About Experts Sitemap - Group 40 - Page 8 2014-07-15

Pathology: Scattered Thyroids, thyroid follicles, thyroids
thyroid follicles, thyroids, report states: Hello: The report states that the cells are very few. There has to be something more as few scattered thyroids does not make sense. It could either be thyroid follicles in which case these are normal cells found in Thyroid. Overall the report does...

Pathology: spindle cell, spindle cells, spindle cell
spindle cells, spindle cell, cancerous conditions: Hello Ginger: Spindle cell lesion just describes the shape of cells in the tumor...that is spindle shaped. These are found in a range of benign and cancerous conditions. I would not like to speculate as to what this may turn out to be and unduly worry...

Pathology: Just took an urine test, white blood cells, test blood
white blood cells, test blood, urine test: Hello Henry: If all other tests are normal and only few bacteria is seen this would indicate contamination and does not mean you have infection. However if in addition the urine sample shows presence of poly morphs or neutrophils which are a type of...

Pathology: Unusual EBV titer combination, rapid heart rate, sinus pain
rapid heart rate, sinus pain, infectious disease specialist: Hello Jeff: I agree this is an unusual report. If both VCAIgG and EBNA were positive it would just indicate that you had the EBV infection in remote past. However VCA IgM and EBNA are not positive together. I am sorry that I cannot be of much help to...

Pathology: unsatisfactory pap smear
Hello Kay: I do not understand what thickening of cells in your report signify. If the report says that the sample is unsatisfactory it is due to various reasons 1) Not enough material on slides to review 2) Too much blood obscures the cells 3) The...

Pathology: 2 year old cbc, pediatric age group, rdw sd
pediatric age group, rdw sd, bartonella virus: Hello Ericca: Most of the values of the blood parameters mentioned above are in normal range for pediatric age group. e.g the MCV 74.4 mentioned as low is low for adults but for a two year old its normal. The only significant finding is that the lymphocytes...

Pathology: Abnormal blood test in 9 year old, low lymphocyte count, thyroid hormones
low lymphocyte count, thyroid hormones, low wbc: Hi Jennifer: I agree with your doctor.the mild low lymphocyte count is not significant. Low thyroid hormones can be due to hypothyroidism. A full thyroid panel will help in arriving at a diagnosis as free T3 is not routinely used as the only test to decide...

Pathology: analysis of report, sore throat ear ache, red blood cells
sore throat ear ache, red blood cells, white blood cells: Hello Anitha: During pregnancy it is normal to have an increase in the white blood cells...that is what neutrophilic leukocytosis means. It indicates that a type of blood cells called neutrophils are increased in number...they show toxic changes....indicates...

Pathology: Blood results 3year old son, high lymphocytes, red blood cells
high lymphocytes, red blood cells, wbc count: Hello Tanja: the lymphocyte percent are high and relatively neutrophils are low..as all the blood cells should total to a count of 100 in percent count. The total count is the absolute count and if this is normal that indicates that overall count is normal...

Pathology: Bone biopsy, bone biopsy, bone lesion
bone biopsy, bone lesion, open biopsy: Hi Tricia: A lesion in the bone can be mets from breast cancer, but this can be conclusively proven only by biopsy. Arthritis has specific features than metastatic suspicious lesion. Having said that it is speculative to say what the lesion is. This...

Pathology: CA 125 refence range, ca 125 tumor marker, moderate hydronephrosis
ca 125 tumor marker, moderate hydronephrosis, total hysterectomy: Hello Angela: The reference range for CA-125 is 0-35 units/ml. This can be elevated in a number of non cancerous conditions also and thus is not a very good screening tool. If two tests are done a difference of 155 between the two is medically significant...

Pathology: CARCINOID TUMOR, atypical cells, types of proteins
atypical cells, types of proteins, synaptophysin: Hello Deb: Carcinoids are a type of tumor which may be cancerous (malignant) or non cancerous (benign). These produce excessive amounts of hormone like substances and result in carcinoid syndrome. If the carcinoid is confined to one specific area / organ...

Pathology: CBC results, segmented neutrophils, ear ache
segmented neutrophils, ear ache, cbc results: Hello Sara: Since you are young and healthy this is most likely a physiological increase. This could be related to stress...even the stress of having blood drawn. A walk around the block or climbing a flight of stairs prior to testing can raise the segmented...

Pathology: Endometrial biopsy and ovarian cyst, atypical cells, ultrasound report
atypical cells, ultrasound report, endometrial biopsy: Hello Barbara: Atypical cells are cells which do not have clear cut features of either normal or cancer cells. They are in between these two and are just abnormal cells. These can be related to infection , inflammation or sometimes just a normal process...

Pathology: fnac lt thyroid nodular lobe, mild atypia, auto immune disorder
mild atypia, auto immune disorder, hashimoto s thyroiditis: Hello Ahmed: Thyroiditis is inflammation of the thyroid. It depends what type of thyroidits you have. Hashimoto s thyroiditis is an auto immune disorder where the body produces antibodies which destroy your thyroid tissue. If so you may need eltroxin ...

Pathology: Globulins urine..iga serum, serum protein electrophoresis, serum proteins
serum protein electrophoresis, serum proteins, protein in urine: Hi Tracey: Urine has minute amounts of protein and any significant urinary protein is indicative of some pathology. In your case there is absence of M protein in urine and if this is also absent in serum protein electrophoresis it will rule out multiple...

Pathology: Lab Results question, antibody titers, varicella zoster
antibody titers, varicella zoster, white blood cells: Hello Dee: An expert in molecular pathology would be able to provide you with better information on the CD 19 counts. The antibody titers slowly decrease after a bout of illness and take a while to reach a baseline value. Many of them never totally disappear....

Pathology: Reticulocyte or parasite, red blood cells, red blood cell
red blood cells, red blood cell, blood transfusion: Hello; In that case these are most likely air bubbles you can see them singly and in groups. They come in and out of focus and are at different depths. could be some contaminant / dirt on the slide / powder from gloves etc Basically you cannot see...

Pathology: Sarcoidos to lymphoma?, chest ct scan, lymph node biopsy
chest ct scan, lymph node biopsy, paquenil: Hello John: If biopsy can be performed and a piece of lymph nodes is removed it will help to rule out or confirm the diagnosis of Lymphoma. Biopsy (and not FNAC) along with some immunohistochemical tests done on the biopsy tissue will be most helpful...

Pathology: Absolute Lymphocytes, absolute lymphocytes, blood cell count
absolute lymphocytes, blood cell count, white blood cell: Hi Debbie: High WBC count along with increased lymphocytes indicates infection especially by viruses, chronic illness or leukemia (blood cancer) To decide what is the cause for your mothers raised counts further tests need to be done. A peripheral smear...

Pathology: abnormal bloodwork lymphocytes, elevated lymphocytes, atypical lymphocytes
elevated lymphocytes, atypical lymphocytes, lymphoma cancer: Hello: I think that since you mention elevated lymphocytes the Lymphocyte% written above is 70 and not 7.0 If this is indeed 70% it is increased though your absolute count is very marginally elevated. The cause for concern here is the atypical lymphocytes...

Pathology: atypical cells, excision biopsy, atypical cells
excision biopsy, atypical cells, needle biopsy: Hello Deborah: Atypical cells are cells which have features in between those of normal and cancer cells. Since they are intermediate cells, based on how many were present and what were image results and clinical findings surgery may or may not be recommended....

Pathology: blood tests, eosinophils, muscle damage
eosinophils, muscle damage, clinical significance: Hello Sarah: The eosinophils are minimally elevated and have no clinical significance. CK (Creatine Kinase)is a test done when a patient may have had a heart attack or when a person complains of chest pain. The other reason why such a test is ordered...

Pathology: CBC results, cbc results, large intestine
cbc results, large intestine, lymp: Hi Carlos: Your CBC results are almost normal. There is a mild decrease in Hgb The physician based on his judgement and your physical exam, clinical symptoms wants to rule out any possibility of bleeding from large intestine. A colonoscopy will help...

Pathology: CEA results, inflammatory bowel disease, adult smokers
inflammatory bowel disease, adult smokers, smoking female: Hi Carol: One possibility is that your levels may be normal for you. since most levels are arrived at as an average from a given set of normal population. People can fall outside the range. If a person is otherwise healthy what was the reason for doing...

Pathology: Cluster of Microcalcification, right upper quadrant, microcalcifications in breast
right upper quadrant, microcalcifications in breast, invasive cancer: Hello Sienna: Microcalcifications in breast...is very small deposition of calcium in breast. This is highly suspicious for presence of breast cancer. It is advisable to have the area removed and examined by a pathologist. If it is cancer and is localized...

Pathology: EBV Blood Tests, preceeding numbers, infectious diseases specialist
preceeding numbers, infectious diseases specialist, mono symptoms: Hello MaryLou: after almost a year your Early Ab s should have become undetectable and the rest - VCA IgG and EBNA IgG should have reduced. Here they have increased. The Creatinine clearance is very high and can be because of a number of reasons. I...

Pathology: elevated liver enzymes and high cholesterol, red rice yeast, elevated liver enzymes
red rice yeast, elevated liver enzymes, steroidal antiinflammatory drugs: Hello Eileen: A laboratory report of mildly elevated liver enzymes is common and does not indicate a specific disease. Of course underlying liver disease is one cause of the elevated enzymes...there are other reasons like Obesity, alcohol, drugs like...

Pathology: FNA Results, thyroid hormones, follicle cells
thyroid hormones, follicle cells, thyroid cancer: Hi Pat: This essentially means that the FNA slides show normal follicle cells found in the thyroid. In addition scanty colloid was found. Colloid is the material produced by follicle cells which helps synthesize thyroid hormones. The report does not...

Pathology: FNAC, desk job, hello doctor
desk job, hello doctor, throat area: Hello Pechi: Please do not worry too much. The FNAC involves using a needle and taking out some material from the lump. This would be examined under the microscope by a pathologist and will help arrive at a conclusion as to what the lump can be. The...

Pathology: elevated liver enzymes and high cholesterol, atp iii guidelines, framingham heart
Pathology: elevated liver enzymes and high cholesterol, atp iii guidelines, framingham heart, calulators

Pathology: FNA Results, follicular neoplasm, microscopic features
Pathology: FNA Results, follicular neoplasm, microscopic features, dahiya

Pathology: High white-blood cells and atypical lymphocytes, high white blood cells, atypical lymphocytes
high white blood cells, atypical lymphocytes, blood cell count: Hello Gilbert: I think the first thing you need to worry about is being pre diabetic with high cholesterol. Lifestyle modification which will include diet modification and exercise as advised by a professional should help control the blood glucose and cholesterol...

Pathology: Hodgkin's Lymphoma, reed sternberg cells, excision biopsy
reed sternberg cells, excision biopsy, hodgkin s lymphoma: Hello Mary: Absence of a positive mono test and infection have no relation with Hodgkins disease. Reed Sternberg cells are essential for diagnosis of Hodgkin s Lymphoma. However, since they are not unique to HD they alone are not diagnostic of HD. ...

Pathology: Labs, alkaline phosphate, alkaline phosphatase
alkaline phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, triglyceride levels: Hello Kay Robertson: Alkaline phosphatase is a screening test to assess the functioning of liver. A high level indicates liver damage / diseases and further tests are needed to determine the cause , based on your clinical signs and symptoms. Your cholesterol...

Pathology: low white count, bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow test results
bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow test results, neck pain and headaches: Hello Melissa: ANC refers to absolute neutrophil count. Neutrophil is a type of white blood cell. The normal count should be 1500 cells and yours is pretty low. An infection generally has a high WBC count, if the infection becomes chronic then counts...

Pathology: Pathology procedure, fine needle aspiration, breast lesion
fine needle aspiration, breast lesion, needle aspiration cytology: Hello Sienna: If a mammogram shows anything abnormal then the nest step is an FNAC -fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy. The pain is as much as you have when getting an injection. after the procedure the area is sore for some hours. Here a needle...

Pathology: Pathology Results on 2 Bone Tumors, connective tissue disease, giant cells
connective tissue disease, giant cells, clinical correlation: Hello Jayne: According to the report this lump shows no evidence of infection either by fungus or bacteria especially those which cause tuberculosis. Second there is no suggestion or evidence for cancer. The report indicates that the lumps are a reaction...

Pathology: PSA, gleason 9, different town
gleason 9, different town, chemiluminescent: Hello Marty: Please relax and do not get anxious over this result. There is always a mild variation between results of PSA when done in different labs and on different equipment. For this reason it is preferable to continue testing in one specific facility....

Pathology: path report, spindle cell tumor, spindle cell neoplasm
spindle cell tumor, spindle cell neoplasm, malignant cancer: Hello Julie: Dermtoafibroma is a benign skin neoplasm...one of the more common ones and seen more frequently in women. A neoplasm in simple terms means a new growth which may be benign or cancerous. This is definitely not cancer. If this was not completely...

Pathology: path report, thyroid hormone tests, thyroid nodule
thyroid hormone tests, thyroid nodule, thyroid hormones: Hi: The two reports mentioned are entirely different. If no abnormal cells or atypical cells were seen then the slides do not indicate cancer. They only show normal follicular cells and some colloid (material from which thyroid hormones are produced) ...

Pathology: pathology report of FNA thyroid, clinical judgement, pathology report
clinical judgement, pathology report, thyroid hormone: Hello T: The report basically says that the material presented for assessment is insufficient to come to a definite conclusion . It cannot either rule out or confirm any diagnosis. Whatever little material is examined, shows only normal cells and material...

Pathology: pathology test, serum protein electrophoresis, globulins
serum protein electrophoresis, globulins, leucocytes: Hello: ESR is a screening test. It indicates that there is some form of chronic infection / inflammation / cancer / polymyalgia rheumatica etc or other disease in the body. ESR does not point to any specific diagnosis, its just an indicatior for underlying...

Pathology: son's labwork, c reactive protein, atypical lymphocytes
c reactive protein, atypical lymphocytes, infectious disease specialist: Hi Wendi: Since he is negative for EBV, CMV etc other causes have to be looked into. The ASO titre of 800 is high. He may have had a streptococcal infection in recent past. Increased sed and c reactive protein just indicate some acute going on to chronic...

Pathology: Thyroidectomy Pathology, thyroid follicles, thyroid tissue
thyroid follicles, thyroid tissue, papillary carcinoma: Hello Cindy: Your thyroid revealed two types of lesions One is benign - Hashimoto s thyroiditis. It is autoimmune destruction of thyroid tissue and is replaced by lymphocytes forming germinal centers etc. Such a condition increases the risk of malignancy...

Pathology: My test results, red cell folate, homocysteine levels
red cell folate, homocysteine levels, vitamin b12 deficiency: Hello: In general serum B12 is measured and its measurement at times does not correlate with the symptoms. Vitamin B12 is also known as cobalamin. The active form of B12 is found in serum bound to protein and one such protein is transcobalamin. The...

Pathology: thyroid biopsy results, thyroid biopsy, thyroid cells
thyroid biopsy, thyroid cells, biopsy results: Hello Renee: I am glad my answer helped you understand your report better. I am sorry about the typo in the last line. Basically if Hashimoto s is suspected the steps taken to confirm the diagnosis are: 1) FNA...which in your case is only suggestive...

Pathology: thyroid nodule/biopsy, thyroid nodule biopsy, needle biopsy
thyroid nodule biopsy, needle biopsy, biospy: Hi Jeanne: The right side nodule does not show any evidence of cancer. Since the left nodule is calcified a repeat needle biopsy will not yield much. If your thyroid blood tests are normal and the ultrasound scan shows nothing clinically worrisome...nothing...

Pathology: thyroidectomy pathology, partial thyroidectomy, benign cancer
partial thyroidectomy, benign cancer, pathology report: Hello Michelle: The pathology report will give information about the nodule...what type of lesion it is...benign, cancer, infection or inflammation. The normal thyroid is not usually commented upon unless it shows any abnormality. It will definitely be...

Pathology: total thyroidectomy medication & labs, thyroid gland, ent surgeon
thyroid gland, ent surgeon, dry peeling skin: Hello Anna: I am not an expert at this but I understand that your dose of synthroid may be too much for you and hence your TSH is very low indicating hyperthyroidism. In people for whom thyroid is removed there is chance of developing hypothyroidism because...

Pathology: AST and ALT decreased, ast sgot, blood work
ast sgot, blood work, pregnancy: Hi Victoria: The results are mildly below normal range. These may be the normal levels for you as all ranges are set from average values of a group of normal subjects. There are always people who lie outside this range. SGOT is sometimes reduced in pregnancy....

Pathology: Bladder cancer (pathology report), bladder cancer, tumor involvement
bladder cancer, tumor involvement, tumor cells: Hello Cherhonda: Lymphovascular invasion implies that the tumor cells are seen in the lymphoid and vascular channels. They are in the process of reaching or may have reached sites other than the primary location. However, this does not necessarily indicate...

Pathology: Blood Test Results, blood test results, blood tests
blood test results, blood tests: Hello Alejandro: For most blood tests, normal range is set after taking an average of values from a given normal set of people. There are always people who fall outside this range. 0.8 is a minimal low value and could be normal for you. Please do not...

Pathology: Borderline enlarged lymph nodes, fine needle aspiration, left upper quadrant
fine needle aspiration, left upper quadrant, enlarged lymph nodes: Hello Debra: Lymph nodes are small bean shaped structures scattered all over the body. They produce lymphocytes which process all foreign matter of our body and produce antibodies. These are enlarged in drainage areas of organs which have infection,...

Pathology: bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow test results
bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow test results, neck pain and headaches: Hello Melissa: The suspicion raised by your blood counts - low WBC count (leukopenia) was Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and or leukemia which rarely presents with low counts. The good news is that at present the bone marrow does not show any evidence...

Pathology: CBC, high neutrophils, low monocytes
high neutrophils, low monocytes, sudafed pe: Hello Elle: The neutrophils are on the higher side and also for this reason there is a relative decrease in the lymphocytes. An increase in neutrophils is seen most often in infection. Any mild allergy, cough, cold, sore throat etc can raise the counts....

Pathology: colonic biopsy report, chronic inflammation, pathology report
chronic inflammation, pathology report, inflammatory cells: Hello Scott: You can rest assured that the biopsy is normal. The colon generally shows some inflammatory cells and hence it is considered mild and chronic inflammation. Moreover this is non specific. If you have no symptoms to correlate with this finding...

Pathology: confusing blood test/ Leukemia with low lymphocytes, high platlets, low lymphocytes
high platlets, low lymphocytes, low neutrophils: Hi Brenda: Non Hodgkin s Lymphoma is a type of malignancy which involves the lymph nodes. These are small round structures where the lymphocytes are produced. In lymphoma there is abnormal production of atypical / abnormal lymphocytes. It can also happen...

Pathology: EBV Panel, swollen lymph nodes, types of lymphoma
swollen lymph nodes, types of lymphoma, incomplete knowledge: Hello again: Antibodies are proteins produced by the body in response to foreign elements in the body. This response varies for each individual. Therefore such tests do not have a normal range rather a cutoff value. If a person has had no exposure to...

Pathology: EBV positive, low lymphocyte for 6 yr old son, lymph node biopsy, low lymphocyte
lymph node biopsy, low lymphocyte, hodgkin lymphoma: Hi: Low absolute lymphocytes are a cause of concern if they continue to drop. If the next Blood counts show a rise then it indicates recovery from whatever is the cause. In addition a fine needle aspiration can be performed for the lymph node also. ...

Pathology: FNA of Thyroid indicates very cellular sample with mildly atypical follicular cells, pale nuclei, nodular goiter
pale nuclei, nodular goiter, hurthle cells: Hello Natalie: Thank you for the detailed description and report. FNA is a procedure where a needle helps pull out cells from a lesion and these are examined to arrive at a diagnosis. It is most useful to confirm a diagnosis of cancer if cancer cells...

Pathology: bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow aspirate, iron stores
Pathology: bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow aspirate, iron stores, hematologist

Pathology: Hodgkins survivor with neck lump and night sweats, swollen lymph node, hodgkin s disease
swollen lymph node, hodgkin s disease, swollen nodes: Hello Greg: Given your history you are right to worry about recurrence of lymphoma. I agree that the lymph node is not big enough to be worrisome, but with your background I would still want to know what it is? You have generalized symptoms of night...

Pathology: Lab results, gastrointestinal diseases, carcinoembryonic antigen
gastrointestinal diseases, carcinoembryonic antigen, gastrointestinal tract: Hello Heather: All the tests performed and their values are indicative of chronic infection and your father does have pancreatitis. The only worrisome test is CEA..carcinoembryonic antigen. This is a marker found positive in cancers of the gastrointestinal...

Pathology: Lab results, dynamic parameters, radiation treatments
dynamic parameters, radiation treatments, radiation treatment: Hello Ruth: The Blood tests done for you are dynamic parameters their values change everytime you are tested. Some of these are out of range but only mildly and these variations are most likely due to the radiation treatment you have received. The blood...

Pathology: Lab work, humeral shaft, protein electrophoresis
humeral shaft, protein electrophoresis, diet modification: Hi: I am not an expert on decision regarding treatment protocols however this is what I suggest. Hip replacement is a major surgery and before that the surgeon will do a lot of tests to rule out anything which can adversely affect the outcome of surgery...

Pathology: Non-HAMA interference PSA assay, psa assay, seed implantation
psa assay, seed implantation, psa level: Hello Tiang: Murine monoclonal antibody can induce (HAMA)- Human antimouse heterophile antibodies (HAMA) and interferes with accuracy of lab diagnostic tests as is evident in your case. These are naturally occurring antibodies that can interfere with modern...

Pathology: question, epithelial hyperplasia, treatment protocol
epithelial hyperplasia, treatment protocol, uniform layer: Hello Rosey: Ductal epithelial hyperplasia may be simply defined as proliferation of the lining cells of ducts present in the breast. From a single uniform layer of cells there can be an increase in cell layers. As long as this is classified as usual...

Pathology: surgical pathology report, surgical pathology report, sclerosing adenosis
surgical pathology report, sclerosing adenosis, chronic inflammation: Hello Barbara: A papilloma is not cancer. This is a wart like growth which can sometimes puncture a duct and then it becomes intraductal papilloma. An excision is the treatment of choice. The yellow color does not indicate cancer. Only if there are...

Pathology: WBC, general good health, white blood cell
general good health, white blood cell, neutrophil count: Hi Jennifer: I hope your daughter is feeling better now. For a 7 year old the WBC are moderately elevated. In addition I think her neutrophil count will also be high. This goes most likely with her strep throat diagnosis, if other than this she is in...

Pathology: Abnormal Infant CBC, red blood cells, red blood cell
red blood cells, red blood cell, first time parents: Hello Rayna: Acanthocytes, elliptocytes, microcytes and macrocytes ...all these terms refer to various shapes and sizes of red blood cells. Having a mixture of such cells along with a low hemoglobin (Hb) would indicate some type of disorder of red blood...

Pathology: Blood Lab results, red blood cells, hemoglobin content
red blood cells, hemoglobin content, mild anemia: Hello Mary: A number of tests have been done and I will focus on those which point towards a specific condition. Also please remember all these are screening tests and a definitive diagnosis would require further investigation. In blood counts your hemoglobin...

Pathology: CBC Report, doctors office, high cholesterol
doctors office, high cholesterol, mild infection: Hello Sharon All the blood parameters tested have a range. This range is arrived at by taking the average of test results of a set of healthy people in a given population. Since this is an average some people will always fall a little out of range. ...

Pathology: CBC w/differential for my 2 year old daughter, atypical lymphocytes, infectious mononucleosis
atypical lymphocytes, infectious mononucleosis, white blood cells: Hello Viren: By the reference range (if this is age adjusted) There is a mild increase in lymphocytes. This could be due to mild viral infection - many viruses in childhood cause this / vaccination prior to test Infectious mononucleosis is another virus...

Pathology: CEA level of 3.4 ng/mL, pap smear results, blood in feces
pap smear results, blood in feces, pain abdomen: Hello Eve: CEA is a non specific marker for cancer. It is neither organ nor tumor specific as it is raised in many types of cancer. In addition sometimes elevated levels are found in people with benign conditions of colon, rectum, stomach, liver and...

Pathology: CLL or what else could it be, bone marrow biopsy, low wbc
bone marrow biopsy, low wbc, leukemia and lymphoma: Hello Dawn: It does appear from your findings that you have anemia and most likely iron deficiency. Lymphocytes are raised in a number of conditions like chronic infections, viral disease and some types of leukemia and lymphoma. However since flow...

Pathology: can you explain report, papillary thyroid carcinoma, papillary carcinoma of thyroid
papillary thyroid carcinoma, papillary carcinoma of thyroid, papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: Hello Linda: The thyroid has been found to have papillary carcinoma. This is the commonest form of the cancer in this organ About 22-24 lymph nodes have been examined and I think seven show presence of cancer. In addition the thymus and parathyroid...

Pathology: Haematology report, white blood cells, blood cell count
white blood cells, blood cell count, white blood cell: Hello Nataliya: There is a mild increase in white blood cells and this is because of increase in neutrophils. These cells are the first line of defense of the body. Such counts may be seen in infection and at times can be physiological (if you are otherwise...

Pathology: Lab Results, high neutrophils, ast sgot
high neutrophils, ast sgot, high hematocrit: Hello Andre: I would not worry about the test result from serum Iron and below. However the first four are more significant. These indicate that there is some mild disease process in your liver. Most likely related to alcohol consumption but could be...

Pathology: Leukemia?, high lymphocytes, low neutrophils
high lymphocytes, low neutrophils, low lymphocytes: Hello: Leukemia is diagnosed based on total WBC count which may be high or low, lymphocytes may be elevated in certain types of leukemia. In addition the morphology (appearance) of the cells is very important. Immunohistochemistry is used at times to establish...

Pathology: VERY low lympho %, chest x ray, anxiety and panic attacks
chest x ray, anxiety and panic attacks, stress and anxiety: Hello Raymond: The percentage of lymphocyte count and absolute (#) lymphocyte count are reduced. The absolute count is mildly decreased. In stress and anxiety the neutrophil levels may be slightly elevated and thus the lymphocyte count can reduce relative...

Pathology: low white blood count, low white blood count, white blood count
low white blood count, white blood count, routine check: Hello Harry: All the blood parameters tested have a range. This range is arrived at by taking the average of test results of a set of healthy people in a given population. Since this is an average some people will always fall a little out of range. ...

Pathology: lymph nodes, cancer lymphoma, cancer cells
cancer lymphoma, cancer cells, types of cancer: Hello William: Lymphadenopathy means that the lymph nodes are enlarged. This enlargement can be as a reaction to presence of infection in the vicinity. At times there is presence of cancer / lymphoma which causes them to become big. However the only...

Pathology: Mastectomy - Biopsy result, infiltrating duct carcinoma, axillary nodes
infiltrating duct carcinoma, axillary nodes, excisional biopsy: Hello Jaya: Your mother has breast cancer with stage 2 and grade 2 classification. This is based on size of tumor, involvement of lymphnodes ( 2 in her case) and presence or absence of distant spread of cancer ( in her case most likely not at this point)...

Pathology: Microcalcification, right upper quadrant, breast duct
right upper quadrant, breast duct, definitive diagnosis: Hello Nicole: I am not familiar with use of infra red for evaluating breast tissue. Microcalcification is minute deposits of calcium in the tissue. This deposit occurs around dead tissue or infectious agents or some foreign material (can be dried up breast...

Pathology: Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid Patholigy, thyroid papillary carcinoma, papillary carcinoma of thyroid
thyroid papillary carcinoma, papillary carcinoma of thyroid, papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: Hello Tina: The FNA report does describe features associated with papillary carcinoma as seen on fine needle aspiration smears. The surgeon will decide course of action based on the pathology report and ultrasound findings. It is very unlikely that this...

Pathology: PSA test variances, red blood cell, low grade fever
red blood cell, low grade fever, blood cell count: Hello Andy: The PSA is definitely raised with either of the equipment used and needs to be evaluated. In general when the levels fall they are always considered a good sign. It is likely you may have had a urinary tract infection and hence the raised...

Pathology: Out of Range labs, red blood count, rheumatoid arthritis
red blood count, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiolipin: Hello Dee: Low blood levels of creatinine are not common and are not usually a cause for concern. They can be seen with conditions that result in decreased muscle mass. The most important parameter here is the CCP level. With your history of pain this...

Pathology: Sarcoidosis vs Lymphoma, lymph node biopsies, auto immune disease
lymph node biopsies, auto immune disease, bone tumor: Hello Jayne: I understand how this is confusing for you. I will try and explain this in abetter manner. Granuloma is a collection of inflammatory cells. Yes these form in a number of diseases. When a pathologist looks at a tissue sample which is a...

Pathology: Thyroid Nodule - FNA Results, thyroid nodule, thyroid gland
thyroid nodule, thyroid gland, correct diagnosis: Hello Diane: Based on the cold nodule, thyroglobulin results and lack of suspicious or cancer cells one can consider that this is most likely a benign lesion. However, FNA is non conclusive as it did not have enough material to evaluate. Again each...

Pathology: Intermittent fever for 5 months, mesenteric lymph nodes, abdomen pain
mesenteric lymph nodes, abdomen pain, complete physical examination: Hi: the nodes are very small and hence clinically insignificant. I guess since the ultraosund was done and date of laproscopy some time has passed and the nodes have reduced in size. In addition the findings are non specific and do not suggest anything...

Pathology: Lymphocrates in spinal fluid, color appearance, spinal tap
color appearance, spinal tap, definite direction: Hello Donnaleigh: The fluid drawn in a spinal tap is cerebro spinal fluid. It should be clear and not contain any cells. Lymphocytes are seen in viral infection or chronic infection but they by themselves are not indicative of anything. Total white...

Pathology: low monocytes, low monocytes, monocyte count
low monocytes, monocyte count, cell parameters: Hello Lucy: Please do not be unduly worried about a single low value of monocytes. All the normal ranges of blood cell parameters are arrived at as an average of a set of normal population. Some healthy individuals may fall outside this range. In addition...

Pathology: PSA test results, psa test results, psa values
psa test results, psa values, psa level: Hi: I would rather not comment on the reliabilty of equipment in specific labs. under ideal conditions - equipment which is well maintained, all reagents are at optimal conditions the equipment should be able to give accurate measurements. Three to...

Pathology: Thyroid FNA report, thyroid function test, nuclear atypia
thyroid function test, nuclear atypia, follicular neoplasm: Hi: Based on the report your diagnosis is nodular hyperplasia as of now. There isnt sufficient follicular pattern to favor a follicular lesion. If on a followup scan and FNA such a pattern emerges it can be diagnosed as a follicular lesion / neoplasm....

Pathology: time required to cure cmv igg and cmv igm, swollen glands in the neck, glands in the neck
swollen glands in the neck, glands in the neck, cmv infection: Hello Sandip: CMV infection is more common in childhood. By young adults most peopel have been exposed to the virus and have some immunity. Generally there are no symptoms or there is fever, fatigue sore throat and swollen glands in the neck. It is self...

Pathology: Serum Creatinin, rbc morphology, red blood cells
rbc morphology, red blood cells, atypical lymphocytes: Hello Donabel: Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, which is an important part of muscle. Increased levels indicate that there is some form of disease of the kidney. Your father should be evaluated by a doctor preferably a nephrologist...

Pathology: abnormal cbc, bone marrow examination, chronic leukemia
bone marrow examination, chronic leukemia, acute leukemia: Hello MJ Any form of infection / fever / sore throat etc will lead to elevated values. In addition acute or chronic leukemia can cause such high elevation of WBC The WBC is elevated with increase in neutrophils and no blasts seen. May be due to...

Pathology: Blood Tests, routine blood tests, chest infection
routine blood tests, chest infection, speedy recovery: Hello: At a given time 3 to 6 ml of blood may be drawn to do most of the routine blood tests. If some more specialized tests are required then more blood may be drawn. Withdrawing this quantity of blood occasionally will not contribute to anemia. I...

Pathology: Blood work, function of the liver, blood chemistry
function of the liver, blood chemistry, liver disease: Hello Liz: All these test are for assessing the function of the liver. All of them are elevated indicating some kind of liver disease. Certain types of food and medication can affect this test that is why you need to be fasting before the test. One...

Pathology: blood tests results, iron deficiency anemia, anemia cause
iron deficiency anemia, anemia cause, chronic blood loss: Hello Tammie: Sorry for the delay in the reply. Your blood test indicates that you have slightly decreased white blood cells and neutrophils. This could be just normal for you unless you have a some chronic diseases. However more important is that...

Pathology: blood work, morphology of cells, white cell count
morphology of cells, white cell count, blood work: Hello Jennifer: The White cell count is very high this can be seen in severe infection as well as in leukemia. The raised sed rate points to a chronic disease. However to put a name to the disease with this information is pure speculation. A bone marrow...

Pathology: colonoscopy biopsy, irritable bowel syndrome, loose stools
irritable bowel syndrome, loose stools, lifestyle diet: Hello John: IBD is irritable bowel syndrome. A diagnosis arrived at by exclusion. All other conditions with specific findings are first ruled out and only then IBD is considered. IBD is very common and many patients have abdominal pain, constipation...

Pathology: Dermatology Pathology report, upper dermis, dermatisis
upper dermis, dermatisis, pathology report: Hello Cameron: Yes the two diagnoses are different entities. Keratosis pilaris is very common , benign, genetic condition of the skin. It is not life threatening, does not cause any serious long term health issues. There is accumulation of extra keratin...

Pathology: desperate: infection? dental?, enlarged lymph nodes, echo stress
enlarged lymph nodes, echo stress, urinary tract infections: Hello Karen: Thanks for the detailed history and information. There is definitely chronic pathology involving the gums / bone in the oral cavity (mouth) Ideally you should have culture and sensitivity of the material which drains out of the fistula and...

Pathology: dm pathology, pathology department, correspondence courses
pathology department, correspondence courses, education index: Hello Sandeep: I am not aware what DM in pathology is. Once you finish your MD pathology you can do fellowship in various subspecialties - cytopath / hematopathology etc. You can contact various university based pathology department to see what is on...

Pathology: EBV titer test, titer test, antibody igg
titer test, antibody igg, enlarged lymph nodes: Hello Lisa: Each lab has a cutoff / reference range for the antibody levels. This helps to determine if the value is significant enough to be considered positive. The reference range would have helped in better interpretation. Going by the VCA IGM level...

Pathology: Elevated AST(SGOT) & ALT(SGPT) Levels, alt sgpt levels, ast sgot
alt sgpt levels, ast sgot, weight training regime: Hello Rocky: AST and ALT are raised in skeletal muscle trauma. It depends on how much the values are raised. AST is raised more than ALT in muscle damage. Other causes have to be ruled out to confirm muscle trauma related rise. If you are other wise...

Pathology: elevated hs-crp, monocytes, leukocytes, concurrent with knee pain, instability, and injury, viral pericarditis, knee pathology
viral pericarditis, knee pathology, baker cyst: Hello Jolene: hs CRP is indeed used as a marker for assessing the risk of cardiac disease. However it has to be interpreted in combination with other indicators required to assess the risk like - lipid profile (raised cholesterol and triglycerides), high...

Pathology: Elevated AST(SGOT) & ALT(SGPT) Levels, liver function panel, liver enzymes
Pathology: Elevated AST(SGOT) & ALT(SGPT) Levels, liver function panel, liver enzymes, ast

Pathology: nasopharyngeal mass, hard palate, nasopharyngeal mass
Pathology: nasopharyngeal mass, hard palate, nasopharyngeal mass, dermoid

Pathology: High WBC and Liver Function, swollen lymp nodes, liver enzymes
swollen lymp nodes, liver enzymes, lymph node enlargement: Hello Brandon: Your Blood tests are absolutely fine and there is nothing which suggests cancer. The only out of range test is that of the two liver enzymes AST and ALT Now with other tests being normal this could be result of muscle injury...seen...

Pathology: high wbc, white blood count, physical exercise
white blood count, physical exercise, blood work: Hello Shelby: As the doctor says she may just have this as her normal level. The ranges for these tests are an average of values from a given set of normal population. There are always people who fall outside this range. In addition this could be a physiological...

Pathology: Interpretation of MPV and component blood test results, absolute eosinophils, absolute monocytes
absolute eosinophils, absolute monocytes, absolute lymphocytes: Hello Richard: The counts are within normal range and you needn t worry about any specific disease. The only thing mildly out of range are the Eosinophils. These are type of blood cells which increase in allergic conditions. You may have some allergy...

Pathology: low monocytes count, value ranges, nurse practitioner
value ranges, nurse practitioner, blood counts: Hello Annette: Your blood counts are within normal range as mentioned by you. Only the monocytes are at a low level of 1. This is not something to worry about. All blood value ranges are an average of a set of normal population. people do fall out of the...

Pathology: MELANOCYTIC NEVUS, atypical cells, melanocytic nevus
atypical cells, melanocytic nevus, sentinel lymph: hello Carrie: There is no need to have more lesions excised. However do keep a visual track of them If you notice any increase in size, irregularity of shape, change in color, pain etc in the lesion consult your dermatologist. Other than that you should...

Pathology: Mole removal, mole removal, exact diagnosis
mole removal, exact diagnosis, protein in urine: Hello Patty: I could help you better understand your mole if you had the exact diagnosis. Otherwise it is just speculation and will add to your anxiety. Same is with protein in urine. these two may not necessarily be related. Please wait for the...

Pathology: nasopharyngeal mass, squamous cell carcinoma, non hodgkins lymphoma
squamous cell carcinoma, non hodgkins lymphoma, final diagnosis: Hello Lela: I can understand your anxiety about not knowing whats wrong with your son. Nasopharyngeal mass means just that. A growth in the nasopharynx. It is pure speculation to figure out what this may be by looking up the Internet. You will have...

Pathology: Please shed some light on our Pancratic Cancer diagnosis, bile duct stricture, fine needle biopsy
bile duct stricture, fine needle biopsy, enlarged bile duct: Hello Heather: CK7 positive and CK 20 negative cells favor lung cancer. TTF 1 helps differentiate between primary lung cancer and cancer metastatic to lung. you mention that the report indicates rare cells show TTF1 positivity. This could be non specific....there...

Pathology: pet scan and fna, axillary nodes, thyroid cancer
axillary nodes, thyroid cancer, glucose uptake: Hello Nancy: The lymph nodes are where the cancer cells would travel and then from these spread elsewhere. If the nodes are of the same size and shape then it is unlikely they have changed in any way. If there was an increase in size another FNA would...

Pathology: prostascint, psa tests, prostascint scan
psa tests, prostascint scan, psa level: Hello Patricia: Rising PSA levels after prostatectomy an d treatment indicate recurrence of cancer. However this is also debatable based on the level of PSA. If the levels are 0.2 ng/ml and more it is recurrence. Now the question is to decide if this...

Pathology: sick child, high neutrophil count, high platelets
high neutrophil count, high platelets, c reactive protein: Hello Cathy: The WBC count is moderately raised and the neutrophils are high. The high neutrophil count goes against a diagnosis of ALL. in lymphoblastic leukemia the neutrophils are low as the malignat lymphoblasts increase. In addition the platelets...

Pathology: Thyroid Cytopathology FNA, follicular adenoma, thyroid function tests
follicular adenoma, thyroid function tests, thyroid imaging: Hello Pat: The report essentially shows normal looking cells which are found in the thyroid. The first two diagnosis are benign. On cytology it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and carcinoma. These findings need to be correlated...

Pathology: thyroid FNA pathology report, follicular neoplasm, irregular clusters
follicular neoplasm, irregular clusters, papillary carcinoma: Hello again: microflollicular aggregate refers to a collection of cells from thyroid which form the pattern of a follicle - small spherical group of cells with a central cavity. Siderophages are scavenger cells which have ingested the breakdown product...

Pathology: Wife's blood work, chronic fatigue syndrome, low grade fever
chronic fatigue syndrome, low grade fever, work question: Hello Gregory: At this point the symptoms and their response to treatment seem to favor a viral infection. If the fever continues to be low grade - without an enlarged lymph node a lump or mass in the body it is difficult to test for cancer. In addition...

Pathology: CBC Result, absolute lymphocytes, routine health
absolute lymphocytes, routine health, health check: Hello Jill: All the CBC values have a normal range which is arrived at as an average of a set of values obtained from a given normal population. There are people who would fall outside the range. If you are otherwise healthy and this was done for a routine...

Pathology: CBC results, monocyte count, cbc results
monocyte count, cbc results, cbc test: Hello R: Leukemia / lymphoma is not diagnosed on the basis of MPV. Monocyte count is mildly elevated and can be seen in infections. The platelet count is also decreased. If you are otherwise healthy (with just a cold) then this result is not worrisome....

Pathology: Colonoscopy, epithelial dysplasia, colon polyp
epithelial dysplasia, colon polyp, polyps in the colon: Hello Steve: As far as the pathology reports state, this polyp is benign without any kind of features suggesting of cancer. Polyps in the colon carry an overall 1% risk of cancer. Of all the polyps of colon the type you have is - Adenoma (tubulovillous...

Pathology: cbc results, wbc count, neutrophil counts
wbc count, neutrophil counts, cbc results: Hello Amy: The WBC count is mildly elevated and is seen in stress / exercise / infections etc. If you are other wise fine...physiological reason...exercise before the test...even a walk around the block / climbing stairs etc can raise the counts. ...

Pathology: Frequent infections, chest x ray, stomach noises
chest x ray, stomach noises, enlarged lymph nodes: Hello, From your blood tests and symptoms, there is no argument for immunodeficiency or leukemia at this stage. In fact, your results are within normal limits and it is still possible that these infections are just a coincidence. I suggest to complete your...

Pathology: Non-Caseating Granulomas, caseating granuloma, wikipedia
Pathology: Non-Caseating Granulomas, caseating granuloma, wikipedia, many things

Pathology: Swollen Supra-clavicular Lymph Node, lyme disease, lyme
Pathology: Swollen Supra-clavicular Lymph Node, lyme disease, lyme, doctors

Pathology: High and Low Levels on Lab Reports, dynamic values, lab tests
dynamic values, lab tests, reagents: Hello Ashley: Ideally all lab tests should be done in one lab to maintain the continuity as there may be some variation in equipment and reagents used, which can lead to variation in result. Having said that in this particular case the CBC (complete...

Pathology: infection, absolute lymphocytes, mild exertion
absolute lymphocytes, mild exertion, wbc count: Hello Tavia: You just have a mildly elevated white blood cell count. This can be because of anxiety , stress, mild exertion even like walking a block just before the test. A mild infection like sore throat can also raise the WBC count. Other than that...

Pathology: Mantoux TB skin test re-administered, tb skin test, latent tb
tb skin test, latent tb, infectious tb: Hello Bruce: There is variation in recommendation for Mantoux testing in various countries for people who have had BCG vaccination. In United States Mantoux (tuberculin) testing is not contraindicated in people with BCG vaccination (as it is in for...

Pathology: Mild lymph nodes enlargement, needle biopsy, sinus problems
needle biopsy, sinus problems, upper throat: Hello George: Lymph nodes are tiny centers in the body which respond to various stimuli and produce cells which fight against infection and other insults to the body. Since you had herpes infection followed by sore throat and sinusitis all these can...

Pathology: Non-Caseating Granulomas, lumps in breasts, ctscan
lumps in breasts, ctscan, lymphnodes: Hello Jayne: Recurrence of lumps and new lumps appearing is something which should be investigated further. Also if you do not respond to medication its best to get another opinion and rule out any other diagnosis. Since Sarcoidosis is always a diagnosis...

Pathology: What do the numbers mean?, sedimentation rate, final diagnosis
sedimentation rate, final diagnosis, cbc results: Hello BT: Please do not panic the CBC results are within normal range. The numbers do not suggest cancer. Moreover, cancer of blood (leukemia) is diagnosed based on morphology the appearance of cells and not based on the count of cells. Your granddaughter...

Pathology: Pediatric Melanoma pathology results, flat lesion, pediatricion
flat lesion, pediatricion, pathology service: Hello Allison: It is very difficult for me to comment on the nature of the lesion without having seen it. It is also not wise to speculate about what it can be; as a wide range of benign and other pigmented lesion can be present in childhood. the reporting...

Pathology: how read ebv test results, acute infection, high titers
acute infection, high titers, antibody: Hello Terri: In EBV serology the titers are high initially and then gradually fall. Each lab may choose a different method of analysis and reporting but the titers are always expressed as a ratio. The important thing to note is that in acute infection...

Pathology: Spindle Cell Neoplasm, spindle cell neoplasm, body granuloma
spindle cell neoplasm, body granuloma, punch biopsy: Hello Jerry: Neurofibroma and neuroma are benign tumors of the peripheral nerves. These are composed of spindle shaped cells. The cell of origin or their cause of occurrence is not known. Neurofibromas require complete excision. Even if few cells are...

Pathology: Swollen Supra-clavicular Lymph Node, swollen lymph node, ear nose and throat specialist
swollen lymph node, ear nose and throat specialist, lymph node enlargement: Hi: There are many different studies which indicate how often the FNA was false negative or inconclusive, but this is only with reference to the given set of data analyzed. This is highly technique dependent test and if the person doing it is unskilled...

Pathology: thyroid biopsy, fine needle aspiration, thyroid biopsy
fine needle aspiration, thyroid biopsy, thyroid nodules: Hello Sydney: I cannot comment on the quality of reporting since I have not seen the slides of your FNA. In general if the aspirate from thyroid shows follicles (collections of cells in a circle with a cavity in the center) and along with other criteria...

Pathology: thyroid cancer, thyroid hormone production, thyroid cancer
thyroid hormone production, thyroid cancer, gland cells: Hello Shrikant: The report basically says that the entire thyroid gland was removed - right and left lobe as well as the nodule. she has been diagnosed with hashimotos thyroiditis with papillary hyperplasia & carcinoma with follicular variant ...

Pathology: thyroid pathology, thyroid pathology, thyroid cells
thyroid pathology, thyroid cells, thyroid hormones: Hello Cheri: Your report indicates that thyroid cells arranged in shape of follicles are seen and they contain colloid (material secreted by these cells which helps produce thyroid hormones) Calcium deposits in thyroid can be seen in both benign lesions...

Pathology: ADENOMATOUS POLYP, surgical pathology report, grade dysplasia
surgical pathology report, grade dysplasia, cancer risk: Hello Olive: An adenoma is type of polyp which is benign. However it has the potential to turn into cancer. The risk of progression to carcinoma is related to both the size and the appearance of the adenoma. Adenomas that are greater than 1 cm, contain...

Pathology: abnormal bloodwork CBC extremely ill, low mchc, high anion gap
low mchc, high anion gap, squamous epithelial cells: Hello Marie: Thanks for all the detailed reports. I will try and help as much as I can. A rheumatologist is be best to diagnose / rule out all the diseases you have mentioned. These will however have to evaluated again if they are negative at present...

Pathology: CBC with diff results, platelet disorders, hematologist
platelet disorders, hematologist, platelet function: Hello Deborah: The platelets are reduced but on their own they are not diagnostic of any specific disease. The hematologist will order some more tests...maybe a bone marrow exam / platelet function tests etc to come to some form of diagnosis Platelet...

Pathology: CBC interpretation, bone marrow biopsy, low neutrophils
bone marrow biopsy, low neutrophils, cbc results: Hello Dave: Yes, the only out of range value in the CBC is the lymphocyte count. however the total white blood cell count (WBC) is within normal range and even the platelets are adequate. If she did have a mild flu or some other chronic infection elevated...

Pathology: Dr.Dahiya I have questions regarding next steps with what tests should be run following this lab work, dahiya, unforeseen circumstances
dahiya, unforeseen circumstances, amylase: Hello Christine: I apologize for the delay in answering, due to unforeseen circumstances I was unable to attend to your question. yes it is possible that you may have had a bout of pancreatitis. However since there are no baseline (first time around)...

Pathology: IgM and IgG Antibody Specific to HSV 1 & 2, herpes simplex type 1, phenomonon
herpes simplex type 1, phenomonon, initial levels: Hello Mark: This is unusual. Once a virus infects the body the IgG persist lifelong...the titer may drop from initial levels but it does remain detectable. So the other option in your case is that....It was a false positive or a lab error. ...

Pathology: Intrepretation Needed, hemosiderin deposition, mucosal tissue
hemosiderin deposition, mucosal tissue, adenomatous polyp: Hello Dee: I apologize for the delay in answering, due to unforeseen circumstances I was unable to attend to your question. The size of the node is 0.7 cm and there is a suggestion that some cancer cells may have spread outside the node (extra nodal...

Pathology: Low MPV, High WBC, RBC, & Hgb, unforeseen circumstances, old blood
unforeseen circumstances, old blood, wbc: Hello Ryan: I apologize for the delay in answering, due to unforeseen circumstances I was unable to attend to your question. Your results are normal and there is no connection to leukemia. You should go with the range provided in the lab report as these...

Pathology: MDS?, interstitial pneumonitis, white cells
interstitial pneumonitis, white cells, cellularity: Hi again: I am not sure that MDS waxes or wanes, but remission is achieved upon treatment and duration of the remission varies with each individual. Anemia is the persistent problem and as white cells are destroyed you may be prone to infections. ...

Pathology: nasalpharangeal squamous cell cancer, virus epstein barr, squamous cell cancer
virus epstein barr, squamous cell cancer, epstein barr virus: Hello Nancy: EBV is the name of a virus - Epstein Barr Virus and these two causes which I mentioned earlier are thought to cause nasopharyngeal cancer in some people and not all. As for any other cancer the exact cause for nasopharyngeal cancer is not...

Pathology: Pathology report, punch biopsy, papillary dermis
punch biopsy, papillary dermis, distinct border: Hello Tammy: I apologize for the delay in answering, due to unforeseen circumstances I was unable to attend to your question. It is difficult to comment on what the diagnosis is unless one sees the slide. However going by the information in the report...

Pathology: psa, minimal variation, unforeseen circumstances
minimal variation, unforeseen circumstances, prostate cancer: Hello Henry: I apologize for the delay in answering, due to unforeseen circumstances I was unable to attend to your question. PSA below 4 ng is considered normal. Every time you get tested there will be a minimal variation. 0.8 is absolutely normal...

Pathology: sir plz tells meaning of severe normocytic normochromic anemia blood picture with atypical cells, normocytic normochromic anemia, atypical cells
normocytic normochromic anemia, atypical cells, differential count: Hello Surya: The report indicates that your son is severely anemic with presence of abnormal cells. The next step with such a report is to have a bone marrow exam to find the cause for anemia and the abnormal cells. You may consult a hematologist for...

Pathology: Thyroid FNA, needle aspiration biopsy, fine needle aspiration
needle aspiration biopsy, fine needle aspiration, fine needle aspiration biopsy: Hello Kimberly: As far as I am aware it is a 10% chance based on some studies. The statistics are always for a wide range of population, when it comes to an individual I do not like to commit to a specific percentage. I do not also want to increase your...

Pathology: Thyroid Mass, thyroid cells, thyroid mass
thyroid cells, thyroid mass, thyroid tissue: Hello Elisa: I apologize for the delay in answering, due to unforeseen circumstances I was unable to attend to your question. The cytology report describes presence of colloid which is the material produced by thyroid cells. Follicular cells are the...

Pathology: thyroid FNA results, thyroid hormone levels, hurthle cell
thyroid hormone levels, hurthle cell, thyroid cells: Hello Leigh: Hurthle cell change is seen in the thyroid cells in some benign conditions. Rarely it is a part of cancer. By what you have mentioned above I do not see any mention of abnormal cells or changes suggesting cancer in your report. At this point...

Pathology: WBC count, blood cell count, white blood cell
blood cell count, white blood cell, pregnancy complications: Hello S: In pregnancy there is a mild increase in white blood cell count (WBC) and is called physiological leukocytosis. If you do not have any associated symptoms like fever, sore throat, cough etc and are other wise healthy this is not of concern. If...

Pathology: wbc 27000, mild sore throat, types of antibiotics
mild sore throat, types of antibiotics, blood cell count: Hello Michael: The commonest cause of elevation in the white blood cell count is an infection. Even a mild sore throat or cold can lead to an increase in WBC. Any trauma, injury, stress anxiety etc also cause rise in the WBC. If the wbc count reverted...

Pathology: abnormal blood test results, atypical lymphocytes, blood test results
atypical lymphocytes, blood test results, atypical lymphs: Hello Diana: All the above results are within normal range. The chloride is just at the upper limit. Lymphocytes are a type of blood cells and if atypical they are neither normal nor do they fit clearly into cancer cells. Such cells can be seen in infections...

Pathology: about blood borne diseases, blood borne diseases, blood borne pathogens
blood borne diseases, blood borne pathogens, blood vessels: Hi Rinku: One should never share any needles. There is always a risk of infection as the needle is no longer sterile. and of course blood borne pathogens can be transferred if the first person had any specific pathogen. You may or may not get any infection...

Pathology: colon and liver, focal nodular hyperplasia, tumor marker tests
focal nodular hyperplasia, tumor marker tests, moderate dysplasia: Hi: I am not an expert on MRI images so cannot say what the MRI findings are I can only comment on the FNA report. Only a person who has seen the original slides can correlate those findings by talking with the radiologist. Minor variations in size measurement...

Pathology: PSA Tests, free psa, elica
Pathology: PSA Tests, free psa, elica, roche

Pathology: liver CT scan, liver enzyme tests, liver blood tests
liver enzyme tests, liver blood tests, function of liver: Hello Kevin: A radiologist will be better able to answer your question as to what is the best modality to image the liver. Blood tests for liver enzymes provide information about the function of liver. If they are within normal range the liver is functioning...

Pathology: I need detailed explanation, red blood cells, atypical lymphocytes
red blood cells, atypical lymphocytes, hemoglobin content: Hi Angela: Normocytic normochromic RBC. Occasional normocytic hypochromic cells. Occasional acanthocytes and schizocytes. This describes your red blood cells . Majority are normal in shape, size (normocytic) and amount of staining (because of hemoglobin...

Pathology: Pathology, cytologic atypia, epidermis dermis
cytologic atypia, epidermis dermis, dermis and epidermis: Hello Tony: A benign nevus or mole can be located in the epidermis, dermis or at the junction of dermis and epidermis. When it involves both these layers of skin it is classified as a compound Nevus. Your diagnosis is Compound Dysplastic Nevus. The...

Pathology: PSA Tests, benign prostate enlargement, psa free
benign prostate enlargement, psa free, free psa: Hello Ram: PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/ml are considered borderline. This increases the chances of cancer, however does not indicate that you have cancer as mild elevations are normal with age / benign prostate enlargement / prostate infection etc. ...

Pathology: spindle cell neoplasm/whorls, spindle cell neoplasm, nodular fasciitis
spindle cell neoplasm, nodular fasciitis, immunohistochemical stains: Hello Traci: Your lesion has been diagnosed as nodular fasciitis. first of all this is a benign lesion and not cancer. It grows rapidly and is thus worrisome to the patient. Most commonly it arises on the forearm, but can involve other body areas also....

Pathology: URGENT QUERY, pleomorphic nuclei, irregular clusters
pleomorphic nuclei, irregular clusters, atypical cells: Hello Isha: The report indicates that cells seen are atypical cells. These cells are neither normal not clear cut cancer cells. However this raises suspicion for cancer. A repeat FNA or needle biopsy is required to rule out cancer. If repeat FNA is not...

Pathology: atypical lymphocytes, atypical lymphocytes, recurrent fever
atypical lymphocytes, recurrent fever, wbc count: Hello: The counts are not essentially worrisome. Few atypical lymphocytes can appear in viral or some bacterial infection as well as after vaccination. Once the fever settles and the child is healthy, the counts should revert to normal. Persistence...

Pathology: Bone Marrow Biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, red blood cells
bone marrow biopsy, red blood cells, ringed sideroblasts: Hi: This is good news. There is no cytogenetic abnormality and I assume that all the antibodies are negative. This indicates there is no leukemia (blood cancer) However, you still have myelodysplastic syndrome with refractory and your physician will...

Pathology: Bone Marrow Desease??, tongue soreness, cause of anemia
tongue soreness, cause of anemia, low blood pressure: Hello Carmen: A Hb of 7 is too low for the body to function normally. It explains your symptoms. Please have yourself evaluated. A bone marrow exam and other tests are required to ascertain the cause of anemia. Appropriate treatment can then be starte...

Pathology: CBC, thyroglobulin ab, god send
thyroglobulin ab, god send, cbcs: Hi Beth: I do not think that feeling awful should be accepted as the norm. Further evaluation in your case is required. First of all I would not worry about the WBC and RBC levels. These are not clinically significant. This can be a minor variation or...

Pathology: Globulins urine, routine lab tests, fever heat
routine lab tests, fever heat, globulins: Hello Tracey: Minute amounts of protein are normal in urine. Most tests do not detect this amount. However detectable amount of protein (with routine lab tests) is present temporarily in urine in physiological conditions like * Cold exposure ...

Pathology: haemayology, red blood cells, iron binding capacity
red blood cells, iron binding capacity, white blood cells: Hello: I apologize for the delay in answering this question. Your report indicates that you have anemia - dimorphic type. Which means that the red blood cells show two types of morphology (appearance). This is attributed to two cause of anemia...most...

Pathology: Lymphocytes, absolute lymphocytes, lymphocyte count
absolute lymphocytes, lymphocyte count, viral disease: Hello: The lymphocyte count has to be evaluated along with any signs and symptoms you may have. A viral disease, vaccination etc can temporarily raise lymphocyte count. A chronic condition or even evolving lymphyocytic dosorders like leukemia may elevate...

Pathology: lymph node pathology, sinus histiocytosis, non hodgkin lymphoma
sinus histiocytosis, non hodgkin lymphoma, kappa lambda: Hello Christina: The first report basically rules out presence of any type of cancer within the lymph node. The lymph node is reactive A reactive node is one which is responding to a stimulus...like infection / trauma or cancer by enlarging and producing...

Pathology: Melanoma Pathology Report, superficial spreading melanoma, free margins
superficial spreading melanoma, free margins, perineural invasion: Hello Steve: Going by the measurement provided the biopsy is adequate. As the name implies a superficially spreading melanoma spreads horizontally more on the surface and is not very deep. Yours was just .37 mm deep and a wide excision of .6 covers the...

Pathology: Basal Cell Carcinoma; Clark Nevus, superficial basal cell carcinoma, compound nevus mole
superficial basal cell carcinoma, compound nevus mole, basal cell carcinoma: Hello Lew: There are two diagnoses provide: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a type of skin cancer and is one of the commonest cancers seen on sun exposed areas of the skin. Superficial Basal cell carcinoma is a type of BCC which occurs on the trunk and...

Pathology: Bladder Cancer Biopsy, papillary urothelial carcinoma, cancer biopsy
papillary urothelial carcinoma, cancer biopsy, biopsy results: Hello Nina: Papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade malignancy, is definitely cancer. However, it is the type which rarely spreads to other sites. If completely resected this has an excellent prognosis (10 year survival 95% or more) There are no features...

Pathology: Blood Flow Cytometry, myeloid lineage, myeloid cells
myeloid lineage, myeloid cells, nk cells: Hello Irina: CD13 and CD33 are expressed by cells of myeloid lineage and CD33 is also expressed on monocytes (specific) therefore you have 60% of cells showing expression of these antigens. Overall the flow cytometry report does not show anything abnormal...

Pathology: biopsy results, foamy macrophages, giant cells
foamy macrophages, giant cells, biopsy results: Hi Annette: Most likely this is a benign lesion based on the information provided. There seems to be component of fat necrosis (maybe as a result of trauma) Other than that some of the cells of the ducts are lined by cells having secretory epithelium. ...

Pathology: Cellular dermatofibroma, breast skin., dermatofibroma, breast skin
dermatofibroma, breast skin, breats: Hello Maria: Dermatofibroma is a benign lesion of skin and one of the more common ones. Cellular (increased number of cells) dermatofibroma is considered by some studies as malignant. CD34 marker is positive in DFSP a lesion with malignant potential...

Pathology: Cholestrol, routine diet, cholesterol test
routine diet, cholesterol test, eating fruits: Hello: Cholesterol can be high in otherwise healthy people. The conditions for testing are fasting minimum 12 hours prior to test and the week before you should be on your normal routine diet (not extremes - partying or prolonged fasting) Extreme diet prior...

Pathology: cellular dermatofibroma, malignant lesion, biopsy report
malignant lesion, biopsy report, breast skin: Hi: I do not recall saying that there were only two cases of cellular dermatofibroma with metastases. I did mention that Cellular (increased number of cells) dermatofibroma is considered by some studies as malignant. Others consider this as a benign...

Pathology: Gram Stain test results, squamous epithelial cells, gram stain test
squamous epithelial cells, gram stain test, white blood cells: John: The report indicates you had a bacterial infection with gram positive bacteria. These are bacteria which stain violet when stained using Gram Stain. Cocci are round bacteria and the commonest are staphylococcus and streptococcus The Rods are rod...

Pathology: Immature Granulocytes, immature cells, granulocytes
immature cells, granulocytes, minimal level: Hi Cindy: This just indicates you have a very minimal level of immature granulocytes. This is a good thing as normal healthy individuals should not have immature cells in the circulating blood. If there is severe infection / cancer etc these increase...

Pathology: Inquiry, sore neck glands, distended abdomen
sore neck glands, distended abdomen, wbc esterase: Hello Lisa: WBC esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells in urine. If present in large numbers (after ruling out contamination) it indicates urinary tract infection. I would recommend that you consult and infectious diseases specialist. The...

Pathology: Lumbar puncture results, other neurological diseases, high lymphocytes
other neurological diseases, high lymphocytes, diagnosing multiple sclerosis: Hello Sarah: Lumbar puncture and examination of the spinal fluid is used for diagnosing multiple sclerosis and other neurological diseases. If IgG oligoclonal band is present that seals the diagnosis. Lymphocytes are increased in 30-35% cases. In...

Pathology: lab reports regarding CFS, chronic lyme disease, infectious disease specialist
chronic lyme disease, infectious disease specialist, yeast overgrowth: Hello Diana: I would recommend consulting an infectious disease specialist, for appropriate treatment. Candida is so ubiquitous that it is not diagnosed by serology as 80-85% people are positive for this. EBV serology indicates that the infection is...

Pathology: non-gyn cytology report, chronic thyroiditis, gyn cytology
chronic thyroiditis, gyn cytology, thyroid surgeon: Hello Toni: You can definitely ask for a second opinion. As per the report details provided above there are some atypical cells seen ...Such cells are neither normal nor clear cut cancer cells. They have features in between. Also they are follicular cells...cells...

Pathology: spindle cell neoplasm, spindle cell neoplasm, excision biopsy
spindle cell neoplasm, excision biopsy, biopsy report: Hello Maria: The opinion - Spindle cell neoplasm is kind of incomplete. This only tells that the growth is composed of cells whihc are spindle shaped. Usually such neoplasms arise from soft tissue and may be benign or malignant. This needs further evaluation...you...

Pathology: spindle cell neoplasm
Hello Fiona: Spindle cell neoplasm is a broad category. It includes all types of lesions which have spindle shaped cells (elongated cell with pointed to round ends) This may includes lesions with nerve cell or muscle cell origin. Further tests are required...

Pathology: Abnormal Mole, fungal nails, questions on my mind
fungal nails, questions on my mind, diagnostic report: Hello Susan: Your original report mentioned that the surface of the mole is inflamed. However presence of fungal elements is not noted. If the pathologists were aware of your athletes foot / fungal nails they would have looked for fungus in the biopsy....

Pathology: Blood/Urine Nutrient Deficiency Tests, vitamins minerals, b vitamins
vitamins minerals, b vitamins, old mom: Hello Mike; I am not sure what tests have been performed on your mothers blood sample. If the doctors suspect vitamin deficiency then there are specific tests to measure these accurately. Magnesium can also be measured in blood. These have to be specifically...

Pathology: blood results, hemoglobin hematocrit, uric acid level
hemoglobin hematocrit, uric acid level, uric acid levels: Hello Cris: These test are not diagnostic for leukemia although if WBC count, differential , platelet count hemoglobin are normal there is no suspicion for leukemia. All ranges of blood tests are set as an average of values taken from healthy individual....

Pathology: blood test results, hi john, grans
hi john, grans, abnormality: Hi John: The immature granulocytes are minimally elevated and do not indicate any serious abnormality. If you have or had in recent past any infection / sore throat / fever etc, this would explain the minimal elevation. If you have the test repeated...

Pathology: Coagulation - Zn:Cu - ERC and HgB, red blood cells, coagulation profile
red blood cells, coagulation profile, hgb: Hello Sue: The coagulation profile shows results within the normal range so there should not be a problem. You do not have to do anything additional to change these values. Hgb is assessed as an average of the red blood cells counted. It does not reflect...

Pathology: cellular dermatofibroma, malignant lesion, biopsy report
malignant lesion, biopsy report, breast skin: Hi: I do not recall saying that there were only two cases of cellular dermatofibroma with metastases. I did mention that Cellular (increased number of cells) dermatofibroma is considered by some studies as malignant. Others consider this as a benign...

Pathology: complete blood count, red blood cells, flight of stairs
red blood cells, flight of stairs, physical stress: Hi Tina: All the complete blood count the result ranges are arrived at by averaging the values obtained from blood of normal healthy set of people in a given population. Since these are average values some people will always fall outside the range. ...

Pathology: Handling and identification of biopsies, squamous cell carcinoma, direct laryngoscopy
squamous cell carcinoma, direct laryngoscopy, neck lymph node: Hello John: This is an unusual issue. Before a biopsy leaves the site, it should be properly labeled. In this case if your physicians office did not send any other unlabeled similar site biopsy, then the unnamed samples will be yours. It is extremely...

Pathology: lymphoma?, atypical lymphocytes, h pylori
atypical lymphocytes, h pylori, adequate treatment: Hello Kathy: Iron deficiency leads to anemia and yo will feel tired / dizzy etc . Adequate treatment should be initiated to replenish the iron and correct the anemia. Presence of atypical lymphocytes alone does not reflect diagnosis of Lymphoma. Further...

Pathology: Pathology Results, bile duct obstruction, blood pathology
bile duct obstruction, blood pathology, types of anemia: Hello Megan: I apologize for the delay in answering this question. Gamma GT is usually done along with ALT and ALP if all are elevated this indicates liver disease or bile duct obstruction. Uric acid levels are tested when a person has joint pains (arthritis)...

Pathology: swelling thyroid, excision biopsy, follicular neoplasm
excision biopsy, follicular neoplasm, thyroid specialist: Hello Manu: The report gives the interpretation: Follicular neoplasm On FNAC the cells are arranged in shape of follicles. This appearance is common to both benign and malignant follicular tumors. Distinction between these two is possible after examining...

Pathology: Thyroidectomy Pathology Results, multi nodular goiter, hurthle cell metaplasia
multi nodular goiter, hurthle cell metaplasia, granular cytoplasm: Hello Denise: The report described above indicates a benign lesion - enlargement of thyroid due to increase in number of cells. These get grouped together to form nodules in goiter. Metaplasia is irreversible change of one type of cell into another...

Pathology: Total Thyroidectomy, thyroid hormone production, thyroid function tests
thyroid hormone production, thyroid function tests, nodular goiter: Hello Paula: Colloid nodular goiter is a condition which occurs in response to decreased production of thyroid hormones. The gland compensates by enlarging and mild deficiency is overcome. Occasionally there is too much production of thyroid hormone...

Pathology: Understanding report, needle aspiration biopsy, thyroid papillary carcinoma
needle aspiration biopsy, thyroid papillary carcinoma, fine needle aspiration: Hello Again: There is no way of predicting 100% that any lesion in the body cannot turn into something else. For that reason follow up is advised. You could have thyroid function tests to find out hormone levels. If they are raised or decreased then this...

Pathology: Very worried, pathologist, pathology
pathologist, pathology, profession: Hi: Like any profession demand for Pathologist can also vary. However it is always possible to get a job. For pathology you will have to graduate in medicine and after that do a 3-4 year residency in pathology. In this you could also sub specialize...

Pathology: abnormal labs, low hemoglobin, mild anemia
low hemoglobin, mild anemia, hello mary: Hello Mary: If you are otherwise healthy and this was a routine check up then WBC of 10.1 is not significant. However you do have low hemoglobin so could have mild anemia. Your physician can based on physical exam and other symptoms / tests decide on type...

Pathology: atypical granular cell tumor path report, granular cell tumor, soft tissue tumor
granular cell tumor, soft tissue tumor, spindle cell: Hello Jennifer: Granular cell tumor is a benign tumor of nerve cell origin (confirmed by S-100 immuno stain positivity). If any three of the following features are present this is labeled as malignant - Vascular invasion, necrosis, mitosis more than 2 per...

Pathology: CBC w/ Differential, red blood cells, red blood cell
red blood cells, red blood cell, red cell distribution width: Hi Lee: RDW refers to the red cell distribution width...in other words it is an indirect measure of the average red blood cell size. If there is no associated decrease in hemoglobin and red blood cells there is no indication of anemia The immature granulocytes...

Pathology: compound nevus formation, nodular lesion, upper dermis
nodular lesion, upper dermis, malignant lesion: Hello Rosemary: It is understandable that you will question such a report given your history of melanoma. How soon or late a lesion develops is not helpful in a definitive diagnosis. The description provided fits a compound nevus. You may have the stained...

Pathology: Elevated Immature Granulocytes, immature cells, myelocytes
immature cells, myelocytes, granulocytes: Hello James: If you have any minor infection - sore throat cough etc you can get some immature cells in the peripheral blood. Also the ranges for all the parameters are an average of the values of a set of normal population. There are always outliers. This...

Pathology: Flow cytomery panel, bone marrow biopsy, lambda light chains
bone marrow biopsy, lambda light chains, bone marrow biopsy results: Hello Sandy: I am not an expert on flow cytometer analysis. As far as I can see there is no obvious abnormality. The report is not indicative of leukemia. It is possible the bone marrow disease is still in the process of evolution. The hematologist...

Pathology: INMATURE GRANULOCYTES, bone marrow aspirate, minimal increase
bone marrow aspirate, minimal increase, white cell count: Hi Edward: As long as there are no associated symptoms of infection - cold , cough, fever etc. A minimal increase in immature granulocytes is not significant. The test an be repeated in 2-3 months time and this may revert to normal levels. If these increase...

Pathology: inmature granulocytes, drs office, blood values
drs office, blood values, minimal increase: Hello Pam: Immature granulocytes are release most commonly when a person has some form of infection. These should disappear in good health. If all other parameters were normal, this minimal increase is not worrisome. A repeat in 2-3 months time is a good...

Pathology: Lymphoma/Cat Scratch Disease, swollen lymph node, cat scratch disease
swollen lymph node, cat scratch disease, differential diagnosis: Hello Jenn France: A final diagnosis is submitted as a written report after all relevant exams and tests are done. At times a surgeon may call up and receive a preliminary report. This initial report is revised based on any pending special stains or immunohistochemical...

Pathology: Path report, punch biopsy, immunohistochemical stains
punch biopsy, immunohistochemical stains, lymphoid cells: Hi Rhonda: The report provided indicates that the lymphoid infiltrate is reactive in nature - could be a reaction to any trauma / foreign body / allergy etc. The immune markers used also indicate normal benign nature of lymphoid cells. The only abnormality...

Pathology: Spindle Cell Neoplasm, Classification Pending, spindle cell carcinoma, spindle cell neoplasm
spindle cell carcinoma, spindle cell neoplasm, needle biopsy: Hello Suzette: A cyst can grow fast. However if this were a cyst some quantity of fluid should have been drained from the cyst. It is likely the cyst is either more solid or is not large enough. Diagnosis on needle biopsy is based on the cells aspirated...

Pathology: Suspected Sigmoid Colon Cancer, biopsy report, inflammatory lesion
biopsy report, inflammatory lesion, plasma cells: Hello: The biopsy report just shows inflammation and no evidence of cancer. Having said that this does not mean there is no cancer. It is possible that the correct are of growth was not biopsied. If the surgeon is absolutely certain that the growth only...

Pathology: Translation of Report, irregular contours, biopsy report
irregular contours, biopsy report, clinical correlation: Hi Again: Here is the translation: urothelial cells are present mostly as single cells, Cells lining the bladder, ureter or urethra lining are urothelial cells. If seen as single cells then these have been naturally shed. Dense cytoplasm, hyperchromatic...

Pathology: thyroid cancer results, papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, carcinoma of the thyroid
papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, carcinoma of the thyroid, parathyroid glands: Hello Gary: Papillary cancer of the thyroid is the commonest cancer in this organ. If the cancer nodule is small and confined to the thyroid treatment is removal of nodule or the thyroid. In your case the cancer is large in size (even though size is...

Pathology: Uterine pathology, uterine polyp, pathology report
uterine polyp, pathology report, final diagnosis: Hi Ann: The final diagnosis just mentions that it is a uterine polyp with the lining similar to secretory endometrium. If there were any abnormal features or suspicion of cancer it should have been mentioned in the report and the description of the report....

Pathology: Blood test results, congenital heart disease, red blood cells
congenital heart disease, red blood cells, altitude regions: Hello Nancy: Elevated hemoglobin are seen in many conditions...like congenital heart disease. People living in high altitude regions, pressure on lungs, excessive production of red blood cells due to the stimulation by erythropoietin, polycythemia vera....

Pathology: breast biospy, apocrine metaplasia, fibrocystic changes
apocrine metaplasia, fibrocystic changes, breast biospy: Hello Cinda: As for now there isn t anything to worry about. The changes in your biopsy are benign and seen in most women. as long as the hyperplasia is not atypical these are not considered precursors to cancer. However because of positive family...

Pathology: Low Lymphocytes, peripheral blood smear, low lymphocytes
peripheral blood smear, low lymphocytes, white blood count: Hi Jill: Leukemia is not diagnosed based on count of lymphocytes alone. If the lymphocytes are extremely low or high a peripheral blood smear and bone marrow exam is required to asses the morphology and look for immature cells. Other tests like flow...

Pathology: mole biopsy, irregular margins, narrow margins
irregular margins, narrow margins, pathology report: Hello Pandora: The mole is reported as mildly dysplastic melanocytic nevus. This in simple terms means that the features are not of clearly normal mole nor they are outright cancer. It is in between. These can lead to cancer, but then again not always....

Pathology: Need advice on surgical excision, stereotactic core biopsy, atypical hyperplasia
stereotactic core biopsy, atypical hyperplasia, surgical excision: Hi It is a good idea to have the slides reviewed. If the diagnosis is same it resolves your issue, however if it s a different opinion you will still have a dilemma. Hyperplasia is increase in number of cells. In a duct of breast this would be increase...

Pathology: pathology, atypical lymphocyte, atypical lymphocytes
atypical lymphocyte, atypical lymphocytes, pathology lab: Hello Anil: Your hemoglobin is within normal range. Mild increase in eosinophils is seen in people who have allergy or worm infection. However it is significant if thge absolute count is increased. Occasional atypical lymphocyte is not of concern. essentially...

Pathology: What is the probable cause, red blood cells, hemoglobin level
red blood cells, hemoglobin level, blood cell count: Hello: First the neutrophil and lymphocytes as well as total white blood cell count does not indicate Leukemia. The hemoglobin level of 8.0 itself is low for an adult male. The rapid drop is significant. Probable cause can be 1)bleeding somewhere...

Pathology: Blood Test, red blood count, rbc
red blood count, rbc, blood test: Jean: The RBC count is minimally raised above the upper limit. These values are dynamic and vary every time the test is run. If you are otherwise healthy then this is not worrisome. You can have a repeat test after few weeks to see if there is further elevation...

Pathology: Blood test results, blood test results, vitamin b12 injection
blood test results, vitamin b12 injection, kidney function: Hello Christine: Vit B12 deficiency can cause one to feel tired, have numbness and tingling sensation in the legs. However if you have increased frequency of passing urine then you need evaluation of urine / blood tests to rule out diabetes or other kidney...

Pathology: bloodwork, red blood cells, atypical lymphocytes
red blood cells, atypical lymphocytes, infectious mononucleosis: Hi Lisa: High fever diarrhea etc point towards an acute process most likely an infection. In such cases there is an increase in blood cells as they are the first line of defense against infections etc. Heterophile antibody reacts with proteins from other...

Pathology: CBC w/ diff results, tsh level, relative lymphocytosis
tsh level, relative lymphocytosis, morphology of cells: Hello Julie: Hypothyroidsism explains your symptoms and you would be feeling better after starting synthroid. The rise is lymphocytes needs further evaluation if the absolute lymphocyte count is high, I would advise a blood smear examination and or bonemarrow...

Pathology: candida spp & Ca, infectious disease specialist, radiation treatment
infectious disease specialist, radiation treatment, anti fungal drugs: Hello Nitin I am not an expert in this area. I only interpret tests and provide a diagnosis if required. You should address this question to an ID (infectious disease) specialist. Dressing is required for a wound in addition appropriate treatmnet with...

Pathology: cervical cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, invasive squamous cell carcinoma
squamous cell carcinoma, invasive squamous cell carcinoma, cancer question: Hi The two markers - synaptophysin and TTF are negative...that is are not present in th tumor ruling out neuroendocrine or thyroid origin. Cytokeratin 5/6 is positive....this means this marker has identified cytokeratin in the tumor...hence the cancer...

Pathology: colon, transverse, polypectomy, invasive adenocarcinoma, pathology report
invasive adenocarcinoma, pathology report, large intestine: Hello Linda: From the report provided it seems two polyps (overgrowth of inner lining of the intestine)were removed from two locations in the large intestine. The first one from colon, cecum is a benign polyp and does not have any abnormal changes or cancer....

Pathology: Ferritin, Serum Lab results, ferritin serum, numeric test
ferritin serum, numeric test, units of measurements: Hello Karen; Reference values are dependent on many factors, including patient age, gender, sample population, and test method, and numeric test results can have different meanings in different labs. The normal range of Ferritin has been different for...

Pathology: High ESR, inflammation of blood vessels, inflammation of blood
inflammation of blood vessels, inflammation of blood, low neutrophil count: Hi Sharon: ESR by itself is not a diagnostic test. It just indicates that there is some chronic or inflammatory condition present in the body. Your physician should correalte this with any symptoms you may have and order further tests to find a cause...

Pathology: high b12 and ESR levels, peripheral blood smear, smear test results
peripheral blood smear, smear test results, reactive lymphocytes: Hi Mohana The peripheral blood smear report does not indicate any abnormality. The B12 value is high and high values are seen in liver disease and leukemia. However this is not used to diagnose these conditions. The ESR is also high indicating a long...

Pathology: Lab Results, high cholesterol, hi mary
high cholesterol, hi mary, lab test: Hi Mary: All the lab results provided by you are normal except for platelet count which is mildly elevated. This could be a temporary change or there could be some other reason, However this will not cause any problem if the next values are within range....also...

Pathology: Lymphs count of blood work, clinical significance, blood work
clinical significance, blood work, lymphocytes: Hello Dela: The normal range for any parameter is arrived at as an average of a number of values of reasonably healthy normal population. Since this is an average there are bound to be people who fall out of this range. The lymphocytes count of 48 is...

Pathology: very low white blood cell count, low absolute monocytes, low absolute lymphocytes
low absolute monocytes, low absolute lymphocytes, high absolute neutrophils: Hi Dan: The counts are high and with medication the fever should come down and the elevated counts will return to normal. If thee is suspicion of leukemia. The diagnosis is not made based only on elevated counts. A peripheral blood smear and bone...

Pathology: lymph node biopsy, lymph node biopsy, rhuematologist
lymph node biopsy, rhuematologist, dendritic cells: Hello Trena Histiocytosis is a group of diverse disorders where the common factor is accumulation and infiltration of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells in the affected tissues. These cells are basically scavenger cells of the body which try to...

Pathology: MDS, peripheral blood cells, bone marrow aspirate
peripheral blood cells, bone marrow aspirate, red blood cells: Hello Brenda: Your bone marrow report concludes that the condition is Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) Myelodysplastic syndrome refers to a heterogeneous group of closely related disorders which affects the cells within the bone marrow (hematopoietic cells)...

Pathology: Path Report, muscle tendons, membrane antigen
muscle tendons, membrane antigen, sebaceous glands: Hello Laurie: I apologize for the delay in answering your question. Indeed sebaceous carcinoma is a rare tumor. This arises from sebaceous glands - glands whihc secrete oily/waxy material to lubricate the skin. The tumor can occur anywhere these glands...

Pathology: Pathology report regarding breast, fibrocystic changes, pathology report
fibrocystic changes, pathology report, malignant conditions: Gloria Most women will have fibrocystic changes in the breast...with age tough fibrous tissue develops in the breast, some of the ducts of breast dilate to form cysts. Small depositions of calcium are called ,microcalcification. These are seen in both...

Pathology: Son's blood tests, red blood cells, hemoglobin level
red blood cells, hemoglobin level, hemoglobin levels: Hi Courtney: tendency to bleed easily and difficulty in clotting has many causes. Decreased platelets / dysfunctional platelets (even though normal in count) Defect in clotting factors (proteins and they are about 12, which along with platelets help...

Pathology: thyroid FNA, thyroid cells, foamy macrophages
thyroid cells, foamy macrophages, nuclear medicine scan: Hello Amanda: An FNA can be repeated, though I doubt that it will yield more follicular cells. The material aspirated was 15ml of red cloudy watery fluid. This indicates that the lesion is at least partly cystic. The cyst contents and also the material...

Pathology: thyroid nodules, fine needle biopsy, thyroid nodules
fine needle biopsy, thyroid nodules, cervical lymphadenopathy: Hi Robert: Nodules is the thyroid even when benign can grow pretty fast. However to confirm their nature a fine needle biopsy (FNA) is required. If the radiologist suspects that the lesion is malignant would ask for an FNA. I do not want to increase...

Pathology: tlc count in blood report, blood test result, physiological response
blood test result, physiological response, healthy person: Hello Rajesh; The blood counts mentioned above are within normal range. All these values are dynamic and have a wide range as the values vary according to physiological response and need of the body. If you have counts at 4000 or 5400 or 10800 or 11000...

Pathology: Understanding Bone Marrow Biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, immunoglobulin light chains
bone marrow biopsy, immunoglobulin light chains, kappa lambda: Hello Peg: Please do not apologize for lengthy questions. the more details you provide the better I can answer your question. Let me put your anxiety to rest. There is nothing to worry about in the bone marrow report. The report looks scary with all...

Pathology: Is it 100% Thyroid Cancer?, thyroid biopsy, follicular epithelium
thyroid biopsy, follicular epithelium, intranuclear inclusions: Hi K: The features described in the FNA report are seen in papillary cancer of thyroid. You can have the slides reviewed for another opinion. The findings can be correlated with those of imaging studies. A thyroid nuclear scan will also help. Finally...

Pathology: abnormal blood test, bone marrow biopsy, low blood counts
bone marrow biopsy, low blood counts, absolute monocytes: Hello Nikole: Low blood counts are seen in many diseases like Viral infections, congenital disorders which affect the functioning of bone marrow leading to reduced production of cells, cancer, or diseases which cause destruction of bone marrow certain...

Pathology: atypical lymphocitosis, red blood count, atypical lymphocytes
red blood count, atypical lymphocytes, hypo thyroid: Hi People with Thalassemia do have lymphocytosis and are also prone to more infections. Patients with thalassemia who have had their spleen removed show marked elevations of lymphocytes. I would advise not to worry too much as this is pure speculation,...

Pathology: Blood Test, cause of anemia, 3gm
cause of anemia, 3gm, hematocrit: Hello Vince: I hope these are values for adults. The main value which is clinically significant is the hemoglobin and hematocrit. This indicates that the person is anemic. Further tests may be done to determine the cause of anemia and start appropriate...

Pathology: Blood Work, gastro intestinal tract, large intestine
gastro intestinal tract, large intestine, fap patients: Hi David: RBC 4.5, HGB 12.0, HTC 36.3, MCV 80.1 MCHC 32.9, FDW 15.1, MPV 6.5, EOS % 7.0, SEGS 72.0, LYMPHS 15.0, BASO 2.0 all are within normal range EGFR is a marker of cancer and is seen in cancers of lung and gastro intestinal tract. If you had a prior...

Pathology: Follicular Neoplasm, follicular neoplasm, sonagram
follicular neoplasm, sonagram, benign growth: Hello Tom: The protocol for a FNA diagnosis of follicular neoplasm is removal of the nodule / thyroid. This is because it is very difficult to distinguish a benign growth from cancer with a follicular pattern on FNA. The choice to followup and do nothing...

Pathology: Immature Granulocytes & Grans, bone marrow biospy, rheumatoid arthritis
Pathology: Immature Granulocytes & Grans, bone marrow biospy, rheumatoid arthritis, enbrel

Pathology: Hematopathology Report, bone marrow biopsy, cytologic atypia
bone marrow biopsy, cytologic atypia, biopsy specimen: Hi Dajam I do not understand what the question is the report basically indicates that it a normal bone marrow with extra blood artifact and crsuh artifact which could be due to the procedure itself. The only worrisome feature is a collection of lymphoid...

Pathology: Immature Granulocytes & Grans, white blood cell, granulocytes
white blood cell, granulocytes, granulocyte: Hi In normal blood tests you should not have immature granulocytes. These appear in presence of infection, trauma, excessive bleeding or cancer. A single immature granulocyte (a type of white blood cell) is not significant. The absolute count also...

Pathology: Iron Saturation Panel, iron binding capacity, iron saturation
iron binding capacity, iron saturation, total iron binding capacity tibc: Hello GS Ferritin is the protein which helps bind iron absorbed from the gut and transports to its place of utilization or keep it in storage. Iron levels (serum iron) measure iron in circulation TIBC helps asses the body s capacity to transport iron...

Pathology: Looking for answers to test results, gamma globulins, gamma globulin
gamma globulins, gamma globulin, high lymphocytes: Hi: All these tests are more of screening tests than those which provide a definite diagnosis. LDH is a test which indicates presence of acute or chronic tissue damage. Further tests for isoenzymes of LDH help determine which organ is involved. The globulin...

Pathology: Low Platlet Count, atypical lymphocytes, infectious mononucleosis
atypical lymphocytes, infectious mononucleosis, complete physical exam: Hi Melanie: Atypical lymphocytes area type of blood cells which appear in blood in various conditions Like post vaccination Viral infections Infectious mononucleosis As a precurosr of leukemia These findings will have to be corelated with a complete...

Pathology: lab results, white blood cells, lab test
white blood cells, lab test, lymphocytes: Hi Trisha: Lymph refer to a type of white blood cells. These are raised in many conditions...infections to cancer. By itself the value is not clinically significant. What this value for you signifies will depend on total number of white blood cells as...

Pathology: Mononucleosis, bikini bar, saliva
bikini bar, saliva, mucus: Hello Jackie: Mononucleosis is spread by person-to-person contact. The primary method of transmission is through saliva. A person with mono can also pass the disease by coughing or sneezing, causing small droplets of infected saliva and/or mucus to be...

Pathology: Pathologist terminology, lack of oxygen in the blood, lack of oxygen
lack of oxygen in the blood, lack of oxygen, pain killers: Hello Sally I am sorry to hear about your loss. I will try my best to explain these terms to you. Anoxia: This is lack of oxygen in the blood and thus in tissues. Lack can be due to difficulty in breathing caused by blockage in respiratory passage. Or blood...

Pathology: Pathology results, morphology of blood cells, red blood cells
morphology of blood cells, red blood cells, atypical lymphocyte: Hello Margaret: Anemia is a symptom of an underlying disease process. In simple words it is the reduced capacity of blood to carry and deliver oxygen to the body tissues. It has a number of causes....the most common is dietary or nutritional deficiency...

Pathology: what does my pathology report mean?, thyroid hormone tests, follicular adenoma
thyroid hormone tests, follicular adenoma, follicular neoplasm: Hi Hurthle cells are enlarged follicular epithelial cells. These are metabolically altered cells seen in various conditions like, adenoma, inflammation of thyroid like Hashimoto s disease, certain types of cancer etc. Atypia refers to cells which are...

Pathology: psa testing using the siemens chemiluminescent method, sensitive assays, psa levels
sensitive assays, psa levels, chemiluminescence assay: Hi Bill: It depends on the generation of the assay The first-generation assays had lower limits of PSA detection of 0.2 ng/mL. The second-generation assays have detection limits of lower than 0.1 ng/mL. The third-generation ultra sensitive assays can detect...

Pathology: Rubella titres?, rubella antibodies, rubella igg
rubella antibodies, rubella igg, antibody level: Hi Ellen: I assume that this is for Rubella IgG. These levels would indicate current or past exposure to rubella or vaccination your obstetrician should evaluate theses values in light of you being pregnant and having all the signs and symptoms you mentioned....

Pathology: routine blood word results, rdw blood, minimal variation
rdw blood, minimal variation, cbc results: Hi Karen: The CBC range is set by taking an average of values from a given normal population. Since this is a range and an average some people are bound to fall outside the range. If you are in good health and have no signs and symptoms of disease,...

Pathology: abnormal pap smear result, atypical squamous cells, abnormal pap smear
atypical squamous cells, abnormal pap smear, human papilloma virus: Hi Casie: Atypical cells are those which are neither completely normal nor full blown cancer cells. They have some abnormal features due to infection / inflammation etc. HPV - Human papilloma virus. This infection can cause changes in cells of cervix....

Pathology: blood, thalassemia trait, mild anemia
thalassemia trait, mild anemia, testing and counseling: Hello Ahmed: Thalassemia is of two types. major and minor. Thalassemia major is a complex disease and two genes are defective In Thalassemia minor, the hemoglobin genes are inherited during conception, one from the mother (egg) and one from the father...

Pathology: colonoscopy, chronic inflammatory cells, crypt abscesses
chronic inflammatory cells, crypt abscesses, crohn s disease: Hello Leeanne: There is no single test which conclusively diagnoses Crohn s disease. All the tests mentioned by you are are used. Each provides different information. All this together with the symptoms helps in deciding in favor of Crohn s disease. ...

Pathology: US guided FNA of Thyroid, excision biopsy, thyroid cells
excision biopsy, thyroid cells, thyroid nodule: Hi Winnie: As per your report there is no mention of presence of lymphocytes, lymphoid globules etc which indicate on an FNA that the aspirate is from a lymph node. The only way this can be confirmed is by an excision biopsy. In any case with a diagnosis...

Pathology: Hashimotos thyioditis, thyroid function test, thyroid tsh
thyroid function test, thyroid tsh, hashimoto s thyroiditis: Hello Ahmed: The FNA report indicates that the lesion is suggestive of Hashimoto s thyroiditis. This is an autoimmune disorder where antibodies (protein) are produced by the body which starts destroying the thyroid cells. This can lead to development of...

Pathology: Inconclusive cbc with differential, auto, cbc results, cbc test
cbc results, cbc test, hematology analyzer: Hi Roni: You should have received your CBC results also, they do not take longer that bilirubin to process. The bilirubin is 0.6 and well within normal range...upper limit is 1.0 You would need to call the lab and find out why the results are delaye...

Pathology: Low blood cell counts, bone marrow aspirate, betaseron
bone marrow aspirate, betaseron, hct: Hello Sharon: If there is pancytopenia and levels drop with each subsequent test it is a matter of concern. However, the drug Betaseron itself can cause pancytopenia as a side effect. Ideally a bone marrow aspirate or biopsy should be performed to ascertain...

Pathology: lab reports, bone marrow cells, atypical lymphocytes
bone marrow cells, atypical lymphocytes, final diagnosis: Hello Gary: Pancytopenia implies overall decrease in all type of blood cells. These are reduced due to number of causes. Decreased production or increased destruction of cells in bone marrow...or replacement of bone marrow cells by cancer cells. The...

Pathology: Melanoma, vascular invasion, nuclear features
vascular invasion, nuclear features, consultation report: Hello Suzi; I am sorry to hear about your sister. I wish your husband good health. Clark s level IV indicates that melanoma cells are in the deeper part of the skin (reticular dermis) and have not yet invaded the fat (Level V) However going with...

Pathology: Path Report, cbc results, infectious mononucleosis
cbc results, infectious mononucleosis, mild increase: Hi Tawnya; The CBC results do not show any cause of concern. The symptoms may be due to a viral infection. there is a mild increase in lymphocytes which is seen in viral infections or post vaccination in children. If she still does not improve you need...

Pathology: PSA TESTS, free psa test, prostate cancer screening
free psa test, prostate cancer screening, ultrasound of the abdomen: Hello Menawar: PSA test results can be interpreted a number of different ways and there may be differences in cutoff values between different laboratories. Levels below 4.0ng/ml are considered normal. Levels between 4.0 ng/ml and 10.0 ng/ml may indicate...

Pathology: Question On CT Scan, high cholesteral, normal blood pressure
high cholesteral, normal blood pressure, abdominal aorta: Hello Maryann: An aneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of the blood vessel. This is a result of weakening of the wall of the vessel. In your husbands case it is portion of the abdominal aorta...the major vessel in the body near the kidney. ...

Pathology: Skin Biopsy Histopathology Results, skin biopsy, anti nuclear antibody
skin biopsy, anti nuclear antibody, rheumotologist: Hello Lynee: I apologize for the delay in replying to your question. Due to unavoidable circumstances I was unable to address your question. No single tests helps confirm or rule out lupus. Skin biopsy on active disease will establish the presence of...

Pathology: Surgical pathology report, serous carcinoma, cancer cells
serous carcinoma, cancer cells, pap smear: Hello: I am assuming this is from a PAP smear report. This implies that there is evidence of cancer in the region from where the smear was taken. Intraepithelial indicates it is confined only to the lining of the organ. However your report states that...

Pathology: supraclavicular enlarged lymph node, supraclavicular node, supraclavicular lymph node
supraclavicular node, supraclavicular lymph node, chronic infection: Hello Jan: A lymph node can be enlarged in infection / trauma or presence of cancer. To say why your supraclavicular node is enlarged would be pure speculation. Most of the imaging studies done and FNA are negative. This may turn out to be just a reactive...

Pathology: Thyroid Nodule Biopsy, thyroid nodule biopsy, fine needle aspiration
thyroid nodule biopsy, fine needle aspiration, fine needle biopsy: Hello Rae: The aspiration report sates that the overall picture is of atypia. This means the features are not of clear cut normal cells nor are they clearly cancer cells. They are somewhat in between. The impression is that the lesion is follicular in...

Pathology: Urine Cytology, dying cells, renal ultrasound
dying cells, renal ultrasound, microscopic examination of urine: hi Gwen: Cells with hyper chromatic nuclei...are basically cells in which the chromatin (genetic material) localized in the nucleus of cells is very dark staining (hyper chromatic) This is generally a feature of cancer cells. However, this is significant...

Pathology: under standing my son's tumor, spindle cell neoplasm, blue nevus
spindle cell neoplasm, blue nevus, nervus system: Hello Susanna: The entity of melanocytic nevus with schwannian differentiation consistent with neurocristic hamartoma (CNH) is controversial Some consider that this is a variant of Blue nevus... a type of nevus found at birth. These lesions are rare...

Pathology: understanding pathology report, thyroid biopsy, fibrotic tissue
thyroid biopsy, fibrotic tissue, thyroid ultrasound: Hello Danielle: In an FNA a needle is used to aspirate material from a site and then evaluate and arrive at a diagnosis. In your report it is mentioned that the aspirate is inadequate meaning there isn t enough material to have a definitive diagnosis....

Pathology: Abnormal Mole, compound nevus, invasive melanoma
compound nevus, invasive melanoma, dermal nevus: Hello Sue: For any biopsy it is always best practice to have clear margins. This indicates the lesion has been removed completely. It is unlikely that you have melanoma in the what is left of the lesion. However if anything remain the lesion the cells...

Pathology: atypical lymphocytic infiltrate, biopsy results, pathology labs
biopsy results, pathology labs, types of lesions: Hi Pam: Atypical lymphocyte infiltrate basically means abnormal collection of lymphocytes (a type of blood cells)where they should not be present. However this not a diagnosis by itself as lymphocytes can be seen in many types of lesions. I am not sure...

Pathology: Breast cancer, fine needle aspiration, excision biopsy
fine needle aspiration, excision biopsy, granulomatous inflammation: Hello Jay The FNAC procedure involves removing cells with the help of needle and syringe. The aspirated cells are then examined. The report of your mothers aspirate is scanty. Few cells are present and of these some cells are atypical. In other words these...

Pathology: cervical cone biopsy results, cervical cone biopsy, human papilloma virus
cervical cone biopsy, human papilloma virus, cone biopsy: Hello Nancy: It is very likely that the cone biopsy got all the cells. The cells in the PAP smear do not show any abnormal changes (dysplastic) However, koilocyte change is observed in some cells. This indicates presence of Human papilloma virus. This...

Pathology: Dermatopathology report, biopsy findings, skin biopsy
biopsy findings, skin biopsy, colloidal iron: Hello Cindy: Dermatitis is inflammation of the dermis (deeper layer of skin...epidermis is superficial layer) Interface would be the junction of epidermis and dermis. So the inflammation (may be allergic / as a result of reaction to antibodies found in...

Pathology: Elevated WBC, Lymphs PCT and Grans, enlarged lymph nodes, high segs
enlarged lymph nodes, high segs, neutrophils: Hello Caitlin: The blood work is indicative of presence of infection. Sore throat and enlarged lymph nodes. Neutrophils are increased...most likely bacterial infection. Once the symptoms subside, you will feel better and these tests if repeated should...

Pathology: Husbands melanoma, sentinel node biopsy, initial biopsy
sentinel node biopsy, initial biopsy, atypical melanocytes: Hi susan: In simple words the above stated report describes the cells present in the two layers of skin...the top layer is epidermis and has some collections of the melanocytes (pigment producing cells) called nests . These cells also extend in the other...

Pathology: hpv slide, high grade lesion, precancer cells
high grade lesion, precancer cells, culposcopy: Hi Katie: HPV is a virus and has many subtypes. Some of these carry a risk of development of cancer in patients infected with the virus. The PAP smear exam would show features of HPV infection with changes in the cells indicating a low or high grade...

Pathology: Need an advice, fine needle aspiration, excision biopsy
fine needle aspiration, excision biopsy, voice soars: Hi: The FNAC report indicates that you have a long standing abscess. This is basically a collection of dead tissue and inflammatory cells (pus. Usually a result of infection in the area of drainage of the node. Antibiotics will help to kill the causative...

Pathology: PAP smear, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, pap smear
polymorphonuclear leukocytes, pap smear, thetime: Hi Brenda: It would depend one on thetime when the smear was taken. If during or just after menstrual period...then leukocytes are normal. If at any other time abundant leukocytes are seen then it would indicate infection if associated symptoms are present...

Pathology: Pathology, pathology lab, independent labs
pathology lab, independent labs, medical lab: Hello LaShaun You can work in a pathology lab as an ASCP certified lab tech. You can apply to jobs in hospiatl based labs or independent labs. For training in pathology to become a pathologist you have to first complete five years of medical graduation....

Pathology: SGOT test shows lower level, dynamic values, sgot test
dynamic values, sgot test, cinex: Hello: Anti tubercular drugs can cause damage to liver and SGOT test is done to look out for such a toxicity. However if the liver is damaged the SGOT increases. For your wife the values are below normal and hence nothing to worry about. The levels should...

Pathology: stage II melanoma, melanoma cells, vascular invasion
melanoma cells, vascular invasion, field margins: Hello Monica: Vascular invasion suggests that some melanoma cells have penetrated the blood vessels and may localize in regions other than primary site. However, it is not possible to say where and when these will be localized. You just need a regular...

Pathology: abnormal pathology, biopsy slides, pathology results
biopsy slides, pathology results, what this means: Hello Heather Without actually seeing the biopsy slides, it is difficult to say what the pathology is. If they have said it is not cancer, it could autoimmune disorder which can affect the glands in the eyes or it could be infection by an organisms which...

Pathology: Blood test Immature Granulocytes, facet injections, blood cell count
facet injections, blood cell count, white blood cell: Hi Richard: Given that all other cells are within normal range, and if the total white blood cell count isn t increased or decreased below normal, there is no cause for worry. In acute trauma to body - injury / infection there can be release of few immature...

Pathology: bone marrow, bone marrow aspiration, cancer cells
bone marrow aspiration, cancer cells, shape size: Hi Normal marrow is one which has all the marrow components / cells having normal appearance - shape size and number as well as maturation. A reactive marrow is one which is responding to some insult - antibodies / microorganisms / deficiency of iron...

Pathology: bone marrow aspiration cytology report, bone marrow aspiration, low hemoglobin
bone marrow aspiration, low hemoglobin, plasma cells: Hi I am not sure what the is question being asked here. Overall the impression indicates that you have dual deficiency of iron and B12. You may have had low hemoglobin and the bone marrow exam was performed. This is easily treated with appropriate diet...

Pathology: ectopic prathyroid adenoma, parathyroid glands, parathyroid adenoma
parathyroid glands, parathyroid adenoma, thyroid tissue: Hi: Parathyroid adenoma (80-85% cases) as well as parathyroid hyperplasia (10-15%) both cause increase in PTH hormone and this leads to elevated calcium. Most people have four parathyroid glands, any one can develop adenoma and / or hyperplasia. The...

Pathology: Folate Low ?, red blood cells, liquid portion
red blood cells, liquid portion, acid levels: Hello Sandy: You need to have more information from your doctor. Folic acid levels can be measured in two ways. One is from liquid portion of blood called plasma. Here the normal range in adults is 3-13 nanograms/ml or 7-30nanomoles/liter. The other is...

Pathology: Blood test Immature Granulocytes, granulocytes, medical technologist
Pathology: Blood test Immature Granulocytes, granulocytes, medical technologist, hematology

Pathology: Any help with direction?, bone marrow biopsy, swollen lymph nodes
bone marrow biopsy, swollen lymph nodes, foot fungus: Hello Ashley: You have described your position in some detail and I can understand how troubling it is for you not to know whats happening. I am not an expert in this disease but I can provide some information to you. Having the M protein spike indicates...

Pathology: help with FNA results, thyroid tissue, follicle cells
thyroid tissue, follicle cells, definite diagnosis: Hi Becca: On cytology microfollicles can be seen in benign as well as malignant conditions. Absence of colloid is also seen in cancer. However in Hashimoto s also where the normal thyroid tissue is destroyed the colloid can be absent in the smears. ...

Pathology: Lab results ?, iron deficiency anemia, bone marrow biopsy
iron deficiency anemia, bone marrow biopsy, serum ferritin levels: Hello Lee: The first stage of potential iron deficiency anemia is depletion of iron stores. This leads to increased absorption of iron to compensate for the depleted stores. As the red cells die and more have to be replaced in later stages there is impaired...

Pathology: Liver Lesion, liver lesion, liver lobe
liver lesion, liver lobe, mass lesion: Hello Melissa: A radiologist would better explain what an enhancing lesion is. He should have provided some diagnosis for the lesion. If there is a specific mass / lesion it will require a biopsy or FNAC to look at the tissue and / or cells and arrive...

Pathology: labs, physical exertion, apparent disease
physical exertion, apparent disease, flight of stairs: Hi yvette: These values are just minimally above normal. The possibilities are that 1) these are normal for you as most ranges are set as an average of a set of normal population and there are always outliers with no apparent disease. 2) Stress or anxiety...

Pathology: MCV and MCH elevated, bone marrow aspirate, blood test results
bone marrow aspirate, blood test results, thyroid hormones: Hi Lynn: If the high MCV was accompanied by decrease in hemoglobin then this suggests anemia which may be due to Vitamin B12 deficiency or some other cause. A bone marrow aspirate will be done to confirm the diagnosis. If hemoglobin is fine then your...

Pathology: malignant melanoma, satellite nodules, initial lesion
satellite nodules, initial lesion, melanoma cancer: Hello Terri: I am sorry for giving bad news. As per the report described above the lesion is malignant melanoma - cancer of the pigment producing cells in skin. The tumor is seen up the the fat layer of skin (Clark s Level V) Also the peripheral margins...

Pathology: Results?, renal cell carcinoma, lymph node involvement
renal cell carcinoma, lymph node involvement, tumor involvement: Hello Deb: I do not deal with cytogenetic testing so cannot provide more information. This test just indicates that the cells examined are from a cancerous tissue. Stage of the tumor is based on the size of tumor, involvement of nodes and presence of...

Pathology: supraclavicular lymph node enlargement, fine needle aspiration, lymph node enlargement
fine needle aspiration, lymph node enlargement, enlarged lymph nodes: Hi Michelle: Cervical Lymph chain refers to a group of serially linked lymph nodes in the neck. The head and neck region has many lymph nodes and these are grouped together to help assess the nodes of different regions of the neck. As I mentioned, keep...

Pathology: suspicious for papillary carcinoma, intranuclear inclusions, breast cells
intranuclear inclusions, breast cells, papillary carcinoma: Hello Connie: According to this report the cells show some features which are seen in papillary cancer of thyroid. It is difficult for me to comment on the nature of cells without seeing the slides. You can opt for a second opinion on the slides. If...

Pathology: TLC count is high, complete blood count, clinical correlation
complete blood count, clinical correlation, count cells: Hello Tomas: CBC (Complete Blood count) is a screening test and not a diagnostic one. It helps point in a direction and further investigations and a clinical correlation is required to arrive at a diagnosis. Your total white cell count (cells in blood...

Pathology: 2nd opinion on kidney cancer pathology report, pathology dept, pathology report
pathology dept, pathology report, kidney cancer: Hello Barbara A second opinion is sought from another pathology dept (pathologist). Each department has their own charges for a second opinion. If your physician can request someone to take a look at the slides informally nothing may be charged, but you...

Pathology: abnormal blood test, acute phase reactants, patients with rheumatoid arthritis
acute phase reactants, patients with rheumatoid arthritis, high neutrophils: Hello again: I did not see this question first. Okay...the RA latex is for rheumatoid factor....this is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and since you have arthritis this corroborates the diagnosis. C-Reactive protein (CRP) is a marker...

Pathology: Biopsy Lab Results, thyroid biopsy, biopsy samples
thyroid biopsy, biopsy samples, turn around time: Hello John: I am not aware of the turn around time in Canada for processing of biopsy samples. Normally the tissue has to be preserved for 16-24 hours, then it is examined by the pathologist to select relevant areas or submit the entire biopsy to further...

Pathology: Biopsy Question, biopsy report, penn sate
biopsy report, penn sate, type of cancer: Hello KC: Any type of cancer can spread to the lung. Sarcoma spreads to lung often, though among all malignancies it the cancers which are more common than sarcomas Since the original tumor was a low grade sarcoma, that is why it sounds unusual that...

Pathology: Blood Test Concerns (immature gran, blood platelet count, low blood platelet count
blood platelet count, low blood platelet count, testosterone injections: Hi Jo: As far as I know testosterone injections should not cause decrease in platelet count. Increase in Immature Granulocytes(IG) can be seen in acute and chronic infections, inflammations, tissue damage / cell death due to trauma or injury and in blood...

Pathology: CBC, lipid profile, cbc test
lipid profile, cbc test, parasitic infection: Hello Eosinophils at 7 (percentage) is minimally elevated. This could be because of allergy or parasites. The confirmation of parasites is by other tests and is not based on eosinophil count. Triglycerides are okay and should be taken in context of...

Pathology: CD1800 Specimen Data report, alt sgpt, specimen data
alt sgpt, specimen data, blood cell count: Hello Dee: SGPT is mildly elevated. Elevation in this enzyme is an indicator of liver damage / disease. However the levels do not correlate with extent of disease. Also it does not always mean liver disease...muscle damage can also cause mild elevations...

Pathology: CSF Albumin & IgG, S Results, auto immune disease, blood serum
auto immune disease, blood serum, culture results: Hello Jayne: All the tests indicate presence of infection...including CSF values. Post treatment the white cell count is still high, so most likely the infection is not completely resolved. It could be that the organisms are resistant to the antibiotics...

Pathology: FNA report, clinical correlation, nodule
clinical correlation, nodule, pathologist: Hi Irene: The report mentions histiocytes. If there was proteinaceous material and the aerated contents were liquid the pathologist would have decided in favor of cyst. If these findings were absent then the sample can be inadequate. It is difficult for...

Pathology: High Granulocytes., bone marrow aspirate, specialist certification
Pathology: High Granulocytes., bone marrow aspirate, specialist certification, medical technologist

Pathology: High Granulocytes., blood test results, white blood cells
blood test results, white blood cells, high granulocytes: Hello Bradia A minimal increase in these cells with mild elevation of total white blood cells could indicate infection. If WBC are normal, you could have the counts repeated in a months time. If there is further increase a bone marrow exam may be required...

Pathology: Histiocytes in Pap Smear, pap smear, phagocytic function
pap smear, phagocytic function, histiocytes: Hello Liz: Various studies have evaluated presence of histiocytes (a type of mono nuclear cells with a phagocytic function which means cells which ingest unwanted material in the body)in PAP smear. These are considered as indicators of presence of pathology...

Pathology: Information about bornmarrow Aspiration result, hemoglobin values, deficiency anemia
hemoglobin values, deficiency anemia, cancer cells: Hello: The bone marrow report does not indicate presence of cancer cells / leukemia (blood cancer) There is megaloblastic change...cells are bigger than normal and can happen in Vit B12 deficiency anemia. The doctor can correlate with RBC count and hemoglobin...

Pathology: Low Platelet Count and Immature granulocytes, low platelet count, chronic back pain
low platelet count, chronic back pain, granulocytes: Hello Jo: There is a mild increase in immature granulocytes compared to April. The platelet count is okay. You could wait and watch. If the count increases further consult a hematologist and a bone marrow exam may be required to find out what is happening...

Pathology: Lupus Anticoag Screen & Anit-Cardiolipin, auto immune diseases, auto immune disease
auto immune diseases, auto immune disease, protein c: Hello Jayne: The tests CRP is to find out if there is any indication of an acute inflammatory process. Your result is not too high the other are for screening lupus and other auto immune diseases. all these are positive test results but do not point to...

Pathology: moderate dysplasia mole, dysplastic mole, moderate dysplasia
dysplastic mole, moderate dysplasia, moles: Hi Sandy: A dysplastic mole is considered pre-cancerous - it is more likely to turn into melanoma than regular moles. However, melanoma may not develop in every patient with dysplastic mole. The risk of melanoma increases with more number of dysplastic...

Pathology: mole biopsy results, blue nevus mole, biopsy results
blue nevus mole, biopsy results, atypical cells: Hello Sarah: Blue Nevus is most often benign lesion. It is of two types...common and cellular and are considered a continuum . The cellular type has larger number of tightly packed cells. Atypical cellular blue nevus with abnormal cells has features...

Pathology: Neutrophils absolute High, upper gi tract, viral diarrhea
upper gi tract, viral diarrhea, black stools: Hi The antibiotic course should be completed. If you stop midway you tend to develop resistance in bacteria with partial treatment. So next time a similar infection becomes difficult to treat. Black stools can be because of the medicines you are taking...

Pathology: PSA, psa levels, laboratory report
psa levels, laboratory report, access report: Hi Nicola: Ideally results from one type of equipment should be compared and not across different equipment. The test conditions and reagents used may be slightly different and produce varying results. Your initial PSA was on Beckman and now it is 4.09....

Pathology: path report on thyroid nodule, thyroid needle biopsy, biopsy report
thyroid needle biopsy, biopsy report, thyroid nodule: Hello Cathy: The report indicates that the material which has been aspirated is not sufficient to make a definite diagnosis. The little material which is seen are normal cells (follicular)found in thyroid, colloid - protein secreted by thyroid and some...

Pathology: pathology, liver function test, liver function tests
liver function test, liver function tests, bone cell: Hello: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is part of liver panel. High levels of ALP are either due to damage to liver or conditions causing increased bone cell activity. If the rest of the liver function tests are normal then this is most likely due to...

Pathology: pathology report, lipid profile, pathology report
lipid profile, pathology report, good cholesterol: Hi: These values do not suggest any abnormality. You can however modify your diet to reduce high fat / oily food so that the cholesterol does not increase . Moderate exercise 30-35 min a day will help increase HDL cholesterol which is good cholesterol and...

Pathology: pretty worried, complete blood count, white cell count
complete blood count, white cell count, acute infection: Hello Veronica: You haven t mentioned what blood work came back as high. If lymphocytes in your complete blood count are high this would indicate a chronic infection. On the other hand increase in total white cell count and polymorphs could point towards...

Pathology: Surgical Pathology Report, surgical pathology report, cell aggregates
surgical pathology report, cell aggregates, biopsy report: Hi Amanda: Colon normally has lymphoid cells scattered all over. At times these aggregate into groups which is normal. However, in response to inflammation or other pathology there may be more number of aggregates. Reports generally do not comment on number...

Pathology: Biopsy Results, biopsy results, medical jargon
biopsy results, medical jargon, cancer cells: Hello Ryan: Dysplasia refers to abnormal growth of cells and tissue. Such cells are not entirely normal and neither are they clear cut cancer cells. Dysplasia is considered as precursor of cancer. However not all dysplasias lead to cancer. In addition...

Pathology: Bladder cancer, gross hematuria, hyperchromatic nuclei
gross hematuria, hyperchromatic nuclei, squamous differentiation: Hello Debbie: The report states very clearly that infiltrating strands of cancer cells are seen. There is no suspicion that these could be a reactive change (to inflammation) If the changes seen on a biopsy may be due to inflammation the pathologist...

Pathology: Bone Marrow Results, monosomy 7, 5q
monosomy 7, 5q, cytopenias: Hello Tim: Hypercellular bone marrow indicates that there are increased number of cells present in the marrow. In the description of the report if a differential cell count has been performed you will find the blasts percentage listed along with other cell...

Pathology: blood tests, high neutrophils, atypical lymphocytes
high neutrophils, atypical lymphocytes, stress trauma: Hi Debra: If the WBC have been increasing with every test and have atypical cells. Ideally a bone marrow exam should be done to evaluate the cause for the increase in cells. You mentioned only one had raised WBC....This could be related to associated infection...

Pathology: lab results, uric acid levels, lab numbers
uric acid levels, lab numbers, recurrent infection: Hello Sylvia: Monocytes are type of blood cells which increase in number in presence of long standing infection. Low counts are not clinically significant. Similarly low uric acid levels are uncommon and often are not any cause for concern. Rarely some...

Pathology: pap smear results, squamous epithelial cells, pap smear results
squamous epithelial cells, pap smear results, superficial cells: Hi Julie Intermediate and superficial cells are different stages of maturation of the epithelium lining the cervix / vaginal wall. As estrogen levels (hormone secreted by the body)increase superficial cells increase. Too many neutrophils indicate...

Pathology: Spindle Cell Neoplasm, spindle cell neoplasm, spindle cells
spindle cell neoplasm, spindle cells, initial biopsy: Hello Missy: Spindle cells are elongated cells with pointy ends and are much wider in the middle. These cells are seen in may types of cancers...of the nerves, soft tissue component of skin, related to melanocytic origin etc. The initial biopsy would...

Pathology: 7 year old son with 24.0 wbc, low lymphocytes, anemia, low monocytes, low lymphocytes
low monocytes, low lymphocytes, white blood cells: Hello Leah: This is a normal response of the body to infection. Neutrophils are the first line of defense against any trauma or microorganisms causing infection. The white blood cells increase in number this is because of increase in PMN (neutrophils) and...

Pathology: ATYPICAL FOLLICULAR PATTERN, excision biopsy, hurthle cells
excision biopsy, hurthle cells, ultrasound guidance: Hi Carolyn: I do not have much experience in this regard. X-Rays do affect the body but how much exposure is required to produce undesirable changes in the body versus how much you had will be difficult to establish. There is no definitive way to conclude...

Pathology: atypical lymphocytes in my 10 mth old, low hemoglobin level, atypical lymphocytes
low hemoglobin level, atypical lymphocytes, segmented neutrophils: Hi Ashley: The WBC count and number of segmented neutrophils is high for a 10 month old child. Presence of atypical lymphocytes needs to be evaluated. These can be present in mono as well as other types of viral and or bacterial infections, in maturation...

Pathology: Biposy result, not sure what this, spindle cell neoplasm, cytokeratin
spindle cell neoplasm, cytokeratin, desmin: Hello Mahendra; A spindle cell neoplasm is a broad category including lesions with spindle shaped cells. that is cells with elongated nuclei. These can be of nerve or muscle or fibrous tissue origin as well as can be benign or malignant. All the above...

Pathology: Bone Marrow Biopsy Result, bone marrow biopsy, ct scan of abdomen
bone marrow biopsy, ct scan of abdomen, red blood cells: Hello: your bone marrow is producing less than normal number of granulocytes (neutrophils). This condition is called agranulocytosis. This can be due to a number of causes. It can be congenital, caused by infection, drugs, infiltration of bone marrow by...

Pathology: Inconclusive FNA thyroid nodule, fine needle aspiration, follicular neoplasm
fine needle aspiration, follicular neoplasm, thyroid ultrasound: Hello Erin: Your FNA indicates that most likely it is a colloid nodule, which is benign. However if there is suspicion of follicular cell neoplasm, this can only be confirmed on thyroid tissue....A repeat FNA will also only go as far as to say follicular...

Pathology: Neutropenia, symptoms of an overactive thyroid, neck glands
symptoms of an overactive thyroid, neck glands, mild anemia: Hello Sam: It is good to follow up the count. If these fall much more you will be prone to repeated infections as these are first line of defense against infectious agents. If on reoeat counts the neutrophils are low a bone marrow examination will be...

Pathology: Pathology Report, ulcerated tumor, colon tumor
ulcerated tumor, colon tumor, invasive carcinoma: Hello Kristen: The report provides information on length of resected portion of the intestine and the actual size and location of the tumor with relation to resection margins. The lesion described is cancer - adenocarcinoma. A type of cancer where the...

Pathology: pathology report ?, colon cells, pathology report
colon cells, pathology report, pathology reports: Hello Tammy: If the nodule in pericolonic fat was a lymph node the report would mention the same. Sometime a lymph node can be completely effaced by cancer cells but it is still easy to identify such a nodule as lymph node. The peri-colonic fat nodule does...

Pathology: pathology report for brain tumor, tumor suppressor gene, chromosome 7
tumor suppressor gene, chromosome 7, pathology report: Hi Trisha: Each of the different grades of astrocytoma have varying degree of loss of the PTEN and EGFR expression. This along with morphology (appearance of cells), number of mitoses (dividing cells), extent of necrosis (dead tissue) all together help...

Pathology: Reactive Lymphocytosis w/ symptoms, swollen glands neck, bleeding gums
swollen glands neck, bleeding gums, lymphocytosis: Hi: It is difficult to say more on why the lymphocytes have been persistently high. The hematologist after examining you and all your records will be able to provide clearer answers. Maybe he will do a bone marrow aspiration exam to further resolve the...

Pathology: skin biopsy, punch biopsy, skin biopsy
punch biopsy, skin biopsy, dermatopathologist: Hi Kolin: I do not think it is advisable to speculate on what the lesion can be without actually seeing the slide and / or having a diagnosis to go by. Skin diseases are hard to interpret sometimes when they are still in the process of evolution and not...

Pathology: thyroglobulin results, thyroglobulin antibody, thyroglobulin levels
thyroglobulin antibody, thyroglobulin levels, papillary thyroid cancer: Hello Rachel: The presence of antibodies reduces the use of thyroglobulin as a cancer marker. If the thyroglobulin levels are low and continue to stay so and do not increase over a period of time chances are that there is no recurrence of cancer. However,...

Pathology: Understanding Path Report, urothelial carcinoma, bladder cancer
urothelial carcinoma, bladder cancer, muscle layer: Hello Gary: Both the samples show presence of cancer in the epithelium of the biopsy sample. However the cancer does not extend into the muscle layer in the first sample but it does appear to involve the muscle layer in the second sample. You can have...

Pathology: wbc 17,000, blood cell count, antibiotic treatment
blood cell count, antibiotic treatment, white blood cell: Hello Jack: Stress is one of the factors which can cause an elevation in the white blood cell count. If there is an infection then there will be an increase in neutrophils or lymphocytes (dependent on bacterial or viral infection) Post antibiotic treatment...

Pathology: Dizzness and Anemia, red blood cells, size of red blood cells
red blood cells, size of red blood cells, white blood cells: Hello Quentin Thw white blood cells (WBC) and Gran(type of white blood cells which fight infection) are both adequate. HGB of 13.9 is just below the lower limit of normal range, MCH, MCHC and RDW values are low indicating the size of red blood cells...

Pathology: sence less due fever, cause of anemia, iron deficiency
cause of anemia, iron deficiency, hemoglobin: Hello: The blood parameters are all normal except the hemoglobin which is very low. your son has anemia. The pediatrician can do a bone marrow exam to find the cause of anemia and treat accordingly. The commonest cause is iron deficiency , but it could...

Pathology: White blood cell count, white blood cells, blood cell count
white blood cells, blood cell count, white blood cell: Hello Vicki: Neutrophils are a type of white blood cells which help fight against infection in the body. Decrease in their number is called neutropenia. This can be due to various causes like - a relative decrease because of increase in another type...

Pathology: ABS LYMPH, elevated lymphocytes, white blood cells
elevated lymphocytes, white blood cells, hi bob: Hi Bob Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cells. These are raised in a number of conditions like viral infections, some chronic bacterial infections, certain types of leukemias. Further evaluation with a bone marrow exam, and physical exam is required...

Pathology: Blood test, fatty liver disease, bile duct disease
fatty liver disease, bile duct disease, liver cells: Each laboratory establishes its own reference ranges for tests, so it is important to know the reference ranges for the laboratory that performed your tests (it is usually on the report). It is also helpful to know your age and whether you are male or female....

Pathology: Bone Marrow report analysis, red blood cells, red blood cell
red blood cells, red blood cell, cause of anemia: Hello The hemoglobin is low indicating anemia along with increase in neutrophils. These are a type of red blood cells which fight infection. The bone marrow helps to identify cause of anemia. The bone marrow reveals that it is hyper cellular indicating...

Pathology: cbc count, atypical lymphocytes, wbc count
atypical lymphocytes, wbc count, white blood cells: Hello Deep Atypical lymphocytes are type of abnormal white blood cells seen in many viral infections. Their presence may indicate disseminated lesions and may require aggressive treatment. However if the lymphocytes increase with higher WBC count and platelets...

Pathology: Immature Grans, bone marrow test, immature cells
bone marrow test, immature cells, granulocytes: Hello: Your hemoglobin is low at 6.4 with a low MCV of 71 this is explained by the Thalassemia minor trait. If immature granulocytes are present and there is no evidence of active infection, they need to be evaluated. One way of finding the cause is...

Pathology: What is a pathology Panle test?, liver function tests, comprehensive metabolic panel
liver function tests, comprehensive metabolic panel, red blood cells: Hello Suzanne A panel is a group of tests ordered together which are complimentary and provide better information than ordering a test individually. Few examples of panels are LFT - liver function tests which have various tests to asses the liver CMO...

Pathology: thyroid mass, needle aspiration biopsy, thyroid uptake scan
needle aspiration biopsy, thyroid uptake scan, fine needle aspiration: Hello Nicole On a fine needle aspiration biopsy it s hard to definitely rule out follicular cancer. Papillary cancer of thyroid which is more common is easy to classify and your biopsy is negative for that, Micro follicles are formed by clustering of...

Pathology: Abnormal CBC post-cancer surgery, renal cell carcinoma, low grade fever
renal cell carcinoma, low grade fever, wbc count: Hello Meg: The CBC results given by you are within normal range and do not show anything to worry about. The total WBC count is not provided. These values are dynamic and change every time you are tested. As long as they are within range it is fine. ...

Pathology: bloodtest, vldl, chol
vldl, chol, hdl: Hello Robert: The values are reported as high or low because that is what they are with reference to the range. However it is good to have HDL higher than 60 VLDL ranges from 5 to 40 and yor is below the normal range. As mentioned by you these values...

Pathology: CYTOLOGY REPORT, atypical squamous cells, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance
atypical squamous cells, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, microscopy section: Hello Henrie Primarily the smear shows cells which are normally found in the vaginal area (intermediate and para basal types) . In addition some cells found in the inner lining of uterus (endocervical cells are seen). These are of no cause for concern....

Pathology: Hematology Roller Coaster, rbc morphology, anion gap
rbc morphology, anion gap, lipid profile: Hello Tsee: I apologize for the delay in reply. The CBC and lipid profile and the rest of the parameters are all within normal range and there is nothing clinically significant to worry about. The neutrophils are just slightly elevated, which could be...

Pathology: Pathology report from punch biopsy, punch biopsy, invasive ductal carcinoma
punch biopsy, invasive ductal carcinoma, double mastectomy: Hi again: If the lesion is superficial enough, the punch biopsy will pick up the lesion. In your case the report indicates presence of two foci of cancer. Once a cancer recurs and is invasive cancer the treatment is mastectomy. If you did not have a...

Pathology: Reasons for Low White Blood Count, low white blood count, bone marrow examination
low white blood count, bone marrow examination, white blood count: Hi Misty: The WBC count is very low and requires further evaluation. This can be seen in number of conditions including viral infections which temporarily disrupt bone marrow function, certain types of medication and overactive thyroid, autoimmune disorders,leukemia...

Pathology: Thyroid biopsy results, thyroid biopsy, follicular adenoma
thyroid biopsy, follicular adenoma, thyroid cells: Hello Dawn: The thyroid biopsy result is not a clear cut diagnosis. It explains presence of thyroid cells which are arranged around a central lumen (follicle) Some of these are normal in size others are much smaller. In addition papillary structures...

Pathology: atypical WBC, atypical lymphocytes, swelling of lymph nodes
atypical lymphocytes, swelling of lymph nodes, infectious mononucleosis: Hello Betty: Atypical lymphocytes are enlarged cells with increased amount of cytoplasm than normal lymphocytes. These are seen not only in infectious mononucleosis but also in other viral diseases. Sometimes these can be immature cells and hence associated...

Pathology: CBC results, high protein diet, c reactive protein
high protein diet, c reactive protein, protein breakdown: Hello Kristie: The results are not very abnormal, minimal elevation or reduction could be insignificant. It is possible there is some form of infection or any other cause. Protein breakdown increase BUN, kidney issues, high protein diet, stress anything...

Pathology: Cytology Report, pap smear test, bulky uterus
pap smear test, bulky uterus, benign cellular changes: Hello Varsha: The report essentially states that there is no evidence of cancer. There is some amount of inflammation though does not mention presence of any microorganisms. Your gynecologist can decide if any treatment is required for inflammation...

Pathology: chronic inflammation in colon, chronic inflammation, bhim
chronic inflammation, bhim, ulcer: Hi Bhim: I apologize for not responding to your question earlier than this. Infection with E. histolytica if severe can cause ulceration of the colon. There is inflammatory thickening of the wall around the ulcer. I hope this answers your question...

Pathology: FNA RESULTS ON LEFT THYROID, colloid nodule, cell clusters
colloid nodule, cell clusters, radiological features: Hello Tanya: As mentioned in the report, this basically sounds like a benign lesion(based on the description provided) If imaging studies and clinical features are indicating suspicion for malignancy then the nodule has to be taken out upon the discretion...

Pathology: Can goiter of 25 yrs become malignant, multinodular goiter, thyroid scan
multinodular goiter, thyroid scan, goiter: Hello Gerry: A dominant nodule in a goiter is suspicious for cancer. In a multinodular goiter the incidence of cancer is 5% In addition Hashimoto s thyroiditis itself poses a higher risk for cancer. Having said that, the best approach is for a FNA of...

Pathology: Haematology, blood cell count, white blood cell
blood cell count, white blood cell, dear doctor: Hello Sur I apologize for the delay in replying to your question. There is an increase in total white blood cell count. This can be due to infection. other than that there isnt anything significant ibn the report. If you have multiple abscesses then...

Pathology: Inmature granulocytes and low anc, inmature, granulocytes
inmature, granulocytes, neutrophils: Hello Carrie: I apologize for not responding to your question earlier than this. Low counts with specific decrease in neutrophils can be because of a number of causes. if number falls below 100it is likely that there is problem in production of neutrophils...

Pathology: Iron Test results, iron saturation, uibc
iron saturation, uibc, ferritin: Hi Pam I apologize for the delay in responding to your question Your TIBC and iron saturation are minimally elevated, the other results are within normal range. It is likely that you may be in very early stage of iron deficiency. Or this could be your...

Pathology: Lab report answers please!!!, melanin pigment, chronic inflammation
melanin pigment, chronic inflammation, report answers: Hi Christa: It is a general description of findings in the biopsy and not a specific diagnosis. There is some amount of long standing inflammation present around blood vessels. Also present are melanophages...these are scavenger cells which have ingested...

Pathology: Low WBC, High Immature Granulocytes, immature cells, cancer clinic
immature cells, cancer clinic, lab result: Hello Emily: Your WBC count is mildly low and this can be seen in a number of conditions. Rather than speculating it is best to have a bone marrow exam (which is likely what the specialist will do) Infections, failure of bone marrow to produce adequate...

Pathology: lymphoid hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, lung nodule
nodular hyperplasia, lung nodule, controversial diagnosis: Hello Joyce: Hyperplasia is increase in number of cells in a given tissue. With increase in lymphocytes and arranged in form of a nodule this is a rare disease. It is controversial diagnosis as because of the rarity of the disease not much is known about...

Pathology: Patchy inflammation in colon, anti inflammatory drugs, lower abdomen
anti inflammatory drugs, lower abdomen, burning sensation: Hello Michael: IBS does not have inflammation and is generally diagnosed based on symptoms like abdominal pain, bloating, change in bowel habits - frequency and consistency, mucus in stools etc. A physician rules out other causes which present with...

Pathology: Pathology Report, malignant lesion, gastric mucosa
malignant lesion, gastric mucosa, mild inflammation: Hello Cindy: Essentially your report does not show presence of cancer or a pre malignant lesion, so it is clinically normal. Mild inflammation may be a result of any number of cause - drinking very hot beverages, eating very spicy food, or certain kinds...

Pathology: path report/melanoma?, sentinel node biopsy, type melanoma
sentinel node biopsy, type melanoma, melanocytoma: Hello Donna: I apologize for the delay in responding to your question. As the lesion has grown in these past three years, it would make good sense to remove the entire lesion and find out what exactly the diagnosis is. Since now it is bigger and has...

Pathology: Serum Protein Electrophoresis, serum protein electrophoresis, plasma cell
serum protein electrophoresis, plasma cell, multiple myeloma: Hello Felechia Wise I apologize for the delay in responding to your question Urine and protein electrophoresis with increase in M protein is indicative of a plasma cell disorder called multiple myeloma. A bone marrow exam will be required for confirming...

Pathology: spindle tumor biopsy, spindle cell tumor, spindle cell tumors
spindle cell tumor, spindle cell tumors, initial biopsy: Hello Jennifer: A spindle cell tumor diagnosis is a broad category which just defines a lesion having cells which are longer than their width (spindle shaped). Such tumors can be related to muscle, nerve or fibrous tissue origin. More tissue is requested...

Pathology: Toddlers Lab results., spot test, chronic infection
spot test, chronic infection, rdw: Hello Amber: From these tests its not possible to make any specific diagnosis. The sed rate is elevated which indicates some chronic infection which your daughter has. Mono test is also positive. You could consult an ID specialist to rule out specific...

Pathology: UNDERSTANDING MY SPECIMEN DATA REPORT, mild anemia, specimen data
mild anemia, specimen data, low rdw: Hello Karen: Your report is reflects the effects of chemotherapy. The Gran (neutrophils) are reduced and this is most commonly affected cell line in chemotherapy. This makes a person more prone to infections. You also have mild anemia with Hgb at 11.1...

Pathology: ANA Direct Positive, enlarged thyroid gland, thyroid disorder
enlarged thyroid gland, thyroid disorder, thyroid problem: Hello Marcella: These parameters are slightly out of range. However by themselves they are not diagnostic for Lupus or thyroid disease. these have to be correlated with the signs and symptoms you may have and physical exam...presence of rash / redness...

Pathology: blood pressure, blood pressure medicine, physicain
blood pressure medicine, physicain, stress levels: Hello Lauren: It is always best to follow the advice of the treating physicain. If you get conflicting opinions from two sources you can opt to go with another opinion. You can also discuss this further with your doctor. He / she may agree to a trial...

Pathology: CBC Results - PDW 0, cbc results, deficiency anaemia
cbc results, deficiency anaemia, cell volume: Hello Parvin: PDW: platelet distribution width is measurement derived from platelet cell volume. The clinical use of MPV and PDW is not well documented. Generally there is a range of PDW and this reflects the variation in the size of the platelets....

Pathology: Immature Ganulocytes, peripheral blood smear, tom toolan
peripheral blood smear, tom toolan, basos: Hi Tom: As of now if you are otherwise healthy and have no fever or any infection, this is not a cause for concern. However if a test after few months shows further increase in immature granulocytes then you will need a bone marrow exam and peripheral blood...

Pathology: Pathology report help, estrogen receptors, pathology report
estrogen receptors, pathology report, cancer cells: Hello Lynne pankeratin and estrogen receptor are tumor markers. Pankeratin positivity indicates that this is cancer and not a sarcoma (tumors of soft tissue like smooth muscle, fat, fibrous tissue etc) Estrogen receptors are generally positive in...

Pathology: Possible diagnosis please, bone marrow biopsy, spindle cell neoplasm
bone marrow biopsy, spindle cell neoplasm, routine blood test: Hello Jeremy: Spindle cell lesions area broad category of tumors ranging from benign to malignant. These are named because of the predominant cell type - spindle shaped which is longer than it is wide. These can be either of endothelial / vascular / smooth...

Pathology: Question about Path report?, chest x rays, tuberculosis bacteria
chest x rays, tuberculosis bacteria, acid fast bacilli: Hi Erin: If fungus and tuberculosis bacteria are negative then it could be sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis is a disease diagnosed by exclusion of all other diseases. You can wait for the test for sarcoidosis. Many people who have sarcoidosis remain asymptomatic...

Pathology: Spindle Cell Malignancy, spindle cell, glassy appearance
spindle cell, glassy appearance, epithelial tumors: Hi Maria: The cytokeratin is a marker for epithelial tumors and since this is negative and with presence of chondroid elements it is likely to be a sarcoma. Some osteosarcomas are positive for cytokeratin and Vimentin is positive in majority. The doctor...

Pathology: WBC/Absolute Lymphocytes, peripheral blood smear, absolute lymphocytes
peripheral blood smear, absolute lymphocytes, absolute neutrophils: Hello John: The absolute lymphocytes are mildly elevated. You have mentioned that all other parameters are within normal range. If you are in good health and there is no sudden loss of weight / appetite / presence of mass / bone pain etc, the mild elevation...

Pathology: Biopsy Report, invasive ductal carcinoma, biopsy report
invasive ductal carcinoma, biopsy report, ductal carcinoma: Hello Charles: I apologize for the delay in answering your question. The stage of the tumor cannot b ascertained from the above report. You need to have the size of the tumor, extent of its spread to lymph nodes and distant sites to have the final stage....

Pathology: Blood CP, rdw cv, rbc morphology
rdw cv, rbc morphology, red blood cells: Hello Kashif: The blood complete panel report is essentially normal. This gives values for the total white cell count, total red blood cells, hemoglobin and the different types of white blood cells (differential count) as well as platelets in the blood....

Pathology: Blood test, peripheral blood smear, blood test results
peripheral blood smear, blood test results, immature cells: Hi Casey: If you have fever / cough cold and / or any other infection then these counts are a reflection of infection. A peripheral blood smear can be performed to evaluate the morphology (appearance) of the cells. Once infection subsides the values...

Pathology: blood counts, red blood cell, blood cell count
red blood cell, blood cell count, red blood cell count: Hi Kathy: If you are healthy and have no symptoms of a disease these numbers are not worrisome. The blood values are dynamic and change constantly. Your values may be normal for you as the range for lab is sn average of values from a number of people....

Pathology: blood work, renal cell carcinoma, blood cell count
renal cell carcinoma, blood cell count, trace of blood: Hello Sarah: From the blood tests its hard to say if the tumor is back or not. One thing is definite is that your blood cell count as well as hemoglobin is falling which indicates there is bleeding within the body. The doctor will have to determine...

Pathology: CBC test result, iron deficiency anemia, red cells
iron deficiency anemia, red cells, mcv: Hello Farha: There is minimal decrease for Hb and MCV (which indicates that the average red cells are smaller in size than normal). This is usually seen in iron deficiency anemia and another type of anemia called Thalassemia. You r doctor will order additional...

Pathology: My daughter's blood test results, blood in urine, kidneys
blood in urine, kidneys, second opinion: Hello Christine: The results have to be matched with age of a child. However these do appear normal except for 3+ blood in urine. However the kidneys and urinary tract need to be examined to rule out any disease process there which may have caused bleeding....

Pathology: Fna, intranuclear inclusions, nuclear chromatin
intranuclear inclusions, nuclear chromatin, follicular cells: Follicular cells are seen normally in the thyroid. However these are atypical with features neither clearly normal or straightforward cancerous. The cells are normally arranged side to side and overlapping of cells or overcrowding is abnormal. In this case...

Pathology: Thyroid Path Report, lymph nodes, surgeries
Pathology: Thyroid Path Report, lymph nodes, surgeries, tumor

Pathology: high WBC, chronic eosinophilic leukemia, essential thrombocythemia
chronic eosinophilic leukemia, essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera: Hello again: Myeloproliferative diseases (MPDs) are a heterogenous group of disorders characterized by cellular proliferation of one or more of the blood cell lines. As per one type of classification it consists of four diseases: CML, polycythemia vera,...

Pathology: high wbc count, high wbc count, low platelet counts
high wbc count, low platelet counts, yellow mucus: Hi Jack: Any kind of infection as well as stress can elevate the white blood cell count and neutrophils which are first line of defense. Leukemia is suspected if the counts are even higher and accompanied with abnormal cells and usually low platelet...

Pathology: Iron levels, iron deficiency anemia, red blood cells
iron deficiency anemia, red blood cells, iron levels: Hello Sara: Ferritin is storage form of iron. If this is low and transferrin is high it is most likely to be due to iron deficiency. A single heavy period will not affect these values. However if you normally have heavy bleeding this could be a cause of...

Pathology: pathology report, nodular goiter, hurthle cells
nodular goiter, hurthle cells, follicular cells: Hello Brandi: Follicular epithelial cells and hurthle cells are seen in a number of conditions associated with thyroid. Hence the term compatible . These are common in goiter. If overall morphology (appearance) of cells was not benign the report would...

Pathology: peripheral smear, peripheral smear, chronic diseases
peripheral smear, chronic diseases, bhavani: Hello Bhavani: In a normal smear neutrophils are the dominant cells seen. If lymphocytes are present in greater numbers this is abnormal. Can be seen in many conditions like viral infections, some prolonged chronic diseases, and leukemias. The morphology...

Pathology: spindle cell neoplasm with features of dfsp, spindle cell neoplasm, soft tissue neoplasms
spindle cell neoplasm, soft tissue neoplasms, soft tissue tumor: Hello Tania: DFSP is a slow growing tumor with an intermediate malignant potential. Malignant tumors are those which spread to distant sites within the body. DFSP does not spread to other areas but is locally aggressive. Since it is a soft tissue tumor...

Pathology: Test results, normal flora, types of bacteria
normal flora, types of bacteria, gram positive rods: Hello: Is this for a urine microscopic exam. If so this is not clinically significant. Urine is generally sterile and has few to no cells like (WBCs or epithelial cells) Rare gram positive cocci and rods (types of bacteria) may be a contaminant from skin....

Pathology: Thyriod cancer, neck dissection, thyroid cancer
neck dissection, thyroid cancer, salivary gland: Hello Stacy: Borderline node is equivocal, it could be just normal or barely nudging towards abnormal in terms of size. The only way to confirm its nature is by a biopsy. Your physician will recommend a time line for followup since you have had recurrent...

Pathology: Thyroid Path Report, papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, carcinoma of the thyroid
papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, carcinoma of the thyroid, tumor capsule: Hi Rhonda: 1. What does Margins: Positive mean?: Margins are of the nodule and it indicates that cancer is present right at the edges of the nodule. 2. Were lymph nodes taken? There is mention of lympho vascular invasion as negative, does not specifically...

Pathology: TLC count in CBC Test, types of viral infections, cb test
types of viral infections, cb test, white blood cell: Hello Ravi: Blood counts are dynamic values and the results vary every time you have the test done. If you are other wise healthy then these should fall within normal range or be very minimally above or below the upper or lower range. Many types of viral...

Pathology: White Blood Count, blood test result, white blood count
blood test result, white blood count, chest x ray: Hi Louise: I apologize for the delay in replying. If your child does not have fever and is active and healthier than before, most likely he is recovering from infection and counts will fall. However if he is till dull,tired and has fever, you need to...

Pathology: Biopsy Report, invasive ductal carcinoma, biopsy report
invasive ductal carcinoma, biopsy report, ductal carcinoma: Hello Charles: I apologize for the delay in answering your question. The stage of the tumor cannot b ascertained from the above report. You need to have the size of the tumor, extent of its spread to lymph nodes and distant sites to have the final stage....

Pathology: Biopsy results/what to expect, biopsy results, pernicious anemia
biopsy results, pernicious anemia, definite diagnosis: Hello Laura: It could be any number of things from a simple abscess (pus collection) to fluid filled cyst, benign / malignant mass. Without actually examining the lesions and the biopsy its just speculation. Please wait for the biopsy result for a definite...

Pathology: euthyroid/goiter, thyroid goiter, water cress
thyroid goiter, water cress, fucus vesiculous: Hello Tracy: The commonest cause of enlargement of thyroid (goiter) is due to iodine deficiency. If you take salt fortified with iodine it is unlikely that you have the deficiency. However this process can be autoimmune, where the body rejects its own...

Pathology: fine needle biopsy result, fine needle biopsy, pleomorphic adenoma
fine needle biopsy, pleomorphic adenoma, stella maris: Hello Stella Maris: All pathology reports have a description of the cells / tissue seen. Pleomorphic adenoma has very characteristic features and should not be confused with malignancy. This is a benign tumor. You can request for a complete report...

Pathology: HIGH WBC, bone marrow aspiration, red blood cells
bone marrow aspiration, red blood cells, low hemoglobin: Hello Tasnim: Sorry for the delay. I thought I had already replied to this but apparently I did not. The WBC count is definitely high and needs to be evaluated. It is possible that there was an error in testing the first time and you will get a normal...

Pathology: multiple enlarged nodes, reactive lymph nodes, palpable lymph nodes
reactive lymph nodes, palpable lymph nodes, differential diagnosis: Hello Tara: If you have had the lymph nodes for many years its is unlikely that they signify anything serious. However, if there has been a recent change in their size (enlarged) or texture (Harder to feel than before) and associated symptoms like pain...

Pathology: path report unusual, connective tissue disorder, mixed connective tissue disorder
connective tissue disorder, mixed connective tissue disorder, high sedimentation rate: Hello Donna: High Sedimentation rate indicates presence of a chronic disease and is non specific test. ANA are positive in a many autoimmune disorders including, lupus, scleroderma, dermatomyositis, sjorgen s, mixed connective tissue disorder etc. RNP-sm...

Pathology: phyllode tumour, phylloides tumor, phyllodes tumor
phylloides tumor, phyllodes tumor, breast tumors: Hello Latha: Borderline Phyllodes tumor are more likely to recur about 40% and they can metastasize (spread to other locations in the body) An existing tumor does not become malignant however a new one may have features which classify the tumor as malignant....

Pathology: Vitamin B12 Test, blood test result, liver diseases
blood test result, liver diseases, lab tests: Hello Bhavani: Normally elevated B12 levels are not monitored if you are otherwise healthy. However in certain liver diseases / dysfunction and leukemia the serum B12 may be elevated. Please discuss this with your physician and any other lab tests if done...

Pathology: my 9 month old????, lymphs, lymph node
lymphs, lymph node, exact level: Hello Jill: It would help if I knew what is the exact level of lymphocytes. Infants generally have higher lymphocytes compared to neutrophils. If however these were elevated beyond the normal upper level then it is likely that he has some viral infection....

Pathology: FNA report - wait or surgery?, cytologic atypia, granular chromatin
cytologic atypia, granular chromatin, thyroid nodules: Hello Elissa Colon cancer per se does not make the thyroid lesion as cancer. However since the cells from thyroid are atypical, which means they do not have clear cut appearance of normal cells or cancer cells. They lie in between. Atypical follicular cells...

Pathology: help understanding Path report, squamous cell carcinoma, surgical margins
squamous cell carcinoma, surgical margins, central crater: Hello Pat: I apologize for the delay in answering your question. Keratoacanthoma is a relatively common low grade malignancy and many consider this as a variant of squamous cell carcinoma. The treatment for this is surgical. Complete removal of the...

Pathology: HIGH TLC IN CBC, sir gangaram hospital, blood cell count
sir gangaram hospital, blood cell count, chhabra: Hello: The total blood cell count increases in case of infection. However trauma and stress also cause a rise in cells. The current increase in cells may be due to trauma and not infection and will take few days to revert to normal. If this does not...

Pathology: Lymph nodes, distant organs, stage 3a
distant organs, stage 3a, pathology report: Hello Marie: The staging of colon cancer is based on all three parameters T: deals with degree of involvement of colon. In your case it is T4a - has penetrated to the outermost layer (serosa) of colon but is not invading surrounding organs N: number of...

Pathology: pathology report ---male bladder cancer, bladder cancer, pathology report
bladder cancer, pathology report, cystoscopy: Hello Anita: From the information provided by you, this is a tumor which is not infiltrating in deeper tissue (non invasive) I do not understand what 1A-TOTO LX3 stands for, unless TOTO refers to entire tissue being submitted Grade 2 0r 3: This should...

Pathology: serum PSA test, serum psa levels, test serum
serum psa levels, test serum, psa level: Hello: Serum PSA levels are a screening and not a diagnostic tests. The values can be elevated even in benign conditions of prostate. If the PSA is elevated above 4ng correlation has to be made with size of prostate enlargement / volume etc by imaging...

Pathology: thyroid biopsy, fine needle aspiration, thyroid follicular cells
fine needle aspiration, thyroid follicular cells, thyroid biopsy: Hello Beth: The material taken from the thyroid according to the report does not have enough of the thyroid cells to definitely rule out or confirm presence of cancer. Majority cells are inflammatory cells. Hodgkins disease can develop in the setting...

Pathology: Thyroid Fine needle biopsy, fine needle biopsy, partial thyroidectomy
fine needle biopsy, partial thyroidectomy, needle biopsies: Hello Clare: Since three of the four biopsies are inconclusive and only one shows material suggestive of a cyst. The cyst may be benign. As the cytology has not provided a diagnosis partial removal of thyroid will provide a final diagnosis. However the...

Pathology: tlc, eosinophil, basophil
eosinophil, basophil, monocyte: Hello Vimal: Both the reports show values within normal range. There is nothing worrisome in these. These parameters are dynamic and values will change each time you get the blood tested. As long as they are within normal range there is no cause for concern...

Pathology: Abnormal Labs, deep vein thrombosis, low wbc count
deep vein thrombosis, low wbc count, bone marrow aspiration: Hi Debby Leukemia presents with High or low WBC count but platelets are always decreased below normal. However to confirm or rule out a diagnosis of leukemia a bone marrow aspiration is required. It cannot be based only on counts. The bone marrow will...

Pathology: abnormal labs, fine needle aspiration, symptoms of hypothyroid
fine needle aspiration, symptoms of hypothyroid, low tsh: hi again: The TSH and T3, T$ are low normal...that is at the lower limit of normal. If all three drop below and become further decreased this could be secondary hypothyroidism. Something which is causing reduction in TSH and because TSH is low it cannot...

Pathology: Blood Results Keep Coming Back Abnormal, mild leukopenia, red blood cells
mild leukopenia, red blood cells, atypical lymphocytes: Hello Susan: going by all your results, the blood counts have been on the lower limit of normal. It is possible that this is the normal for you. Since all the lab ranges are an average of the values for a given set of healthy population, some people can...

Pathology: Cytology Report, differential diagnosis, mild infection
differential diagnosis, mild infection, disease stage: Hello Tami: Few urothelial cells (15 per 10 high power fields)can be found in normal urine samples. If they are more in number but resemble normal urothelial cells then these could signify infection , inflammation , stones etc. If the cells are abnormal...

Pathology: Blood Results Keep Coming Back Abnormal, cancer specialist, levothyroxine
Pathology: Blood Results Keep Coming Back Abnormal, cancer specialist, levothyroxine, high blood pressure

Pathology: fna thyroid, nuclear medicine study, thyroid follicles
nuclear medicine study, thyroid follicles, follicular cells: Hello Peggy: Follicular cells are the cells which line the thyroid follicles (glands) they secrete colloid..a material in which the hormones are produced. In this case they do not indicate cancer Few lymphocytes can be present in any kind of lesion. Graves...

Pathology: High Red Cell Folate in pregnancy, red cell folate, folate levels
red cell folate, folate levels, pmol: Hello Nicola: Most women develop folate deficiency during pregnancy as the demand for this Vitamin by the body increases, hence a daily supplement of 400Ug is recommended. High levels of folate per se do not cause harmful effects as the Vitamin is water...

Pathology: high white blood cell count and lymphcotes, white blood count, blood cell count
white blood count, blood cell count, white blood cell: Hello: If there is an infection in the gums or root of the teeth this can cause an increase in white blood cell count. Severe pain and trauma can also raise the counts. Once an infection is treated the counts should revert back to normal. If they are...

Pathology: Junctional Clark Nevus, lateral margins, atypical melanocytes
lateral margins, atypical melanocytes, gross description: Hello Elaine: A nevus is a benign mole and junctional indicates the location in the skin that is at the junction of the two layers of skin (outer layer of epidermis and deeper dermis) Once the designation of Clarks Nevus is applied (flat laterally growing...

Pathology: Lab Report- Mole Removed, cytologic atypia, spitz nevus
cytologic atypia, spitz nevus, mitotic figures: Hello Joan: A Spitz nevus is generally seen in children, but can occur in adults. Since this is atypical lesion which means the cells are abnormal but not to the extent to call them cancer (melanoma cells) neither are they completely normal. The report...

Pathology: PATH report - T9 lesion, biopsy report, prostate psa
biopsy report, prostate psa, differential diagnosis: Hello again: The biopsy report explains that the tumor in the bone is metastatic, that is arising in another organ. Also this is moderately to poorly differentiated mucin secreting adenocarcinoma. The differentiation refers to how closely the cells resemble...

Pathology: pathology, pus cells, liver enzymes
pus cells, liver enzymes, loose stool: Hello Leena: The total blood count is elevated (mild) along with increase in neutrophils, also the liver enzymes are mildly increased. I would say your daughter has some kind of infection...maybe in the liver or elsewhere. Even though the urine shows...

Pathology: pathology report, colon polyps, pathology report
colon polyps, pathology report, cytologic atypia: Hi Peggy: Many types of polyps develop in the colon Adenomas constitute about 10% of all colon polyps and have gland formation which is abnormal. These are further divided into three types based on their appearance Tubular - tube shaped glands Villous...

Pathology: Pathology Report Atyipical?, hip replacement surgery, red blood cells
hip replacement surgery, red blood cells, sciatica nerve: Hi The difficulty in arriving at a definite diagnosis is due to the degenerated cells. This alters their appearance. Multiple Myeloma can express immune markers which can help in diagnosing the condition. Another alternative is to let the fracture...

Pathology: pathology report for right thyroid glandular lobe nodule, core needle biopsy, pathology report
core needle biopsy, pathology report, follicular lesion: Hello AB: The report states Follicular Lesion with mild hyperplastic change. On FNAC or core needle biopsy it hard to say if a follicular lesion is benign or malignant as the final distinction is breach of the capsule of the lesion and the cells moving...

Pathology: Pistopathology report, central lumen, glands
central lumen, glands, blood vessel: Hello: The report is describing the architecture of the tumor. It is made up of glands (cells arranged around a central lumen) The glands are variable in shape and size (normal glands are more uniform) The glands are composed of cells with nuclei having...

Pathology: swollen lymph nodes since birth, swollen lymph nodes, lymph node biopsy
swollen lymph nodes, lymph node biopsy, white blood count: Hello Lupita: The blood count most often increases due to infection. However, it can also be due to inflammation (swelling), stress to the body (he has been sick). It can also be leukemia (blood cancer) But none of these conditions be diagnosed without...

Pathology: thyroid biopsy, papillary thyroid carcinoma, thyroid biopsy
papillary thyroid carcinoma, thyroid biopsy, thyroid nodule: Hello Denise: the FNA report states that there is suspicion of presence of papillary thyroid cancer...this is not big enough to be palpated or seen on ultrasound. Papillary cancers are known to be occult (hidden) due to small size. The suspicion is due...

Pathology: 0 absolute eosinophils, parasitic infections, clinical significance
parasitic infections, clinical significance, hep c: Hello Peggy: Eosinophils as 0 has no clinical significance. There may be 1-2 % circulating in the blood, it is more significant when the eosinophils are increased above the upper limit of normal. This would indicate allergy / parasitic infections etc....

Pathology: Blood CP report, red blood cells, mean corpuscular volume
red blood cells, mean corpuscular volume, anemia cause: Hello: All the values are within normal range. However the hemoglobin is decreased along with MCV (mean corpuscular volume) This indicates that the red blood cells have reduced amount of hemoglobin and have reduced volume indicating they are smaller...

Pathology: cbc, peripheral blood smear, red blood cells
peripheral blood smear, red blood cells, monocytes: Hello Manish: The report for monocytes is Ok. The ESR is mildly elevated indicating some chronic process in the body. This is just a screening test. Malaria cannot be diagnosed by ESR.A peripheral blood smear has to be examined to look for the parasites...

Pathology: COLONOSCOPY RESULTS, colon diverticula, tubulovillous adenoma
colon diverticula, tubulovillous adenoma, descending colon: Hello Sandra: The diagnosis of the colonoscopic biopsy indicates that you had a tubulovillous adenoma. It is a kind of polyp which is not entirely benign but is also not cancer. It has the potential to convert to cancer if left behind. The entire polyp...

Pathology: Immature granulocytes, nccls guidelines, granulocytes
nccls guidelines, granulocytes, grans: Hello Lynn: In automated counters thousands of cells are counted and NCCLS guidelines provide a normal range of 0-2% A few immature granulocytes are not clinically significant if you are in good health. In general these represent the response of body to...

Pathology: electrophoresis and intestinal malabsorption/IgA, malabsorption, serum protein electrophoresis
malabsorption, serum protein electrophoresis: This is an interesting question. If I interpret it correctly, you are asking if malabsorption can affect the results of a serum protein electrophoresis. Malabsorption would typically decrease total serum proteins, particularly albumin. However, immunoglobulins...

Pathology: Follicular lesions, toxic nodular goiter, thyroid scan and uptake
toxic nodular goiter, thyroid scan and uptake, cervical lymphadenopathy: Hello Reham: I will only comment on the FNA report a radiologist is the expert to help with the ultrasound and the Thyroid scan. The FNA report indicates that it is hypocellular or that it has less number of cells to interpret. However the cells seen...

Pathology: Granulocytes, b cell lymphoma, large b cell lymphoma
b cell lymphoma, large b cell lymphoma, diffuse large b cell lymphoma: Doctors would consider a MCH of 34.1 when the normal range is 26-34 as being essentially normal . I would not be concerned about that lab abnormality, and I also would not be too concerned about 1% immature granulocytes. These types of cells can appear in...

Pathology: Imaging for stomach cancer, pyloric channel, stomach tissue
pyloric channel, stomach tissue, stomach cancer: Hello Michael: Staging will depend on the extent of spread of the tumor. The biopsy should mention how far the tumor is involving the stomach wall. If the polyp is not completely removed and some surrounding stomach tissue ws not taken in the biopsy it...

Pathology: SGOT/AST Test, sgot ast, liver function tests
sgot ast, liver function tests, diagnostic significance: Hello Kim: The normal range for ALT is 7-56IU/L however some laboratories use the updated upper limit of 30U/L From that reference range your ALT is minimally elevated. By itself this has no diagnostic significance. This should be evaluated along with the...

Pathology: Thyroid follicular cells, hurthle cells, macrophages and colloid present, thyroid follicular cells, hurthle cells
thyroid follicular cells, hurthle cells, thyroid gland: Hello Linda: On FNA presence of Hurthle cells and follicular cells are hard to differentiate between benign and cancer cells. The definitive diagnosis is obtained only when the nodule or thyroid gland is surgically removed. The risk mentioned is 20%...

Pathology: Thyroid Growth with ATypical Cells, thyroid hormones, typical cells
thyroid hormones, typical cells, atypical cells: Hello Duane: Atypical cells are in between truly benign and malignant cells. They lack clear cut features to label them normal or fit into cancer cells. For this reason a biopsy where a larger piece of tissue is removed helps arrive at a conclusive diagnosis....

Pathology: thyroid pathology results, thyroid, FNA
thyroid, FNA: I believe you mean core needle biopsy . Fine needle aspirates (FNAs) of the thyroid are intended to be screening procedures, alerting the clinicians when additional workup is needed. In your case, the pathologist identified an atypical population of cells...

Pathology: HIGH GRADE WHO grade 3 of 3 bladder cancer, radical cystectomy, bladder wall
radical cystectomy, bladder wall, bladder cancer: Hi Robin: From your description it seems that the tumor has a necrotic center (dead tissue) and a defect which is transmural - that is extends through the thickness of the wall. So there is a perforation extending through the wall (occupied by the tumor)...

Pathology: Lab Results, absolute counts, lab reference
absolute counts, lab reference, losing blood: I assume this is a percent value and not the absolute values. The neutrophils are minimally decreased and there is a minimal increase in monocytes. Monocytes are elevated in chronic infections or inflammation. Your lymphocytes may be elevated in response...

Pathology: mam plz help me, hiv antibody test, cuticle
hiv antibody test, cuticle, foreplay: Hi Rony: For HIV antibody test it is recommended to get a test done 3 months after exposure. If this is negative then no further testing is done. 97% people develop antibodies within the three month period, rarely it takes six months, so if there is anxiety,...

Pathology: Myleocytes, blood cell count, white blood cell
blood cell count, white blood cell, immature cells: Hi Gary: You have not mentioned whihc cell line was reduced to cause reduction in white blood cell count. If the cells less in number were neutrophils, then having few myelocytes indicates the bone marrow is trying to produce more cells to bring up your...

Pathology: Pathologist Smear Review, atypical lymphs, bone marrow aspirate
atypical lymphs, bone marrow aspirate, clinical correlation: Hello Brenda: This can be due to a number of causes. A granulocytopenia (low or absent neutrophils) can lead to repeated infections and other issues. Please consult a hematologist and he would advise a bone marrow aspirate exam to evaluate the condition...

Pathology: pathology report on thyroid nodule, thyroid cells, hurthle cells
thyroid cells, hurthle cells, thyroid nodule: Hello Cindy: The features described in the report indicate presence of cells of thyroid which are arranged in groups, sheets as well as single cells. There is presence of colloid which is the secretion of thyroid cells along with blood and cells which remove...

Pathology: Surgical Pathology Report, surgical pathology report, resection margins
surgical pathology report, resection margins, large intestine: Hello Pam: Here is an explanation for your mother s report: She had a surgery where a portion of the right side of the large intestine was removed (right hemicolectomy) In addition they removed the surrounding fat and lymph nodes (these are small nodules...

Pathology: Histopathology report, spindle cell tumor, collagenous stroma
spindle cell tumor, collagenous stroma, diagnosis section: Prem, You have provided me here with only the Microscopic Examination section of the pathology report. This section only describes what the tumor looks like under the microscope. To give information about treatment or prognosis, I would need to know what...

Pathology: Ovarian Leiomyoma, cholesterol clefts, smooth muscle actin
cholesterol clefts, smooth muscle actin, rare neoplasm: Hello Sheila A leiomyoma is a benign tumor of smooth muscle. Staining with smooth muscle actin confirms the muscle origin. Negative CD34 confirms this is not related to vascular origin. The cellular features are in favor of leiomyoma. If there was presence...

Pathology: POSSIBLE MELANOMA?, melanocyte, billing purposes
melanocyte, billing purposes, dermis: Hello Valerie I apologize in the delay in replying. The report describes a lesion which is primarily benign, however it is considered atypical with features neither completely normal nor cancer, in other words this can be a ore- malignant condition. If...

Pathology: PSA Results & Biopsy, psa values, supliments
psa values, supliments, biopsy: Hello David PSA values upto 4 nano gm are considered normal between 4-10 are borderline and above 10 highly suspicious for cancer. The repeat PSA values show decrease and are below 4. You can have another PSA two months later, if still below 4 a biopsy...

Pathology: recent symptoms&infections/blood tests, low grade fevers, contac lens
low grade fevers, contac lens, stable vision: Hello Jason: You have had two major episodes of infection which have been severe. In bacterial infections the total white count increases with increase in neutrophils and relative decrease in lymphocytes. As the infection subsides all counts revert to normal...

Pathology: i have 22400 wbc, dear madam, mild increase
dear madam, mild increase, blood cells: Hello Ramesh The result has to be evaluated along with the percentage of type of blood cells. A mild increase in counts is seen with infections- flu, cough cold, sore throat etc. Consult your physician who can correlate with your signs and symptom...