? This is it. Keep the welder on DC with the electrode feed as positive. CO2 is cheap and works great for most steels...

Metals: 6011 Welding rod, quality welds, ac welder
quality welds, ac welder, course quality: Hi Rick, While your observation is correct, it is still easier to get quality fusion of the steel you are welding with the 6011. I say that because once you get the hang of maintaining an ark with the 6011 you will be able to see the puddle better than with...

Metals: 6013 Welding Rod, wire feeder, dual shield
wire feeder, dual shield, cosmetic appearance: Hi, The cored wire that I know about does not have the appearance of a 6013 stick rod. You can use gas with a bare wire or a dual shield wire and get about the same appearance. The dual shield is a combination of flux cored and gas shielded and probably has...

Metals: Acetylyne rate, acetylene tank, cu ft
acetylene tank, cu ft, torch: Hi Gerald, You should keep your aceteylene line pressure up to about 1/2 of what you have it set at. After that you are pulling it too hard. On a related matter you must, for safety, have check valves in your lines between the torch and bottles. Gen...

Metals: Aluminium, right direction, aluminium
right direction, aluminium, monk: We are sorry to inform you, that Kent Gailard is in Europe till 6/19/06. He has informed All Experts. com and for what ever reason, they still show him as active. If you can wait and re send your request on 6/19, Kent can get back to you. Regards, GS&...

Metals: Aluminium, finding a way, mast
finding a way, mast, yachts: Hi Malcolm, Yes aluminum can be welded. Under the above circumstances I would recommend having it done by a professional who is familiar with the application. What I mean is he should know about yachts and some background about what would make a mast break....

Metals: Aluminum Properties, climbing treestands, aluminum properties
climbing treestands, aluminum properties, 6061 t6: Instead of bending this, make it into a casting with the bends already in it. You should be able to make a cast pattern for under $1000 and then the aluminum will be about $3 to $4 per pound.You could even had your threads cast in if needed. Buy doing this...

Metals: Anodized Aluminum VS Anodized Brass, traditional aluminum, yellow colour
traditional aluminum, yellow colour, slow response: Greetings, My apologies for my slow response - I ve just been finishing a major ceremonial piece. Anodised Aluminium is a hard coating which is coloured on the surface of aluminium. This will scratch displaying the silver under the colour. The Brass...

Metals: Anti-corrosion of Pb-Sn and Zinc coated steel, hot dip zinc coated steel, zinc coated sheet steel
hot dip zinc coated steel, zinc coated sheet steel, zinc coated steel: Most of what I have seen has been the black iron tanks and Zinc coated sheet steel used in the marine environment. The inside of the tanks if they have any coating at all, will be coated with a polymer. Corrosion on the inside of tank is the result of condensation...

Metals: Antifouling of metal screen in seawater, cooling water system, filter screen
cooling water system, filter screen, ship builders: I am not an expert on this particular topic. However, to my best knowledge, it is advisable to have a removable screen barrier painted with marine grade anti-fouling paints similar to the paints/coatings used by Ship-builders, and then periodically removing...

Metals: ASTM Specs for Steel Bar and Sheet, metal fabrication shop, american welding society
metal fabrication shop, american welding society, astm specs: I thought I had answered you once before on this. But I am now told you never received my first answer. Sorry! 1030 and 1040 is as common as dirt. I am not as sure about A519-03. I will have to look into this this further or maybe you can look as well on...

Metals: advice, mr coombs, shortbread
mr coombs, shortbread, supply house: Greetings, Not sure what the texture is that you want to achieve, however I did bake some shortbread today. I think you probably want to use a texture wheel that you can buy from a jewellery supply house. Their are wheels of varying weights that will give...

Metals: aluminium, electric furnace, ingots
electric furnace, ingots, bauxite: This is really outside my expertise. However, the Bauxite is mined. It is crushed and then purified. This is then melted in a negative atmosphere electric furnace. Ingots are pored. From here they extrude, roll or cast whatever the piece may be.........

Metals: aluminum, molten aluminum, lab partner
molten aluminum, lab partner, g forces: Greetings, I m not too sure about some of the things which you question. However, Aluminium has a very low melting point and also a low solidification point. At the same time it will oxidise quickly too. Your centrifuge would have to be able to hold the...

Metals: aluminum welding, aluminum welding, oppurtunity
aluminum welding, oppurtunity, welder: Dear Pat, I have never had the oppurtunity to repair a Volvo bumper, but it can almost definitely be welded without too much expense. The biggest drawback I see is that it almost certainly would not look as good as a new bumper, it would depend on several...

Metals: angle iron and flat steel, metal castings, fabrication metal
metal castings, fabrication metal, angle iron: I am sorry, but this is out of my general area. There is a book that we use called the machinest handbook that has most formulas for applications with metal. Another way is to locate a distributor of fabrication metal. I d think they would have a chart like...

Metals: anvil, scrap heap, railyard
scrap heap, railyard, anvils: Greetings, Indeed they are - a very useful piece of steel which can be used as is or re-shaped to any form you desire. My pieces came from a friend who was working on the re-alignment of a railways crossing. its my understanding that offcuts are quite...

Metals: Ball Bearings, slury, plaster of paris
slury, plaster of paris, metal balls: I do not know how they make all ball bearings but I have made some for customers. The ones I have made were 1/2 diameter and larger. 1. you make an investment casting tool out of 2 halves of a negative impresion (Top of pattern is called a cope and the...

Metals: Black gold rodium, gold earrings, rhodium plating
gold earrings, rhodium plating, black gold: Hello, Rhodium plating is usually used on high cart white gold to make it look more white, rather than the pale yellow colour that white gold is naturally. Rhodium however has the unnerving ability to turn black in reaction to some peoples skin acid, which...

Metals: Black paint coating on Pewter, paint coating, black paint
paint coating, black paint, lead light: Greetings and I aplogise for my delay in answering your question as I have been O/S and offline for a couple of weeks. I would think that a solution of Pottasium Sulphide will easily achieve your goals with this. There are also colouring agents usually...

Metals: Brass? Age? Purpose?, mr coombs, brow band
mr coombs, brow band, best guess: Hello Rick and Denise, I apologise for my delay as I have been on the move for the six or so weeks with limited computer access. I really dont know too much about brass as I work primarily with precious metals. My best suggestion would be to talk with...

Metals: Brass Patina, leaded glass doors, soldering copper
leaded glass doors, soldering copper, copper foil: Greetings, There are two book that you should seek out, that may change your life. The Bronzing Coloring and Patination of Metal by Michael Rowe.....this is the metal coloring bible. Also you could have a look at Oppi Untracht.....cant really remember...

Metals: brass door bell, victorian things, victorian brass
victorian things, victorian brass, advice info: Hello, This sounds like something that is simple to repair or replicate. Most Victorian things worked on very simple principles, which is part of the reason they are still working today. You have a couple of options, either you attend a course at your...

Metals: brass polishing, brass railings, warm soapy water
brass railings, warm soapy water, polyurethane coating: Hello John, I apologise for my delay is response as I have been on the road for the past weeks. My suggestion would be to polish your brass as usual and then clean it using warm soapy water, followed by thoroughly drying it. Then you can coat it with brass...

Metals: brass, yellow brass, brittleness
yellow brass, brittleness, solid brass: Greetings, It will really depend upon waht type of brass it is - red brass, yellow brass, platers brass or in fact some form of bronze..........they are all very closely related cousins. Bronze and red brass are the best as they retain form and are not...

Metals: brazing & nickel plating brass, copper brazing, copper sheet
copper brazing, copper sheet, nickel plating: Greetings, It was quite common to made amongst other thing, fire extinguishers using brass and copper which was lead soldered together. You can easily achieve this using lead brazing rod and bakers soldering fluid....with relatively low heat. Alternatively,...

Metals: brazing stainless steel, lamp shade frames, stainless steel wire
lamp shade frames, stainless steel wire, argon gas: Greetings John, I apologise for my delay in response. I remeber seeing a good hands-on book on this subject more than 20 years ago, but unfortunately have been unable to discover what it was called. My suggestion would be to contact your local acetylene/argon...

Metals: Cast Iron Grates, cast iron grates, cast iron grate
cast iron grates, cast iron grate, resin powder: Most iron seems to be powder coated with a plastic resin powder coating or a Teflon these days. I could never be sure of what yours is coated with. Your manufacturer should be able to tell you by just going on line to their website. Regards, Ken...

Metals: Coat hanger stock., wire coat hangers, raw stock
wire coat hangers, raw stock, coat hanger: I would just contact a wire or metal sales company that is local to you. Tell them that you want to buy some wire the diameter of a hanger and cut to length. You can use your phone book or a search engine to locate your nearest metals dealer. Now if you needed...

Metals: Commercial steel tubes/pipes, steel tubes and pipes, commercial steel
steel tubes and pipes, commercial steel, mechanical strength: This email only showed uop today so I am sorry for any delay. The difference between tube and pipe is how it is manufactured to beging with. You can buy pipe and or tube to the same ID, OD, and length. You can also buy in the same material giving you the...

Metals: Commodity, raw metals, jewellery pieces
raw metals, jewellery pieces, commodities market: The possibilities are very broad: Beginning with the mining and discovery of metals, their extraction and sale onto the market. The purchase of raw metals and refining and sale onto the market. The purchase of second hand metals then re-sale or refining...

Metals: Computer Recycling, jenny jenny, computer recycling
jenny jenny, computer recycling, precious metals: Jenny - This is a pretty all-encompassing question. Regarding sharing ALL my knowledge regarding this subject, I suggest you first consult my website www.recyclebiz.com My business exists to educate people such as yourself as to the opportunities...

Metals: Constructing metal items, metal fabrication shop, machined part
metal fabrication shop, machined part, stationary tools: Well, if you know of some one close that has a metal fabrication shop, then they may let you use their equipment. But, more than not, shop owners would not like to have some one from outside use their machines for safty reasons. You d want to locate a...

Metals: Coolant, rust protection, drive wheels
rust protection, drive wheels, doall: Hi, We use a water soluable oil from DoAll in Louisville. I do not feel like I know too much about your problem because we have never had that problem to the extent you describe. If you are not using DoAll product, you may want to try it,or talk to the sales...

Metals: Copper and Brass Patina, copper patina, salt water swimming pool
copper patina, salt water swimming pool, copper and brass: Yes this should be no problem. you can easily get the solution from either a specialty paint supply or antique supply shop. The usual name is something like Verdi-Gres You ll probably find the brass is much longer lasting. Sorry for the delay and good...

Metals: Copper Patina Roof Protection, copper patina, copper roof
copper patina, copper roof, snack shack: Greetings, You should be able to lacquer the roof with metal lacquer or estapol. This will seal it as it is. You would probably want to lightly dust the roof prior to this and then ideally apply the sealant by spraying - Testing somewhere discreet first...

Metals: Copper rods and wire, copper rods, copper wire
copper rods, copper wire, precious metals: Greetings, Copper - and all other wire stocks - is reduced in size by being run through a series of share rollers, which are essentially a triangle cut out on each roller creating a square section....this size is reduced bit by bit and as it is rolled the...

Metals: Copper, enormous ammount, war memorabilia
enormous ammount, war memorabilia, uss constitution: Hello, This is an interesting question. On first thought I would think that thye are probably not worth an enormous ammount. However, I take it that the Constitution is a famous Ship? - I am in Australia - So my suggestion would be to contact acollectors...

Metals: Cooper patina, copper oxidation, copper carbonate
copper oxidation, copper carbonate, copper roofing: Greetings, I aplogise if my last response wasn t clear enough....I get accustommed to talking with people in the industry and assume that they know certain things. Caustic Soda is the basis of most soap and detergent, although in a very dilute form. Caustic...

Metals: Crane hooks and Closed Spelter sockets, crane hooks, overhead crane
crane hooks, overhead crane, kissick: I have now seen your question. Because I get a little concerned when there is a safty issue that may result from my answer I am going to contact a good friend of mine at Crosby Mc Kissick in Tulsa, OK. You too can get on a web site and pull up Crosby Mc Kissick...

Metals: Current prices of copper and tin, price of copper, current price of copper
price of copper, current price of copper, zinc: Current price of copper and tin is listed daily in the Stockmarket Pages of you newspaper. The quantity of copper and tin can vary depending upon the type of bronze but generally you will find 85% Copper 5% Tine 5% Zinc or there abouts by weight. Cheers,...

Metals: Cutting metal with a torch., cutting torches, lbs pressure
cutting torches, lbs pressure, steel post: Hi Sam, good question, for all general use we use about 10 lbs pressure on acetylene and about 40 lbs on the oxygen. That should work good for this job, a common problem with acetylene cutting torches is keeping the tip opened up and clean. Good luck. Gen...

Metals: cast iron, jb weld, auto parts store
jb weld, auto parts store, caravanpark: Please go to an auto parts store like Auto Zone. They have tubes of stuff for metal repair like JB Weld . You ll have to look to be sure it will work on iron because I know it will work on steel. It is also heat resistant and you can paint it. Just follow...

Metals: clasify metals, gold platinum, wakey
gold platinum, wakey, silver gold: Hey Liam, did you get the message?? Wakey wakey. Somehow I lost the header of my answer, And that is: THIS IS REALLY OUTSIDE MY EXPERTISE LIAM!! Precious / Non precious......these are the metals, silver gold platinum palladium which are precious....

Metals: can consumer tell what aluminum alloy, corvettes of houston, wheel spacers
corvettes of houston, wheel spacers, aluminum alloy: Al. is not as much of an issue as the heat treat. Like the T5 or T6 has the most usage in my world. You can call Complete Wheel. You can call Jayson at 800-824-2676 or or David at 1970-688-3337 and tell them that Paul of Corvettes of Houston sent you to them....

Metals: copper carbonate on silverware, copper carbonate, mr coombs
copper carbonate, mr coombs, nickel silver: Greetings, This is a common problem with old flatware. Your pieces are made from nickel silver and then they would have been really heavy silver plated. In the old days, the silver plate took about 4 hours which could be rouge polished.....now you re lucky...

Metals: copper/cast iron, cast iron pipe, cable tie
cast iron pipe, cable tie, water line: I have seen this happen. I also saw this as an example on a TV show about plumbing in old homes. If you were to ask a plumber , they could tell you for sure. I am sorry that I can not help you ant more than this. I really think an old style hardware store...

Metals: copper foil, stained glass supply, metal refiners
stained glass supply, metal refiners, austaralia: Hello Again Roger, Currently my website is under construction and I am told that it will be complete at the end of Feb. I design & make one off pieces ranging from rings pendant earrings to awards perfume bottles goblets etc..... If you send your email...

Metals: copper patina, copper patina, fish expert
copper patina, fish expert, copper plate: You will need to ask a pet store that carries fish. I do not know for sure althogh I have seen fish in the this same situation many times over a long period of time and the fish were fine. I think it would depend on the size of tank ( and the amount of fresh...

Metals: copper patina, copper patina, lead acetate
copper patina, lead acetate, ammonium chloride: Hello Jerry, Unfortunately copper is not so easy to turn green as other materials, which are easily patinated with vapour. Probably the simplest formula is Copper Sulphate 100gm Lead ACetate 100gm Ammonium CHloride 10gm Water 1 litre Apply to the...

Metals: crane hooks, crane hooks, astm specs
crane hooks, astm specs, google: Ben, ASTM is the largest cast metal specification in the world. Even the DIN standards of Europe are a copy of ASTM. It is the exclusive metal spec for castings only. The 4140 is a forged spec (or AISI). You have to go on line and ask for ASTM specs. ...

Metals: cutting torch, cutting torch, propane
cutting torch, propane, psi: Hi Glen, We use acyetlene as fuel, it is used at about 10 psi (15psi max) and oxygen at about 40 psi for 3/8 steel or less. I have had some experience with other fuels, such as propane, and if I remember correctly you use about the same settings. If you have...

Metals: THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ROD AND BAR., mechanical specifications, steel bar
mechanical specifications, steel bar, steel mill: I have been buying steel bar and rod for 32 years world wide and I do not think there is any difference (to my knowledge). The only thing I might imagine is that rod is more general as to size and chmical/mechanical specifications. Bar can be ordered to most...

Metals: Difference's in Iron and Steel, iron fe, iron steel
iron fe, iron steel, iron and steel: Iron (Fe) is an element which when combined with carbon and other elements makes steel, cast iron, ductile iron, stainless steel, etc. depending on what other elements and how much of each is added. Generally, steel is considered low carbon while cast...

Metals: Drilling bismuth metal plates, bismuth metal, bees wax
bismuth metal, bees wax, polishing compound: Hello Rod, I have never drilled Bismuth, but I have worked a lot with precious metal and aluminium in the creation of spectacles and trophies. I have discovered that the best drill bits are titanium coated.....they look like burnt bronze. They cut straight...

Metals: durability of platinum, gold wedding band, jewelery store
gold wedding band, jewelery store, platinum ring: Hello, The simple and straightforward answer is that all metals bend. I can t tell you what: plat .56 & 1536 lid. Might mean. Usually Platinum is 950…so unless you ve seen the stamp in the upside down reading. That you ve had it polished and straightened...

Metals: durability, princess cut diamond, 18 carat gold
princess cut diamond, 18 carat gold, stealth bombers: Hi There, Sorry for the delay, I only got the message today that there was a question waiting. Platinum is an odd metal, which is tougher than all the golds in some respects but also has some very wierd characteristics. Working platinum is much harder than...

Metals: European Steel Producers, assda, worldsteel
assda, worldsteel, steel producers: That s a good question, something that companies buy mailing lists for. I think I can come up with a few good sources of information. Here are some web sites that may have member lists. If you compile a list, I would appreciate it if you could share it with...

Metals: edge waviness tolerance, sbcglobal net, google
sbcglobal net, google, aisi: Sorry for the late response. I have been out. Are you a metals buyer? If so, do you have an engineering department? If so, they will tell you the standard requirements. You can also call you current supplier that you have been buying from and ask them as to...

Metals: Where Can I Find Machined Bolts for Automotive Industry, machined castings, molded plastics
machined castings, molded plastics, qs9000 certification: My past dealings with the automotive industry includes Delphi and others, including auto aftermarket like (Steel Horse and Auto Zone). My company, GSDUSA.com, is involved in this business and we are also QS9000 certified for molded plastics, molded rubber...

Metals: Finishing metal after grinding., d mop, bench grinder
d mop, bench grinder, dremel tools: Hello Bill, If you are wishing to re-finish stainless, then the easiest way is to sand it to the finest possible wet/dry paper or dremel head. A good trick is to work each grade of papaer in a differing direction , that way you can see when all the rougher...

Metals: Flash from welding, flash burns, eye medication
flash burns, eye medication, home remedy: Hi Andra, By following safe welding practices we do not have many flash burns, but over the years I have had a few. I am glad to say that there has never been any lasting effect from those that I can tell. Also, I don t know of any home remedy that works to...

Metals: Forged Crane Hooks, crane hooks, crane hook
crane hooks, crane hook, few suggestions: You are one lucky girl. I am in a good mood today in that my daughter and I go on vacation in 4 hours. Eventhough I have 21 work related emails to do, I will help you. By the way, you should not wait so late to do an assignment. I just happen to make both...

Metals: Forging, crane hooks, crane hook
crane hooks, crane hook, design engineer: Dear James, I have a good idea on how to forge a crane hook. The first thing you must know is the design. Crane hooks are a high liability component because they can fail, therefore dropping the load. Because of this, people will ask in their design for...

Metals: angle iron and flat steel, rough roads, couple hours
Metals: angle iron and flat steel, rough roads, couple hours, compromises

Metals: Brass Patina, glass supplier, stained glass
Metals: Brass Patina, glass supplier, stained glass

Metals: brazing stainless steel, american welding society, new processes
Metals: brazing stainless steel, american welding society, new processes, good hands

Metals: Commercial steel tubes/pipes, predictable characteristics, pressure pipe
Metals: Commercial steel tubes/pipes, predictable characteristics, pressure pipe, different eyes

Metals: clasify metals, non ferrous metals, chrome moly
Metals: clasify metals, non ferrous metals, chrome moly, hardness levels

Metals: cutting torch, acetylene, propane
Metals: cutting torch, acetylene, propane

Metals: THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ROD AND BAR., product terminology, wire rods
Metals: THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ROD AND BAR., product terminology, wire rods, flat bars

Metals: Gold reclaimation, thrift store prospecting
Metals: Gold reclaimation, thrift store prospecting

Metals: Importing Pig Iron, pig iron, inquiries
Metals: Importing Pig Iron, pig iron, inquiries

Metals: Material of a watch case, elgen, side winder
Metals: Material of a watch case, elgen, side winder, nickle

Metals: melting gold leaf card weight, loose piece, piece of gold
Metals: melting gold leaf card weight, loose piece, piece of gold, gold leaf

Metals: metals, nickle, stainless steel
Metals: metals, nickle, stainless steel, copper

Metals: metric steel, size materials, metric size
Metals: metric steel, size materials, metric size, angle iron

Metals: Payment Terms, hms1, 5 million
Metals: Payment Terms, hms1, 5 million, photos

Metals: Penny weight, troy ounce, pennyweight
Metals: Penny weight, troy ounce, pennyweight, coin exchange

Metals: PLAT STEEL, lowe s, zinc
Metals: PLAT STEEL, lowe s, zinc, plat

Metals: patina for nickle silver, birchwood casey, nickle
Metals: patina for nickle silver, birchwood casey, nickle, patina

Metals: plaster for gold casting, chemical binders, sand molds
Metals: plaster for gold casting, chemical binders, sand molds, casting aluminum

Metals: Rhodium or Palladium Ring, stock exchange, palladium
Metals: Rhodium or Palladium Ring, stock exchange, palladium, gold palladium

Metals: railroad track to anvil, caveat emptor, anvils
Metals: railroad track to anvil, caveat emptor, anvils, chunk of steel

Metals: SEPERATION OF MERCURY FROM GOLD, open flame, smart man
Metals: SEPERATION OF MERCURY FROM GOLD, open flame, smart man, hallow

Metals: The screw
Metals: The screw

Metals: How to get the verdigris patina on copper, uniform coverage, patina
Metals: How to get the verdigris patina on copper, uniform coverage, patina

Metals: fabricating a chamber, sheet metal fabricator, precision sheet metal
sheet metal fabricator, precision sheet metal, boiler shops: If your metal thickness is of a sufficiently light gauge (perhaps .120 or less), then any precision sheet metal fabricator (as opposed to an HVAC duct fabricator) should be able to roll or brake form the metal. Also try local welding or boiler shops. If there...

Metals: flexible metal strip, mesh metal, flexible metal
mesh metal, flexible metal, metal strip: I d have to ask first why you do not use a hinge ( is the lid made from metal?) if trying to connect the lid to the mating object (is it also made from metal?). Or do you want this to act as a handle for opening and closing the lid, ( if then why not a handle?)....

Metals: Gold Buyer, gold mining companies, mr coombs
gold mining companies, mr coombs, peter dear: Ok, well I dont really understand what the problem is. Do you have precious metal to sell? Or are you thinking of buying and selling? Either way, the precious metal industry has very little credit and runs primarily on cash trades. SO if he is willing...

Metals: Gold content (%), jewellery wholesalers, mr coombs
jewellery wholesalers, mr coombs, test acids: Hello Fred, If you are testing a ring or other piece of jewellery, then you rub the piece on a test stone - this leave a tiny residue of the ring on the stone. Then you can test this with the different karat test acids - which are available from most jewellery...

Metals: Gold guilding, plastic mylar, guild books
plastic mylar, guild books, homemade soaps: Greetings, The gold leaf which you have is usually transferred from the plastic to the paper or metal by way of pressure. Gold is extremely adhesive and through burnishing it will attach itself to your piece of choice. I m not sure how or what is used...

Metals: Gold prices in UK in last 10 years, relevant statistics, precious metals
relevant statistics, precious metals, gold prices: Hello, I have been purchasing precious metals for the past 20+ years and whilst gold has risen steadily, I would suggest that it hasn t been in tandem with the rates of inflation over the time. Currently the price in USD seems to be rising, but this is...

Metals: Gold reclaimation, dear fred, gold plating
dear fred, gold plating, sole intent: Dear Fred, Your experience is not unique. Electronics components are a very tricky type of scrap to recover the metals values from economically. I strongly recommend that you either find a refiner (if you have enough quantity) or buyer who will...

Metals: Gold in solution, oppi untracht, cristals
oppi untracht, cristals, specific gravity: Greetings and I aplogise for my slowless in reply as I have been on the road for a few weeks. I am sure that it is possible to extract the gold, but depending upon what you wish the end product fro, then this will effect your process. I usually have my lemel...

Metals: gas,cutting and welding, oxy acetylene, oxygen pressure
oxy acetylene, oxygen pressure, gas cutting: Hi Mike, sounds like you are in the neighborhood, which for all practical purposes, is all you need to be for general cutting as you describe. Keeping the tip clean is very important , especially so the oxygen can come out smoothly and straight. I generally...

Metals: gold fabrication, propane torch, propane heat
propane torch, propane heat, fire brick: Hello again Kurt, Before I begin, what was your email again, I was going to add you to my mailing list. Think you ll enjoy the scope of the pieces - especially the one I mailed this morning. The easiest heat source for you will be oxy/acetylene, I think....

Metals: gold nugget making, gold nugget, cuttle bone
gold nugget, cuttle bone, custom gold: Greetings, This is quite a straight forward thing to do in the home workshop, particularly as it sounds that you dont mind mixing different caratted golds. If you have access to oxy-propane then this will give you enough heat, or even oxy-acetylene which...

Metals: gold nugget making, gold nugget, cuttle bone
gold nugget, cuttle bone, custom gold: Greetings, This is quite a straight forward thing to do in the home workshop, particularly as it sounds that you dont mind mixing differnet caratted golds. If you have access to oxy-propane then this will give you enough heat, or even oxy-acetylene which...

Metals: gold, mr coombs, gold price
mr coombs, gold price, gold bar: Hello Mario, Gold has been stable for some time on the world market. I cant see thgat it will drop in price dramtically. However as the US$ has dropped in value recently and crreated an illusion of rising gold price - and I assume you are in the US - then...

Metals: Heat Conductivity in metals, heat conductivity, josh harris
heat conductivity, josh harris, electicity: If you look at which two metals are used in the most common applications of transfering electicity including heaters, it would be copper and aluminum. If you were to just go on line and ask yahoo, dogpile.com and or google and ask, you will find a wealth of...

Metals: Heat conductivity of different metals, heat conductivity, metal thickness
heat conductivity, metal thickness, astn: Hello Peter, If I am late getting back to you it os beause I have been traveling. Most metals have different cooling. Aluminum cools fast and metal like iron and steel cool slower. The metal thickness or thinness will drive this when its poured. The best...

Metals: High Speed Steel, high speed steel, hss tools
high speed steel, hss tools, society of manufacturing engineers: Rainer. High Speed Steel has been around as long as I have been in the metals business, or over 30 years. I mostly have seen it in the use of machine tools, like mill cutters, taps, drills, etc. The connection is that HSS is used to make the tools so they...

Metals: help needed to arc weld, arc weld, arc welder
arc weld, arc welder, arc welding: Hi dean, It is pretty hard to weld thin metal with an arc welder, but it is done frequently. First I would use a 6011 rod or maybe 6010, set the current about as low as you can to keep an arc going. You will have to start and stop your arc every time it seems...

Metals: Identifying Metals, colour variations, tin content
colour variations, tin content, raw metal: Hello Trish, The easiest way to delineate between the three metals is by their different colours. Copper when clean is a definite pink colour and as it becomes ovidised it turns a reddish brown which sometimes may have a slightly green tinge but not commonly....

Metals: Importing Pig Iron, foundry industry, pig iron
foundry industry, pig iron, foundaries: Your question is very interesting to me. I too am in the same business. I too buy pig iron from around the world to support a large foundry base in China. As you are aware, the price of all raw material has been going up over the last 12 months. Pig iron is...

Metals: identify material watch is made of., platinum jewellery, gold palladium
platinum jewellery, gold palladium, platinum ring: Hello Norm, I think your suspicions are correct. The Case Bulova- N6 10K R.G.P The strap Kesten 1/40 10K R.G.P The most importandt part of the markings is the 10K R.G.P Which means 10 Carat rolled gold palladium. That is its heavier/thicker gold...

Metals: interpass temperature, critical temperature, bob bob
critical temperature, bob bob, toughness: Bob,This is not something I know a lot about, we are a small shop in a small town. I do not know the term (interpass temperature). It sounds like the critical temperature range (about 1350 deg.F) of iron. At that temperature it undergoes changes in form and...

Metals: iron oxide, iron oxide, hematite
iron oxide, hematite, pigment: Greetings, The only uses that I am aware of are in jewellery in the form of hematite. It is also used as a die pigment. Iron oxide has a magnetic value too and you will find that people wear it for its healing virtues.......... Apart from that I cant really...

Metals: know more about iron, globalsource, gray iron
globalsource, gray iron, iron age: Please look up a magazine called Iron Age, it will help you. In addition, you can use a search engine called Dogpile.com and put in your question, you will find many answers. My company also sells iron produced in the USA and in China. We make cast ductile...

Metals: Laser cut jewellery, silver jewellery, having trouble finding someone
silver jewellery, having trouble finding someone, lasers: Silver is usualy too reflective and will burn out a laser, also many lasers will melt silver - however I have heard that there are people who have lasers that can achieve this. Just start talking to people that have laser cutting businesses...... Good...

Metals: Long Term Agreements, raw metals, metal element
raw metals, metal element, pig iron: Nancy, I too own my own business fealing in raw metals and value added (machined, Fabrication, cast, forged, etc.). And I too run into this same issue. I assume you buy your metal in the USA. The largest publication that I have used in agreement with my raw...

Metals: liquid metal/leafing, copper wires, clothing accessory
copper wires, clothing accessory, liquid metal: Greetings, I apologise for my delay in answer as I have been on the road and out of range....... This sounds like electroplating or more correctly electroforming. The best way to achieve a crisp leaf is to first paint it with shellac and then allow it to...

Metals: Material Loss when working with gold, scrap gold, material loss
scrap gold, material loss, 9y: Greetings, There are two ways of looking at this. Either you as a jeweller accept the 12gms of 9Y and replace it with virgin gold of the same ammount and credit the value of your supplied material as scrap gold which is usually about 45% of marekt price....

Metals: Material of a watch case, antique pocket watch, waltham pocket watch
antique pocket watch, waltham pocket watch, watch case: This may be of assistance........ http://www.antique-pocket-watch.com/pocket-watch-case.html For more practical purposes, a special alloy was developed which went by several different names, such as, Silveroid, Silverore, Silverode or Silverine. Silveroid...

Metals: Material, air bubbles, thick wall
air bubbles, thick wall, thin wall: I assume you are wanting to know which metal tends to have porosity. The answer would be cast aluminum. When melted, aluminum is thin, therefore, most easy to accept outside air. Second, by nature there is no other metal that when melted, sucks the humidity...

Metals: Melting scrap gold and silver, peter coombs, la eyeworks
peter coombs, la eyeworks, world prestige: Volunteer Expert: Peter Coombs Expertise: Anything at all to do with the working of precious metals. This includes most aspects of the jewellery and metalsmithing industry. Life Experience: Past/Present clients Many including: Elton John/Spectacles, la...

Metals: Metal Database, screw jack, milling operation
screw jack, milling operation, valve stems: First, I do not like doing too mush home work for students. You are still missing much of the information to be accurate. I make valve stems that are threaded and look like a screw in a screw jack. There are two ways to select the material. First you...

Metals: Metal Density, metal density, platinum gold
metal density, platinum gold, typical range: Greetings, I apologise for the delay in response as it been a holiday long weekend here. I have never looked at this process to identify metals, as I usually use a chemical identification method for palladium, platinum, gold, silver etc. As far as...

Metals: Metal Geometric Shapes/Jigs, welding supply, butane
welding supply, butane, jig: Hi Mike, I may not be able to help you much. I don t do enough of that kind of thing to keep up with what is available. Usually if there is a shape I need to make multiples of I either make a jig, get someone to make one or pass on the job. You just have...

Metals: Metal geometric shapes and jigs., geometric shapes, colour variations
geometric shapes, colour variations, quality piece: Hello Michael, I suppose that jigs would be available - I cant suggest anywhere. Perhaps you could make them yourself with steel or by carving the shapes into firebricks. The crucial thing with this sort of thing is that the joins are close to exact. This...

Metals: Metal hardness, cold rolled steel, steel grades
cold rolled steel, steel grades, chrome moly: Hi Mike to be honest this is more a question for an engineer, which I am not. I would contact one of my metals suppliers for that information. I may add that I would expect the answer to be one of the cold rolled steel grades. Sorry I can t be more specific....

Metals: Metal separation, metal separation, ammount
metal separation, ammount, refiner: Greetings Chris, This doesnt sound like too much of a problem, howeevr I dont know what the small ammount is that you have. You need to find a reputable precious metal wholesaler/refiner, who will do a melt, followed by an assay so that they have a % idea...

Metals: Metals, Which is stronger?, bridge crane, design engineer
bridge crane, design engineer, weith: I will answer in one more day. Thank you for waiting. I have been with my design engineer to provide a best answer. My design engineer is like most, he wants more information from you before he feels he can off you an answer. I have tried in the below...

Metals: Metals, hazardous metals, low carbon steel
hazardous metals, low carbon steel, recyclable metals: I can not answer this question without further reasearch, but instead I can only answer you based on my metals that I work with. The least expensive I would think is Pig Iron, the grey iron, then ductile iron, , then mild steel and last low carbon steel carbon...

Metals: medic bracelet, heart valve replacement, sterling silver bracelet
heart valve replacement, sterling silver bracelet, surgical stainless steel: Greetings, This is a very hard question to answer. I doubt that she is in fact allergic to silver, it would be the small amount of copper, zinc and or nickel in the bracelet. These are added to the silver to make it stronger as fine silver is way too soft....

Metals: melting gold leaf card weight, 22 carat gold, melting gold
22 carat gold, melting gold, leaf cards: Hello Stacey, Gold leaf is very light and I d be surprised if there was more than 0.1gram in a sheet. I don t know promint, but you could likely determine the weight by how much a book may cost. If its less than $70 for 10 leaves then I d suggest its around...

Metals: metal box, grey colour, silver plate
grey colour, silver plate, thrift store: Hello Jennifer, Firstly if its enameled then it definitely is NOT pewter - it would have turned into pewter soup at the heat required to melt enamel. It is likely nickel or copper or even silver, which would have been silver plated. and the silver plate...

Metals: metal characteristics, heat exchanger tubing, corrosion resistence
heat exchanger tubing, corrosion resistence, metal alloy: Are you asking what one single matal meets the best in all areas or are you asking for what specific metal best meets each requirement? If you are asking for a genreal answer, I d have to say considering all including cost, a stainless steel like CF8M. ...

Metals: metal identification, channel iron, mechanicals
channel iron, mechanicals, aisi: I do not know this material. You can contact specsonline.com or global.research@ihs.com global.research@ihs.com . My feeling is this is not a normal grade of material and I also think the description is not complete. You can also look at search engines for...

Metals: metals, non ferrous metals, municipal solid waste
non ferrous metals, municipal solid waste, precious metals: Everything you need to know is on any search engine. See below to get started. Non-ferrous metals are like aluminium, copper, zinc Definition of Non-Ferrous Metals Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide. metals.about.com/library/bldef-Non-Ferrous-Metals.htm...

Metals: metals, bar shape, forging press
bar shape, forging press, different forms and shapes of metals: Metals can be: A)in a scrap form or a group of different flat, round, cast, stamped, rolled and forged parts band to gether for melting. B)in a flat sheet produced in a mill. C)in a round bar shape rolled or extruded as a tube or pipe in a mill. D) In a forged...

Metals: metals, toxic level, slow response
toxic level, slow response, e mail: Greetings, and I apologise sincerely for my slow response as my All Expert e-mail have been getting redirected to a sub folder by the server.....ah the joy of modern tech Simply, you can have an allergy to all things, however the finer the metal the less...

Metals: metals, copper steel, metallurgist
copper steel, metallurgist, jeweller: Greetings, This is really a question for a metallurgist, not a jeweller. It s the make up of the compound....ie the recipe. If I remember correctly: Iron usually contains copper. Steel with contain, zinc and tin. Stainless contains copper and chrome....

Metals: metals, zinc anodes, mail ru
zinc anodes, mail ru, iron pig: Dear Alexander, Your question seems to be a request for sourcing of Pig Iron. Pig iron can be purchased internationaly per a specification being either ASTM, or Din. You can go online and look up suppliers of pig iron via a search engine using Dogpile,...

Metals: metric steel, metals company, sbcglobal net
metals company, sbcglobal net, ponds: Any metals company outside of the USA uses metric steel. I assume that the term metric is just used in the measurement of the material being in metric versus ponds, feet, inches, etc. My company uses metric when we make, buy or sell steel. See GSDUSA.com...

Metals: miniatures, melting point, miniatures
melting point, miniatures, good luck: Hello Fanju, I ve had a think about your question and I would suggest that the best material for you would be the mentioned pewter as it has a low melting point and flows well. Another metal to consider is called printers metal which is quite similar to...

Metals: mirror plating/coating, jeff koons, chrome bumpers
jeff koons, chrome bumpers, specialist restoration: Greetings, This is quite a long way outside my expertise. However, I know that they use a negative atmosphere electrostatic form of plating to chrome finish plastic as seen in the auto industry. I would talk to specialist auto parts producers or even...

Metals: Need general information about Sheet Metal, blah blah, aluminum heat
blah blah, aluminum heat, galvannealed: Trumpf (machine tool makers in Farmington, CT) publishes a book called the Fascinating World of Sheet Metal . It has both basic and advanced information on sheet metal processing methods. As for the grades of material, you need to know the basic groupings...

Metals: New Invention, rust proof, new invention
rust proof, new invention, gold plating: Hi Tania, Hope I can help you, Stainless steel is the first thing that comes to mind, although it may not be pliable enough. Brass also comes to mind, although it may not be durable enough. It also needs to be coated for long periods of contact to the skin....

Metals: Oxidizing Nickle plated brass snaps, ammonia fumes, belt buckle
ammonia fumes, belt buckle, automated equipment: Hello Again, I ve had a look through my notes and found no reference. The only thing that I can think of is soaking the pieces in warm solution of sulpuric acid and water.....I m thinking thhis should dull them down and make them a bit grey.....I think....

Metals: octagonal bar stock, steel bar stock, small quantities
steel bar stock, small quantities, stock sales: There are many metal distributers like Castle Metal 800-392-6588 and or Jorgensen in the phone book that should be able to provide you with what you want. Another source is any search engine like Dogpile.com and then enter metal bar stock sales. You should...

Metals: PATINA, copper carbonate, patina
copper carbonate, patina, fertilizers: Greetings, Copper Carbonate is quite commonplace in Australia, in fact its found in a lot of fertilizers. Its a blue/turquoise coloured powder, or crystal. You need to find a chemical wholesaler. If you were in Australia I d say try Ace, but I have no...

Metals: Patina Application, gilding metal, enamel badges
gilding metal, enamel badges, copper sheet: Gilding metal is otherwise known as red brass - used for enamel badges, tea pots etc. You can usuallty find this at a larger non-ferrous meatl supply place that would also sell copper sheet and wire. You could try anybody that call themsleves badge-makers...

Metals: Patinas, aluminium brass, patination
aluminium brass, patination, chemical formulas: Sorry for the delay. The best knowledge base is this book with a link to Amzon...........The Bronzing Colouring and Patination of Metals I/ve always used it and then altered the recipes when need be. Cheers, Peter http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0823007626/ref=sr_11_1/102-1229412-2046545?%5Fencoding=UTF8...

Metals: Payment Terms, hms 1, container costs
hms 1, container costs, scrap metals: Hello Yoni, FOB = Free On Board (or the cost does not include any freight if it is FOB originator) or if it is FOB final destination, then all freight is paid for by the seller in the unit costs. If it is FOB your port, then they will pay just to your port...

Metals: Penny weight, metric weights, slow reply
metric weights, slow reply, troy ounce: Hello Lois I apologise for my slow reply as i have been in trasnsit for the past week.... Penny weight came into being with imperial measurments, but I have neever used them as I live in Australia and have always used metric weights. There is a great online...

Metals: PLAT STEEL, aisi code, lowes
aisi code, lowes, material test: Some of the terms such as PLAT, I can only guess at. All of your questions should be able to get answers from Lowes. I have purchased and sold steel in plate, rounds, and tubes for 35 years and I always got a MTR (Material Test Report) with my purchase. I...

Metals: Platinum Ring, platinum ring, german bread
platinum ring, german bread, clean break: Greetings, Assuming that your ring was hand made rather than cast, it is quite possible for this to occur. The solder joint on any piece of jewellery - whilst being of similar make up as the metal - will always be softer as it it has a lower melting point...

Metals: Platinum, platinum 950, wedding band
platinum 950, wedding band, cheers: Greetings, I ve not heard of Plat 5. The question is whether its part of the same stamp or a separate one? It is possible that only the 5 of 950 came out. More likely it is a style or number / maker code. I dont think you have anything to worry about....

Metals: Precious metal trademark, precious metal content, worshipful company of goldsmiths
precious metal content, worshipful company of goldsmiths, honour system: Hello Rick, You are talking about 3 different things which are often mixed up. Assay mark denoted the carat wieght/ precious metal content in any given piece there are standard enclosing shapes which these have which assist in deiciphering worn pieces....

Metals: Pressure vessels CE approved, custom valve, sbcglobal net
custom valve, sbcglobal net, pressure vessel: You can get on line using Dogpile.com, Yahoo, etc and ask the question the same way as you ve stated your question. Are you looking for custom valve, pump, or what kind of pressure vessel? I make custom pressure vessels for a living now including export to...

Metals: Price of Gold?, gold content, price of gold
gold content, price of gold, dear peter: Greetings, Gold is one of those things which have a constant vlaue for trade and is dependent upon the state of the world economy this will fluctuate. Gold is a very useful metal, which is why it has value as a comomodity. It s because of all the things...

Metals: patina formula for copper verdegris, copper carbonate, copper roof
copper carbonate, copper roof, roof application: Greetings, I think you ll find 100 grams Copper Carbonate 200 mls Ammonia 1 lt Warm Water Spray onto copper allow to dry, repeat but dont make too wet...... This process essentialy speeds up nature, so many light sprays over several days is the best...

Metals: patina for nickle silver, nickle silver, patina
nickle silver, patina, ammonia: Hello, The easiest and hardiest method would be to vapour etch the nickel with ammonia. Vapour etching means that the piece is kept in an enclosed area with the ammonia liquid nearby but not immersed. The vapour will patina the nickel. Good Luck and...

Metals: pewter coating, enamel paints, chest of drawers
enamel paints, chest of drawers, silver plating: Greetings, There is not way that I know of plating brass in pewter. As far as I know its not something that anybody does. However you could get the pieces electro-plated in silver which you could then oxidise and achieve a similar colouration. You would...

Metals: pickle contamination, red haze, copper oxide
red haze, copper oxide, iron sulphide: Hello Penny, The easiest way to sort this problem out is to make fresh pickle, and then anneal your piece followed by a good pickling. I m assuming your piece was Sterling? The red haze on your piece isnt actually copper plated, it is more likely that...

Metals: plaster for gold casting, turbine blades, automobile engine
turbine blades, automobile engine, gold investment: Greetings, I have no experience with auto and turbine parts. Gold investment plaster is high temperature and very fine. When casting gold, the molten metal is around 960C, whereas most alloys of aluminium etc are molten around 450C~500C Cheers, P *I...

Metals: About platinum, platinum engagement ring, carat yellow gold
platinum engagement ring, carat yellow gold, carat gold: Hello There La Tosha, Platinum is platinum Gold is gold, whether white yellow rose or otherwise silver is silver etc. Not sure who the jewellers are but they dont know what tbey are talking about. Silver as seen in most instances is sterling silver...

Metals: precious metals... refinery?, palladium nickel, jewelery repair
palladium nickel, jewelery repair, amnd: Hello again Kurt, I am not aware of an easy test for determining palladium/nickel. The only thing that I can imagine is that the nickel gold would have a very slightly green hue in the yellow/white colour of white gold. My supplier prepare only palladium...

Metals: prevention of electrolysis, disimilar metals, college tutors
disimilar metals, college tutors, push scooter: Electrolysis is a very misunderstood process. If they want you to think about it, you should; but it has nothing to do with your scooter. Look it up in Webster s. Your tutors are meaning to refer to galvanic corrosion, which is created by connecting disimilar...

Metals: product search, metal fabrication companies, glass requirements
metal fabrication companies, glass requirements, dogpile: You can look on line using search engines like Ask Jeeves, Dogpile, Google, etc. and ask for suppliers of meteal or glass tube. You may be able to go to a hobby shop and either buy it there or find a place to buy this. You can contact metal sales companies...

Metals: Question about patinas, patinas, household products
patinas, household products, paint shop: Hello, I am unaware of anyone who sells pre-made patinas, unless you go to an old world hardware/paint shop. Most patinas are made up form mixing 2 or 3 chemicals and then applied in a variety of ways. These recipes range form basic household products...

Metals: Raw Material Specifications, astm b16, raw material specifications
astm b16, raw material specifications, element composition: It seems you want to specify material to be purchased from prospective supplier. My suggestion is it is best to involve the end-user of the material. There might be many more requirements that should be specified, such that the supplier understands the exact...

Metals: REDESIGNING PLATINUM, platinum band, inner face
platinum band, inner face, sentimental value: Greetings, From what you have described, the easiest solution will be for the ring to be re-shaped. Most importantly, you need the interior to be comfort shaped ie you curve the inner face of the band so that it is a 1/2 round shape on the interior. You...

Metals: Redesign Platinum Setting, store liquidation, platinum ring
store liquidation, platinum ring, liking: Greetings, Yes it is possible to melt this ring down, but unless it is a weighty ring then it will hardly be worth doing as you wont have enough material to create a new piece, and for that matter the time that it takes to melt a re-make might cost more...

Metals: What Do Refineries Want In Scrap Gold?, scrap computer, scrap gold
scrap computer, scrap gold, computer cards: Hello Matthew, I am unaware of what a computer card really conssists of. It may be the case that the only gold is the connectors or there may be other gold on the cards. My suggestion is to call their Live Customer Assistance Number. As an aside we...

Metals: Regarding a metal Design, strong point, ups
strong point, ups, curves: Hi, I don t get many, or any, requests for set ups for manufacturing. That is just not my strong point. I would look at a design to see if I do have any ideas though, but you shouldn t go through any expense or too much trouble, because I am doubtful that...

Metals: Repairing a brass coal bucket, gas torch, thin sheet
gas torch, thin sheet, soldering iron: Hello Ken, I thought that I had answered your question. You will require a gas torch - propane - to repair your coal bucket. I suggest that you use another piece of brass behind the tear and probably the best solution would be top use low heat, lead solder...

Metals: Rhodium or Palladium Ring, gold refiner, jewllery
gold refiner, jewllery, rhodium: Hello Elsan, Rhodium is a grey white element. It is most likely that the ring is rhodium white gold. Rhodium on its own is usually to electro-plate things giving a bright white colour. On its own it would be too brittle to be made into jewllery......and...

Metals: Rhodium plating lack gold, gold silver jewellery, cyanide solution
gold silver jewellery, cyanide solution, aparatus: Greetings, Rhodium plating is performed by a process of electroplating. Rhodium is dissolved into cyanide solution and a love dc volt high amp current is passed through the solution with the piece beng the negative........as the current passes through it...

Metals: Rhodium, platinum alloys, jewellery industry
platinum alloys, jewellery industry, rhodium: Hello Les, Within the jewellery industry, Rhodium is used mostly now in the platinum alloys for it s hardness, or alternatively to plate White Gold for the same reason and its brightness. Some useful links for you which will give you information on Rhodium...

Metals: Rocket Launcher, rocket launcher, foot boat
rocket launcher, foot boat, engineering student: Hello Kyle, I wish you luck but this is way outside my expertise.......I dont even know what to suggest. There may be some engineering sites on the net. In fact it might be something that a school of engineering may do as a project, or perhaps a special...

Metals: Rust on iron, precious metal, rust
precious metal, rust, good luck: Hello David, I apologise for any delay in response to your message, it would seem that you posted your question sometime ago, however I only received it last night. I work mostly with precious metal and iron is really a bit outside my expertise. I have...

Metals: railroad track to anvil, jewlery industry, surface grinder
jewlery industry, surface grinder, grit sizes: RR track anvils are mostly used by beginners in the blacksmithing ART as a way to get started with an anvil without spending alot of money. Grinding down the RR track itself is mostly related to the jewlery industry, as a way to make miniature anvils that...

Metals: reaction of metals, steel product, corrugated iron
steel product, corrugated iron, ocean spray: Hi Nathan,I assume the corrigation is galvanized, that is designed to retard corrosion. Idealy it is to be used outdoors, but in an atmsphere that is not unusually corrosive. I am afraid the ocean spray with the salt would seriously shorten it life. As you...

Metals: restoring green patina to copper, caustic soda solution, copper carbonate
caustic soda solution, copper carbonate, fish sculpture: Greetings and I aplogise for my delay in answering your question as I have been O/S and offline for a couple of weeks. If your sculpture has laquer on it then you will need to remove it. This can be easily achieved with a caustic Soda solution. then you...

Metals: rhodium plating, gold diamond ring, jewellery school
gold diamond ring, jewellery school, coatbridge: Hello Marion in Glasgow, Yes that is all possible. I would have it plated by a quality jeweller, of which you will have no trouble in locating in Glasgow. I would avoid the larger chain stores and go to a stand alone establishment. What you will require...

Metals: Salary info, metal center news, metals industry
metal center news, metals industry, industry thanks: I have to tell you what ever it is, it is not enough. I am the director of marketing for one of the top 30 service centers and I know how it goes in our industry. I thought the MSCI used to publish a salary review. I was not able to find it on their website....

Metals: Scrap Prices, scrap metal prices, metal producers
scrap metal prices, metal producers, pig iron: Dear Max, I am involved in international source supply development with my last 17 years in China. I have seen the same increase you have. I have other business relationships all over the world including the UK, Europe, Canada, Mexico and Asia. I have a...

Metals: Screws, nickel plated steel, universal fasteners
nickel plated steel, universal fasteners, nickel zinc: Greetings, I doubt that your screws are made from aluminium as its way too soft... your screw are likely stainless, or nickel plated steel and you should be able to tell by the colour... If the colour is slightly blue then its likely Nickel Zinc plated....

Metals: SEPERATION OF MERCURY FROM GOLD, refiner, seperation
refiner, seperation, cheers: Greetings, I know of no home studio way of achieving this and would be strenuously suggesting that you have it done by a qualified refiner. The vapour from the mercury is quite toxic and could easily lead to respiratory cancer. Good Luck and Cheers,...

Metals: Silver alloys in Roman coinage, empire coins, japanese craftsmen
empire coins, japanese craftsmen, silver alloys: Greetings, This is a bit outside my knowledge base and thus am unsure as to the facts, but I think your first guess about tin is likely correct. Also once you get down to 50 50 Ag Cu then it becomes very pale pink and is a metal used by old Japanese...

Metals: Silver Solder, expertice, solders
expertice, solders, cheers: Hello Jeff, THere are many types of silver solder.......in all cases they contain silver and finish shinier than other solders such as phos bronze etc. Also they are usually higher temperature, as well being stronger. Hope this is of assistance. Cheers,...

Metals: Silver Soldering, pin holes, proper temperature
pin holes, proper temperature, coper: This seeems to be a result of overheating the solder, and perhaps applying it prior to the piece being hot enough. You need to flux up the two pieces and heat them steadily. The flux will appear to come clear and then the solder should run through the...

Metals: Silver solder, oxy acetylene torch, neutral flame
oxy acetylene torch, neutral flame, work untill: Hi Ian, You can silver solder with an oxy-acetylene torch. You don t say what kind of metal you are silver soldering so I will try to cover the main things. You need to have a welding tip of the proper size, one that will heat the base metal hot enough in...

Metals: Silver and sterling silver, sterling silver, silver jewelry
sterling silver, silver jewelry, stupid question: Greetings, The 925 means that 925 parts in the 1000 are fine silver with the other 75 parts being pure copper only....in this case you have sterling silver. There are other recipes for anti oxide silver which is also 925 parts fine silver but has other...

Metals: SMA, shape memory alloy, stainless steel screws
shape memory alloy, stainless steel screws, miami lakes florida: Hello Jennifer, I have next worked with memory metal, however through my work with hand-made spectacles and attendance at a variety of trade shows in Italy Japan and France I have seen memory metal used quite a bit by Charmont Japan, but I think they may...

Metals: Soldering silver and brass, oxy acetylene torch, material safety data sheets
oxy acetylene torch, material safety data sheets, safety data sheets: Greetings, Info you require is here..... https://pgw100.portal.gases.boc.com/boc_sp/au/safety/material_safety_data_sheets/index.asp Oxy acetylene is way too hot for silver, you d want to use straight propane or Oxy-Propane. I usually use 60~130...

Metals: Stainless steel, rust resistance, rust proof
rust resistance, rust proof, salt content: Simple answer, yes. You could go with 316. 316 has a higher Nickle content which aids in the rust resistance. Note I said rust resistance, not rust proof. 304 or 316 can rust. Do you live near an ocean? The higher salt content in the air can effect...

Metals: Steel grades and conversion, mesteel, steel grades
mesteel, steel grades, precious metals: Greetings, Not sure if this will help, but try these two sites. They may hold the information you are looking for. Good Luck, P http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Campus/8262/htdocs/stand/uk.html http://www.mesteel.com/cgi-bin/w3-msql/goto.htm?url=http://www.steelmillsoftheworld.com/qualities/british_standards.ht...

Metals: Steel manufacturers/ distributors/trders in U.S, steel pipe industry, steel pipe manufacturer
steel pipe industry, steel pipe manufacturer, castle metals: I have been in the steel pipe, bar stock and plate busness for the last 32 years in Houston. There are the large distributers like Ryerson, Jorgensen, Castle Metals, Kilsby. They are and have been the largest in the USA based on my past history. I do not know...

Metals: Steel Websites, metal fabrication shop, tubing sheets
metal fabrication shop, tubing sheets, cpm certification: Hi Keri, I spent 33 years in metals mabnufacturing including inspection, QA, Engineering, purchasing assistant, buyer, purchasing agent, Sr. Purchasing Agent, Purchasing Manager and then finaly I was the Director of Global Sourcing and Purchasing for Dresser...

Metals: What is Sterling Silver?, mr coombs, sterling silver
mr coombs, sterling silver, dear mr: Greetings, Sterling Silver refers to a standard silver recipe. Fine Silver is too soft and porous to use successfully. Some time ago, it was dicovered tat by adding 75 part in the 1000 of pure copper to 925 parts in the 1000 of fine silver then you had...

Metals: Sterling silver markings, sterling silver markings, stall holder
sterling silver markings, stall holder, question thanks: I am in Australia of Scots descent so naturally distrust the English and have bought in both Portobello and Camden,.....in fact I remember being told morte than once that the item had been picked up the night before....which I guess meant they were a bit warm....

Metals: The screw, 16th century armour, archimedes screw
16th century armour, archimedes screw, screw conveyor: Great question! Last year, one of the major magazines came out with their list of the ten best inventions of the millenium. They didn t include the screw or threaded fastener . They should have. Here is a copy of an article I found from britannica.com....

Metals: selling siler, sterling silverware, styles and shapes
sterling silverware, styles and shapes, odd pieces: I think the best spots would be to check the antique dealers etc near you…. try out several different ones and see if you get a feel for what people show interest in. Remember not to be pressured into anything, and just because someone is giving you an appraisal,...

Metals: silver solder, cheers, good luck
cheers, good luck, greetings: Greetings, Its difficult but it is possible. You need to use high grade silver brazing solder along with Silver Brazing Flux. Ensure everything is spotless clean and covered with the flux, then you heat both things at the same temperature prior to adding...

Metals: silver, paper knife, sterling silver
paper knife, sterling silver, molecules: Hello James, I apolgise for my delay in response as I have been moving about a lot lately and uinable to access the site. I would suggest that the best type of sterling silver for a blade would be rolled sheet at around 2mm thick. The silver when rolled...

Metals: sk668, kent ross, international metals
kent ross, international metals, radar facility: Hello Ross, You have not been given enough information for you to work with and you need to go back to your customer and ask them for a copy of SK 668. In my 30 yrs. of international metals work, the only thing SK ever means is sketch. So there exists a SK...

Metals: stainless steel, stainless steel railing, cf8m
stainless steel railing, cf8m, sbcglobal net: I need to know more of what you are trying to do. Like anything, you can over kill or not. A 316 SS CF8M, is the best because of the high amount of Cr, Ni, Mo. But, it may be an over kill and it will cost a lot. There are lesser versions of stainless like...

Metals: about stamped or etched designs in sterling silver, laser machine, jewelry designer
laser machine, jewelry designer, sterling silver: Hello Laura, There are a few differing ways to achieve this, however the best solution will dependent upon complexity of design, size of the required piece and cost. If the pieces are up to 40mm~50mm andf you plan on making several of them, then I would...

Metals: Which standard, mss sp, dear sirs
mss sp, dear sirs, cast metals: The standard used in the USA is AISI for this type of metal. You should be able to go on line and use a search engine for AISI specs re: Surface conditions. I know for cast metals, the spec is MSS SP 55 for allowable surface. I hope this helps Regards,...

Metals: sterling cutlery luncheon set, assay office, sterling silver
assay office, sterling silver, cutlery: Greetings, If your set is sterling silver then it should have a bunch of other marks, like a lion and 925, along with an assay office mark which might be a castle or an anchor etc...... GMC NY to me means nothing and is likely a company product code...

Metals: the stongest metal, precious metals, space shuttle
precious metals, space shuttle, what is the strongest metal: Thats a hard one to answer Different metals have different forms of strength. Within the elements, the precious metals have a malleability unknown in most anything else in the universe - a 1 cm cube of gold can be stetched to over a kilometer. Titanium...

Metals: the stongest metal, weather applications, correct combination
weather applications, correct combination, qustion: Metal strength is too broad of a question. Metal is measured by many different applications such as hardness (BHN or Rc) Tensil, elongation, RA or reduction of area, etc. Engineers want to allply the correct combination of the above to obtain the best...

Metals: Tarnished Brass Screws, brass screws, safety instructions
brass screws, safety instructions, holliday: Hi Phil, sorry for the delay I was out for the holliday. Actually this may be out of my line of work, but I do believe muratic acid or hydrochloric acid would probably do what you want. You should get safety instructions on the use of this first though. There...

Metals: Termal manipulation of gold, 24 carat gold, 22 carat gold
24 carat gold, 22 carat gold, 24k gold: Greetings, To create what you describe as a standard 24K gold is in fact refining. To achieve this you will require a series of acids to remove the other materials, well to liquefy them and leave the gold sludge, whihc then needs to be heated in a kiln...

Metals: TIG problem, tungsten 3, ceramic cup
tungsten 3, ceramic cup, machine settings: Hi Matt, I am not familiar with your particular model of equipment, but maybe I can let you know a few things to look for. First, you said the ceramic cup cracked and melted, as you may know, this cup must be replaced. If you replaced it, did you notice if...

Metals: Titanium / Chair, sling seat, titanium frame
sling seat, titanium frame, camera bodies: Greetings, I m thinking that if you could get the titanium and work with it, then you d likely have a chair that will last forever. Afterall titanium is used in the construction of the space shuttle and serious camera bodies. Its a very strong and inert...

Metals: thickness of plate steel, thicknes, steel manufacturers
thicknes, steel manufacturers, plate steel: The nominal thickness for 10ga is .135 vs .188 for 3/16. The only problem is that is the nominal thicknes is .135. Steel manufacturers are allow to varry by 10% and they tend to aim to the low side, so most likely the thickness on the 10ga will be .120...

Metals: verdegris formula, copper carbonate, dear peter
copper carbonate, dear peter, place thanks: Hello Elizabeth, Yes I don t see any difficulty in that working on your pot. The ingredients are relatively common and can be purchased from a chemical wholesaler......or maybe even a hardware store or plant place. Thanks and good luck. Cheers, ...

Metals: How to get the verdigris patina on copper, verdigris patina, waiting a lifetime
verdigris patina, waiting a lifetime, chocolate brown: Greetings, My apologies for my slow response - I ve just been finishing a major ceremonial piece. I have answered this question a few times previously. Please check these responses and let me know if you require any further info. Cheers and Good Luck,...

Metals: visual difference between patinum and white gold, assay marks, precious metals
assay marks, precious metals, white gold: Hello Aubrey, Platinum looks cold and is a grey sort of hard looking colour. With Age this will remain this colour. 18 White gold is grey also but with a hint of yellow and definitely a warmer looking material. With AGe this will darken and possibly look...

Metals: Welders, alfredo alamo, millermatic 175
alfredo alamo, millermatic 175, hobart handler 175: Hi Alfredo, I am not familiar with the plus with the Lincoln so I really cant comment on that. They are all very good brands, I have heard that many on the Miller and Hobart machines are made at the same plant. When I have been faced with this and all else...

Metals: Welding of Stainless Steel, sbcglobal net, copper
sbcglobal net, copper, stainless steel: I will have to answer you in one day. Please email me at my email address so I can respond. Just by me making this email using AllExperts your original question will be lost trying to contact you in the future with an answer. But, if I had just waited till...

Metals: Welding a small utility trailer for the first time?, arc welder, small utility trailer
arc welder, small utility trailer, ventilation equipment: You seem to know that there are problems with the way you are wanting to go about getting a trailer, but would like to add that welding is not learned real quickly. Welding involves much more than melting metal together. Some of the things to learn you have...

Metals: Welding w/o Warping, shrinker stretcher, jig fixture
shrinker stretcher, jig fixture, warpage: Dear Karl, I probably can t help you much but here is what I know. You are correct in your procedure to tack everything together before you weld, this is necessary, but the problem comes when you weld thin metal with a solid bead. I would experiment, skipping...

Metals: Welding, liquid steel, inch steel
liquid steel, inch steel, welding machine: Hi Scott, first of all I am sorry for not reponding sooner I have been out of town for a couple of days and not checked my email. You have very little chance doing what you want to do with that welder, rod combination. First of all the machine is too small...

Metals: White Gold., colour differentiation, fine gold
colour differentiation, fine gold, type colour: Hello Cameron, I am assuming that you are using 18W Gold. Like the difference between yellow gold and white gold, they are made using different recipes with the key being that the correct ammopunt of gold mking up the Karat ie there is always 18 parts...

Metals: I want to find out the ways..., magnetic properties, wcb
magnetic properties, wcb, carbon steel: If you change from a carbon steel (like an ASTM grade WCB) to a stainless steel (like ASTM grade 316 or CF8m) you can change your magnetic properties. I think this is what you are asking but I am unclear as to your specific question. Regards, Ken...

Metals: welding equip?, esab, bbq pit
esab, bbq pit, discovery channel: Hi, both items are pretty good for home use but would recommend the tig because it is easier to learn, since you are new to welding. The tig will do a good job on new or clean metal, also it would be easier to weld thin metal with it. Hope this helps. gen...

Metals: welding, welding rods, mistake
welding rods, mistake, circumstances: Hi Mike, I would definitely use the 6011, the two rods are the same strength (60,000) as shown by the first two numbers. The 6011 is an all position rod that is much easier to use under most circumstances. The only advantage to 6013 is that if run properly...

Metals: how to, metalsmithing, local college
metalsmithing, local college, due respect: Hello Teresa, WIth Due respect, I would be incredibly suspect of any courses for jewellery over the internet. Jewellery and Metalsmithing are hands on vocations and as such can not be taught remote - particulalry if you have no prior experience. Talk...

Meteorology (Weather): 2007 forecasts, destin florida, fair weather
destin florida, fair weather, outdoor wedding: Hi Anne A forecast of a year is kind of risky!! :) However, take a look at: Temperature: http://tinyurl.com/nnvsr Precipitation: http://tinyurl.com/lrvot Text discussion of maps: http://tinyurl.com/onq3o Climatology: http://www.city-data.com/city/Destin-Florida.html...

Meteorology (Weather): Dew Point, high humidity, rain wind
high humidity, rain wind, relative humidity: The dew point is the temperature that the air must be cooled to in order for it to reach saturation. The closer the dew point is to the temperature the less is has to cool. Since air cools as it expands, as it does as the air is lifted, you know about how...

Meteorology (Weather): Dew Point, dew point temperature, dew condensation
dew point temperature, dew condensation, local weather: Hi Rick Dew point is the temperature at which dew (condensation) would form on an object out-doors. For an example, if the air temperature that was 55 fell to the dew point temperature of 50, moisture in the air would condense on car roofs (parked) and...

Meteorology (Weather): Earth's Axis, weather extremes, seasonal change
weather extremes, seasonal change, tilt: The greater the tilt the greater the weather extremes. With an increased degree of lean everywhere would see a much more dramatic seasonal change. Tempature changes through out the year would be much more extreme as would the precipitation. A degree or...

Meteorology (Weather): Feelings of coldness, dry cold, wet one
dry cold, wet one, liquid state: Moisture is a weather moderator. Near the ocean the temperature changes are much smaller than inland. Also, if there is allot of moisture in the air, then when it cools down it starts to condense. Due to the heat released as the moisture goes from a vapor...

Meteorology (Weather): frosty mornings, frosty mornings, qestion
frosty mornings, qestion, frosty morning: The coldest part of the day is normally dawn or just after. The sun warms the earth s surface during the day. After the sun goes down the earth loses heat until the sun begins to shine on the area again heating the area again. Based on your explanation...

Meteorology (Weather): future weather, specific city, nsw australia
specific city, nsw australia, weather: Hi Fiona It s too early to give you an accurate forecast. If you ask again around the 20th of January and give me a specific city I could help you. If you want to see a computer forecast, you could use this link around 20th as well: http://www.weatherknowledge.com/latest.html...

Meteorology (Weather): Humidity in the Home, humidity in the home, condensation problems
humidity in the home, condensation problems, rainy periods: The air in your house in comes in from the outside, so an increase in R/H is to be expected during rainy periods. A more effective way of decreasing the R/H would be to use the A/C not the heater, but again with the expense. As far as the normal indoor conditions...

Meteorology (Weather): Job in meteorology, better health care, ams member
better health care, ams member, usa jobs: Hi Min I don t know of any head hunters that specialize in meteorology jobs. I would look at: http://www.jobsfed.com/rp/cgi/Vacancy.cgi?GroupID=09;Series=1340;Valued=1 for Federal jobs. The disadvantage to Federal jobs is a lower salary. The...

Meteorology (Weather): July 19, 2008, average rainfall, swimming trunks
average rainfall, swimming trunks, outdoor wedding: In a nutshell, hot and wet! The average daytime high in July is 92°F with an all time high of 105°F however the average rainfall is 4½ inches (in other words about an inch of rain a week). So might I suggest (if your fiancee agrees that is) to getting married...

Meteorology (Weather): Lightning, air cloud, static electricity
air cloud, static electricity, weather: Lightning is an electronic discharge of static electricity. (The same way that you can get shocked after dragging your feet on the carpet, but on a much bigger scale.) In weather reporting there is; in cloud, cloud to cloud, cloud to air, & cloud to ground....

Meteorology (Weather): Natural Disasters, california fog, tornado winds
california fog, tornado winds, tropical cyclone: Hi Evan Tornado winds have lifted up people. The mean upper air flow is from east to west that takes the hurricanes that form to the south, eastward, away from the coast of California. Fog is rare with tornadoes because the high winds at the surface...

Meteorology (Weather): Planning for outdoor event, record wind speed, average snowfall
record wind speed, average snowfall, relative humidity: Trying to predict that far out you will have to use climatology. It will give you an idea of what is normal for you area at that time. According to the source the I found it listed 12 days with precipitation during the month of May. So, that is about a...

Meteorology (Weather): seasons, northern hemisphere, sean ryan
northern hemisphere, sean ryan, 4 months: The seasons in the northern hemisphere are based on the tilt of the earth with respect to the sun. Winter is from roughly December 21-March 21, Spring from March 21-June 21, Summer from June 21- Sept 21, and Autumn from then until Dec 21...these dates are...

Meteorology (Weather): stratospheric ozone, fossil fuel emissions, ozone molecules
fossil fuel emissions, ozone molecules, oxygen molecule: Raymond: As you may know, ozone molecules are formed by chemical reactions that take place in the stratosphere. These reactions are constantly taking place, with an equilibrium of destruction and formation of ozone...therefore it doesn t really have time...

Meteorology (Weather): Weather, longest day of the year, closest to the sun
longest day of the year, closest to the sun, question deals: Hi Seth Good question! The answer is that there is a overlap extension because of the thermal build-up of warm/cold as the season may be, which means the atmosphere is acting as a heat/cold sump that skews the hottest/coldest day from the astronomical...

Meteorology (Weather): Wind-Chill Factor, wind chill factor, wind chill chart
wind chill factor, wind chill chart, chill factor: Z is based on our understanding of heat transfer and how it impacts the human body. Wind chill is what the premature feels like to exposed skin. It is NOT an actually premature. It is a good guide for how to dress for the weather and plan to prevent exposure...

Meteorology (Weather): Wind-Chill factor, wind chill factor, chill factor
wind chill factor, chill factor, temperature cause: Hi Steve Wind chill is the effective (what you feel) temperature cause by evaporational cooling by the rate of loss of moisture from the skin surface (cooling). Wind speed, humidity of the air and temperature are the three variables that define wind chill....

Meteorology (Weather): Barometric pressure, don mackay, sea level pressure
don mackay, sea level pressure, altimeter watches: Hi Don If the watch shows 1013 and it s not 10:13 am or pm then it would be 1013 millibars. Most altimeter watches use inches such as a reading like 29.93. To convert millibars to inches, use: http://www.csgnetwork.com/pressinmbcvt.html To find...

Meteorology (Weather): Cold front, local news stations, unsettled weather
local news stations, unsettled weather, cold front: I was unable to find any direct connection. However, I think I may know what they are describing. The event they are most likely talking about is a post frontal trough. Commonly misnamed by local news stations as a secondary cold front. This is an area...

Meteorology (Weather): To calibrat A PRH gauge, sling psychrometer, humidity indicator
sling psychrometer, humidity indicator, humidity level: Hi Michael If you mean mechanically I d need to know the manufacturer and model number. If you mean where to get relative humidity info for your area I d need to know the city and state. If you mean a reference source to verify the humidity level immediately...

Meteorology (Weather): Free air freezing level, glossary index, www weather
glossary index, www weather, weather forecasts: Hi Charles It rings a bell but I m unable to identify it. Take a look at these two lists and see if you find what you heard: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/append/acronyms_f.htm http://www.weather.gov/glossary/index.php?letter=f http://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com/Freezing+Level+(weather+forecasts...

Meteorology (Weather): future weather forcast, ncep noaa, geographic proximity
ncep noaa, geographic proximity, location factor: Hi Brittanie The date is too far in the future for an accurate forecast. At this point I would say that both weekends have no different probability of being better than the other. Forecasts of between 4 and 7 days can be given accurately depending...

Meteorology (Weather): Greenland atmospheric pressure, netweather tv, www gsfc
netweather tv, www gsfc, pressure gradient: Hi John The Greenland High along with Katabatic winds are responsible. The high pressure is inland and on the high elevation with the winds flowing downward and to the east coast. Here s some info: http://nsidc.org/arcticmet/glossary/greenland_high.html...

Meteorology (Weather): Hurricanes, sea surface temperatures, upper air weather
sea surface temperatures, upper air weather, sea temperature: Hi Kelly There is year to year and many year cycles of hurricane patterns regards to frequency and paths. The cause of frequency, cycles, paths are related to many variables including upper air weather and sea temperature patterns. Global warming will...

Meteorology (Weather): Lightning - crackling noise, lightning crackling, crackling noise
lightning crackling, crackling noise, westernangler: Hi Richard The extremely short interval between the lightning and the thunder meant that the lightning generation was basically within a tenth of a mile mile of your house: http://weathereye.kgan.com/cadet/lightning/thunder.html Sometimes a leader...

Meteorology (Weather): Pacific Ocean, sea surface temps, sst data
sea surface temps, sst data, sea temperatures: Hi Marion Looking at the sea surface temps now: http://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/PSB/EPS/SST/data/FS_km50f300.gif http://www.temperatureworld.com/tempcon.htm which are around 25 degrees Celsius, I would say that in another month the sea temperatures will...

Meteorology (Weather): Precipitation, snow spotters, rain gauge
snow spotters, rain gauge, freezing rain: Hi Morgan Sleet is measured the same way as snow is measured; see: http://www.crh.noaa.gov/iwx/program_areas/snow_spotters/SnowMeasurement.pdf Freezing rain can only be estimated via the thickness of the ice; see: http://tinyurl.com/5qejc...

Meteorology (Weather): radon, penetration rates, radon level
penetration rates, radon level, best guess: Hi Patty You re welcome & thanks for the good rating! Normal sea level pressure is 29.92. The readings in Atlanta for the last 3 days have been slightly above normal indicating the fair weather and light winds. If it were me, I would trust the radon...

Meteorology (Weather): rainbow cloud, rainbow cloud, high clouds
rainbow cloud, high clouds, drop of rain: Rainbows are caused by the scattering of light. As you break up white light it allows you to see the different colors that make it up. Sounds like you got a really good angle on some cirris (high) clouds. You got to see a light show that is not seen very...

Meteorology (Weather): Storms, jet streams, pressure areas
jet streams, pressure areas, jet stream: Hi Tammy Excluding local storms like thunderstorms, fifty or so percent of large scale low pressure areas move from west to east across the central and northern US. The reason for that is the jet stream carries and steers the storms. One of the...

Meteorology (Weather): stable wind and warm weather regions in us, atlas maps, san diego california
atlas maps, san diego california, wind info: Hi Mike Here is a map of annual wind speed for the US: http://rredc.nrel.gov/wind/pubs/atlas/maps/chap2/2-01m.html and here is a link for all types of average wind info: http://rredc.nrel.gov/wind/pubs/atlas/maps.html#2-6 The average temperature...

Meteorology (Weather): Tornados, funnel cloud, swirl pattern
funnel cloud, swirl pattern, downward movement: In large thunderstorm clouds, often referred to as cells, there is strong upward and downward movement of air within the cloud. This moment will often set up a swirl pattern within the cloud an the air rushes past. This swirl can then develop into rotation,...

Meteorology (Weather): Wind and Humidity, humidity level, humidity levels
humidity level, humidity levels, windy day: Hi Brandon A very good question! When it s windy a person feels the humidity less. The reason is that wind increases evaporational cooling on a person s skin which cause the person to feel cooler. So, with a given humidity level, a windy day will...

Meteorology (Weather): Wind & Winter, air particles, air pressures
air particles, air pressures, cell model: The easiest way to look at it is like a fan. Wind blows outward from cold high pressure, the closer you are to the source the stronger it becomes. In a single cell model cold dense air will sink at the poles flow along the surface of the earth to the equator,...

Meteorology (Weather): wedding, ncep noaa, sunny isles florida
ncep noaa, sunny isles florida, geographic proximity: Hi Jenna The date is too far in the future for an accurate forecast. Forecasts of between 4 and 7 days can be given accurately depending on the season and location. In the winter season, the storm systems move faster thus making accuracy fall off...

Meteorology (Weather): Will this work??, weather information, collage
weather information, collage, novice: Hi Based on the limited info about the content of the courses I would guess that this class is about introductory novice weather information. It would not be a substitute for actual college. Take a look at: http://www.weatherknowledge.com/become.html...

Meteorology (Weather): Best weather conditions for woodstove fire, smog conditions, temperature inversion
smog conditions, temperature inversion, weather terms: Hi Susan Higher pressure, stationary fronts and under 5 mph all can contribute to smog conditions, pollution entrapment and poor macro area smoke retention. Here s a link that will give you more info: http://www.theweatherprediction.com/habyhints/158...

Meteorology (Weather): cloud identification, cumulonimbus clouds, cloud identification
cumulonimbus clouds, cloud identification, glossary search: Hi Robert It looks to me to be a line of dying cumulonimbus clouds with anvil tops. Here s more info: http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/cld/cldtyp/vrt/cb.rxml http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/search?id=anvil-cloud1 http://www.ksfy.com/younews/10442177.html?cid=71571...

Meteorology (Weather): Dew point, dew point temperature, crh noaa
dew point temperature, crh noaa, dewpoint temperature: Thanks Dobby! One way is to use the model output such as: http://coolwx.com/cgi-bin/getbufr.php?region=NY&stn=KLGA&model=nam&time=current&field=2meter http://www.wunderground.com/US/Region/US/pxDewpoint.html Another way is to used climatology such...

Meteorology (Weather): Fog forecasting, nwas, dewpoint
nwas, dewpoint, air temperature: Hi Dobby The fog probability is increased if the air temperature falls to the dewpoint but is not required in most fog situations. To understand fog forecasting, see: http://www.theweatherprediction.com/fog/ http://www.tpub.com/content/aerographer/14010/css/14010_105.htm...

Meteorology (Weather): Frozen dew, frozen dew, black ice
frozen dew, black ice, dew point: Hi Lorenzo Frozen dew or black ice. Frost is sometimes used but actually forms through a different process. For more info, see: http://meteorologyclimatology.suite101.com/article.cfm/understanding_dew_point_depression http://www.theweatherprediction.com/habyhints/5...

Meteorology (Weather): Heat lightning, heat lightning, lightning light
heat lightning, lightning light, glossary search: Hi Ken There is heat lightning . Basically, it is a misnomer describing lightning that you see as a diffuse flash/glow that originates from below the horizon meaning that it is lightning light from a thunderstorm that is located very far away: ...

Meteorology (Weather): SO HOT, correct temperature, hot weather
correct temperature, hot weather, blood vessels: There are several reasons for feeling tired in the heat. As the air gets warmer your body has to work harder in order to keep cool. You will begin sweating or increase sweating, small blood vessels near your skin will get bigger to allow more heat to the...

Meteorology (Weather): Hurricanes and thunderstorms, cumulonimbus clouds, thunder and lightning
cumulonimbus clouds, thunder and lightning, eye wall: Hi Kenny All hurricanes have thunder and lightning over the ocean and on land. The reason is that the intense part of the storm, the eye wall, is made up of cumulonimbus clouds which in the case of hurricanes, are thunderstorms. For more on hurricanes,...