About Experts Sitemap - Group 40 - Page 67 2015-09-01

Pathology: Generaised lymph node swelling and FNA, excision biopsy, lymph node biopsy
excision biopsy, lymph node biopsy, complete blood count: Hello Mark: Beta 2 microglobulin helps to assess renal function especially in kidney transplant patients. In addition it serves as a non specific but sensitive marker for different types of cancer, infections and inflammatory diseases. In certain type...

Pathology: Help understanding Blood Labs, peripheral blood smear, low grade fever
peripheral blood smear, low grade fever, low lymphocytes: Hello Mark: Low RBC, HCT, HBG all point towards anemia. Further evaluation using peripheral blood smear (PS) and bone marrow examination ( to assess the morphology of cells) iron and B12 levels etc help to ascertain the type of anemia. If you are not...

Pathology: High number of eosophil's in blood, connective tissue disorders, low platelet count
connective tissue disorders, low platelet count, asthma rhinitis: Hello Sarah: Raised eosinophils point towards a parasitic infection. You have a mild eosinophilia (counts between 600 to 1500 eosinophils/ microliter) Allergy of any kind eg asthma, rhinitis etc. connective tissue disorders like arthritis, fungal infections...

Pathology: Low Lymphocytes, absolute lymphocytes, low lymphocytes
absolute lymphocytes, low lymphocytes, htlv 1: Hello: Most hematological diseases present with symptoms. However, as you have yourself mentioned, at the start of a disease a person can be asymptomatic. For the same reason a bone marrow test may help shed some light on what s going on? I agree getting...

Pathology: Pathology report of Punch Biopsy, cytologic atypia, punch biopsy
cytologic atypia, punch biopsy, atypical mole: Hi Helen: without actually seeing the slides I cannot comment on the diagnosis or rule out a malignancy. However, going by what you have mentioned this could likely be an atypical mole. Such a mole has features in between a benign (regular) mole and...

Pathology: pathology, inflammation of cervix, filamentous bacteria
inflammation of cervix, filamentous bacteria, pap smears: Hello Nola: Leptothrix is a type of filamentous bacteria seen in the PAP smears from vagina and cervix. It is not considered pathogenic that is does not cause any problems. However, leptothrix presence should alert the pathologist to search for another...

Pathology: pls help, atypical cells, cancer cells
atypical cells, cancer cells, pap smear: Hello Mahesh: The report shows cells with some degree of atypia. Atypia refers to cells having feature in between that of normal cells and cancer cells. These cells may or may not progress to become cancer cells. Sometimes such cells are seen post...

Pathology: RCC post op path report, renal cell carcinoma, partial nephrectomy
renal cell carcinoma, partial nephrectomy, renal tumor: Hello Kathleen: A surgical margin is the portion of tissue which appears normal with the naked eye. In every tumor a portion of tissue just adjacent to the tumor is excised to rule out microscopic presence of cancer. If surgical margins are free of tumor...

Pathology: Shave Biopsies, dead tissue, family practitioner
dead tissue, family practitioner, biopsy: Hello Gene: The idea of doing a biopsy is to have it examined and understand what information this provides. If for any reason a biopsy is not sent for examination, the reason has to be explained by the specific doctor. I am not sure why one would not...

Pathology: Skin cancer dianosis, squamous cell carcinoma, invasive squamous cell carcinoma
squamous cell carcinoma, invasive squamous cell carcinoma, cancer cells: Hi Joanne: This indicates that the second biopsy does have cancer next to the area where the original biopsy showed cancer. However the deeper margins which indicate where the biopsy ends is free of tumor. The periphery or sides of the biopsy has some...

Pathology: transitional cell carninoma stage "0", transitional cell carcinoma, flat lesion
transitional cell carcinoma, flat lesion, cancer cells: Hello Rosa: Stage refers to location of the tumor and its absence or presence in areas other than the original location of cancer. Stage 0 indicates that the cancer cells are limited only to the inner lining of the bladder. This is a flat lesion and has...

Pathology: Breast Pathology, breast lesion, breast pathology
breast lesion, breast pathology, 3d ultrasound: Hello Kristina: Having breast surgery at any age is physically and emotionally challenging. If it is some consolation Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign breast lesion. Which means that some of the normal tissue of the breast has overgrown...

Pathology: cores not of the correct tissue type, prostate glands, prostate biopsy
prostate glands, prostate biopsy, psa levels: Hello Debra: I am unable to see the report as the mail does not forward attachments. In general to make a diagnosis of or to rule out prostate cancer 10-15 cores are needed and each should be between 10 to 15mm in size This is required to optimize...

Pathology: FNA result, hurthle cell cancer, hurthle cells
hurthle cell cancer, hurthle cells, pink cytoplasm: Hello Sandy: Hurthle cells are cells which originate from thyroid cells. A hyperplastic nodule is a nodule formed as a result of overgrowth of cells. Hurthle cells are seen in a number of benign conditions like Thyroiditis, Graves disease etc which can...

Pathology: PSA methodology conflict, psa test, chiangmai
Pathology: PSA methodology conflict, psa test, chiangmai, discrepancy

Pathology: Health Care, absolute monocytes, white blood cell
absolute monocytes, white blood cell, blood test: Hello Elizabeth: Monocytes are a type of white blood cell present in your body. These help fight against infection. Their values are dynamic and vary every time a test is done. That is the reason to have a range. In most people the values fall within...

Pathology: High Lymphocyte Count and Lumps in nec, high lymphocyte count, pins and needles
high lymphocyte count, pins and needles, anti histamines: Hi: HIV is not diagnosed based on lymphocyte count. The CBC being normal except for mild elevation in lymphocytes should not be a cause for concern. You may repeat the test at a later date. Some people may have normal count slightly outside the normal...

Pathology: Interpretation of Blood test, nuclear antigen, antibody levels
nuclear antigen, antibody levels, first mail: Hi: You did not mention that your son is now 18 years old in the first mail. For me the age association is 4 years. EBV Ab VCA IgM is 7 on 12/1/ 2008 as mentioned in your earlier query. Considering now he is 18 this is a very low titer and can be considered...

Pathology: lab results for my husband, alkaline phosphates, alkaline phosphatase
alkaline phosphates, alkaline phosphatase, cancer cells: Hello Kathy: Leukocytes are not normally seen in urine and if present indicate urinary tract infection. Alkaline phosphatase is raised in number of conditions simplest being fracture of bone to some types of cancer. Further tests and complete exam...

Pathology: lumps in neck, lumps in neck, 8th of january
lumps in neck, 8th of january, chest pains: Hello Anta: Without examining the lumps and doing a biopsy / scan etc it is not possible to arrive at a conclusion about the nature of the lumps. Since they have been for some time and are not growing in size you can wait till Jan 8th for the physicians...

Pathology: PSA ECLIA method, radical prostatectomy, disease recurrence
radical prostatectomy, disease recurrence, testing methodology: Hello Gus: Your urologist is on the right track. First of all the tests using different methods / equipment is not exactly interchangeable. There is always a mild variation between test values of different methods and different vendor equipment. The...

Pathology: PSA methodology conflict, conflict doctor, psa levels
conflict doctor, psa levels, percentage of increase: Hello David: The Beckman and Roche analyzers have basically the same underlying mechanism for estimating PSA levels. However they do differ in the type of reagents used. A certain amount of variation is inevitable because different methods have antibodies...

Pathology: re small lump in neck, fine needle aspiration, excision biopsy
fine needle aspiration, excision biopsy, enlarged tonsil: Hi: The nodes could be a result of enlarged tonsil. This may indicate infection and the nodes / lump is then possibly reactive in nature. An FNAC is fine needle aspiration cytology where material from lump is aspirated with a needle and syringe. Then...

Pathology: re strep throat infection/mvp, enlarged tonsil, anti inflammatory drugs
enlarged tonsil, anti inflammatory drugs, high fever: Hello Anita: I do not recommend taking any medication on your own. All antibiotics have side effects and physicians choose medicine based on individual patients specific needs. A pharmacist knows all about drugs but is not aware about how different diseases...

Pathology: shoulder cyst, microscopic diagnosis, scar formation
microscopic diagnosis, scar formation, fluid accumulation: Hi Jackie: The report is essentially of benign tissue. It is likely there was some trauma / injury in this region which healed with scar formation and has some residual effects of injury (inflammation). Inflammation is response of body to injury ...leading...

Pathology: skin cancer, spindle cell neoplasm, spindle cells
spindle cell neoplasm, spindle cells, fibrous tissues: Hello Teri: The report states that the tumor is made up of spindle shaped cells. Such cells are seen in tumors with an origin from blood vessels, nerves or fibrous tissues. The markers help to decide in favor of one over the others. Positive marker...

Pathology: Thyroid FNA Biopsy, needle aspiration biopsy, thyroid follicular cells
needle aspiration biopsy, thyroid follicular cells, fine needle aspiration: Hello Cynthia: The report is inconclusive since the material submitted for interpretation is inadequate. Most of the material is blood and some colloid (this is secreted by cells of thyroid) and cells found in blood. In addition histiocytes are scavenger...

Pathology: multinodular goiter, thyroid function tests, thyroid hormones
thyroid function tests, thyroid hormones, enlarged thyroid: Hello again, I am sorry I did not address the calcification question in my initial response. Microcalcifications are very common in Thyroid - benign conditions as well as cancer. literature reports incidence of calcification in thyroid cancer as 26-54%...

Pathology: nose polyp biopsy, microscopic diagnosis, nasal mass
microscopic diagnosis, nasal mass, pathology report: Hello Greg: A lot of information is gained by observing tissue under the microscope. It is definitely stained....I assume the stains performed: none refers to special stains which are at times used to add to the observations made with routine staining....

Pathology: Submandibular gland mass, use of antibiotics, typical presentation
use of antibiotics, typical presentation, neutrophils: Hello Antonia It is likely that the mass is benign but highly vascular that is has a lot of blood vessels and that is why it bled upon FNAC. If it is inflammatory it should subside by use of antibiotics and painkillers. However I am not an expert...

Pathology: Testicular Cancer, testicular ultrasound, pathology report
testicular ultrasound, pathology report, pathology department: Hello Nermin Metin I am sorry that your husband had to undergo two surgeries instead of one. It is difficult for me to say why the pathology department misdiagnosed in the first instance. If the tissue was inadequate or they saw only normal testicular...

Pathology: wbc/rbc, white blood cells, mild anemia
white blood cells, mild anemia, flight of stairs: Hello Kita Your hemoglobin is low indicating mild anemia...most likely it can be due to iron deficiency. In addition your white blood cells are very slightly elevated. That isn t very significant...small amount of stress even climbing a flight of stairs...

Pathology: Blood work, absolute neutrophil count, red blood cells
absolute neutrophil count, red blood cells, wbc count: Hello Jill: Reference ranges for various parameters are set using samples from a large number of normal population and then setting the upper and lower limits. These ranges may vary from lab to lab. Also what is normal may vary as per the race and for...

Pathology: comments on test report, red blood cells, low grade fever
red blood cells, low grade fever, hepitits: Hello ALT is an enzyme with the highest concentration in the liver. Bilirubin is a product that results from the breakdown of hemoglobin, a substance in the red blood cells. Both the values are raised above normal and are indicative of Liver disease -...

Pathology: Endoscopy Biopsy, intestinal metaplasia, biopsy report
intestinal metaplasia, biopsy report, chronic inflammation: Hello Jill: If the biopsy is from the junction of esophagus and stomach and shows glandular epithelium and intestinal metaplasia is confirmed then it is Barrett s. This report indicates presence of glandular mucosa and may or may not fit in with Barrett...

Pathology: FNAC, fibro adenoma, ultrasound correlation
fibro adenoma, ultrasound correlation, smooth margins: Hello Rama: BIRADS score of 3 indicates that there is a high probability that the lesion is benign ( 98%) However, with this score you will need followup exams and imaging studies. FNAC is a procedure where a needle is introduced in the lesion, some...

Pathology: kidney cancer stage 1, grade 3, grade 3, stage 1
Pathology: kidney cancer stage 1, grade 3, grade 3, stage 1, tumor

Pathology: fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumor, core needle biopsy, spindle cells
core needle biopsy, spindle cells, benign phyllodes tumor: Hello Carolyn I cannot confidently comment on the report as I have not actually seen it. However a leaf like pattern is seen in phyllodes tumor and not in fibroadenoma. It is not a frequent occurrence. you can have the slides reviewed. It would however...

Pathology: kidney cancer stage 1, grade 3, uci research, kidney cancer
uci research, kidney cancer, tumor size: Hello Karen: Stage and Grade of a cancer helps determine the treatment protocol and prognosis. The present criteria used for staging and grading are better but still imperfect. The prognosis percentages are just probabilities and each case is unique....and...

Pathology: Liver lesion, liver lesion, hello dawn
liver lesion, hello dawn, mri with contrast: HI: FNAC is one option. Yes, if the lesion is too small it will not be possible to do an FNAC and get adequate material for analysis. The three month followup would show if there is any change. If the lesion increases in size an FNAC can be done. If...

Pathology: T4 levels, adult reference, t4 levels
adult reference, t4 levels, test levels: Hello Karissa: The reference ranges can vary from laboratory to laboratory. You need to compare your values with the reference range of the testing facility. Commonly used ranges are Adult Reference Ranges: T4 = 5.6-13.7 ug/dl (mcg/dl) FT4 = 0.8-1.5...

Pathology: TB skin test, tb skin test, tb antigens
tb skin test, tb antigens, tb bacteria: Hello Kathy: A TB test called Tuberculin test or Mantoux test is done to ascertain if you have been exposed to the TB bacteria. Once the TB antigens are injected into the skin...it is read 48 to72 hours after it is administered. The firm raised area...

Pathology: Thyroid FNA, thyroid cells, cancer cells
thyroid cells, cancer cells, cancerous cells: Hello Lee Ann No cancer cells seen means just that....the specimen taken out of the nodule did not show cancer cells. In addition no thyroid cells seen. Does the report mention abundant colloid present. If yes, then it means it is just a colloid nodule...

Pathology: Thyroid FNB Results, thyroid hormone levels, chronic inflammatory cells
thyroid hormone levels, chronic inflammatory cells, hashimoto s thyroiditis: Hello Charlotte: Your thyroid FNAC shows changes in the cells of the thyroid consistent with Hashimoto s thyroditis. First of all this is not cancer, that should reduce your anxiety. This is a condition where your body produces antibodies against the...

Pathology: tumors, elbow joints, orthepedic surgeon
elbow joints, orthepedic surgeon, painful mass: Hello Bekah You have just mentioned that you had a fibroadipose tumor....I am trying to guess here what it may have been... a Lipoma / fibromatosis In any case the painful mass has to be biopsied to find out if it is the same tumor or something else....

Pathology: Clark's Nevus, biopsy results, leasion
biopsy results, leasion, gross description: Hello Wendy; Your biopsy suggests that you have a regular mole with some features in between that of a normal mole and cancer. It is not outright skin cancer or melanoma. Such lesions require complete excisions which means the biopsy should show normal...

Pathology: CMV & Pregnancy, special education teacher, type of blood test
special education teacher, type of blood test, silent carriers: Hello Jeri: CMV - cytomegalovirus is a very common virus which infects people of all ages. Once infected by the virus, the virus stays in the body for life. Most people with the virus are silent carriers and do not have any signs or symptoms of a disease....

Pathology: Colloid nodules, enlarged thyroid gland, thyroid nodules
enlarged thyroid gland, thyroid nodules, colloid goiter: Hello Heather: If you have thyroid nodules and have normal FNA report most likely you do not have cancer. Your thyroglobulin also does not indicate cancer. A colloid goiter....is basically enlarged thyroid gland....it enlarges because the gland is not producing...

Pathology: FNA, fine needle aspiration, whipple procedure
fine needle aspiration, whipple procedure, adeno carcinoma: Hi: Dr Marluce Bibbo s e-mail is marluce.bibbo@mail.tju.edu Phone :(215) 955-1197 Mailing Add Thomas Jefferson University,Jefferson Medical College,Department of Pathology, Anatomy & Cell Biology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 United State...

Pathology: FNA of thyroid nodule, nuclear atypia, follicular epithelium
nuclear atypia, follicular epithelium, thyroid hormones: Hi: Your thyroid hormones are within the normal range. So Unithroid is working for you. Histiocytes / macrophages are frequently found in thyroid aspirates. These cells are like scavengers which mop up the excess colloid or material produced in a nodule...

Pathology: Clark's Nevus, mole mapping, skin centers
Pathology: Clark's Nevus, mole mapping, skin centers, malignant melanoma

Pathology: CMV & Pregnancy, special education teacher, thier mothers
Pathology: CMV & Pregnancy, special education teacher, thier mothers, growth spurts

Pathology: Colloid nodules, cervical lymphadenopathy, enlargement of the thyroid gland
Pathology: Colloid nodules, cervical lymphadenopathy, enlargement of the thyroid gland, left lobe

Pathology: Lipase levels, chronic abdominal pain, acute pancreatitis
chronic abdominal pain, acute pancreatitis, lipase levels: Hello Fran: Lipase levels are raised most commonly in conditions related to the pancreas. In acute pancreatitis the elevation is 5 to 10 times the upper level of normal. This can also be elevated in disease of the kidney, salivary gland inflammation...

Pathology: Lymph Node....., lymph nodes, lymph node
lymph nodes, lymph node, ear infection: Hello Mindy: A lymph node which is palpable is considered enlarged. In the neck region if the node is generally less than 2 cm across it is not worrisome provided it revert to non palpable stage within 2-3 weeks. If you have sore throat, cough , ear...

Pathology: lymph nodes, neck nodes, groin lymph node
neck nodes, groin lymph node, lymphnodes: Hello Rebecca: There is no guideline for the size of normal lymphnodes in adults. However, once the nodes are more than 1 cm in size, painful or rounded they are considered abnormal. In general lymphnodes enalrge in response to a localized infection...

Pathology: Mole Biopsy, atypical moles, atypical cells
atypical moles, atypical cells, pathology report: Hello Jamie: The biopsy of a mole can be either benign (a regular mole) or cancer (melanoma). Many a times the findings lie somewhere in between these two ends. The changes in the cells do not entirely fit a cancerous cell pattern and are neither completely...

Pathology: Partial Thyroidectomy Pathology Results, chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, follicular adenoma
chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, follicular adenoma, papillary cancer: Hello Cathy: Your report states Hashimotos as the diagnosis. This is a benign autoimmune disorder. Hurthle cells are one of the type of cells seen in Hashimotos. In addition there are other features which will point towards a diagnosis of Hashimotos. ...

Pathology: Pathology report from UGI endoscopy, chronic gastritis, anti inflammatory drugs
chronic gastritis, anti inflammatory drugs, stomach wall: Hello Ivette Chronic gastritis is long standing inflammation of the lining of stomach. It can be due to various causes -- Bacteria, drugs, hot spicy food etc. Foveolae are long pits in the stomach wall and are lined by thin layer of cells. These are...

Pathology: Prostate cancer, gleason score, seminal vesicle
gleason score, seminal vesicle, radical prostatectomy: Hello Jill: I am sorry to hear about your husbands cancer diagnosis. I wish him good health and quick recovery from the surgery. Surgery is the treatment of choice. I am not an expert on types of surgeries so cannot comment on that aspect. A radical...

Pathology: PSA, psa levels, free psa
psa levels, free psa, psa test: Hi: 3.06 is still below the cutoff of 4.0 ng/ ml A free PSA is usually interpreted in relation to PSA more than 4 ng / ml. Most men have a free PSA between 10 and 24% and this carries an intermediate risk of cancer I do not have much experience in the...

Pathology: second opinion, papillary carcinoma of thyroid, papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
papillary carcinoma of thyroid, papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, carcinoma of the thyroid: Hello Eileen I am glad that the information provided by me is useful to you. There is at yet no pre cancerous stage identified for papillary cancer of the thyroid. However certain conditions like Celiac disease, exposure to radiation, certain genes...

Pathology: autopsy report, pathology specimens, large intestines
pathology specimens, large intestines, gross appearance: Hello Angeline In reference to pathology specimens Grossly is used for the outer appearance of biopsy / organ / tissue. What is visible to the naked eye is another way to describe gross appearance. So on naked eye examination the intestine is intact....that...

Pathology: Chemistry & hematology, ast sgot, low rdw
ast sgot, low rdw, careful evaluation: Hello Sherry: A reference range for any laboratory test is set after taking samples from a representative healthy population and are referred to as normal range or normal value. However, if some people have values outside this range and do not have any...

Pathology: lymphocyte count dropping, chronic stress, lymphocyte
Pathology: lymphocyte count dropping, chronic stress, lymphocyte, heart stroke

Pathology: genes, breast cancer genes, cancer cells
breast cancer genes, cancer cells, breast cancer: Hello P: BRCA 1 and 2 are genes which can mutate that is have changes which can make the person more likely to develop breast or ovarian cancer. These are used for screening women with strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer. If a women is positive...

Pathology: hepatic lesion, lesion, centimeter
lesion, centimeter, vicky: Hello Vicky The term is self explanatory...The lesion (mass / lump) in the liver is less than a centimeter in size. At this point it is not evolved enough to determine its nature - infectious / benign or cancer. Short term follow up is recommended....

Pathology: Liver Disease and Blood Test Result Help, absolute monocytes, blood test result
absolute monocytes, blood test result, absolute lymphocytes: Hello Joseph: The bloodwork shows all counts to be on the lower side. The leukopenia could be because of a number of causes. A viral infection tends to decrease white blood cells. Auto immune disorders, certain drugs and liver disease itself can cause...

Pathology: Liver Lesion, liver lesion, red blood cells
liver lesion, red blood cells, lipoma removal: Hello: I am sorry, but it is difficult to comment on the lesion without actually seeing the image. An RBC scan can take anywhere between 15 to 35 min. If multiple images are taken there will be a gap of couple of hours between images. Time of scan...

Pathology: lymphocyte count dropping, lymphoma, lymphopenia
lymphoma, lymphopenia: Hello Kevin: Based on the information provided above I agree with your physician and the ENT surgeons. The lump is not significant and is highly unlikely to be lymphoma because of the following reasons: 1) Size is small - almost of a normal node 2)...

Pathology: Pathology, soft tissue lesions, opportunistic infections in hiv
soft tissue lesions, opportunistic infections in hiv, thesis guide: Hello Tanushree: welcome to Pathology. It is a challenging and interesting field Generally a thesis topic is selected in consultation with your thesis guide or mentor. it is based on his / her area of interest. If the pathologist who is your guide...

Pathology: path lab, pregnancy and breast feeding, high risk pregnancy, pathology lab
high risk pregnancy, pathology lab, lab supervisor: Hello K I am not aware of any resource which specifically gives information about chemical exposure and nursing mothers. Only if something is ingested by you and the body absorbs it, has chance of being transmitted to a feeding child. If you are uncomfortable...

Pathology: Renal Cell Carcinoma and CT Results, RCC, metastasis
RCC, metastasis, diverticulum: Hello Maryann: I remember answering your earlier questions. I am happy to note that your husbands scan is normal. Imaging studies post surgery for any cancer are done to look for: 1)Metastasis - that is spread of cancer to other organs 2)Recurrence...

Pathology: Test results, red blood cells, irritable bowel syndrome
red blood cells, irritable bowel syndrome, size of red blood cells: Hello Kathy: your hematocrit is at the upper limit of normal. Dehydration, inadequate lung function because of which adequate oxygen is not available, chronic smoking etc are the common causes of raised hematocrit. RDW measures the variation is size...

Pathology: thyroid nodule - Ultrasound & FNA, thyroid nodule, ultrasound guidance
thyroid nodule, ultrasound guidance, hashimoto s thyroiditis: Hello Cheryl: Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is an alternate name for Hashimoto s thyroiditis. This is an autoimmune disease and progresses slowly. There is infiltration by lymphocytes and enlargement of the gland. the lymphocytes will produce antibodies...

Pathology: tumor spread aggressive ?, tumor response, lymph nodes
tumor response, lymph nodes, prognosis: Hi Aggressive is just what it means in English language. assertive or pushy. In other words has a tendency to push through and spread. Staging refers to size of tumor presence or absence of involvement of lymph nodes by the tumor. These nodes if involved...

Pathology: WBC, neutrophil count, white blood cells
neutrophil count, white blood cells, physical exertion: Hello Kim: The WBC count is slightly elevated with neutrophils ( a type of white blood cells)contributing to this elevation. This is difficult to say what it means in isolation. The values have to be interpreted in relation to your clinical history,...

Pathology: blood count test, cll patient, microliter
cll patient, microliter, blood count: Hello Ronald: The absolute count in your case will be 10.1x thousand / microliter of blood Therefore in a microlitre of blood you have 10000 lymphocytes. This is higher than the normal range. This value has to be interpreted in relation to your previous...

Pathology: blood test results, low neutrophils, volunteer fireman
low neutrophils, volunteer fireman, lymphs: Hello Connie: At 21 your grandson should be in reasonable good health. A single reading of low neutrophils and relatively higher lymphocytes may just indicate a mild viral infection which may be resolving. However, if a repeat blood test after a month...

Pathology: blood test, lumps in the neck, atypical lymphocytes
lumps in the neck, atypical lymphocytes, white blood cells: Hello Joyce: An investigation cannot be interpreted on its own...it has to be correlated with clinical signs and symptoms. Why was the complete Blood count ordered? Did you have fever / sore throat / any lumps in the neck etc. Atypical lymphocytes...

Pathology: Calcified Thyroid Nodule, thyroid nodule, cancerous lesions
thyroid nodule, cancerous lesions, pain behind the ear: Hello Ruth: Calcification in a thyroid nodule is indicative of malignancy, however, calcification may also be seen in benign (non cancerous) lesions. Unless an FNAC or biopsy is done, it is not wise to speculate on the nature of the lesion. Your...

Pathology: core needle biopsy, core needle biopsy, excision biopsy
core needle biopsy, excision biopsy, core biopsy: Hello Carolyn: I can understand your concern about the number of samples needed. A core biopsy is requested because it causes less trauma, is fairly accurate,is inexpensive and can be done as an outpatient procedure. If there is a localized palpable...

Pathology: Epitheleal cells lymph node post TT, excision biopsy, papillary carcinoma
excision biopsy, papillary carcinoma, cancer cells: Hello Joan: Lymph nodes do not have epithelial cells and if present always need to be evaluated. In an FNA sample epithelial cells can appear as a contaminant from skin itself. The morphology (appearance) of epithelial cells is more important in...

Pathology: Calcified Thyroid Nodule, parathyroid disease, parathyroids
Pathology: Calcified Thyroid Nodule, parathyroid disease, parathyroids, parathyroid

Pathology: Lymphocytes/Elliptocytes/Acanthocytes, atypical lymphocytes, acanthocytes
atypical lymphocytes, acanthocytes, gaining weight: Hello Stephanie: Your doctor can advise better as he / she would have examined your son. Now just by the blood tests you have mentioned, I do not think there is anything serious. At the most this may evolve into anemia if the hemoglobin at present is...

Pathology: low absolute monocytes, low absolute monocytes, red blood cells
low absolute monocytes, red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration: Hello Tammy: The report has to be interpreted in light of the signs and symptoms you have. Most often increased MCV (average volume of red blood cell - measures the size of the cells) MCH (average hemoglobin concentration in red blood cells) and RDW...

Pathology: low lymphocyte count, low lymphocyte count, low neutrophils
low lymphocyte count, low neutrophils, low grade fever: Hello Samra: I think that the raised neutrophils are because of the fever and sore throat you have. It may even be stomach flu (pain abdomen) What I mean is basically that you have some form of mild bacterial infection. The low lymphocyte count is relative...

Pathology: low white blood cell count, low wbc count, low white blood cell
low wbc count, low white blood cell, white blood cell: Hi Brigid: I do not think you should unduly worry about the WBC count. In fact the count has improved since the last time you were tested. Moreover, the normal range for all blood tests is estimated as an average value from a set of normal population....

Pathology: mole removal, skin biopsy, hello dawn
skin biopsy, hello dawn, atypical cells: Hello Dawn: I do not understand the question. Most likely you had a skin biopsy done and it must be showing atypical cells...cells which do not fit into the criteria of normal cells...or the biopsy may be inadequate. If you can send the details of the...

Pathology: Need to understand what Pathology report means........before decision on surgery, hurthle cell, dystrophic calcification
hurthle cell, dystrophic calcification, follicular adenoma: Hello Julie: Your FNA report indicates a complex picture with features overlapping with benign conditions and some features suggestive of cancer. However the type of cancer suggested by this report cannot be confirmed by FNA and needs a resected specimen....

Pathology: Possible lymphoma, c reactive proteins, elevated c reactive protein
c reactive proteins, elevated c reactive protein, infectious mononucleosis: Hello Christina: Burkitt s lymphoma is extremely rare in united states so it is not advisable to straightaway jump to this conclusion. EBV tests being positive in a young person with all the symptoms described could point towards infectious mononucleosis...a...

Pathology: results if full blood count, Clexane, low blood counts
Clexane, low blood counts: Hello Catherine: Wishing you a problem free pregnancy and a healthy baby. During pregnancy there can be some dilutional changes in blood and can explain the low total white blood cell counts as well as low neutrophils and lymphocytes (types of white blood...

Pathology: SCLEROSING ENCAPSULATING PERITONITIS, cause obstruction, general imaging
cause obstruction, general imaging, rare disorder: Hi Jan Sclerosing Encapsulating peritonitis or abdominal cocoon is a rare disorder. Fibrocollagenous tissue wraps around loops of the bowel and cause obstruction. However, like any other disease, its diagnosis depends upon the skill and expertise of...

Pathology: Subclinical Hyperthyroidism, thyroid hormones, symptoms of hypothyroidism
thyroid hormones, symptoms of hypothyroidism, hormones levels: Hello Desiree: I am not an expert in endocrinology so do not have indepth knowledge on the subject. Sub clinical hyperthyroidism is an entity which is increasingly recognized these days. it is defined as low / undetectable levels of TSH and normal free...

Pathology: pet scan report, lung biopsy, chronic inflammation
lung biopsy, chronic inflammation, cancer cells: Hello again: The PET scan has revealed a nodule in the lung which is solid and 1.3 cm in size. there is another nodule which has a cavity. These two lesions are present side by side. The PET report conveys that most likely these nodules are not cancer...

Pathology: Thyroid US/FNA results, fine needle aspiration, thyroid follicle
fine needle aspiration, thyroid follicle, follicular adenoma: Hi: These terms are better explained by a radiologist. In ultrasound, the images are obtained by sound waves hitting and passing through different areas and they get deflected in different manner producing hyper / hypo or isoechoic patterns. Trying to...

Pathology: thymic tissue, soft tissue density, accessory spleen
soft tissue density, accessory spleen, cancer cells: Hello Vicky: A radiologist who has seen the images of the CT scan can better comment on the nature of the soft tissue density. If it is worrisome the radiologist would suggest a biopsy. An accessory spleen is just that...an additional smaller spleen....

Pathology: abnormal lymph absolute number, blood test results, cholesterol levels
blood test results, cholesterol levels, wbc count: Hello Kelly: The various ranges for blood tests are set after taking numerous samples from a given set of normal population. There are always people who fall outside this range. If you are other wise healthy and have no signs and symptoms then the WBC...

Pathology: bladder cancer, bladder cancer, transitional cell carcinoma
bladder cancer, transitional cell carcinoma: Hi: The most common form of bladder cancer arises from the lining cells of the bladder called transitional epithelium. When the cancer cells stay within the inner lining of bladder or just into the underlying tissue(lamina propria) and do not invade...

Pathology: blood test results, blood test results, blood sugar levels
blood test results, blood sugar levels, stomach flu: Hello Mark: I would not unduly worry about these blood tests. Blood glucose tests measure how well your body processes sugar. What you had was a random blood sugar test...one which is taken at any point of time regardless of time at which food is...

Pathology: CT Findings -, soft tissue density, pulmonary nodules
soft tissue density, pulmonary nodules, biopsy material: Hello Krista: If the lymph nodes and the nodules had any suggestion that they are malignant the radiologist would suggest a biopsy. Also it depends on the size and location...if they are too tiny and in a location where adequate biopsy material will not...

Pathology: what is the cause of high mm/hr ?, sedimentation rate, esr test
sedimentation rate, esr test, autoimmune diseases: Hi Naomi: If I understand correctly this must refer to your ESR test (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) This is a screening and non specific test and raised levels indicate acute or chronic infection / inflammation, autoimmune diseases etc. Specific tests...

Pathology: FNAC report, auxillary lymph nodes, biopsy specimen
auxillary lymph nodes, biopsy specimen, micro calcification: Hi A mammogram should pick up a lump in the breast. The FNAC report mentions the word lump - Microscopy: Cytology smears from lump breast reveal abundant necrosis and highly atypical ductal epithelial cells in loose groups and lying isolated. ...

Pathology: HLA-B27 positive male & low white cell, autoimmune, HLA B27
autoimmune, HLA B27: Hello Theresa HLA B27 is an antigen found on the surface of white blood cells. It is either present or absent. If it is present upon testing but the person has no associated symptoms like chronic pain, inflammation, changes in the bones as seen on X-Rays...

Pathology: hurtle cell, hurthle cells, hashimoto s thyroiditis
hurthle cells, hashimoto s thyroiditis, specimen source: Hello Camille: The report mentions that you have Hashimoto s thyroiditis. It is a kind of immune mediated disease of thyroid. Hurthle cells ( a specific type of cell) are seen in this condition and the nodule could be a part of this. You needn t get...

Pathology: LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNT, ana titer, diseases of liver
ana titer, diseases of liver, low white blood cell: Hello June: The antibodies and ANA titre alone are not sufficient for diagnosis of Lupus. ANA titre / antibodies can be high in a number of autoimmune diseases like arthritis, scleroderma etc. Autoimmune diseases of Liver, thyroid and other infectious...

Pathology: low wbc, low wbc, mild anemia
low wbc, mild anemia, hematologist: Hello Flo: As per the information provided by you I cannot make an attempt to decide what can be the cause for the minimally low counts. In general these limits are set by taking values from a normal population. Your values though on the lower side can...

Pathology: Monocytes, test values, blood test
test values, blood test, norm: Hello Baskar: 4.6% is Ok...there is no need for further evaluation. All blood test values have a range derived from a set of normal population.There are people who fall outside of this range. If you are otherwise healthy and have no symptoms there is...

Pathology: Potassium Limits, sodium potassium, potassium imbalance
sodium potassium, potassium imbalance, heart contraction: Hello Mike: Sodium and potassium are known as electrolytes in medical language. These are measured alone or part of a metabolic panel in a routine physical and are used to monitor the electrolyte and acid base balance. These are affected by diet, how...

Pathology: Protein electrophoresis, high alkaline phosphatase, hepatic function panel
high alkaline phosphatase, hepatic function panel, protein electrophoresis: Hello Henry: Was this part of your total protein estimation? If so raised globulins will have a proportionate decrease in albumin. This can be due to auto immune disorders, multiple myeloma and if the albumin is low there can be liver disorder. Your...

Pathology: pathology normal ranges, medical book store, pathology tests
medical book store, pathology tests, pathology lab: Hello vinay: You can request the lab where you get your blood work done to give you the reference ranges for routine tests. You could look online eg www.labtestsonline.org or buy a card at a medical book store. However since there are so many of pathology...

Pathology: Regarding WBC count, pregnancy, leukocytosis
pregnancy, leukocytosis, WBC count: Hello Sheeja: Congratulations! May God bless you with a healthy baby. During pregnancy lot of changes occur in a mothers body. There is an increase in number of white blood cells in pregnancy (physiological leukocytosis). If you do not have associated...

Pathology: swallen nodes, hiv infection, relevant tests
hiv infection, relevant tests, lymph nodes: Hello: A reactive lymph node can occur in response to any infection in the body. To diagnose HIV infection different type of blood tests are done. Even if lymph node morphology suggests HIV infection it is confirmed by other set of tests. If you are...

Pathology: thyroid nodules, thyroid nodules, acute inflammation
thyroid nodules, acute inflammation, follicular cells: Hello Jane: This is a descriptive report - just telling what is seen. The neutrophils seen could be because the aspirate was admixed with blood. Only a person who has seen the slides can comment on their significance. Overall there is nothing highly...

Pathology: Atypical epithelial cells, lump in breast, atypical cells
lump in breast, atypical cells, cancer cells: Hello: Atypical cells are those which have an appearance (morphology) in between that of normal cells and cancer cells. High atypia - here cells lean more towards cancer type of cells but not outright cancer. Necrosis is term which is used for cell...

Pathology: abnormal report of reneal funtion test, serum creatinine, function of kidney
serum creatinine, function of kidney, protein metabolism: Hi Amar: Renal function tests are done to evaluate the function of kidney. It is ordered in patients with high blood pressure, diabetes and patients who are otherwise very sick and hospitalized. The Blood urea (normal 6-20 mg / dl) and creatinine (0.9...

Pathology: atypical mole, atypical mole
atypical mole: Hello Andrea: Atypical moles are different from regular moles. They are bigger in size with irregular ill defined borders. Under the microscope they have features in between of normal mole and melanoma. Such moles are considered pre cancerous, however,...

Pathology: Blood Test Results, anion gap, absolute monocytes
anion gap, absolute monocytes, blood test results: Hello Kristen: All your bloodwork shows values within normal range and are not suggestive of any specific disease. The sedimentation rate is slightly elevated. This is a non specific test which helps measure amount of inflammation in the body. I am...

Pathology: Blood Tests & Pathology Report, low lymphocytes, grade dysplasia
low lymphocytes, grade dysplasia, flaxseed oil: Hello Grace: I apologize for the delay in answering your question. LDH(LD) is a test which estimates levels of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This test is ordered as a screening test when tissue or cellular damage is suspected. If this is elevated...

Pathology: Blood test results, blood test results, alkaline phosphatase
blood test results, alkaline phosphatase, clinical relevance: Hello Robert: There is a very minimal change of your values from the normal range. These as such do not have any clinical relevance. Most ranges are derived from numerous tests done on normal population. There are always people who fall outside this range....

Pathology: Blood work results question, t cell lymphoma, blood test results
t cell lymphoma, blood test results, white blood count: Hello again: Lymphoma can affect blood cell counts and they can drop. However a drop is not diagnostic of return of lymphoma. Only bone marrow exam or a lymph node biopsy will confirm such a diagnosis. Thyroid hormone imbalance may also change the blood...

Pathology: bladder ca biopsy, transitional cell carcinoma
transitional cell carcinoma: Hello Vince: Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common cancer of the bladder. It arises from the lining of the bladder. Usually it has finger like projections into the bladder cavity or may grow flat on the inner surface. Staging refers to evaluation...

Pathology: CBC after cancer, mid back pain, serum ferritin
mid back pain, serum ferritin, cbc results: Hello Liz: your CBC results are still within the normal range even though some values are at the borderline limits. all these parameters are dynamic and they change on a day to day basis..no two CBC results will be same. As long as they are within range...

Pathology: FNAC finding. Is everything OK ?, Galactocele
Galactocele: Hello Mr Kumar: Congratulations on the new baby. What your wife has been diagnosed with...Galactocele is often seen in women who are lactating (breast feed). There is obstruction of a duct in the breast leading to collection and stagnation of milk. ...

Pathology: High CBC and Beta hCG results, low wbc count, ectopic pregnancy
low wbc count, ectopic pregnancy, cbc results: hello Ronda: In general for a miscarriage the hCG values halve every 48 hours. the WBC count can rise asa reaction to miscarriage. Hashimoto s is generally associated with a low WBC count. I am not very familiar with serology of pregnancy, I hope...

Pathology: HistoPathology report, focal epithelial hyperplasia, invasive ductal carcinoma
focal epithelial hyperplasia, invasive ductal carcinoma, inflammatory exudate: Hello Prashant: Your mother has been diagnosed to have Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Ductal means it is a cancer arising from the milk ducts in the breast and is in situ or is in place. In other words the cancer is confined to its site of origin and...

Pathology: lipase amelaze levels, diseases of pancreas, acute pancreatitis
diseases of pancreas, acute pancreatitis, lipase levels: Hello Nikki: Lipase test is done to measure the levels of lipase a type of protein (enzyme) which aids in digestion of fatty food. This is secreted by a gland called pancreas present close to the stomach. Elevated levels of lipase are commonly seen in...

Pathology: low monocytes, low monocytes, routine checkup
low monocytes, routine checkup, blood work: Hello Shelcy: If this was a routine checkup and you are otherwise healthy there is no cause for concern. The monocytes normal value is a range decided after averaging values from a normal set of population. There are always outliers and mild variation...

Pathology: Mole Spread & High ANA, auto immune disorder, ana test
auto immune disorder, ana test, rheumatologist: Hi Karl: ANA test is done to rule out or confirm auto immune disorder. The ANA test results have to be interpreted in light of all your symptoms. The ANA is positive but by itself it is not diagnostic of anything. As mentioned a rheumatologist will...

Pathology: PSA Assay Test, psa assay, psa tests
psa assay, psa tests, lab result: Hello Mike: The recommendation in general is to stick to one lab and one specific method of assay. PSA done in different labs / different equipment can have a difference of 10 -20 % in values The difference can be because of how the sample is handled...

Pathology: pathology report on sarcidosis, sarcidosis, pathology report
sarcidosis, pathology report, clay soil: Hello: Sarcoidosis is a disease the exact cause of which is not known. It is understood that something triggers the immune response of the body leading to this disease. Many microorganisms, metals like aluminum, zirconium, pollen, dust, clay, soil etc have...

Pathology: Solitary Infantile Myofibromatosis, collagen stains, soft tissue mass
collagen stains, soft tissue mass, spindle cells: Hello Amanda Gibson: solitary intraosseous infantile myofibromatosis is rare but most common tumor found in this age in such a location. It is definitely negative for S-100 S-100 is a protein found in different types of cells...especially cells of neural...

Pathology: Thyroid problem, high tsh levels, subclinical hypothyroidism
high tsh levels, subclinical hypothyroidism, thyroid disorder: Hello Kavya: A High TSH with normal T3 and T4 hormones is suggestive of mild or subclinical hypothyroidism. This is a condition where the thyroid is not producing adequate hormones. The disease may be in initial stages and later the hormones will decrease....

Pathology: Ultrasound findings for Thyroid, nuclear medicine scan, ultrasound findings
nuclear medicine scan, ultrasound findings, septations: Hello Roy: A radiologist will do a better job at explaining this report. However, here is my take on this. The thyroid basically shows a cyst - a cavity which may be filled with fluid / debris and has also been partitioned into sections (septate cyst)Hence...

Pathology: White blood count, bone marrow examination, white blood cells
bone marrow examination, white blood cells, blood cell count: Hello Rolando: A white blood cell count of 16.0 (16,000 cells / microlitre) is a mildly elevated count and often seen in infections. Unless there was something additionally wrong in the bloodwork reported I do not think just a slight elevation of white...

Pathology: Abnormal test results, wbc count, poor appetite
wbc count, poor appetite, flight of stairs: Hello Candace: The WBC count is raised in a number of conditions. It is the most basic test done and does not specify a problem just indicates that something may be abnormal. In addition it also depends on how high the values are above the normal range....

Pathology: CBC, atypical lymphs, random variation
atypical lymphs, random variation, warning signs: Hello MJ: The platelets are mildly reduced but not significant enough to cause any problem. The other counts are not worrisome by themselves.If you are otherwise healthy then this could be a random variation and the repeat tests should be within normal...

Pathology: Colon biopsy, chronic inflammatory cells, inflammatory bowel disease
chronic inflammatory cells, inflammatory bowel disease, mast cells: Hello Amy: The biopsy does not indicate any abnormality. One there is no evidence of cancer in the biopsy. Second there are no features of inflammatory bowel disease. Parasites can be ruled out better by stool examination. However if any parasite parts...

Pathology: FNA Cytology Report, lymphoid proliferation, thyroid hormones
lymphoid proliferation, thyroid hormones, follicular cells: Hello Mary: I would not worry much about the Hurthle cells being cancerous. If there were some nuclear changes indicative of atypical change or cancer definitely an excision would be recommended. If this is a subacute / silent lymphocytic thyroiditis...that...

Pathology: PSA Methods
Pathology: PSA Methods

Pathology: Thyroid Ultrasound Results, nuclear medicine, ultrasound
Pathology: Thyroid Ultrasound Results, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, medicine

Pathology: Lab Results, ast sgot, chronic fatigue
ast sgot, chronic fatigue, healthy diet: Hello Camille: AST(SGOT) is used in conjunction with other tests to evaluate the liver. Low levels are rare and indicate malnutrition and deficiency of Vit B6 However, just one low level value is not to be relied upon...if a repeat test shows similar...

Pathology: Low Iron, iron deficiency anemia, dizziness and fatigue
iron deficiency anemia, dizziness and fatigue, intestinal parasites: Hello John: It is uncommon for men to have iron deficiency anemia. Some of the common causes can be... dietary deficiency, ulcers in the stomach or intestine which bleed, intestinal parasites, hemorrhoids or cancer in the stomach / intestine. It could...

Pathology: Monocytes, Neutrophils and CBC's, alk phosphatase, mystery illness
alk phosphatase, mystery illness, dynamic values: Hello Caroline: I can understand your concern that the values keep increasing though still within normal range or are at lower end of normal. Let me assure you that indeed your bloodwork is normal. The various parameters tested in CBC / sed rate / metabolic...

Pathology: necrosis, brain biopsy, right temporal lobe
brain biopsy, right temporal lobe, pathology report: Hello: It is true if astrocytes are only occasional how can they be aggressive? A perfect question. If a young person has a biopsy with very few normal looking cells (astrocytes) in this case, no clear cut cancer tissue and only dead tissue...the first...

Pathology: PSA Methods, antigen antibody reaction, psa levels
antigen antibody reaction, psa levels, psa test: Hello: I think the result from PSA ICMA lab is reliable. It is still within normal range of 0-4 ng/ml That is where it should be. All blood cell / hormone levels of our body are dynamic and never two values are same. However, if they stay within a specified...

Pathology: pathologic diagnosis - scleroderma, connective tissue disorder, polarization microscopy
connective tissue disorder, polarization microscopy, pathologic diagnosis: Hello Carol: The report is essentially describing different parts of the skin. It has an upper portion called epidermis and lower dermis. In addition there are structures which support the hair and glands which produce oil for the skin. All of it is...

Pathology: questions, medicine person, stomach problem
medicine person, stomach problem, gamit: Hello Chuck: Of course a internal medicine person will answer this better. However, I think you should not take your symptoms lightly...this could reflect a problem with the heart, kidneys etc...or may just be simple stomach problem / gastritis. But...

Pathology: Thyroid Level, weight management program, gaining muscle
weight management program, gaining muscle, mg dose: Hello Traci: I assume that the levels you have mentioned are for TSH and if so 2.6 is within normal range. This would mean that you are euthyroid with the help of Synthyroid. Euthyroid means that the thyroid is functioning normally. so you need to maintain...

Pathology: Thyroid Ultrasound Results, thyroid ultrasound, auto antibodies
thyroid ultrasound, auto antibodies, goiter: Hello Julie: Calcification can be seen in cases of cancer as well as non cancerous thyroid lesion. At times goiter can have focal calcification. Your physician should recommend a FNAC procedure to aspirate some cells from thyroid and help in diagnosing...

Pathology: Understanding MY Sons Bloodwork!, normal anion gap, ast sgot
normal anion gap, ast sgot, high monocytes: Hello Cynthia: What was the reason for getting this bloodwork done? If signs and symptoms are known the results are better interpreted in correlation. Still almost all blood work is normal. There are three mild variations from normal FT4 - it is...

Pathology: abnormal absolute lymph counts, 72 years, blood work
72 years, blood work, viral infection: Hello Cindy: A number of conditions can cause raised lymphocyte count ranging from viral infection to cancer. Without further tests and evaluation it would be pure speculation to try and arrive at a diagnosis. Please wait for the reports on other...

Pathology: Bayer Chemiluminescent Method, mild inflammation, benign conditions
mild inflammation, benign conditions, chemiluminescent: Hello Robert: The PSA should be less than 4 ng/ml If this increases beyond this value it is indicative of a number of benign conditions as well cancer of prostate (usually has to be more than 10ng/ml) Most likely explanation I can suggest is that last...

Pathology: Blood test results, low hemoglobin, age adults
low hemoglobin, age adults, last test: Hello Melanie: The blood tests values are based on age...adults and children have different ranges The values of the lymphocytes range from 1000 to 3500 and your daughters seem to be within range. Low red count along with low hemoglobin could signify...

Pathology: blood test results, blood test results, white blood cells
blood test results, white blood cells, emercency room: hello Angela: The blood test reports are not clinically significant. The WBC count is mildly elevated at 11.7 this could be related to the numerous infection you have mentioned but does not suggest any active infection. The other results are minimally...

Pathology: CBC LYMPH RESULTS, low lymphocyte count, outer margins
low lymphocyte count, outer margins, blood values: Hello George: The blood count normal range are arrived at as an average of values of a given set of normal population. Since this is an average there are people who would fall on the outer margins of this range. Since you are other wise healthy this could...

Pathology: CBC test results, absolute eosinophils, infectious mononucleosis
absolute eosinophils, infectious mononucleosis, mild anemia: Hello Mildred: The eosinophils are raised and relatively the neutrophils are reduced. The eosinophils are raised when there is a parasitic infection or some form of allergy. these are also higher in smokers. The absolute eosinophils are not raised indicating...

Pathology: complex thyroid cyst, solitary lesions, thyroid cyst
solitary lesions, thyroid cyst, cystic lesion: Hello Gina: It would be pure speculation to comment on the nature of the lesion without actually looking at a biopsy or FNAC Solitary lesions can be both benign or cancerous. Sudden increase in size of cyst along with pain can be due to bleeding in the...

Pathology: diabetes, hemoglobin content, plasma value
hemoglobin content, plasma value, blood sugar levels: hello Shalu: Glucose home monitoring devices like the glucometer analyze whole blood specimen from the capillaries (finger prick), whereas in a laboratory the automated analyzers use blood from veins from which plasma ( the clear liquid part of blood)is...

Pathology: Ferritin level Question!, iron deficiency anemia, peripheral blood smear
iron deficiency anemia, peripheral blood smear, high hemoglobin: Hello Meg: Ferritin levels are measured to asses the storage iron in the body. When iron stores are reduced /depleted a person develops iron deficiency anemia. Anemia refers to decrease in amount of hemoglobin in blood. Initially there can be reduction...

Pathology: Pap Smear test result, neoplastic changes, cancer
Pathology: Pap Smear test result, neoplastic changes, cancer, suggestion

Pathology: High Neutrophil - Low Lymph, high neutrophils, chronic tonsilitis
high neutrophils, chronic tonsilitis, low lymphocytes: Hello Tameka: The blood counts are minimally out of range. High neutrophil is seen in infections and as the neutrophils rise there is relative decrease in lymphocytes. Sometimes physical stress like climbing stairs or walking a block before giving the...

Pathology: high white blood cell count, high blood count, white blood cell
high blood count, white blood cell, high wbc count: Hi Bre: Generally this high blood count is seen in active infection and you would have accompanying fever and other symptoms. Or if you have an open wound then also you get high WBC count. If you are other wise healthy and yet have a high WBC count,...

Pathology: Low lymphocyte count?, full blood count, low lymphocyte count
full blood count, low lymphocyte count, low lymphocytes: Hello again: Low counts can be physiological which means that your normal range is at a relatively lower level than most. Any viral or bacterial infection...cold sore throat by a virus can cause lowering of counts. The counts regulate themselves if...

Pathology: Low neutrophils, high lymphocytes, low neutrophils high lymphocytes, dynamic values
low neutrophils high lymphocytes, dynamic values, minimal increase: Hello Becky: All the blood parameters tested are dynamic values and their levels vary every time you are tested. as long as they remain within range its fine. If there is minimal increase or decrease unaccompanied by any symptoms then there is no need...

Pathology: Low white blood cells, low wbc count, low white blood cells
low wbc count, low white blood cells, white blood cells: hello Faye: A low WBC count for past 20 years with no significant health issues does not indicate any disease especially HIV. A person with HIV infection has low counts of lymphocytes and has constant infections. This low count could be the normal...

Pathology: liver bx, liver function tests, plasma cells
liver function tests, plasma cells, chronic inflammation: Hello Sylvia: The report is describing the normal cell architecture of liver. Overall this indicates that there is no cancer. Also no cell death (necrosis)is seen. There is mild chronic inflammation (lymphocytic infiltrate) There is mild fatty change...

Pathology: liver and lymphocytes, high lymphocyte count, liver enzyme count
high lymphocyte count, liver enzyme count, liver enzymes: Hello Sara: This is a case of drug reaction. The antibiotics did not suit you and reacted causing rash and some amount of damage to liver thus raising the liver enzymes. All should revert to normal once you are off the medication for a while. Remember...

Pathology: low potassium, abnormal ekg at e.r., glucose tolerance test, reading ekg
glucose tolerance test, reading ekg, sinus rhythm: hello Judy: The tests done in the ER and not worrisome and are not clinically significant. GTT would help evaluate for diabetes and if present could to an extent explain nausea You could also get your vision tested. I am not an expert in reading EKG...

Pathology: Malignant Path Report ?, skin appendages, sweat glands
skin appendages, sweat glands, surgical excision: Hello Linda: Your path report mentions a diagnosis of Dermal cylindroma. I believe this is what was removed from your forehead. Cylindromas are benign tumors and arise from skin appendages. This is thought to arise from the sweat glands in the skin....

Pathology: Pap Smear test result, pap smear test, squamous epithelial cells
pap smear test, squamous epithelial cells, causative organisms: Hello Rita: The report s first two pints are consistent with post partum findings...that is this what you would find after giving birth. The inflammation is severe indicating infection. Since no causative organisms re mentioned this could be related...

Pathology: Pathology report, compound melanocytic nevus, benign nevus
compound melanocytic nevus, benign nevus, compound nevus: Hello Greg: A melanocytic nevus is basically a birthmark and represents pigmented black or brown spot In medical terms a melanocytic nevus is a benign growth of pigment producing cells in the epidermis (upper layer of skin) When these pigment producing...

Pathology: patholgy report, lymph node biopsy, lymphadenitis
lymph node biopsy, lymphadenitis, microorganism: Hello Sylvia: Your report states that the lymph node biopsy shows non specific lymphadenitis and no lymphoma is seen This means that no definite disease pattern can be identified. It is a reactive node. The lymph nodes are structures which produce lymphocytes...cells...

Pathology: pathology, wbc count, lymphocyte count
wbc count, lymphocyte count, hiv infection: Hello sushmitha: Please rest assured going by the WBC count there is no indication of HIV infection. Blood counts are dynamic and change every time you have them repeated. The normal range for WBC is from 4000 to 11000 cell / cu mm...so yours are well...

Pathology: severely dysplastic nevi- multiple, inch incision, atypical nevus
inch incision, atypical nevus, benign nevus: Hello Mary: An atypical nevus has features in between a benign nevus and melanoma. If the margins of the biopsy are not clear and the atypia extends upto the margin a wider excision is recommended. Yes most atypical nevus may not develop into melanoma...

Pathology: Thyroid Biopsy, thyroid biopsy, nodular goiter
thyroid biopsy, nodular goiter, hurthle cells: Hi Kelly: Please do not be worried about this report. First of all this was in 2004. Since then you have been healthy. This diagnosis basically indicated an inflammation of thyroid gland in presence of goiter. The thyroid hormones will be adjusted as...

Pathology: Thyroid FNA pathology report terms, papillary thyroid carcinoma, thyroid nodule
papillary thyroid carcinoma, thyroid nodule, foamy macrophages: Hi: Giant cells are cells significantly larger than most types of normal cells found in a specific organ. Bizarre may refer to unusual feature of the giant cell...shape/ number of nuclei etc. Being rare in you smears so has limited clinical significance....

Pathology: thyroid FNB results, thyroid scan, cancer cells
thyroid scan, cancer cells, abnormal cells: Hello Sherri: Hurthle cell change is seen in many benign conditions of thyroid and not necessarily cancer of thyroid. Definitely no cancer cells are seen as mentioned in this report. Taken together, the thyroid scan, physical exam and FNA report would...

Pathology: Urine Test Abnormalities, uric acid crystals, symptoms of urinary infection
uric acid crystals, symptoms of urinary infection, white blood cells: Hello Tameka: Uric acid crystals can form in acidic urine when it is allowed to stand for a while and generally have no clinical significance. Bacteria are present but can be a contaminant from skin and surrounding region. There should be presence of...

Pathology: 13yr old with EBV/CMV chronic swollen lymph nodes in his neck since toddler, sore throat swollen glands, swollen lymph nodes
sore throat swollen glands, swollen lymph nodes, infant fevers: Hello Tonya: With the list of symptoms you have described your son definitely requires a detailed exam and a panel of tests. First of all there are serological tests to diagnose CMV and mono and I hope the doctor did those. Indeed mono and CMV infection...

Pathology: 32 year old daughter, thyroid hormones, enlargement of thyroid gland
thyroid hormones, enlargement of thyroid gland, utrasound: Hello Judy: Your daughter has an enlargement of thyroid gland. This could be because of a nodule/s. This affects the functioning of the gland. The tests ordered T3 total, T4 free and TSH help evaluated the hormonal function of the gland and will help...

Pathology: abnormal blood tests, bone cavities, types of blood cells
bone cavities, types of blood cells, toxic side effects: Hello Linda: Methotrexate is the drug used for RA. However this has lot of toxic side effects. One of them is that the drug can affect the bone marrow. The stuff within bone cavities where all the types of blood cells are produced including platelets....

Pathology: Blood CBCs (mine & my daughter's), red blood cell, hgb hct
red blood cell, hgb hct, which came first the chicken or the egg: Hello Tonya: The ideal person to help you with this situation will be a hematologist...a person which deals with disorders of blood. I am not an expert here but will try and give some answers. When blood platelets fall below normal range (150,000 to...

Pathology: CBC results, hemoglobin values, anemai
hemoglobin values, anemai, serum iron: Hello: Thanks for providing the normal range. First of all increased lymphocytes do not indicate cancer in all cases. Second I hope the range provided is age matched and not the one used for adults. Increase in eosinophils most commonly is due to presence...

Pathology: colonoscopy results, inflammation of colon, definitive diagnosis
inflammation of colon, definitive diagnosis, inflammatory cells: Hello J: if you have had a definitive diagnosis of Crohn s this present biopsy would be part of the same process. The inflammatory cells like lymphocytes are arranged in groups in the lamina propria (one of the layers of the intestinal wall). These are...

Pathology: confusing results with Thyroid biopsy, excision biopsy, thyroid biopsy
excision biopsy, thyroid biopsy, pathology report: Hello Sandy: It is difficult to say what the diagnosis is without having a look at the slides. Any diagnosis can have different opinions and if two people do not agree then a third opinion is sought. On FNA only cells are aspirated and if a pathologist...

Pathology: Elevated CRP, acute pharyngitis, infectious disease specialist
acute pharyngitis, infectious disease specialist, gi conditions: Hi again: In a normal healthy person, based on the the lab and technique used for measurement the CRP levels range from undetectable to 10mg/L 0r (0-1mg/dl) Anything greater than 10mg/L is high. If you have a fall and bruise your knee the CRP level may...

Pathology: HIGH LYPHOCYTES BUT ZERO MONOCYTES AND BASOPHILS, differential count, zero count
differential count, zero count, volume size: Hello Ajay: Your blood reports are basically normal. The differential count is a relative count based on the total WBC count. The range is set by taking an average of the values of a given set of normal population. Since this is an average some people...

Pathology: Job prospects, pathology field, medical school university
pathology field, medical school university, career project: Hello Jason: Pathology is a challenging and interesting field of medicine. However before you specialize in pathology you have to finish a degree in medicine. You can get jobs in medical school / university hospitals or private laboratories. Within pathology...

Pathology: Lymphoma vs Sarcoidosis, fine needle aspiration, open biopsy
fine needle aspiration, open biopsy, definite diagnosis: Hello Paul: The alternative to an open biopsy is FNA (fine needle aspiration) This could be under ultrasound or CT guidance where they can visualize where the needle should be placed and if it is actually in the lesion before aspirating. Again it will...

Pathology: MPV test low alk -phos H, alk phos, alkaline phosphatase
alk phos, alkaline phosphatase, liver enzyme: Hello Charlene: The Alkaline phosphatase(ALP) measure the level of the enzyme in blood and this is produced by the liver. This test is done to check for liver or bone diseases. Your level is just at the upper limit (Normal range 30 -126units/lit) ALT...

Pathology: my sister's cancer, pathology practice, oncolgy
pathology practice, oncolgy, type of cancer: Hello Zahra: To verify the results one has to look at the slides. However, non keratinizing anaplastic carcinoma and poorly differentiated carcinoma are different names for the same type of cancer. at times there are different names and one may be preferred...

Pathology: WBC, wbc counts, acute infections
wbc counts, acute infections, neutrophils: Hello Karin: The WBC counts are dynamic and change every time you have a CBC done. However they should remain within range if you are otherwise healthy. at present the 18,500 count is elevated with increase in neutrophils. Such a picture is usually seen...

Pathology: My 22 month old baby, red blood cells, atypical lymphocytes
red blood cells, atypical lymphocytes, white blood cells: Hi Bella; Overall the results are normal. Elliptocytes are elliptical shaped red blood cells, which are normally present in small amounts and increase in certain types of anemia. Atypical lymphocytes refers to type of white blood cells which are not exactly...

Pathology: Anion Gap, high anion gap, test parameters
high anion gap, test parameters, alcohol intake: Hello Cindy: Anion gap is the measurement of ions, ie charged molecules in blood. An increased anion gap indicates increased anions / acids in the blood. The most common conditions were this is observed is - diabetes, starvation , dehydration alcohol...

Pathology: absolute Lymphocytes, absolute lymphocytes, red blood cells
absolute lymphocytes, red blood cells, leukocyte esterase: Hello Fred: Leukocyte esterase is a screening test used to detect a substance that suggests there are white blood cells in the urine, which likely means a urinary tract infection. Reference range for absolute lymphocytes is 1000 to 3500. The 820 is low...

Pathology: CBC results, liver function test, high lymphocytes
liver function test, high lymphocytes, low neutrophils: Hello: High ALT is an indicator of liver disorder. Almost ten times higher than normal ALT is seen in acute hepatitis and is usually due to virus. In your case this is not very high and would indicate a chronic hepatitis (an infection which has existed...

Pathology: elevated CEA, cirrhosis of the liver, inflammatory bowel disease
cirrhosis of the liver, inflammatory bowel disease, gastrointestinal tract: Hello Tina: An elevated WBC is usually seen in infection. CEA (carcinoembryoinc antigen)is a screening test to rule out presence of cancer. This is however increased in both benign conditions as well as cancer of gastrointestinal tract. Smoking,...

Pathology: Fine Needle Lymph Node Biopsy
Hello Ryan: If there was the slightest suspicion of Lymphoma further investigation would be done to confirm the type of lymphoma. FNA generally helps arrive at the diagnosis of lymphoma. However to further classify the type of lymphoma a biopsy (excision...

Pathology: high red cell folate levels, anemia megaloblastic, water soluble vitamin
Pathology: high red cell folate levels, anemia megaloblastic, water soluble vitamin, b9

Pathology: Immunohistochemical testing for Lynch syndrome, cancer research centre, genetic counselling
Pathology: Immunohistochemical testing for Lynch syndrome, cancer research centre, genetic counselling, genetic testing

Pathology: goitre, multi nodular goiter, thyroid hormone levels
multi nodular goiter, thyroid hormone levels, t3 t4 tsh: Hello: You can have goiter without associated hypothyroidism. Goiter is basically enlargement of gland and can be due to a number of reasons. The most common is iodine deficiency. Others are Graves disease (too much hormone secretion), Hashimoto s thyroiditis...

Pathology: h.pylori and UGI endoscopy, h pylori infection, ugi
h pylori infection, ugi, hct: hello Sara: The UGI endoscopy is advised in case a biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis of H.pylori. If you are already on medication then your symptoms if due to H.pylori should improve. If the doctor is suspecting some other cause / disease...

Pathology: high red cell folate levels, hemoglobin levels, types of anemia
hemoglobin levels, types of anemia, vit b12: hello Jess: High folate (Vit B6) and Vit B12 levels are not usually clinically monitored. High folate levels are seen in some types of anemia (pernicious anemia) and people on strictly vegetarian diet. You can ask your doctor about your folate level...

Pathology: Immunohistochemical testing for Lynch syndrome, hospital pathology, gene mutations
hospital pathology, gene mutations, pathology department: Hello Melissa: Not everyone is tested for Lynch syndrome. If a person fits the criteria then doctor recommends further testing. The criteria includes at least three family members having one of the cancers of colon, endometrium, ovaries, stomach, small...

Pathology: Liver biopsy/non-hodgkins in remission/gallbladder removal, non hodgkin lymphoma, hepatic parenchyma
non hodgkin lymphoma, hepatic parenchyma, non hodgkin s lymphoma: Hello MK: Let me put you to ease right away. the above stated report does not give any indication of presence / relapse of Non-Hodgkin s lymphoma. Overall it shows benign liver tissue. There is some amount of fat in the form of tiny droplets in the...

Pathology: Low White blood cell, complete blood count, low white blood cell
complete blood count, low white blood cell, wbc counts: Hello Michelle: All the blood parameters for a complete blood count are dynamic. The value change every time it is tested. As long as the reported result is within normal range it is fine. WBC at 3.5 is just at the lower limit nothing worrisome if you...

Pathology: lab results, absolute lymphocytes, white blood cells
absolute lymphocytes, white blood cells, white blood cell: Hi The absolute count is just at the upper limit and the percentage is mildly elevated. Any viral infection can cause this rise. Also chronic long standing infection leads to increase in lymphocytes Post vaccination of any kind lymphocytes may...

Pathology: Papsmear test, intraepithelial lesion, pap test
intraepithelial lesion, pap test, pap smears: Hello: low grade of squamous intraepithelial lesion refers to presence of abnormal cells in the surface lining of cervix. These are not clear cut cancer cells but may or may not progress to cancer over a period of time. Generally the doctor will...

Pathology: Pathology report to rule out Cutneous Lymphoma, chronic inflammatory cells, lymphoid cells
chronic inflammatory cells, lymphoid cells, pathology report: Hi Tammy: The report points to features of skin which are a result of constant itching. There is increase in keratin of the skin, thickening of upper layer (epidermis) of skin and there are chronic inflammatory cells in deeper layer. There is no presence...

Pathology: Prostatectomy Follow Up PSA Test, psa tests, psa levels
psa tests, psa levels, psa test: Hello Sonny: Ideally all PSA tests including the baseline (the first test) should be done in the same lab using the same equipment and test method. all clinical labs are certified labs and have to have quality control/ assurance to indicate that their test...

Pathology: pathology report-what does this mean, cancerous lesions, pathology report
cancerous lesions, pathology report, central core: hello Janice: The report says significant finding present but then does not mention what that finding is. It does however say that scanty evidence of papillary lesion. This refers to arrangement of cells of the thyroid into finger like projections with...

Pathology: Results of biopsy for thyroid, nodules on thyroid, atypical cells
nodules on thyroid, atypical cells, enlargement of thyroid gland: Hello Lynne: Most likely your complex nodule will be a type of goiter. which is enlargement of thyroid gland and is a common condition. Atypical cells are cells which cannot be clearly defined as either normal or cancer cells. These have features in between....

Pathology: Scattered Thyroids, thyroid follicles, thyroids
thyroid follicles, thyroids, report states: Hello: The report states that the cells are very few. There has to be something more as few scattered thyroids does not make sense. It could either be thyroid follicles in which case these are normal cells found in Thyroid. Overall the report does...

Pathology: spindle cell, spindle cells, spindle cell
spindle cells, spindle cell, cancerous conditions: Hello Ginger: Spindle cell lesion just describes the shape of cells in the tumor...that is spindle shaped. These are found in a range of benign and cancerous conditions. I would not like to speculate as to what this may turn out to be and unduly worry...

Pathology: Just took an urine test, white blood cells, test blood
white blood cells, test blood, urine test: Hello Henry: If all other tests are normal and only few bacteria is seen this would indicate contamination and does not mean you have infection. However if in addition the urine sample shows presence of poly morphs or neutrophils which are a type of...

Pathology: Unusual EBV titer combination, rapid heart rate, sinus pain
rapid heart rate, sinus pain, infectious disease specialist: Hello Jeff: I agree this is an unusual report. If both VCAIgG and EBNA were positive it would just indicate that you had the EBV infection in remote past. However VCA IgM and EBNA are not positive together. I am sorry that I cannot be of much help to...

Pathology: unsatisfactory pap smear
Hello Kay: I do not understand what thickening of cells in your report signify. If the report says that the sample is unsatisfactory it is due to various reasons 1) Not enough material on slides to review 2) Too much blood obscures the cells 3) The...

Pathology: 2 year old cbc, pediatric age group, rdw sd
pediatric age group, rdw sd, bartonella virus: Hello Ericca: Most of the values of the blood parameters mentioned above are in normal range for pediatric age group. e.g the MCV 74.4 mentioned as low is low for adults but for a two year old its normal. The only significant finding is that the lymphocytes...

Pathology: Abnormal blood test in 9 year old, low lymphocyte count, thyroid hormones
low lymphocyte count, thyroid hormones, low wbc: Hi Jennifer: I agree with your doctor.the mild low lymphocyte count is not significant. Low thyroid hormones can be due to hypothyroidism. A full thyroid panel will help in arriving at a diagnosis as free T3 is not routinely used as the only test to decide...

Pathology: analysis of report, sore throat ear ache, red blood cells
sore throat ear ache, red blood cells, white blood cells: Hello Anitha: During pregnancy it is normal to have an increase in the white blood cells...that is what neutrophilic leukocytosis means. It indicates that a type of blood cells called neutrophils are increased in number...they show toxic changes....indicates...

Pathology: Blood results 3year old son, high lymphocytes, red blood cells
high lymphocytes, red blood cells, wbc count: Hello Tanja: the lymphocyte percent are high and relatively neutrophils are low..as all the blood cells should total to a count of 100 in percent count. The total count is the absolute count and if this is normal that indicates that overall count is normal...

Pathology: Bone biopsy, bone biopsy, bone lesion
bone biopsy, bone lesion, open biopsy: Hi Tricia: A lesion in the bone can be mets from breast cancer, but this can be conclusively proven only by biopsy. Arthritis has specific features than metastatic suspicious lesion. Having said that it is speculative to say what the lesion is. This...

Pathology: CA 125 refence range, ca 125 tumor marker, moderate hydronephrosis
ca 125 tumor marker, moderate hydronephrosis, total hysterectomy: Hello Angela: The reference range for CA-125 is 0-35 units/ml. This can be elevated in a number of non cancerous conditions also and thus is not a very good screening tool. If two tests are done a difference of 155 between the two is medically significant...

Pathology: CARCINOID TUMOR, atypical cells, types of proteins
atypical cells, types of proteins, synaptophysin: Hello Deb: Carcinoids are a type of tumor which may be cancerous (malignant) or non cancerous (benign). These produce excessive amounts of hormone like substances and result in carcinoid syndrome. If the carcinoid is confined to one specific area / organ...

Pathology: CBC results, segmented neutrophils, ear ache
segmented neutrophils, ear ache, cbc results: Hello Sara: Since you are young and healthy this is most likely a physiological increase. This could be related to stress...even the stress of having blood drawn. A walk around the block or climbing a flight of stairs prior to testing can raise the segmented...

Pathology: Endometrial biopsy and ovarian cyst, atypical cells, ultrasound report
atypical cells, ultrasound report, endometrial biopsy: Hello Barbara: Atypical cells are cells which do not have clear cut features of either normal or cancer cells. They are in between these two and are just abnormal cells. These can be related to infection , inflammation or sometimes just a normal process...

Pathology: fnac lt thyroid nodular lobe, mild atypia, auto immune disorder
mild atypia, auto immune disorder, hashimoto s thyroiditis: Hello Ahmed: Thyroiditis is inflammation of the thyroid. It depends what type of thyroidits you have. Hashimoto s thyroiditis is an auto immune disorder where the body produces antibodies which destroy your thyroid tissue. If so you may need eltroxin ...

Pathology: Globulins urine..iga serum, serum protein electrophoresis, serum proteins
serum protein electrophoresis, serum proteins, protein in urine: Hi Tracey: Urine has minute amounts of protein and any significant urinary protein is indicative of some pathology. In your case there is absence of M protein in urine and if this is also absent in serum protein electrophoresis it will rule out multiple...

Pathology: Lab Results question, antibody titers, varicella zoster
antibody titers, varicella zoster, white blood cells: Hello Dee: An expert in molecular pathology would be able to provide you with better information on the CD 19 counts. The antibody titers slowly decrease after a bout of illness and take a while to reach a baseline value. Many of them never totally disappear....

Pathology: Reticulocyte or parasite, red blood cells, red blood cell
red blood cells, red blood cell, blood transfusion: Hello; In that case these are most likely air bubbles you can see them singly and in groups. They come in and out of focus and are at different depths. could be some contaminant / dirt on the slide / powder from gloves etc Basically you cannot see...

Pathology: Sarcoidos to lymphoma?, chest ct scan, lymph node biopsy
chest ct scan, lymph node biopsy, paquenil: Hello John: If biopsy can be performed and a piece of lymph nodes is removed it will help to rule out or confirm the diagnosis of Lymphoma. Biopsy (and not FNAC) along with some immunohistochemical tests done on the biopsy tissue will be most helpful...

Pathology: Absolute Lymphocytes, absolute lymphocytes, blood cell count
absolute lymphocytes, blood cell count, white blood cell: Hi Debbie: High WBC count along with increased lymphocytes indicates infection especially by viruses, chronic illness or leukemia (blood cancer) To decide what is the cause for your mothers raised counts further tests need to be done. A peripheral smear...

Pathology: abnormal bloodwork lymphocytes, elevated lymphocytes, atypical lymphocytes
elevated lymphocytes, atypical lymphocytes, lymphoma cancer: Hello: I think that since you mention elevated lymphocytes the Lymphocyte% written above is 70 and not 7.0 If this is indeed 70% it is increased though your absolute count is very marginally elevated. The cause for concern here is the atypical lymphocytes...

Pathology: atypical cells, excision biopsy, atypical cells
excision biopsy, atypical cells, needle biopsy: Hello Deborah: Atypical cells are cells which have features in between those of normal and cancer cells. Since they are intermediate cells, based on how many were present and what were image results and clinical findings surgery may or may not be recommended....

Pathology: blood tests, eosinophils, muscle damage
eosinophils, muscle damage, clinical significance: Hello Sarah: The eosinophils are minimally elevated and have no clinical significance. CK (Creatine Kinase)is a test done when a patient may have had a heart attack or when a person complains of chest pain. The other reason why such a test is ordered...

Pathology: CBC results, cbc results, large intestine
cbc results, large intestine, lymp: Hi Carlos: Your CBC results are almost normal. There is a mild decrease in Hgb The physician based on his judgement and your physical exam, clinical symptoms wants to rule out any possibility of bleeding from large intestine. A colonoscopy will help...

Pathology: CEA results, inflammatory bowel disease, adult smokers
inflammatory bowel disease, adult smokers, smoking female: Hi Carol: One possibility is that your levels may be normal for you. since most levels are arrived at as an average from a given set of normal population. People can fall outside the range. If a person is otherwise healthy what was the reason for doing...

Pathology: Cluster of Microcalcification, right upper quadrant, microcalcifications in breast
right upper quadrant, microcalcifications in breast, invasive cancer: Hello Sienna: Microcalcifications in breast...is very small deposition of calcium in breast. This is highly suspicious for presence of breast cancer. It is advisable to have the area removed and examined by a pathologist. If it is cancer and is localized...

Pathology: EBV Blood Tests, preceeding numbers, infectious diseases specialist
preceeding numbers, infectious diseases specialist, mono symptoms: Hello MaryLou: after almost a year your Early Ab s should have become undetectable and the rest - VCA IgG and EBNA IgG should have reduced. Here they have increased. The Creatinine clearance is very high and can be because of a number of reasons. I...

Pathology: elevated liver enzymes and high cholesterol, red rice yeast, elevated liver enzymes
red rice yeast, elevated liver enzymes, steroidal antiinflammatory drugs: Hello Eileen: A laboratory report of mildly elevated liver enzymes is common and does not indicate a specific disease. Of course underlying liver disease is one cause of the elevated enzymes...there are other reasons like Obesity, alcohol, drugs like...

Pathology: FNA Results, thyroid hormones, follicle cells
thyroid hormones, follicle cells, thyroid cancer: Hi Pat: This essentially means that the FNA slides show normal follicle cells found in the thyroid. In addition scanty colloid was found. Colloid is the material produced by follicle cells which helps synthesize thyroid hormones. The report does not...

Pathology: FNAC, desk job, hello doctor
desk job, hello doctor, throat area: Hello Pechi: Please do not worry too much. The FNAC involves using a needle and taking out some material from the lump. This would be examined under the microscope by a pathologist and will help arrive at a conclusion as to what the lump can be. The...

Pathology: elevated liver enzymes and high cholesterol, atp iii guidelines, framingham heart
Pathology: elevated liver enzymes and high cholesterol, atp iii guidelines, framingham heart, calulators

Pathology: FNA Results, follicular neoplasm, microscopic features
Pathology: FNA Results, follicular neoplasm, microscopic features, dahiya

Pathology: High white-blood cells and atypical lymphocytes, high white blood cells, atypical lymphocytes
high white blood cells, atypical lymphocytes, blood cell count: Hello Gilbert: I think the first thing you need to worry about is being pre diabetic with high cholesterol. Lifestyle modification which will include diet modification and exercise as advised by a professional should help control the blood glucose and cholesterol...

Pathology: Hodgkin's Lymphoma, reed sternberg cells, excision biopsy
reed sternberg cells, excision biopsy, hodgkin s lymphoma: Hello Mary: Absence of a positive mono test and infection have no relation with Hodgkins disease. Reed Sternberg cells are essential for diagnosis of Hodgkin s Lymphoma. However, since they are not unique to HD they alone are not diagnostic of HD. ...

Pathology: Labs, alkaline phosphate, alkaline phosphatase
alkaline phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, triglyceride levels: Hello Kay Robertson: Alkaline phosphatase is a screening test to assess the functioning of liver. A high level indicates liver damage / diseases and further tests are needed to determine the cause , based on your clinical signs and symptoms. Your cholesterol...

Pathology: low white count, bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow test results
bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow test results, neck pain and headaches: Hello Melissa: ANC refers to absolute neutrophil count. Neutrophil is a type of white blood cell. The normal count should be 1500 cells and yours is pretty low. An infection generally has a high WBC count, if the infection becomes chronic then counts...

Pathology: Pathology procedure, fine needle aspiration, breast lesion
fine needle aspiration, breast lesion, needle aspiration cytology: Hello Sienna: If a mammogram shows anything abnormal then the nest step is an FNAC -fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy. The pain is as much as you have when getting an injection. after the procedure the area is sore for some hours. Here a needle...

Pathology: Pathology Results on 2 Bone Tumors, connective tissue disease, giant cells
connective tissue disease, giant cells, clinical correlation: Hello Jayne: According to the report this lump shows no evidence of infection either by fungus or bacteria especially those which cause tuberculosis. Second there is no suggestion or evidence for cancer. The report indicates that the lumps are a reaction...

Pathology: PSA, gleason 9, different town
gleason 9, different town, chemiluminescent: Hello Marty: Please relax and do not get anxious over this result. There is always a mild variation between results of PSA when done in different labs and on different equipment. For this reason it is preferable to continue testing in one specific facility....

Pathology: path report, spindle cell tumor, spindle cell neoplasm
spindle cell tumor, spindle cell neoplasm, malignant cancer: Hello Julie: Dermtoafibroma is a benign skin neoplasm...one of the more common ones and seen more frequently in women. A neoplasm in simple terms means a new growth which may be benign or cancerous. This is definitely not cancer. If this was not completely...

Pathology: path report, thyroid hormone tests, thyroid nodule
thyroid hormone tests, thyroid nodule, thyroid hormones: Hi: The two reports mentioned are entirely different. If no abnormal cells or atypical cells were seen then the slides do not indicate cancer. They only show normal follicular cells and some colloid (material from which thyroid hormones are produced) ...

Pathology: pathology report of FNA thyroid, clinical judgement, pathology report
clinical judgement, pathology report, thyroid hormone: Hello T: The report basically says that the material presented for assessment is insufficient to come to a definite conclusion . It cannot either rule out or confirm any diagnosis. Whatever little material is examined, shows only normal cells and material...

Pathology: pathology test, serum protein electrophoresis, globulins
serum protein electrophoresis, globulins, leucocytes: Hello: ESR is a screening test. It indicates that there is some form of chronic infection / inflammation / cancer / polymyalgia rheumatica etc or other disease in the body. ESR does not point to any specific diagnosis, its just an indicatior for underlying...

Pathology: son's labwork, c reactive protein, atypical lymphocytes
c reactive protein, atypical lymphocytes, infectious disease specialist: Hi Wendi: Since he is negative for EBV, CMV etc other causes have to be looked into. The ASO titre of 800 is high. He may have had a streptococcal infection in recent past. Increased sed and c reactive protein just indicate some acute going on to chronic...

Pathology: Thyroidectomy Pathology, thyroid follicles, thyroid tissue
thyroid follicles, thyroid tissue, papillary carcinoma: Hello Cindy: Your thyroid revealed two types of lesions One is benign - Hashimoto s thyroiditis. It is autoimmune destruction of thyroid tissue and is replaced by lymphocytes forming germinal centers etc. Such a condition increases the risk of malignancy...

Pathology: My test results, red cell folate, homocysteine levels
red cell folate, homocysteine levels, vitamin b12 deficiency: Hello: In general serum B12 is measured and its measurement at times does not correlate with the symptoms. Vitamin B12 is also known as cobalamin. The active form of B12 is found in serum bound to protein and one such protein is transcobalamin. The...

Pathology: thyroid biopsy results, thyroid biopsy, thyroid cells
thyroid biopsy, thyroid cells, biopsy results: Hello Renee: I am glad my answer helped you understand your report better. I am sorry about the typo in the last line. Basically if Hashimoto s is suspected the steps taken to confirm the diagnosis are: 1) FNA...which in your case is only suggestive...

Pathology: thyroid nodule/biopsy, thyroid nodule biopsy, needle biopsy
thyroid nodule biopsy, needle biopsy, biospy: Hi Jeanne: The right side nodule does not show any evidence of cancer. Since the left nodule is calcified a repeat needle biopsy will not yield much. If your thyroid blood tests are normal and the ultrasound scan shows nothing clinically worrisome...nothing...

Pathology: thyroidectomy pathology, partial thyroidectomy, benign cancer
partial thyroidectomy, benign cancer, pathology report: Hello Michelle: The pathology report will give information about the nodule...what type of lesion it is...benign, cancer, infection or inflammation. The normal thyroid is not usually commented upon unless it shows any abnormality. It will definitely be...

Pathology: total thyroidectomy medication & labs, thyroid gland, ent surgeon
thyroid gland, ent surgeon, dry peeling skin: Hello Anna: I am not an expert at this but I understand that your dose of synthroid may be too much for you and hence your TSH is very low indicating hyperthyroidism. In people for whom thyroid is removed there is chance of developing hypothyroidism because...

Pathology: AST and ALT decreased, ast sgot, blood work
ast sgot, blood work, pregnancy: Hi Victoria: The results are mildly below normal range. These may be the normal levels for you as all ranges are set from average values of a group of normal subjects. There are always people who lie outside this range. SGOT is sometimes reduced in pregnancy....

Pathology: Bladder cancer (pathology report), bladder cancer, tumor involvement
bladder cancer, tumor involvement, tumor cells: Hello Cherhonda: Lymphovascular invasion implies that the tumor cells are seen in the lymphoid and vascular channels. They are in the process of reaching or may have reached sites other than the primary location. However, this does not necessarily indicate...

Pathology: Blood Test Results, blood test results, blood tests
blood test results, blood tests: Hello Alejandro: For most blood tests, normal range is set after taking an average of values from a given normal set of people. There are always people who fall outside this range. 0.8 is a minimal low value and could be normal for you. Please do not...

Pathology: Borderline enlarged lymph nodes, fine needle aspiration, left upper quadrant
fine needle aspiration, left upper quadrant, enlarged lymph nodes: Hello Debra: Lymph nodes are small bean shaped structures scattered all over the body. They produce lymphocytes which process all foreign matter of our body and produce antibodies. These are enlarged in drainage areas of organs which have infection,...

Pathology: bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow test results
bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow test results, neck pain and headaches: Hello Melissa: The suspicion raised by your blood counts - low WBC count (leukopenia) was Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and or leukemia which rarely presents with low counts. The good news is that at present the bone marrow does not show any evidence...

Pathology: CBC, high neutrophils, low monocytes
high neutrophils, low monocytes, sudafed pe: Hello Elle: The neutrophils are on the higher side and also for this reason there is a relative decrease in the lymphocytes. An increase in neutrophils is seen most often in infection. Any mild allergy, cough, cold, sore throat etc can raise the counts....

Pathology: colonic biopsy report, chronic inflammation, pathology report
chronic inflammation, pathology report, inflammatory cells: Hello Scott: You can rest assured that the biopsy is normal. The colon generally shows some inflammatory cells and hence it is considered mild and chronic inflammation. Moreover this is non specific. If you have no symptoms to correlate with this finding...

Pathology: confusing blood test/ Leukemia with low lymphocytes, high platlets, low lymphocytes
high platlets, low lymphocytes, low neutrophils: Hi Brenda: Non Hodgkin s Lymphoma is a type of malignancy which involves the lymph nodes. These are small round structures where the lymphocytes are produced. In lymphoma there is abnormal production of atypical / abnormal lymphocytes. It can also happen...

Pathology: EBV Panel, swollen lymph nodes, types of lymphoma
swollen lymph nodes, types of lymphoma, incomplete knowledge: Hello again: Antibodies are proteins produced by the body in response to foreign elements in the body. This response varies for each individual. Therefore such tests do not have a normal range rather a cutoff value. If a person has had no exposure to...

Pathology: EBV positive, low lymphocyte for 6 yr old son, lymph node biopsy, low lymphocyte
lymph node biopsy, low lymphocyte, hodgkin lymphoma: Hi: Low absolute lymphocytes are a cause of concern if they continue to drop. If the next Blood counts show a rise then it indicates recovery from whatever is the cause. In addition a fine needle aspiration can be performed for the lymph node also. ...

Pathology: FNA of Thyroid indicates very cellular sample with mildly atypical follicular cells, pale nuclei, nodular goiter
pale nuclei, nodular goiter, hurthle cells: Hello Natalie: Thank you for the detailed description and report. FNA is a procedure where a needle helps pull out cells from a lesion and these are examined to arrive at a diagnosis. It is most useful to confirm a diagnosis of cancer if cancer cells...

Pathology: bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow aspirate, iron stores
Pathology: bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow aspirate, iron stores, hematologist

Pathology: Hodgkins survivor with neck lump and night sweats, swollen lymph node, hodgkin s disease
swollen lymph node, hodgkin s disease, swollen nodes: Hello Greg: Given your history you are right to worry about recurrence of lymphoma. I agree that the lymph node is not big enough to be worrisome, but with your background I would still want to know what it is? You have generalized symptoms of night...

Pathology: Lab results, gastrointestinal diseases, carcinoembryonic antigen
gastrointestinal diseases, carcinoembryonic antigen, gastrointestinal tract: Hello Heather: All the tests performed and their values are indicative of chronic infection and your father does have pancreatitis. The only worrisome test is CEA..carcinoembryonic antigen. This is a marker found positive in cancers of the gastrointestinal...

Pathology: Lab results, dynamic parameters, radiation treatments
dynamic parameters, radiation treatments, radiation treatment: Hello Ruth: The Blood tests done for you are dynamic parameters their values change everytime you are tested. Some of these are out of range but only mildly and these variations are most likely due to the radiation treatment you have received. The blood...

Pathology: Lab work, humeral shaft, protein electrophoresis
humeral shaft, protein electrophoresis, diet modification: Hi: I am not an expert on decision regarding treatment protocols however this is what I suggest. Hip replacement is a major surgery and before that the surgeon will do a lot of tests to rule out anything which can adversely affect the outcome of surgery...

Pathology: Non-HAMA interference PSA assay, psa assay, seed implantation
psa assay, seed implantation, psa level: Hello Tiang: Murine monoclonal antibody can induce (HAMA)- Human antimouse heterophile antibodies (HAMA) and interferes with accuracy of lab diagnostic tests as is evident in your case. These are naturally occurring antibodies that can interfere with modern...

Pathology: question, epithelial hyperplasia, treatment protocol
epithelial hyperplasia, treatment protocol, uniform layer: Hello Rosey: Ductal epithelial hyperplasia may be simply defined as proliferation of the lining cells of ducts present in the breast. From a single uniform layer of cells there can be an increase in cell layers. As long as this is classified as usual...

Pathology: surgical pathology report, surgical pathology report, sclerosing adenosis
surgical pathology report, sclerosing adenosis, chronic inflammation: Hello Barbara: A papilloma is not cancer. This is a wart like growth which can sometimes puncture a duct and then it becomes intraductal papilloma. An excision is the treatment of choice. The yellow color does not indicate cancer. Only if there are...

Pathology: WBC, general good health, white blood cell
general good health, white blood cell, neutrophil count: Hi Jennifer: I hope your daughter is feeling better now. For a 7 year old the WBC are moderately elevated. In addition I think her neutrophil count will also be high. This goes most likely with her strep throat diagnosis, if other than this she is in...

Pathology: Abnormal Infant CBC, red blood cells, red blood cell
red blood cells, red blood cell, first time parents: Hello Rayna: Acanthocytes, elliptocytes, microcytes and macrocytes ...all these terms refer to various shapes and sizes of red blood cells. Having a mixture of such cells along with a low hemoglobin (Hb) would indicate some type of disorder of red blood...

Pathology: Blood Lab results, red blood cells, hemoglobin content
red blood cells, hemoglobin content, mild anemia: Hello Mary: A number of tests have been done and I will focus on those which point towards a specific condition. Also please remember all these are screening tests and a definitive diagnosis would require further investigation. In blood counts your hemoglobin...

Pathology: CBC Report, doctors office, high cholesterol
doctors office, high cholesterol, mild infection: Hello Sharon All the blood parameters tested have a range. This range is arrived at by taking the average of test results of a set of healthy people in a given population. Since this is an average some people will always fall a little out of range. ...

Pathology: CBC w/differential for my 2 year old daughter, atypical lymphocytes, infectious mononucleosis
atypical lymphocytes, infectious mononucleosis, white blood cells: Hello Viren: By the reference range (if this is age adjusted) There is a mild increase in lymphocytes. This could be due to mild viral infection - many viruses in childhood cause this / vaccination prior to test Infectious mononucleosis is another virus...

Pathology: CEA level of 3.4 ng/mL, pap smear results, blood in feces
pap smear results, blood in feces, pain abdomen: Hello Eve: CEA is a non specific marker for cancer. It is neither organ nor tumor specific as it is raised in many types of cancer. In addition sometimes elevated levels are found in people with benign conditions of colon, rectum, stomach, liver and...

Pathology: CLL or what else could it be, bone marrow biopsy, low wbc
bone marrow biopsy, low wbc, leukemia and lymphoma: Hello Dawn: It does appear from your findings that you have anemia and most likely iron deficiency. Lymphocytes are raised in a number of conditions like chronic infections, viral disease and some types of leukemia and lymphoma. However since flow...

Pathology: can you explain report, papillary thyroid carcinoma, papillary carcinoma of thyroid
papillary thyroid carcinoma, papillary carcinoma of thyroid, papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: Hello Linda: The thyroid has been found to have papillary carcinoma. This is the commonest form of the cancer in this organ About 22-24 lymph nodes have been examined and I think seven show presence of cancer. In addition the thymus and parathyroid...

Pathology: Haematology report, white blood cells, blood cell count
white blood cells, blood cell count, white blood cell: Hello Nataliya: There is a mild increase in white blood cells and this is because of increase in neutrophils. These cells are the first line of defense of the body. Such counts may be seen in infection and at times can be physiological (if you are otherwise...

Pathology: Lab Results, high neutrophils, ast sgot
high neutrophils, ast sgot, high hematocrit: Hello Andre: I would not worry about the test result from serum Iron and below. However the first four are more significant. These indicate that there is some mild disease process in your liver. Most likely related to alcohol consumption but could be...

Pathology: Leukemia?, high lymphocytes, low neutrophils
high lymphocytes, low neutrophils, low lymphocytes: Hello: Leukemia is diagnosed based on total WBC count which may be high or low, lymphocytes may be elevated in certain types of leukemia. In addition the morphology (appearance) of the cells is very important. Immunohistochemistry is used at times to establish...

Pathology: VERY low lympho %, chest x ray, anxiety and panic attacks
chest x ray, anxiety and panic attacks, stress and anxiety: Hello Raymond: The percentage of lymphocyte count and absolute (#) lymphocyte count are reduced. The absolute count is mildly decreased. In stress and anxiety the neutrophil levels may be slightly elevated and thus the lymphocyte count can reduce relative...

Pathology: low white blood count, low white blood count, white blood count
low white blood count, white blood count, routine check: Hello Harry: All the blood parameters tested have a range. This range is arrived at by taking the average of test results of a set of healthy people in a given population. Since this is an average some people will always fall a little out of range. ...

Pathology: lymph nodes, cancer lymphoma, cancer cells
cancer lymphoma, cancer cells, types of cancer: Hello William: Lymphadenopathy means that the lymph nodes are enlarged. This enlargement can be as a reaction to presence of infection in the vicinity. At times there is presence of cancer / lymphoma which causes them to become big. However the only...

Pathology: Mastectomy - Biopsy result, infiltrating duct carcinoma, axillary nodes
infiltrating duct carcinoma, axillary nodes, excisional biopsy: Hello Jaya: Your mother has breast cancer with stage 2 and grade 2 classification. This is based on size of tumor, involvement of lymphnodes ( 2 in her case) and presence or absence of distant spread of cancer ( in her case most likely not at this point)...

Pathology: Microcalcification, right upper quadrant, breast duct
right upper quadrant, breast duct, definitive diagnosis: Hello Nicole: I am not familiar with use of infra red for evaluating breast tissue. Microcalcification is minute deposits of calcium in the tissue. This deposit occurs around dead tissue or infectious agents or some foreign material (can be dried up breast...

Pathology: Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid Patholigy, thyroid papillary carcinoma, papillary carcinoma of thyroid
thyroid papillary carcinoma, papillary carcinoma of thyroid, papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: Hello Tina: The FNA report does describe features associated with papillary carcinoma as seen on fine needle aspiration smears. The surgeon will decide course of action based on the pathology report and ultrasound findings. It is very unlikely that this...

Pathology: PSA test variances, red blood cell, low grade fever
red blood cell, low grade fever, blood cell count: Hello Andy: The PSA is definitely raised with either of the equipment used and needs to be evaluated. In general when the levels fall they are always considered a good sign. It is likely you may have had a urinary tract infection and hence the raised...

Pathology: Out of Range labs, red blood count, rheumatoid arthritis
red blood count, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiolipin: Hello Dee: Low blood levels of creatinine are not common and are not usually a cause for concern. They can be seen with conditions that result in decreased muscle mass. The most important parameter here is the CCP level. With your history of pain this...

Pathology: Sarcoidosis vs Lymphoma, lymph node biopsies, auto immune disease
lymph node biopsies, auto immune disease, bone tumor: Hello Jayne: I understand how this is confusing for you. I will try and explain this in abetter manner. Granuloma is a collection of inflammatory cells. Yes these form in a number of diseases. When a pathologist looks at a tissue sample which is a...

Pathology: Thyroid Nodule - FNA Results, thyroid nodule, thyroid gland
thyroid nodule, thyroid gland, correct diagnosis: Hello Diane: Based on the cold nodule, thyroglobulin results and lack of suspicious or cancer cells one can consider that this is most likely a benign lesion. However, FNA is non conclusive as it did not have enough material to evaluate. Again each...

Pathology: Intermittent fever for 5 months, mesenteric lymph nodes, abdomen pain
mesenteric lymph nodes, abdomen pain, complete physical examination: Hi: the nodes are very small and hence clinically insignificant. I guess since the ultraosund was done and date of laproscopy some time has passed and the nodes have reduced in size. In addition the findings are non specific and do not suggest anything...

Pathology: Lymphocrates in spinal fluid, color appearance, spinal tap
color appearance, spinal tap, definite direction: Hello Donnaleigh: The fluid drawn in a spinal tap is cerebro spinal fluid. It should be clear and not contain any cells. Lymphocytes are seen in viral infection or chronic infection but they by themselves are not indicative of anything. Total white...

Pathology: low monocytes, low monocytes, monocyte count
low monocytes, monocyte count, cell parameters: Hello Lucy: Please do not be unduly worried about a single low value of monocytes. All the normal ranges of blood cell parameters are arrived at as an average of a set of normal population. Some healthy individuals may fall outside this range. In addition...

Pathology: PSA test results, psa test results, psa values
psa test results, psa values, psa level: Hi: I would rather not comment on the reliabilty of equipment in specific labs. under ideal conditions - equipment which is well maintained, all reagents are at optimal conditions the equipment should be able to give accurate measurements. Three to...

Pathology: Thyroid FNA report, thyroid function test, nuclear atypia
thyroid function test, nuclear atypia, follicular neoplasm: Hi: Based on the report your diagnosis is nodular hyperplasia as of now. There isnt sufficient follicular pattern to favor a follicular lesion. If on a followup scan and FNA such a pattern emerges it can be diagnosed as a follicular lesion / neoplasm....

Pathology: time required to cure cmv igg and cmv igm, swollen glands in the neck, glands in the neck
swollen glands in the neck, glands in the neck, cmv infection: Hello Sandip: CMV infection is more common in childhood. By young adults most peopel have been exposed to the virus and have some immunity. Generally there are no symptoms or there is fever, fatigue sore throat and swollen glands in the neck. It is self...

Pathology: Serum Creatinin, rbc morphology, red blood cells
rbc morphology, red blood cells, atypical lymphocytes: Hello Donabel: Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, which is an important part of muscle. Increased levels indicate that there is some form of disease of the kidney. Your father should be evaluated by a doctor preferably a nephrologist...

Pathology: abnormal cbc, bone marrow examination, chronic leukemia
bone marrow examination, chronic leukemia, acute leukemia: Hello MJ Any form of infection / fever / sore throat etc will lead to elevated values. In addition acute or chronic leukemia can cause such high elevation of WBC The WBC is elevated with increase in neutrophils and no blasts seen. May be due to...

Pathology: Blood Tests, routine blood tests, chest infection
routine blood tests, chest infection, speedy recovery: Hello: At a given time 3 to 6 ml of blood may be drawn to do most of the routine blood tests. If some more specialized tests are required then more blood may be drawn. Withdrawing this quantity of blood occasionally will not contribute to anemia. I...

Pathology: Blood work, function of the liver, blood chemistry
function of the liver, blood chemistry, liver disease: Hello Liz: All these test are for assessing the function of the liver. All of them are elevated indicating some kind of liver disease. Certain types of food and medication can affect this test that is why you need to be fasting before the test. One...

Pathology: blood tests results, iron deficiency anemia, anemia cause
iron deficiency anemia, anemia cause, chronic blood loss: Hello Tammie: Sorry for the delay in the reply. Your blood test indicates that you have slightly decreased white blood cells and neutrophils. This could be just normal for you unless you have a some chronic diseases. However more important is that...

Pathology: blood work, morphology of cells, white cell count
morphology of cells, white cell count, blood work: Hello Jennifer: The White cell count is very high this can be seen in severe infection as well as in leukemia. The raised sed rate points to a chronic disease. However to put a name to the disease with this information is pure speculation. A bone marrow...

Pathology: colonoscopy biopsy, irritable bowel syndrome, loose stools
irritable bowel syndrome, loose stools, lifestyle diet: Hello John: IBD is irritable bowel syndrome. A diagnosis arrived at by exclusion. All other conditions with specific findings are first ruled out and only then IBD is considered. IBD is very common and many patients have abdominal pain, constipation...

Pathology: Dermatology Pathology report, upper dermis, dermatisis
upper dermis, dermatisis, pathology report: Hello Cameron: Yes the two diagnoses are different entities. Keratosis pilaris is very common , benign, genetic condition of the skin. It is not life threatening, does not cause any serious long term health issues. There is accumulation of extra keratin...

Pathology: desperate: infection? dental?, enlarged lymph nodes, echo stress
enlarged lymph nodes, echo stress, urinary tract infections: Hello Karen: Thanks for the detailed history and information. There is definitely chronic pathology involving the gums / bone in the oral cavity (mouth) Ideally you should have culture and sensitivity of the material which drains out of the fistula and...

Pathology: dm pathology, pathology department, correspondence courses
pathology department, correspondence courses, education index: Hello Sandeep: I am not aware what DM in pathology is. Once you finish your MD pathology you can do fellowship in various subspecialties - cytopath / hematopathology etc. You can contact various university based pathology department to see what is on...

Pathology: EBV titer test, titer test, antibody igg
titer test, antibody igg, enlarged lymph nodes: Hello Lisa: Each lab has a cutoff / reference range for the antibody levels. This helps to determine if the value is significant enough to be considered positive. The reference range would have helped in better interpretation. Going by the VCA IGM level...

Pathology: Elevated AST(SGOT) & ALT(SGPT) Levels, alt sgpt levels, ast sgot
alt sgpt levels, ast sgot, weight training regime: Hello Rocky: AST and ALT are raised in skeletal muscle trauma. It depends on how much the values are raised. AST is raised more than ALT in muscle damage. Other causes have to be ruled out to confirm muscle trauma related rise. If you are other wise...

Pathology: elevated hs-crp, monocytes, leukocytes, concurrent with knee pain, instability, and injury, viral pericarditis, knee pathology
viral pericarditis, knee pathology, baker cyst: Hello Jolene: hs CRP is indeed used as a marker for assessing the risk of cardiac disease. However it has to be interpreted in combination with other indicators required to assess the risk like - lipid profile (raised cholesterol and triglycerides), high...

Pathology: Elevated AST(SGOT) & ALT(SGPT) Levels, liver function panel, liver enzymes
Pathology: Elevated AST(SGOT) & ALT(SGPT) Levels, liver function panel, liver enzymes, ast

Pathology: nasopharyngeal mass, hard palate, nasopharyngeal mass
Pathology: nasopharyngeal mass, hard palate, nasopharyngeal mass, dermoid

Pathology: High WBC and Liver Function, swollen lymp nodes, liver enzymes
swollen lymp nodes, liver enzymes, lymph node enlargement: Hello Brandon: Your Blood tests are absolutely fine and there is nothing which suggests cancer. The only out of range test is that of the two liver enzymes AST and ALT Now with other tests being normal this could be result of muscle injury...seen...

Pathology: high wbc, white blood count, physical exercise
white blood count, physical exercise, blood work: Hello Shelby: As the doctor says she may just have this as her normal level. The ranges for these tests are an average of values from a given set of normal population. There are always people who fall outside this range. In addition this could be a physiological...

Pathology: Interpretation of MPV and component blood test results, absolute eosinophils, absolute monocytes
absolute eosinophils, absolute monocytes, absolute lymphocytes: Hello Richard: The counts are within normal range and you needn t worry about any specific disease. The only thing mildly out of range are the Eosinophils. These are type of blood cells which increase in allergic conditions. You may have some allergy...

Pathology: low monocytes count, value ranges, nurse practitioner
value ranges, nurse practitioner, blood counts: Hello Annette: Your blood counts are within normal range as mentioned by you. Only the monocytes are at a low level of 1. This is not something to worry about. All blood value ranges are an average of a set of normal population. people do fall out of the...

Pathology: MELANOCYTIC NEVUS, atypical cells, melanocytic nevus
atypical cells, melanocytic nevus, sentinel lymph: hello Carrie: There is no need to have more lesions excised. However do keep a visual track of them If you notice any increase in size, irregularity of shape, change in color, pain etc in the lesion consult your dermatologist. Other than that you should...

Pathology: Mole removal, mole removal, exact diagnosis
mole removal, exact diagnosis, protein in urine: Hello Patty: I could help you better understand your mole if you had the exact diagnosis. Otherwise it is just speculation and will add to your anxiety. Same is with protein in urine. these two may not necessarily be related. Please wait for the...

Pathology: nasopharyngeal mass, squamous cell carcinoma, non hodgkins lymphoma
squamous cell carcinoma, non hodgkins lymphoma, final diagnosis: Hello Lela: I can understand your anxiety about not knowing whats wrong with your son. Nasopharyngeal mass means just that. A growth in the nasopharynx. It is pure speculation to figure out what this may be by looking up the Internet. You will have...

Pathology: Please shed some light on our Pancratic Cancer diagnosis, bile duct stricture, fine needle biopsy
bile duct stricture, fine needle biopsy, enlarged bile duct: Hello Heather: CK7 positive and CK 20 negative cells favor lung cancer. TTF 1 helps differentiate between primary lung cancer and cancer metastatic to lung. you mention that the report indicates rare cells show TTF1 positivity. This could be non specific....there...

Pathology: pet scan and fna, axillary nodes, thyroid cancer
axillary nodes, thyroid cancer, glucose uptake: Hello Nancy: The lymph nodes are where the cancer cells would travel and then from these spread elsewhere. If the nodes are of the same size and shape then it is unlikely they have changed in any way. If there was an increase in size another FNA would...

Pathology: prostascint, psa tests, prostascint scan
psa tests, prostascint scan, psa level: Hello Patricia: Rising PSA levels after prostatectomy an d treatment indicate recurrence of cancer. However this is also debatable based on the level of PSA. If the levels are 0.2 ng/ml and more it is recurrence. Now the question is to decide if this...

Pathology: sick child, high neutrophil count, high platelets
high neutrophil count, high platelets, c reactive protein: Hello Cathy: The WBC count is moderately raised and the neutrophils are high. The high neutrophil count goes against a diagnosis of ALL. in lymphoblastic leukemia the neutrophils are low as the malignat lymphoblasts increase. In addition the platelets...

Pathology: Thyroid Cytopathology FNA, follicular adenoma, thyroid function tests
follicular adenoma, thyroid function tests, thyroid imaging: Hello Pat: The report essentially shows normal looking cells which are found in the thyroid. The first two diagnosis are benign. On cytology it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and carcinoma. These findings need to be correlated...

Pathology: thyroid FNA pathology report, follicular neoplasm, irregular clusters
follicular neoplasm, irregular clusters, papillary carcinoma: Hello again: microflollicular aggregate refers to a collection of cells from thyroid which form the pattern of a follicle - small spherical group of cells with a central cavity. Siderophages are scavenger cells which have ingested the breakdown product...

Pathology: Wife's blood work, chronic fatigue syndrome, low grade fever
chronic fatigue syndrome, low grade fever, work question: Hello Gregory: At this point the symptoms and their response to treatment seem to favor a viral infection. If the fever continues to be low grade - without an enlarged lymph node a lump or mass in the body it is difficult to test for cancer. In addition...

Pathology: CBC Result, absolute lymphocytes, routine health
absolute lymphocytes, routine health, health check: Hello Jill: All the CBC values have a normal range which is arrived at as an average of a set of values obtained from a given normal population. There are people who would fall outside the range. If you are otherwise healthy and this was done for a routine...

Pathology: CBC results, monocyte count, cbc results
monocyte count, cbc results, cbc test: Hello R: Leukemia / lymphoma is not diagnosed on the basis of MPV. Monocyte count is mildly elevated and can be seen in infections. The platelet count is also decreased. If you are otherwise healthy (with just a cold) then this result is not worrisome....

Pathology: Colonoscopy, epithelial dysplasia, colon polyp
epithelial dysplasia, colon polyp, polyps in the colon: Hello Steve: As far as the pathology reports state, this polyp is benign without any kind of features suggesting of cancer. Polyps in the colon carry an overall 1% risk of cancer. Of all the polyps of colon the type you have is - Adenoma (tubulovillous...

Pathology: cbc results, wbc count, neutrophil counts
wbc count, neutrophil counts, cbc results: Hello Amy: The WBC count is mildly elevated and is seen in stress / exercise / infections etc. If you are other wise fine...physiological reason...exercise before the test...even a walk around the block / climbing stairs etc can raise the counts. ...

Pathology: Frequent infections, chest x ray, stomach noises
chest x ray, stomach noises, enlarged lymph nodes: Hello, From your blood tests and symptoms, there is no argument for immunodeficiency or leukemia at this stage. In fact, your results are within normal limits and it is still possible that these infections are just a coincidence. I suggest to complete your...

Pathology: Non-Caseating Granulomas, caseating granuloma, wikipedia
Pathology: Non-Caseating Granulomas, caseating granuloma, wikipedia, many things

Pathology: Swollen Supra-clavicular Lymph Node, lyme disease, lyme
Pathology: Swollen Supra-clavicular Lymph Node, lyme disease, lyme, doctors

Pathology: High and Low Levels on Lab Reports, dynamic values, lab tests
dynamic values, lab tests, reagents: Hello Ashley: Ideally all lab tests should be done in one lab to maintain the continuity as there may be some variation in equipment and reagents used, which can lead to variation in result. Having said that in this particular case the CBC (complete...

Pathology: infection, absolute lymphocytes, mild exertion
absolute lymphocytes, mild exertion, wbc count: Hello Tavia: You just have a mildly elevated white blood cell count. This can be because of anxiety , stress, mild exertion even like walking a block just before the test. A mild infection like sore throat can also raise the WBC count. Other than that...

Pathology: Mantoux TB skin test re-administered, tb skin test, latent tb
tb skin test, latent tb, infectious tb: Hello Bruce: There is variation in recommendation for Mantoux testing in various countries for people who have had BCG vaccination. In United States Mantoux (tuberculin) testing is not contraindicated in people with BCG vaccination (as it is in for...

Pathology: Mild lymph nodes enlargement, needle biopsy, sinus problems
needle biopsy, sinus problems, upper throat: Hello George: Lymph nodes are tiny centers in the body which respond to various stimuli and produce cells which fight against infection and other insults to the body. Since you had herpes infection followed by sore throat and sinusitis all these can...

Pathology: Non-Caseating Granulomas, lumps in breasts, ctscan
lumps in breasts, ctscan, lymphnodes: Hello Jayne: Recurrence of lumps and new lumps appearing is something which should be investigated further. Also if you do not respond to medication its best to get another opinion and rule out any other diagnosis. Since Sarcoidosis is always a diagnosis...

Pathology: What do the numbers mean?, sedimentation rate, final diagnosis
sedimentation rate, final diagnosis, cbc results: Hello BT: Please do not panic the CBC results are within normal range. The numbers do not suggest cancer. Moreover, cancer of blood (leukemia) is diagnosed based on morphology the appearance of cells and not based on the count of cells. Your granddaughter...

Pathology: Pediatric Melanoma pathology results, flat lesion, pediatricion
flat lesion, pediatricion, pathology service: Hello Allison: It is very difficult for me to comment on the nature of the lesion without having seen it. It is also not wise to speculate about what it can be; as a wide range of benign and other pigmented lesion can be present in childhood. the reporting...

Pathology: how read ebv test results, acute infection, high titers
acute infection, high titers, antibody: Hello Terri: In EBV serology the titers are high initially and then gradually fall. Each lab may choose a different method of analysis and reporting but the titers are always expressed as a ratio. The important thing to note is that in acute infection...

Pathology: Spindle Cell Neoplasm, spindle cell neoplasm, body granuloma
spindle cell neoplasm, body granuloma, punch biopsy: Hello Jerry: Neurofibroma and neuroma are benign tumors of the peripheral nerves. These are composed of spindle shaped cells. The cell of origin or their cause of occurrence is not known. Neurofibromas require complete excision. Even if few cells are...

Pathology: Swollen Supra-clavicular Lymph Node, swollen lymph node, ear nose and throat specialist
swollen lymph node, ear nose and throat specialist, lymph node enlargement: Hi: There are many different studies which indicate how often the FNA was false negative or inconclusive, but this is only with reference to the given set of data analyzed. This is highly technique dependent test and if the person doing it is unskilled...

Pathology: thyroid biopsy, fine needle aspiration, thyroid biopsy
fine needle aspiration, thyroid biopsy, thyroid nodules: Hello Sydney: I cannot comment on the quality of reporting since I have not seen the slides of your FNA. In general if the aspirate from thyroid shows follicles (collections of cells in a circle with a cavity in the center) and along with other criteria...

Pathology: thyroid cancer, thyroid hormone production, thyroid cancer
thyroid hormone production, thyroid cancer, gland cells: Hello Shrikant: The report basically says that the entire thyroid gland was removed - right and left lobe as well as the nodule. she has been diagnosed with hashimotos thyroiditis with papillary hyperplasia & carcinoma with follicular variant ...

Pathology: thyroid pathology, thyroid pathology, thyroid cells
thyroid pathology, thyroid cells, thyroid hormones: Hello Cheri: Your report indicates that thyroid cells arranged in shape of follicles are seen and they contain colloid (material secreted by these cells which helps produce thyroid hormones) Calcium deposits in thyroid can be seen in both benign lesions...

Pathology: ADENOMATOUS POLYP, surgical pathology report, grade dysplasia
surgical pathology report, grade dysplasia, cancer risk: Hello Olive: An adenoma is type of polyp which is benign. However it has the potential to turn into cancer. The risk of progression to carcinoma is related to both the size and the appearance of the adenoma. Adenomas that are greater than 1 cm, contain...

Pathology: abnormal bloodwork CBC extremely ill, low mchc, high anion gap
low mchc, high anion gap, squamous epithelial cells: Hello Marie: Thanks for all the detailed reports. I will try and help as much as I can. A rheumatologist is be best to diagnose / rule out all the diseases you have mentioned. These will however have to evaluated again if they are negative at present...

Pathology: CBC with diff results, platelet disorders, hematologist
platelet disorders, hematologist, platelet function: Hello Deborah: The platelets are reduced but on their own they are not diagnostic of any specific disease. The hematologist will order some more tests...maybe a bone marrow exam / platelet function tests etc to come to some form of diagnosis Platelet...

Pathology: CBC interpretation, bone marrow biopsy, low neutrophils
bone marrow biopsy, low neutrophils, cbc results: Hello Dave: Yes, the only out of range value in the CBC is the lymphocyte count. however the total white blood cell count (WBC) is within normal range and even the platelets are adequate. If she did have a mild flu or some other chronic infection elevated...

Pathology: Dr.Dahiya I have questions regarding next steps with what tests should be run following this lab work, dahiya, unforeseen circumstances
dahiya, unforeseen circumstances, amylase: Hello Christine: I apologize for the delay in answering, due to unforeseen circumstances I was unable to attend to your question. yes it is possible that you may have had a bout of pancreatitis. However since there are no baseline (first time around)...

Pathology: IgM and IgG Antibody Specific to HSV 1 & 2, herpes simplex type 1, phenomonon
herpes simplex type 1, phenomonon, initial levels: Hello Mark: This is unusual. Once a virus infects the body the IgG persist lifelong...the titer may drop from initial levels but it does remain detectable. So the other option in your case is that....It was a false positive or a lab error. ...

Pathology: Intrepretation Needed, hemosiderin deposition, mucosal tissue
hemosiderin deposition, mucosal tissue, adenomatous polyp: Hello Dee: I apologize for the delay in answering, due to unforeseen circumstances I was unable to attend to your question. The size of the node is 0.7 cm and there is a suggestion that some cancer cells may have spread outside the node (extra nodal...

Pathology: Low MPV, High WBC, RBC, & Hgb, unforeseen circumstances, old blood
unforeseen circumstances, old blood, wbc: Hello Ryan: I apologize for the delay in answering, due to unforeseen circumstances I was unable to attend to your question. Your results are normal and there is no connection to leukemia. You should go with the range provided in the lab report as these...

Pathology: MDS?, interstitial pneumonitis, white cells
interstitial pneumonitis, white cells, cellularity: Hi again: I am not sure that MDS waxes or wanes, but remission is achieved upon treatment and duration of the remission varies with each individual. Anemia is the persistent problem and as white cells are destroyed you may be prone to infections. ...

Pathology: nasalpharangeal squamous cell cancer, virus epstein barr, squamous cell cancer
virus epstein barr, squamous cell cancer, epstein barr virus: Hello Nancy: EBV is the name of a virus - Epstein Barr Virus and these two causes which I mentioned earlier are thought to cause nasopharyngeal cancer in some people and not all. As for any other cancer the exact cause for nasopharyngeal cancer is not...

Pathology: Pathology report, punch biopsy, papillary dermis
punch biopsy, papillary dermis, distinct border: Hello Tammy: I apologize for the delay in answering, due to unforeseen circumstances I was unable to attend to your question. It is difficult to comment on what the diagnosis is unless one sees the slide. However going by the information in the report...

Pathology: psa, minimal variation, unforeseen circumstances
minimal variation, unforeseen circumstances, prostate cancer: Hello Henry: I apologize for the delay in answering, due to unforeseen circumstances I was unable to attend to your question. PSA below 4 ng is considered normal. Every time you get tested there will be a minimal variation. 0.8 is absolutely normal...

Pathology: sir plz tells meaning of severe normocytic normochromic anemia blood picture with atypical cells, normocytic normochromic anemia, atypical cells
normocytic normochromic anemia, atypical cells, differential count: Hello Surya: The report indicates that your son is severely anemic with presence of abnormal cells. The next step with such a report is to have a bone marrow exam to find the cause for anemia and the abnormal cells. You may consult a hematologist for...

Pathology: Thyroid FNA, needle aspiration biopsy, fine needle aspiration
needle aspiration biopsy, fine needle aspiration, fine needle aspiration biopsy: Hello Kimberly: As far as I am aware it is a 10% chance based on some studies. The statistics are always for a wide range of population, when it comes to an individual I do not like to commit to a specific percentage. I do not also want to increase your...

Pathology: Thyroid Mass, thyroid cells, thyroid mass
thyroid cells, thyroid mass, thyroid tissue: Hello Elisa: I apologize for the delay in answering, due to unforeseen circumstances I was unable to attend to your question. The cytology report describes presence of colloid which is the material produced by thyroid cells. Follicular cells are the...

Pathology: thyroid FNA results, thyroid hormone levels, hurthle cell
thyroid hormone levels, hurthle cell, thyroid cells: Hello Leigh: Hurthle cell change is seen in the thyroid cells in some benign conditions. Rarely it is a part of cancer. By what you have mentioned above I do not see any mention of abnormal cells or changes suggesting cancer in your report. At this point...

Pathology: WBC count, blood cell count, white blood cell
blood cell count, white blood cell, pregnancy complications: Hello S: In pregnancy there is a mild increase in white blood cell count (WBC) and is called physiological leukocytosis. If you do not have any associated symptoms like fever, sore throat, cough etc and are other wise healthy this is not of concern. If...

Pathology: wbc 27000, mild sore throat, types of antibiotics
mild sore throat, types of antibiotics, blood cell count: Hello Michael: The commonest cause of elevation in the white blood cell count is an infection. Even a mild sore throat or cold can lead to an increase in WBC. Any trauma, injury, stress anxiety etc also cause rise in the WBC. If the wbc count reverted...

Pathology: abnormal blood test results, atypical lymphocytes, blood test results
atypical lymphocytes, blood test results, atypical lymphs: Hello Diana: All the above results are within normal range. The chloride is just at the upper limit. Lymphocytes are a type of blood cells and if atypical they are neither normal nor do they fit clearly into cancer cells. Such cells can be seen in infections...

Pathology: about blood borne diseases, blood borne diseases, blood borne pathogens
blood borne diseases, blood borne pathogens, blood vessels: Hi Rinku: One should never share any needles. There is always a risk of infection as the needle is no longer sterile. and of course blood borne pathogens can be transferred if the first person had any specific pathogen. You may or may not get any infection...

Pathology: colon and liver, focal nodular hyperplasia, tumor marker tests
focal nodular hyperplasia, tumor marker tests, moderate dysplasia: Hi: I am not an expert on MRI images so cannot say what the MRI findings are I can only comment on the FNA report. Only a person who has seen the original slides can correlate those findings by talking with the radiologist. Minor variations in size measurement...

Pathology: PSA Tests, free psa, elica
Pathology: PSA Tests, free psa, elica, roche

Pathology: liver CT scan, liver enzyme tests, liver blood tests
liver enzyme tests, liver blood tests, function of liver: Hello Kevin: A radiologist will be better able to answer your question as to what is the best modality to image the liver. Blood tests for liver enzymes provide information about the function of liver. If they are within normal range the liver is functioning...

Pathology: I need detailed explanation, red blood cells, atypical lymphocytes
red blood cells, atypical lymphocytes, hemoglobin content: Hi Angela: Normocytic normochromic RBC. Occasional normocytic hypochromic cells. Occasional acanthocytes and schizocytes. This describes your red blood cells . Majority are normal in shape, size (normocytic) and amount of staining (because of hemoglobin...

Pathology: Pathology, cytologic atypia, epidermis dermis
cytologic atypia, epidermis dermis, dermis and epidermis: Hello Tony: A benign nevus or mole can be located in the epidermis, dermis or at the junction of dermis and epidermis. When it involves both these layers of skin it is classified as a compound Nevus. Your diagnosis is Compound Dysplastic Nevus. The...

Pathology: PSA Tests, benign prostate enlargement, psa free
benign prostate enlargement, psa free, free psa: Hello Ram: PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/ml are considered borderline. This increases the chances of cancer, however does not indicate that you have cancer as mild elevations are normal with age / benign prostate enlargement / prostate infection etc. ...

Pathology: spindle cell neoplasm/whorls, spindle cell neoplasm, nodular fasciitis
spindle cell neoplasm, nodular fasciitis, immunohistochemical stains: Hello Traci: Your lesion has been diagnosed as nodular fasciitis. first of all this is a benign lesion and not cancer. It grows rapidly and is thus worrisome to the patient. Most commonly it arises on the forearm, but can involve other body areas also....

Pathology: URGENT QUERY, pleomorphic nuclei, irregular clusters
pleomorphic nuclei, irregular clusters, atypical cells: Hello Isha: The report indicates that cells seen are atypical cells. These cells are neither normal not clear cut cancer cells. However this raises suspicion for cancer. A repeat FNA or needle biopsy is required to rule out cancer. If repeat FNA is not...

Pathology: atypical lymphocytes, atypical lymphocytes, recurrent fever
atypical lymphocytes, recurrent fever, wbc count: Hello: The counts are not essentially worrisome. Few atypical lymphocytes can appear in viral or some bacterial infection as well as after vaccination. Once the fever settles and the child is healthy, the counts should revert to normal. Persistence...

Pathology: Bone Marrow Biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, red blood cells
bone marrow biopsy, red blood cells, ringed sideroblasts: Hi: This is good news. There is no cytogenetic abnormality and I assume that all the antibodies are negative. This indicates there is no leukemia (blood cancer) However, you still have myelodysplastic syndrome with refractory and your physician will...

Pathology: Bone Marrow Desease??, tongue soreness, cause of anemia
tongue soreness, cause of anemia, low blood pressure: Hello Carmen: A Hb of 7 is too low for the body to function normally. It explains your symptoms. Please have yourself evaluated. A bone marrow exam and other tests are required to ascertain the cause of anemia. Appropriate treatment can then be starte...

Pathology: CBC, thyroglobulin ab, god send
thyroglobulin ab, god send, cbcs: Hi Beth: I do not think that feeling awful should be accepted as the norm. Further evaluation in your case is required. First of all I would not worry about the WBC and RBC levels. These are not clinically significant. This can be a minor variation or...

Pathology: Globulins urine, routine lab tests, fever heat
routine lab tests, fever heat, globulins: Hello Tracey: Minute amounts of protein are normal in urine. Most tests do not detect this amount. However detectable amount of protein (with routine lab tests) is present temporarily in urine in physiological conditions like * Cold exposure ...

Pathology: haemayology, red blood cells, iron binding capacity
red blood cells, iron binding capacity, white blood cells: Hello: I apologize for the delay in answering this question. Your report indicates that you have anemia - dimorphic type. Which means that the red blood cells show two types of morphology (appearance). This is attributed to two cause of anemia...most...

Pathology: Lymphocytes, absolute lymphocytes, lymphocyte count
absolute lymphocytes, lymphocyte count, viral disease: Hello: The lymphocyte count has to be evaluated along with any signs and symptoms you may have. A viral disease, vaccination etc can temporarily raise lymphocyte count. A chronic condition or even evolving lymphyocytic dosorders like leukemia may elevate...

Pathology: lymph node pathology, sinus histiocytosis, non hodgkin lymphoma
sinus histiocytosis, non hodgkin lymphoma, kappa lambda: Hello Christina: The first report basically rules out presence of any type of cancer within the lymph node. The lymph node is reactive A reactive node is one which is responding to a stimulus...like infection / trauma or cancer by enlarging and producing...

Pathology: Melanoma Pathology Report, superficial spreading melanoma, free margins
superficial spreading melanoma, free margins, perineural invasion: Hello Steve: Going by the measurement provided the biopsy is adequate. As the name implies a superficially spreading melanoma spreads horizontally more on the surface and is not very deep. Yours was just .37 mm deep and a wide excision of .6 covers the...

Pathology: Basal Cell Carcinoma; Clark Nevus, superficial basal cell carcinoma, compound nevus mole
superficial basal cell carcinoma, compound nevus mole, basal cell carcinoma: Hello Lew: There are two diagnoses provide: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a type of skin cancer and is one of the commonest cancers seen on sun exposed areas of the skin. Superficial Basal cell carcinoma is a type of BCC which occurs on the trunk and...

Pathology: Bladder Cancer Biopsy, papillary urothelial carcinoma, cancer biopsy
papillary urothelial carcinoma, cancer biopsy, biopsy results: Hello Nina: Papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade malignancy, is definitely cancer. However, it is the type which rarely spreads to other sites. If completely resected this has an excellent prognosis (10 year survival 95% or more) There are no features...

Pathology: Blood Flow Cytometry, myeloid lineage, myeloid cells
myeloid lineage, myeloid cells, nk cells: Hello Irina: CD13 and CD33 are expressed by cells of myeloid lineage and CD33 is also expressed on monocytes (specific) therefore you have 60% of cells showing expression of these antigens. Overall the flow cytometry report does not show anything abnormal...

Pathology: biopsy results, foamy macrophages, giant cells
foamy macrophages, giant cells, biopsy results: Hi Annette: Most likely this is a benign lesion based on the information provided. There seems to be component of fat necrosis (maybe as a result of trauma) Other than that some of the cells of the ducts are lined by cells having secretory epithelium. ...

Pathology: Cellular dermatofibroma, breast skin., dermatofibroma, breast skin
dermatofibroma, breast skin, breats: Hello Maria: Dermatofibroma is a benign lesion of skin and one of the more common ones. Cellular (increased number of cells) dermatofibroma is considered by some studies as malignant. CD34 marker is positive in DFSP a lesion with malignant potential...

Pathology: Cholestrol, routine diet, cholesterol test
routine diet, cholesterol test, eating fruits: Hello: Cholesterol can be high in otherwise healthy people. The conditions for testing are fasting minimum 12 hours prior to test and the week before you should be on your normal routine diet (not extremes - partying or prolonged fasting) Extreme diet prior...

Pathology: cellular dermatofibroma, malignant lesion, biopsy report
malignant lesion, biopsy report, breast skin: Hi: I do not recall saying that there were only two cases of cellular dermatofibroma with metastases. I did mention that Cellular (increased number of cells) dermatofibroma is considered by some studies as malignant. Others consider this as a benign...

Pathology: Gram Stain test results, squamous epithelial cells, gram stain test
squamous epithelial cells, gram stain test, white blood cells: John: The report indicates you had a bacterial infection with gram positive bacteria. These are bacteria which stain violet when stained using Gram Stain. Cocci are round bacteria and the commonest are staphylococcus and streptococcus The Rods are rod...

Pathology: Immature Granulocytes, immature cells, granulocytes
immature cells, granulocytes, minimal level: Hi Cindy: This just indicates you have a very minimal level of immature granulocytes. This is a good thing as normal healthy individuals should not have immature cells in the circulating blood. If there is severe infection / cancer etc these increase...

Pathology: Inquiry, sore neck glands, distended abdomen
sore neck glands, distended abdomen, wbc esterase: Hello Lisa: WBC esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells in urine. If present in large numbers (after ruling out contamination) it indicates urinary tract infection. I would recommend that you consult and infectious diseases specialist. The...

Pathology: Lumbar puncture results, other neurological diseases, high lymphocytes
other neurological diseases, high lymphocytes, diagnosing multiple sclerosis: Hello Sarah: Lumbar puncture and examination of the spinal fluid is used for diagnosing multiple sclerosis and other neurological diseases. If IgG oligoclonal band is present that seals the diagnosis. Lymphocytes are increased in 30-35% cases. In...

Pathology: lab reports regarding CFS, chronic lyme disease, infectious disease specialist
chronic lyme disease, infectious disease specialist, yeast overgrowth: Hello Diana: I would recommend consulting an infectious disease specialist, for appropriate treatment. Candida is so ubiquitous that it is not diagnosed by serology as 80-85% people are positive for this. EBV serology indicates that the infection is...

Pathology: non-gyn cytology report, chronic thyroiditis, gyn cytology
chronic thyroiditis, gyn cytology, thyroid surgeon: Hello Toni: You can definitely ask for a second opinion. As per the report details provided above there are some atypical cells seen ...Such cells are neither normal nor clear cut cancer cells. They have features in between. Also they are follicular cells...cells...

Pathology: spindle cell neoplasm, spindle cell neoplasm, excision biopsy
spindle cell neoplasm, excision biopsy, biopsy report: Hello Maria: The opinion - Spindle cell neoplasm is kind of incomplete. This only tells that the growth is composed of cells whihc are spindle shaped. Usually such neoplasms arise from soft tissue and may be benign or malignant. This needs further evaluation...you...

Pathology: spindle cell neoplasm
Hello Fiona: Spindle cell neoplasm is a broad category. It includes all types of lesions which have spindle shaped cells (elongated cell with pointed to round ends) This may includes lesions with nerve cell or muscle cell origin. Further tests are required...

Pathology: Abnormal Mole, fungal nails, questions on my mind
fungal nails, questions on my mind, diagnostic report: Hello Susan: Your original report mentioned that the surface of the mole is inflamed. However presence of fungal elements is not noted. If the pathologists were aware of your athletes foot / fungal nails they would have looked for fungus in the biopsy....

Pathology: Blood/Urine Nutrient Deficiency Tests, vitamins minerals, b vitamins
vitamins minerals, b vitamins, old mom: Hello Mike; I am not sure what tests have been performed on your mothers blood sample. If the doctors suspect vitamin deficiency then there are specific tests to measure these accurately. Magnesium can also be measured in blood. These have to be specifically...

Pathology: blood results, hemoglobin hematocrit, uric acid level
hemoglobin hematocrit, uric acid level, uric acid levels: Hello Cris: These test are not diagnostic for leukemia although if WBC count, differential , platelet count hemoglobin are normal there is no suspicion for leukemia. All ranges of blood tests are set as an average of values taken from healthy individual....

Pathology: blood test results, hi john, grans
hi john, grans, abnormality: Hi John: The immature granulocytes are minimally elevated and do not indicate any serious abnormality. If you have or had in recent past any infection / sore throat / fever etc, this would explain the minimal elevation. If you have the test repeated...

Pathology: Coagulation - Zn:Cu - ERC and HgB, red blood cells, coagulation profile
red blood cells, coagulation profile, hgb: Hello Sue: The coagulation profile shows results within the normal range so there should not be a problem. You do not have to do anything additional to change these values. Hgb is assessed as an average of the red blood cells counted. It does not reflect...

Pathology: cellular dermatofibroma, malignant lesion, biopsy report
malignant lesion, biopsy report, breast skin: Hi: I do not recall saying that there were only two cases of cellular dermatofibroma with metastases. I did mention that Cellular (increased number of cells) dermatofibroma is considered by some studies as malignant. Others consider this as a benign...

Pathology: complete blood count, red blood cells, flight of stairs
red blood cells, flight of stairs, physical stress: Hi Tina: All the complete blood count the result ranges are arrived at by averaging the values obtained from blood of normal healthy set of people in a given population. Since these are average values some people will always fall outside the range. ...

Pathology: Handling and identification of biopsies, squamous cell carcinoma, direct laryngoscopy
squamous cell carcinoma, direct laryngoscopy, neck lymph node: Hello John: This is an unusual issue. Before a biopsy leaves the site, it should be properly labeled. In this case if your physicians office did not send any other unlabeled similar site biopsy, then the unnamed samples will be yours. It is extremely...

Pathology: lymphoma?, atypical lymphocytes, h pylori
atypical lymphocytes, h pylori, adequate treatment: Hello Kathy: Iron deficiency leads to anemia and yo will feel tired / dizzy etc . Adequate treatment should be initiated to replenish the iron and correct the anemia. Presence of atypical lymphocytes alone does not reflect diagnosis of Lymphoma. Further...

Pathology: Pathology Results, bile duct obstruction, blood pathology
bile duct obstruction, blood pathology, types of anemia: Hello Megan: I apologize for the delay in answering this question. Gamma GT is usually done along with ALT and ALP if all are elevated this indicates liver disease or bile duct obstruction. Uric acid levels are tested when a person has joint pains (arthritis)...

Pathology: swelling thyroid, excision biopsy, follicular neoplasm
excision biopsy, follicular neoplasm, thyroid specialist: Hello Manu: The report gives the interpretation: Follicular neoplasm On FNAC the cells are arranged in shape of follicles. This appearance is common to both benign and malignant follicular tumors. Distinction between these two is possible after examining...

Pathology: Thyroidectomy Pathology Results, multi nodular goiter, hurthle cell metaplasia
multi nodular goiter, hurthle cell metaplasia, granular cytoplasm: Hello Denise: The report described above indicates a benign lesion - enlargement of thyroid due to increase in number of cells. These get grouped together to form nodules in goiter. Metaplasia is irreversible change of one type of cell into another...

Pathology: Total Thyroidectomy, thyroid hormone production, thyroid function tests
thyroid hormone production, thyroid function tests, nodular goiter: Hello Paula: Colloid nodular goiter is a condition which occurs in response to decreased production of thyroid hormones. The gland compensates by enlarging and mild deficiency is overcome. Occasionally there is too much production of thyroid hormone...

Pathology: Understanding report, needle aspiration biopsy, thyroid papillary carcinoma
needle aspiration biopsy, thyroid papillary carcinoma, fine needle aspiration: Hello Again: There is no way of predicting 100% that any lesion in the body cannot turn into something else. For that reason follow up is advised. You could have thyroid function tests to find out hormone levels. If they are raised or decreased then this...

Pathology: Very worried, pathologist, pathology
pathologist, pathology, profession: Hi: Like any profession demand for Pathologist can also vary. However it is always possible to get a job. For pathology you will have to graduate in medicine and after that do a 3-4 year residency in pathology. In this you could also sub specialize...

Pathology: abnormal labs, low hemoglobin, mild anemia
low hemoglobin, mild anemia, hello mary: Hello Mary: If you are otherwise healthy and this was a routine check up then WBC of 10.1 is not significant. However you do have low hemoglobin so could have mild anemia. Your physician can based on physical exam and other symptoms / tests decide on type...

Pathology: atypical granular cell tumor path report, granular cell tumor, soft tissue tumor
granular cell tumor, soft tissue tumor, spindle cell: Hello Jennifer: Granular cell tumor is a benign tumor of nerve cell origin (confirmed by S-100 immuno stain positivity). If any three of the following features are present this is labeled as malignant - Vascular invasion, necrosis, mitosis more than 2 per...

Pathology: CBC w/ Differential, red blood cells, red blood cell
red blood cells, red blood cell, red cell distribution width: Hi Lee: RDW refers to the red cell distribution width...in other words it is an indirect measure of the average red blood cell size. If there is no associated decrease in hemoglobin and red blood cells there is no indication of anemia The immature granulocytes...

Pathology: compound nevus formation, nodular lesion, upper dermis
nodular lesion, upper dermis, malignant lesion: Hello Rosemary: It is understandable that you will question such a report given your history of melanoma. How soon or late a lesion develops is not helpful in a definitive diagnosis. The description provided fits a compound nevus. You may have the stained...

Pathology: Elevated Immature Granulocytes, immature cells, myelocytes
immature cells, myelocytes, granulocytes: Hello James: If you have any minor infection - sore throat cough etc you can get some immature cells in the peripheral blood. Also the ranges for all the parameters are an average of the values of a set of normal population. There are always outliers. This...

Pathology: Flow cytomery panel, bone marrow biopsy, lambda light chains
bone marrow biopsy, lambda light chains, bone marrow biopsy results: Hello Sandy: I am not an expert on flow cytometer analysis. As far as I can see there is no obvious abnormality. The report is not indicative of leukemia. It is possible the bone marrow disease is still in the process of evolution. The hematologist...

Pathology: INMATURE GRANULOCYTES, bone marrow aspirate, minimal increase
bone marrow aspirate, minimal increase, white cell count: Hi Edward: As long as there are no associated symptoms of infection - cold , cough, fever etc. A minimal increase in immature granulocytes is not significant. The test an be repeated in 2-3 months time and this may revert to normal levels. If these increase...

Pathology: inmature granulocytes, drs office, blood values
drs office, blood values, minimal increase: Hello Pam: Immature granulocytes are release most commonly when a person has some form of infection. These should disappear in good health. If all other parameters were normal, this minimal increase is not worrisome. A repeat in 2-3 months time is a good...

Pathology: Lymphoma/Cat Scratch Disease, swollen lymph node, cat scratch disease
swollen lymph node, cat scratch disease, differential diagnosis: Hello Jenn France: A final diagnosis is submitted as a written report after all relevant exams and tests are done. At times a surgeon may call up and receive a preliminary report. This initial report is revised based on any pending special stains or immunohistochemical...

Pathology: Path report, punch biopsy, immunohistochemical stains
punch biopsy, immunohistochemical stains, lymphoid cells: Hi Rhonda: The report provided indicates that the lymphoid infiltrate is reactive in nature - could be a reaction to any trauma / foreign body / allergy etc. The immune markers used also indicate normal benign nature of lymphoid cells. The only abnormality...

Pathology: Spindle Cell Neoplasm, Classification Pending, spindle cell carcinoma, spindle cell neoplasm
spindle cell carcinoma, spindle cell neoplasm, needle biopsy: Hello Suzette: A cyst can grow fast. However if this were a cyst some quantity of fluid should have been drained from the cyst. It is likely the cyst is either more solid or is not large enough. Diagnosis on needle biopsy is based on the cells aspirated...

Pathology: Suspected Sigmoid Colon Cancer, biopsy report, inflammatory lesion
biopsy report, inflammatory lesion, plasma cells: Hello: The biopsy report just shows inflammation and no evidence of cancer. Having said that this does not mean there is no cancer. It is possible that the correct are of growth was not biopsied. If the surgeon is absolutely certain that the growth only...

Pathology: Translation of Report, irregular contours, biopsy report
irregular contours, biopsy report, clinical correlation: Hi Again: Here is the translation: urothelial cells are present mostly as single cells, Cells lining the bladder, ureter or urethra lining are urothelial cells. If seen as single cells then these have been naturally shed. Dense cytoplasm, hyperchromatic...

Pathology: thyroid cancer results, papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, carcinoma of the thyroid
papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, carcinoma of the thyroid, parathyroid glands: Hello Gary: Papillary cancer of the thyroid is the commonest cancer in this organ. If the cancer nodule is small and confined to the thyroid treatment is removal of nodule or the thyroid. In your case the cancer is large in size (even though size is...

Pathology: Uterine pathology, uterine polyp, pathology report
uterine polyp, pathology report, final diagnosis: Hi Ann: The final diagnosis just mentions that it is a uterine polyp with the lining similar to secretory endometrium. If there were any abnormal features or suspicion of cancer it should have been mentioned in the report and the description of the report....

Pathology: Blood test results, congenital heart disease, red blood cells
congenital heart disease, red blood cells, altitude regions: Hello Nancy: Elevated hemoglobin are seen in many conditions...like congenital heart disease. People living in high altitude regions, pressure on lungs, excessive production of red blood cells due to the stimulation by erythropoietin, polycythemia vera....

Pathology: breast biospy, apocrine metaplasia, fibrocystic changes
apocrine metaplasia, fibrocystic changes, breast biospy: Hello Cinda: As for now there isn t anything to worry about. The changes in your biopsy are benign and seen in most women. as long as the hyperplasia is not atypical these are not considered precursors to cancer. However because of positive family...

Pathology: Low Lymphocytes, peripheral blood smear, low lymphocytes
peripheral blood smear, low lymphocytes, white blood count: Hi Jill: Leukemia is not diagnosed based on count of lymphocytes alone. If the lymphocytes are extremely low or high a peripheral blood smear and bone marrow exam is required to asses the morphology and look for immature cells. Other tests like flow...

Pathology: mole biopsy, irregular margins, narrow margins
irregular margins, narrow margins, pathology report: Hello Pandora: The mole is reported as mildly dysplastic melanocytic nevus. This in simple terms means that the features are not of clearly normal mole nor they are outright cancer. It is in between. These can lead to cancer, but then again not always....

Pathology: Need advice on surgical excision, stereotactic core biopsy, atypical hyperplasia
stereotactic core biopsy, atypical hyperplasia, surgical excision: Hi It is a good idea to have the slides reviewed. If the diagnosis is same it resolves your issue, however if it s a different opinion you will still have a dilemma. Hyperplasia is increase in number of cells. In a duct of breast this would be increase...

Pathology: pathology, atypical lymphocyte, atypical lymphocytes
atypical lymphocyte, atypical lymphocytes, pathology lab: Hello Anil: Your hemoglobin is within normal range. Mild increase in eosinophils is seen in people who have allergy or worm infection. However it is significant if thge absolute count is increased. Occasional atypical lymphocyte is not of concern. essentially...

Pathology: What is the probable cause, red blood cells, hemoglobin level
red blood cells, hemoglobin level, blood cell count: Hello: First the neutrophil and lymphocytes as well as total white blood cell count does not indicate Leukemia. The hemoglobin level of 8.0 itself is low for an adult male. The rapid drop is significant. Probable cause can be 1)bleeding somewhere...

Pathology: Blood Test, red blood count, rbc
red blood count, rbc, blood test: Jean: The RBC count is minimally raised above the upper limit. These values are dynamic and vary every time the test is run. If you are otherwise healthy then this is not worrisome. You can have a repeat test after few weeks to see if there is further elevation...

Pathology: Blood test results, blood test results, vitamin b12 injection
blood test results, vitamin b12 injection, kidney function: Hello Christine: Vit B12 deficiency can cause one to feel tired, have numbness and tingling sensation in the legs. However if you have increased frequency of passing urine then you need evaluation of urine / blood tests to rule out diabetes or other kidney...

Pathology: bloodwork, red blood cells, atypical lymphocytes
red blood cells, atypical lymphocytes, infectious mononucleosis: Hi Lisa: High fever diarrhea etc point towards an acute process most likely an infection. In such cases there is an increase in blood cells as they are the first line of defense against infections etc. Heterophile antibody reacts with proteins from other...

Pathology: CBC w/ diff results, tsh level, relative lymphocytosis
tsh level, relative lymphocytosis, morphology of cells: Hello Julie: Hypothyroidsism explains your symptoms and you would be feeling better after starting synthroid. The rise is lymphocytes needs further evaluation if the absolute lymphocyte count is high, I would advise a blood smear examination and or bonemarrow...

Pathology: candida spp & Ca, infectious disease specialist, radiation treatment
infectious disease specialist, radiation treatment, anti fungal drugs: Hello Nitin I am not an expert in this area. I only interpret tests and provide a diagnosis if required. You should address this question to an ID (infectious disease) specialist. Dressing is required for a wound in addition appropriate treatmnet with...

Pathology: cervical cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, invasive squamous cell carcinoma
squamous cell carcinoma, invasive squamous cell carcinoma, cancer question: Hi The two markers - synaptophysin and TTF are negative...that is are not present in th tumor ruling out neuroendocrine or thyroid origin. Cytokeratin 5/6 is positive....this means this marker has identified cytokeratin in the tumor...hence the cancer...

Pathology: colon, transverse, polypectomy, invasive adenocarcinoma, pathology report
invasive adenocarcinoma, pathology report, large intestine: Hello Linda: From the report provided it seems two polyps (overgrowth of inner lining of the intestine)were removed from two locations in the large intestine. The first one from colon, cecum is a benign polyp and does not have any abnormal changes or cancer....

Pathology: Ferritin, Serum Lab results, ferritin serum, numeric test
ferritin serum, numeric test, units of measurements: Hello Karen; Reference values are dependent on many factors, including patient age, gender, sample population, and test method, and numeric test results can have different meanings in different labs. The normal range of Ferritin has been different for...

Pathology: High ESR, inflammation of blood vessels, inflammation of blood
inflammation of blood vessels, inflammation of blood, low neutrophil count: Hi Sharon: ESR by itself is not a diagnostic test. It just indicates that there is some chronic or inflammatory condition present in the body. Your physician should correalte this with any symptoms you may have and order further tests to find a cause...

Pathology: high b12 and ESR levels, peripheral blood smear, smear test results
peripheral blood smear, smear test results, reactive lymphocytes: Hi Mohana The peripheral blood smear report does not indicate any abnormality. The B12 value is high and high values are seen in liver disease and leukemia. However this is not used to diagnose these conditions. The ESR is also high indicating a long...

Pathology: Lab Results, high cholesterol, hi mary
high cholesterol, hi mary, lab test: Hi Mary: All the lab results provided by you are normal except for platelet count which is mildly elevated. This could be a temporary change or there could be some other reason, However this will not cause any problem if the next values are within range....also...

Pathology: Lymphs count of blood work, clinical significance, blood work
clinical significance, blood work, lymphocytes: Hello Dela: The normal range for any parameter is arrived at as an average of a number of values of reasonably healthy normal population. Since this is an average there are bound to be people who fall out of this range. The lymphocytes count of 48 is...

Pathology: very low white blood cell count, low absolute monocytes, low absolute lymphocytes
low absolute monocytes, low absolute lymphocytes, high absolute neutrophils: Hi Dan: The counts are high and with medication the fever should come down and the elevated counts will return to normal. If thee is suspicion of leukemia. The diagnosis is not made based only on elevated counts. A peripheral blood smear and bone...

Pathology: lymph node biopsy, lymph node biopsy, rhuematologist
lymph node biopsy, rhuematologist, dendritic cells: Hello Trena Histiocytosis is a group of diverse disorders where the common factor is accumulation and infiltration of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells in the affected tissues. These cells are basically scavenger cells of the body which try to...

Pathology: MDS, peripheral blood cells, bone marrow aspirate
peripheral blood cells, bone marrow aspirate, red blood cells: Hello Brenda: Your bone marrow report concludes that the condition is Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) Myelodysplastic syndrome refers to a heterogeneous group of closely related disorders which affects the cells within the bone marrow (hematopoietic cells)...

Pathology: Path Report, muscle tendons, membrane antigen
muscle tendons, membrane antigen, sebaceous glands: Hello Laurie: I apologize for the delay in answering your question. Indeed sebaceous carcinoma is a rare tumor. This arises from sebaceous glands - glands whihc secrete oily/waxy material to lubricate the skin. The tumor can occur anywhere these glands...

Pathology: Pathology report regarding breast, fibrocystic changes, pathology report
fibrocystic changes, pathology report, malignant conditions: Gloria Most women will have fibrocystic changes in the breast...with age tough fibrous tissue develops in the breast, some of the ducts of breast dilate to form cysts. Small depositions of calcium are called ,microcalcification. These are seen in both...

Pathology: Son's blood tests, red blood cells, hemoglobin level
red blood cells, hemoglobin level, hemoglobin levels: Hi Courtney: tendency to bleed easily and difficulty in clotting has many causes. Decreased platelets / dysfunctional platelets (even though normal in count) Defect in clotting factors (proteins and they are about 12, which along with platelets help...

Pathology: thyroid FNA, thyroid cells, foamy macrophages
thyroid cells, foamy macrophages, nuclear medicine scan: Hello Amanda: An FNA can be repeated, though I doubt that it will yield more follicular cells. The material aspirated was 15ml of red cloudy watery fluid. This indicates that the lesion is at least partly cystic. The cyst contents and also the material...

Pathology: thyroid nodules, fine needle biopsy, thyroid nodules
fine needle biopsy, thyroid nodules, cervical lymphadenopathy: Hi Robert: Nodules is the thyroid even when benign can grow pretty fast. However to confirm their nature a fine needle biopsy (FNA) is required. If the radiologist suspects that the lesion is malignant would ask for an FNA. I do not want to increase...

Pathology: tlc count in blood report, blood test result, physiological response
blood test result, physiological response, healthy person: Hello Rajesh; The blood counts mentioned above are within normal range. All these values are dynamic and have a wide range as the values vary according to physiological response and need of the body. If you have counts at 4000 or 5400 or 10800 or 11000...

Pathology: Understanding Bone Marrow Biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, immunoglobulin light chains
bone marrow biopsy, immunoglobulin light chains, kappa lambda: Hello Peg: Please do not apologize for lengthy questions. the more details you provide the better I can answer your question. Let me put your anxiety to rest. There is nothing to worry about in the bone marrow report. The report looks scary with all...

Pathology: Is it 100% Thyroid Cancer?, thyroid biopsy, follicular epithelium
thyroid biopsy, follicular epithelium, intranuclear inclusions: Hi K: The features described in the FNA report are seen in papillary cancer of thyroid. You can have the slides reviewed for another opinion. The findings can be correlated with those of imaging studies. A thyroid nuclear scan will also help. Finally...

Pathology: abnormal blood test, bone marrow biopsy, low blood counts
bone marrow biopsy, low blood counts, absolute monocytes: Hello Nikole: Low blood counts are seen in many diseases like Viral infections, congenital disorders which affect the functioning of bone marrow leading to reduced production of cells, cancer, or diseases which cause destruction of bone marrow certain...

Pathology: atypical lymphocitosis, red blood count, atypical lymphocytes
red blood count, atypical lymphocytes, hypo thyroid: Hi People with Thalassemia do have lymphocytosis and are also prone to more infections. Patients with thalassemia who have had their spleen removed show marked elevations of lymphocytes. I would advise not to worry too much as this is pure speculation,...

Pathology: Blood Test, cause of anemia, 3gm
cause of anemia, 3gm, hematocrit: Hello Vince: I hope these are values for adults. The main value which is clinically significant is the hemoglobin and hematocrit. This indicates that the person is anemic. Further tests may be done to determine the cause of anemia and start appropriate...

Pathology: Blood Work, gastro intestinal tract, large intestine
gastro intestinal tract, large intestine, fap patients: Hi David: RBC 4.5, HGB 12.0, HTC 36.3, MCV 80.1 MCHC 32.9, FDW 15.1, MPV 6.5, EOS % 7.0, SEGS 72.0, LYMPHS 15.0, BASO 2.0 all are within normal range EGFR is a marker of cancer and is seen in cancers of lung and gastro intestinal tract. If you had a prior...

Pathology: Follicular Neoplasm, follicular neoplasm, sonagram
follicular neoplasm, sonagram, benign growth: Hello Tom: The protocol for a FNA diagnosis of follicular neoplasm is removal of the nodule / thyroid. This is because it is very difficult to distinguish a benign growth from cancer with a follicular pattern on FNA. The choice to followup and do nothing...

Pathology: Immature Granulocytes & Grans, bone marrow biospy, rheumatoid arthritis
Pathology: Immature Granulocytes & Grans, bone marrow biospy, rheumatoid arthritis, enbrel

Pathology: Hematopathology Report, bone marrow biopsy, cytologic atypia
bone marrow biopsy, cytologic atypia, biopsy specimen: Hi Dajam I do not understand what the question is the report basically indicates that it a normal bone marrow with extra blood artifact and crsuh artifact which could be due to the procedure itself. The only worrisome feature is a collection of lymphoid...

Pathology: Immature Granulocytes & Grans, white blood cell, granulocytes
white blood cell, granulocytes, granulocyte: Hi In normal blood tests you should not have immature granulocytes. These appear in presence of infection, trauma, excessive bleeding or cancer. A single immature granulocyte (a type of white blood cell) is not significant. The absolute count also...

Pathology: Iron Saturation Panel, iron binding capacity, iron saturation
iron binding capacity, iron saturation, total iron binding capacity tibc: Hello GS Ferritin is the protein which helps bind iron absorbed from the gut and transports to its place of utilization or keep it in storage. Iron levels (serum iron) measure iron in circulation TIBC helps asses the body s capacity to transport iron...

Pathology: Looking for answers to test results, gamma globulins, gamma globulin
gamma globulins, gamma globulin, high lymphocytes: Hi: All these tests are more of screening tests than those which provide a definite diagnosis. LDH is a test which indicates presence of acute or chronic tissue damage. Further tests for isoenzymes of LDH help determine which organ is involved. The globulin...

Pathology: Low Platlet Count, atypical lymphocytes, infectious mononucleosis
atypical lymphocytes, infectious mononucleosis, complete physical exam: Hi Melanie: Atypical lymphocytes area type of blood cells which appear in blood in various conditions Like post vaccination Viral infections Infectious mononucleosis As a precurosr of leukemia These findings will have to be corelated with a complete...

Pathology: lab results, white blood cells, lab test
white blood cells, lab test, lymphocytes: Hi Trisha: Lymph refer to a type of white blood cells. These are raised in many conditions...infections to cancer. By itself the value is not clinically significant. What this value for you signifies will depend on total number of white blood cells as...

Pathology: Mononucleosis, bikini bar, saliva
bikini bar, saliva, mucus: Hello Jackie: Mononucleosis is spread by person-to-person contact. The primary method of transmission is through saliva. A person with mono can also pass the disease by coughing or sneezing, causing small droplets of infected saliva and/or mucus to be...

Pathology: Pathologist terminology, lack of oxygen in the blood, lack of oxygen
lack of oxygen in the blood, lack of oxygen, pain killers: Hello Sally I am sorry to hear about your loss. I will try my best to explain these terms to you. Anoxia: This is lack of oxygen in the blood and thus in tissues. Lack can be due to difficulty in breathing caused by blockage in respiratory passage. Or blood...

Pathology: Pathology results, morphology of blood cells, red blood cells
morphology of blood cells, red blood cells, atypical lymphocyte: Hello Margaret: Anemia is a symptom of an underlying disease process. In simple words it is the reduced capacity of blood to carry and deliver oxygen to the body tissues. It has a number of causes....the most common is dietary or nutritional deficiency...

Pathology: what does my pathology report mean?, thyroid hormone tests, follicular adenoma
thyroid hormone tests, follicular adenoma, follicular neoplasm: Hi Hurthle cells are enlarged follicular epithelial cells. These are metabolically altered cells seen in various conditions like, adenoma, inflammation of thyroid like Hashimoto s disease, certain types of cancer etc. Atypia refers to cells which are...

Pathology: psa testing using the siemens chemiluminescent method, sensitive assays, psa levels
sensitive assays, psa levels, chemiluminescence assay: Hi Bill: It depends on the generation of the assay The first-generation assays had lower limits of PSA detection of 0.2 ng/mL. The second-generation assays have detection limits of lower than 0.1 ng/mL. The third-generation ultra sensitive assays can detect...

Pathology: Rubella titres?, rubella antibodies, rubella igg
rubella antibodies, rubella igg, antibody level: Hi Ellen: I assume that this is for Rubella IgG. These levels would indicate current or past exposure to rubella or vaccination your obstetrician should evaluate theses values in light of you being pregnant and having all the signs and symptoms you mentioned....

Pathology: routine blood word results, rdw blood, minimal variation
rdw blood, minimal variation, cbc results: Hi Karen: The CBC range is set by taking an average of values from a given normal population. Since this is a range and an average some people are bound to fall outside the range. If you are in good health and have no signs and symptoms of disease,...

Pathology: abnormal pap smear result, atypical squamous cells, abnormal pap smear
atypical squamous cells, abnormal pap smear, human papilloma virus: Hi Casie: Atypical cells are those which are neither completely normal nor full blown cancer cells. They have some abnormal features due to infection / inflammation etc. HPV - Human papilloma virus. This infection can cause changes in cells of cervix....

Pathology: blood, thalassemia trait, mild anemia
thalassemia trait, mild anemia, testing and counseling: Hello Ahmed: Thalassemia is of two types. major and minor. Thalassemia major is a complex disease and two genes are defective In Thalassemia minor, the hemoglobin genes are inherited during conception, one from the mother (egg) and one from the father...

Pathology: colonoscopy, chronic inflammatory cells, crypt abscesses
chronic inflammatory cells, crypt abscesses, crohn s disease: Hello Leeanne: There is no single test which conclusively diagnoses Crohn s disease. All the tests mentioned by you are are used. Each provides different information. All this together with the symptoms helps in deciding in favor of Crohn s disease. ...

Pathology: US guided FNA of Thyroid, excision biopsy, thyroid cells
excision biopsy, thyroid cells, thyroid nodule: Hi Winnie: As per your report there is no mention of presence of lymphocytes, lymphoid globules etc which indicate on an FNA that the aspirate is from a lymph node. The only way this can be confirmed is by an excision biopsy. In any case with a diagnosis...

Pathology: Hashimotos thyioditis, thyroid function test, thyroid tsh
thyroid function test, thyroid tsh, hashimoto s thyroiditis: Hello Ahmed: The FNA report indicates that the lesion is suggestive of Hashimoto s thyroiditis. This is an autoimmune disorder where antibodies (protein) are produced by the body which starts destroying the thyroid cells. This can lead to development of...

Pathology: Inconclusive cbc with differential, auto, cbc results, cbc test
cbc results, cbc test, hematology analyzer: Hi Roni: You should have received your CBC results also, they do not take longer that bilirubin to process. The bilirubin is 0.6 and well within normal range...upper limit is 1.0 You would need to call the lab and find out why the results are delaye...

Pathology: Low blood cell counts, bone marrow aspirate, betaseron
bone marrow aspirate, betaseron, hct: Hello Sharon: If there is pancytopenia and levels drop with each subsequent test it is a matter of concern. However, the drug Betaseron itself can cause pancytopenia as a side effect. Ideally a bone marrow aspirate or biopsy should be performed to ascertain...

Pathology: lab reports, bone marrow cells, atypical lymphocytes
bone marrow cells, atypical lymphocytes, final diagnosis: Hello Gary: Pancytopenia implies overall decrease in all type of blood cells. These are reduced due to number of causes. Decreased production or increased destruction of cells in bone marrow...or replacement of bone marrow cells by cancer cells. The...

Pathology: Melanoma, vascular invasion, nuclear features
vascular invasion, nuclear features, consultation report: Hello Suzi; I am sorry to hear about your sister. I wish your husband good health. Clark s level IV indicates that melanoma cells are in the deeper part of the skin (reticular dermis) and have not yet invaded the fat (Level V) However going with...

Pathology: Path Report, cbc results, infectious mononucleosis
cbc results, infectious mononucleosis, mild increase: Hi Tawnya; The CBC results do not show any cause of concern. The symptoms may be due to a viral infection. there is a mild increase in lymphocytes which is seen in viral infections or post vaccination in children. If she still does not improve you need...

Pathology: PSA TESTS, free psa test, prostate cancer screening
free psa test, prostate cancer screening, ultrasound of the abdomen: Hello Menawar: PSA test results can be interpreted a number of different ways and there may be differences in cutoff values between different laboratories. Levels below 4.0ng/ml are considered normal. Levels between 4.0 ng/ml and 10.0 ng/ml may indicate...