About Experts Sitemap - Group 6 - Page 42 2016-09-20

Biology: photosynthesis, green plants, new discovery
green plants, new discovery, photosynthesis: Hi Leigh Unless there is some new discovery regarding green plants that I am unaware of plants not only harvest the sun s energy to make glucose but they must also carry out respiration in order to acquire energy and respiration requires oxygen. I do not...

Biology: phototrophism, plant hormones, auxin
plant hormones, auxin, plant cells: Hello Rebecca, phototropism requires some sort of photoreceptor, i.e. a receptor sensitive to light of a certain color. Common photoreceptors respond to red (phytochromes) or blue light (phototropins in Arabidopsis or cryptochromes). The growth of plant...

Biology: photsynthesis and Cellular Respiration, cellular respiration, homework question
cellular respiration, homework question, water energy: This sounds a lot like a homework question, and the answer if most probably in your textbook, but I will give you a few clues. Photosynthesis (all info you need on this is given on website: http://photoscience.la.asu.edu/photosyn/education/photointro.html...

Biology: physiology, blood clots in the heart, lack of oxygen
blood clots in the heart, lack of oxygen, co2 levels: The urinary system regulates salt and water content and gets rid of the urea in the body and the kidneys use blood pressure to help in filtering the blood. Thus they can affect blood pressure and blood pressure may affect them. I am sure there are other...

Biology: physiology, pore size, concetration
pore size, concetration, semipermeable membrane: Hi and thanks for the questions. For question 1 as the temperature gets hotter the reaction time increases, so therefore, the time required to reach equilibrium would decrease. For question 2 I m assuming your talking about osmosis. If you have a U-shaped...

Biology: physiology, body surface, arteries
body surface, arteries, veins: Hello indu: There are a number of reasons. First of all it is much easier to reach veins that are closer to the body surface than the deeper arteries. Sticking a needle into a vein is less painful than penetrating an artery. Finally the artery is under...

Biology: pigmentation, white rim, health sites
white rim, health sites, water intake: You may want to do a search on Google or some of the various health sites on this subject. From what I can gather this condition may be caused by diet, specifically, too much salt or sugar or not enough water. It may help to increase your water intake....

Biology: pland photosynthesis and cellular respiration, photosynthesis and cellular respiration, photosynthetic enzymes
photosynthesis and cellular respiration, photosynthetic enzymes, plant photosynthesis: Hi, Nick. Enzymes in photosynthesis use light to convert Carbon dioxide in the air plus water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen. I m not exactly sure how chlorophyll and other enzymes came about but I believe it first appeared in ancient organisms that...

Biology: plant biology, colored dyes, vascular plants
colored dyes, vascular plants, plant biology: Hi Leigh: The plants you were working with were vascular plants. That means that the have special cells called tracheids which make up vessels to carry waater to the leaves and flowers. This vascular tissue is called xylem. Your colored dyes were in separate...

Biology: plant cell, dark structure, nuclear membrane
dark structure, nuclear membrane, micrograph: hello bhavisha; I have looked at the micrograph. I believe that the nucleus is the larger structure with the irregular border. The border is the nuclear membrane (envelope) and the spherical dark structure off to the upper left withinthe border is chromatin...

Biology: plant experiment, plant experiment, drawing conclusions
plant experiment, drawing conclusions, plain water: Hi Mayra. I have no idea but science is a discovery process and your experiment is designed to find out. I hope you are using a scientific method. 1. Hypothesis- What is your guess as to what will happen? 2. Experimental design Are you using controls?...

Biology: about plant fruits, corn kernel, corn cob
corn kernel, corn cob, aggregate fruits: Dear Pierre, Plants are composed of living tissue, but the plant itself really cannot be considered an individual organism, since it cannot reproduce by itself or live after it s been detached from the plant that produced it. On the other hand, a fruit...

Biology: plant kingdom, chemical gradients, stimuli
chemical gradients, stimuli, haas: Consciousness and feeling are a product of a nervous system. Plants do not have a nervous system or even nerves. Their responses are simply the result of the way they grow and react to simple stimuli. They use chemicals that can respond to light and can...

Biology: plant pigments, erlenmeyer flask, plant pigments
erlenmeyer flask, plant pigments, column chromatography: Hello Sinhead, usually plant pigments are extracted by grinding leaves in a mortar containing a small volume of solvent like aceton. This would result in a mixture of all pigments present in the plant (chlorophyll, carotene, xanthophyll, lutein, phaeophytin,...)....

Biology: plant sensitivity, ion movements, sensory capabilities
ion movements, sensory capabilities, curious question: Plants do not have nerves or a complex sensory system. They do have primitive sensory capabilities so that information in the form of chemicals or even ion movements will cause cells to loose pressure or grow so that can remove part of itself from a harmful...

Biology: plants, incomplete flower, insect vectors
incomplete flower, insect vectors, self pollination: Hi amanda: Self pollination within a flower inhibits variation. Self pollination in a complete flower is prevented because the maturation of the sperms (pollen) and eggs do not occur at the same time. Cross pollination between plants occurs usually through...

Biology: plants, leaf tissues, african violet
leaf tissues, african violet, vegetative growth: Your questions are difficult to answer because they are so general. Are you asking about vegetative growth from a leaf. Some plants can be propagated in this way and the African violet is one. Shoots are generated form leaf tissues and roots develop...

Biology: plants, study plants, question science
study plants, question science, milk and water: Hi Rich: It looks like I have a bunch of 7th graders about to study plants? Are you all in the same school? I can t answer this question. Science is a discovery process. To find out if a plant grows better in plain water or milk and water you have to design...

Biology: plants, growing plants, science class
growing plants, science class, variables: Hi Matias; It appears that I suddenly received a lot of questions from 7th graders about growing plants. You must all be in the same class. I cannot answer your your question. You will have to set up an experiment and test it. There are some things...

Biology: plants, xylem and phloem, non vascular plants
xylem and phloem, non vascular plants, correct answer: It has been a while since I have been over this subject and I do not have my plant form and function notes with me to check my answer, but I believe that the correct answer is no. I am about 90% sure this is the correct answer. Vascular plants have xylem and...

Biology: plants, chlorophyll, pigments
chlorophyll, pigments, dana: Dear Nicole, Plants can grow in the dark only for a limited time, since they get energy for growth only from light. Once their stored energy runs out, they will die if left in the dark too long. A plant grown in the dark will often lose its chlorophyll,...

Biology: plants, soil particles, necessary nutrients
soil particles, necessary nutrients, dry soil: Dear Bautista, I just found your question in the Biology question pool, and thought I could help. Plant roots don t need to be in soil as long as there are sufficient dissolved nutrients in whatever substrate the roots contact. This is why hydroponics...

Biology: plants defense mechanism, necessary prerequisite, nerve transmission
necessary prerequisite, nerve transmission, chemical signals: Dear Jack, As far as we know, a nervous system with a brain is a necessary prerequisite for feeling pain. And as far as we know, only animals have that prerequisite. Plants may be able to move and react to stimuli (those characteristics are what makes...

Biology: plants and emotions, central integration, observable evidence
central integration, observable evidence, cellular level: Dear Pierre, The question you asked isn t weird: many people have wondered about it over the ages. Unfortunately, though, this is a question outside the realm of science. Because a plant has nothing akin to the nervous system or brain of an animal,...

Biology: Why do plants grow on hills?, andv, dana
andv, dana, sunlight: Dear Hasnain, This is a pretty vague question. But I will answer it as asked: Plants grow on hills because there are sufficient resources there (soil, sunlight, water) to support them, if they are genetically capable of taking advantage of those resources....

Biology: plants specifically algea, class charophyceae, phylum chlorophyta
class charophyceae, phylum chlorophyta, true plants: Hello Kelly, it can be reasonably assumed that life evolved from the simple to the more complex. For example, the first organisms on earth certainly were microscopic single-celled bacteria-like lifeforms, not plants or animals - which consist of billions...

Biology: plants and sponges, internal cavities, true tissues
internal cavities, true tissues, collar cells: Dear Jennifer, That s not an easy question, actually! As you know, a sponge is more closely related to animals (some include it in Kingdom Animalia, but there s argument about this) than to plants. So it would share many more characteristics with animals...

Biology: plants, info on plants, writing a research paper
info on plants, writing a research paper, organic soil: Hello John: Quite often I get questions from someone who is writing a research paper without doing the research. This is ok if you want to do a biography or find out what Isaac Newton said about the Laws of Motion but I do not believe you can write a research...

Biology: plasmids, mitochondira, ancient dna
mitochondira, ancient dna, base pairs: I discovered a paper describing the mitochondrial DNA as being in 5 to 10 rings These rings contain over 16,569 base pairs and 37 genes involved in respiration. These rings are not called plasmids but I suppose they really are. Therefore, as you suggest,...

Biology: plauges in ancent rome, ancent rome, bubonic plague
ancent rome, bubonic plague, plauges: I m afraid that I don t have enough information to answer your question as stated. Are you referring specifically to the population of the Roman empire, or Rome itself? Does plagues refer to the bubonic plague, or disease more generally? If you can clarify...

Biology: please answer my questions, x chromosomes, professional development course
x chromosomes, professional development course, biology teachers: Hello Suhair With regard to thes equestions we may be having some language problems as I find it difficult to understanding the meaning of some of the questions. 1. Barr bodies are remnants of X chromosomes resulting from polar bodiues formed during oogenesis...

Biology: please help me with bilogy homework, pair of genes, dna chain
pair of genes, dna chain, female traits: I don t like any of the answers. The question describes multiple genes and then mentions a pair of traits. If you assume it means a pair of genes this will result in one trait in the baby which will be determined by what each gene codes for in its cells....

Biology: pleasure in chocolate, haagen dazs ice cream, chocolate dessert
haagen dazs ice cream, chocolate dessert, little cake: This is certainly interesting selim.. Your description of events after eating chocolate indictaes a writing ability. I cannot explain your reaction except to say that I do not believe it is a chemical reaction. Although chocolate contains caffeine the amount...

Biology: population, population of the world, biology class
population of the world, biology class, population increase: Recently I answered a similar question for another student. He asked 10 questions. Here they are with the answers. Hope this helps. If you have anything more specific to ask let me know. I am not an expert in this fiend. These are my opinions. 1....

Biology: practical exercise, wind intensity, intensity light
wind intensity, intensity light, stomata: The main controlling factor in the opening of stomata is the concentration of carbon dioxide. temperature however is important. I would subject the plant to varying temperatures. Are you required to actually carry out the study or just design the experiment...

Biology: No pre ejaculate or pre cum, pre ejaculate, pre ejaculation
pre ejaculate, pre ejaculation, k y jelly: I have never heard of pre ejaculation as a good thing and I have always thought it was to be avoided rather than not. Anyway, if lubrication is the main problem there is a product that is great in this regard, K-Y Jelly. My wife and I have used it for many...

Biology: principles of ecology, predator prey relationships, qualitative fashion
predator prey relationships, qualitative fashion, quantitative methods of research: Thanks for using AllExperts, Ashleigh. This is absolutely true. Examples of quantitative measures are biomass and mathematical descriptions of predator/prey relationships, while a qualitative measure might be the degree to which a particular ecosystem is identified...

Biology: prions, gastro intestinal tract, cells of the immune system
gastro intestinal tract, cells of the immune system, intestinal cells: Excellent question Stacey! I had to look this one up myself. Here s the answer: The abnormal form of the prion protein, (PrP scrapie) forms very insoluble aggregates, which may or may not be complexed with other undefined molecules. It is possible that...

Biology: project, soda water, leaf length
soda water, leaf length, soil type: This will be easier than the wave lengths of light one. Are you considering the soda water and tap water one? If so I would suggest Soda water, purified water and chlorinated (tap) water. As to the observations: The three you mention make sense. ...

Biology: project, peat pots, flower pots
peat pots, flower pots, flower pot: Hi Malhi 1. Yes, use flower pots or peat pots. If all the soil you use is the same it will make no difference how much water is already there when you begin. 2. Ask for potting soil 3.You can use two seeds in case one does not germinate. After they...

Biology: project, rate of photosynthesis, null hypothesis
rate of photosynthesis, null hypothesis, photosynthetic rate: Hi Mahli; First a hypothesis is a statement not a question so leave the does off. Secondly your hypothesis mentions an increase in the rate of photosynthesis which means testing this hypothesis will make it necessary to test the photosynthetic rate....

Biology: project, plant roots, tap water
plant roots, tap water, ph range: Hi mahli; Carbonated water has pH of 4.2. Obviously this is too acid for elodea. I don t know the range but my guess ot will grow best around 7.0 I am not aware of studies of CO2 water on roots and I do not know why plants would grow better when watered...

Biology: project, biology projects, biology project
biology projects, biology project, biology class: Dear Naman, From the wording of your question, it is very difficult for me to figure out what you are asking. It sounds as if you are asking me what the assignment is for your biology class. If this is the case, then I would suggest you ask your instructor....

Biology: project expert, ivy growth, project expert
ivy growth, project expert, carbonated drink: Dear Maria, I wish you luck on your project. I can only answer questions this week because I will be away on vacation for 10 days after that so the time frame might be a problem; it s up to you. Ask your questions soon if you want an answer before April....

Biology: project topics, fruit flies, planaria
fruit flies, planaria, bacteriologist: There are some areas that lend themselves to a really good project. One is bacteriology and the other involves working with flatworms. The planaria is great for regeneration studies but takes some time to complete. You can usually buy Planaria from a supply...

Biology: project topics, cdli ca, biology projects
cdli ca, biology projects, bean plants: Thanks for reminding me malhi. I know you need this fast so I am going to give you a web site with plenty of Grade 9-12 biology projects. Go to http://www.cdli.ca/~jbarron/biology.html You should find something here that your teacher will approve of....

Biology: project, colored bulbs, bean seeds
colored bulbs, bean seeds, bean plants: Hello again Mahli. If your teacher did not like the fertilizer study I can t imagine accepting a type of e water study. I think that number 2 is best. Here is what I would do. 1. State your hypothesis: Plants grow best when subjected to Blue light...

Biology: proper preparation of nutrient agar, nutrient agar, growth of bacteria
nutrient agar, growth of bacteria, petri dishes: Hi Sylvia. The chlorine in the water can prevent the growth of bacteria. You can make your own media if you used all of your agar powder Get some clear gelatin. Follow the directions on the package and use distilled water. Boil the water and mix in some...

Biology: prostista, microscopic organisms, protist
microscopic organisms, protist, protista: Hi amanda; This a good question. Protista are mostly one celled and microscopic organisms. Some make their own food. They are complex cells and are Eukaryotes which means that they have no organized nucleus nor organelles. They may reproduce sexually or...

Biology: protein diet, building blocks of nucleic acids, protein degradation
building blocks of nucleic acids, protein degradation, dna and rna: Dear Ronald, a protein-only diet is possible regarding the energy balance only. But a healthy diet has to include essential components like vitamins, phosphate, potassium, iron and other minerals. All of these are not included in pure protein (but some...

Biology: protein diet, aerobic respiration, protein diet
aerobic respiration, protein diet, amino acids: Certainly. Proteins are digested into amino acids and The amino acids. The amino acids are deaminated and the Nh2 is converted to ures but the carbon chain is metabolized and used as a reactant in the steps in aerobic respiration. Some are converted to pyruvate...

Biology: protein sequence, homework question, modern biology
homework question, modern biology, protein sequence: Dear Karen, Only because you are a 57 year old student will I answer the question and I wish you much luck in your future endeavors. It is not only which amino acids but the sequence that is important. It is like letters and words: sword and words, and...

Biology: protein structure, protein structure, secondary structure
protein structure, secondary structure, structures of proteins: Pick any complex protein like hemoglobin or insulin. By domain they mean the part or parts of the protein that have specific properties. It could be a hydrophobic part or a charged section that binds with DNA etc. Higher order would be anything above secondary...

Biology: protein synthesis, peptide bonds, dna replication
peptide bonds, dna replication, protein synthesis: They are completely different processes. DNA replication involves dupplication of the DNA based ypon the base pairing rule and occurs durine cell division DNA also transcribes a segment of mRNA that attaches to the ribosomes. The mRNA is the coded segment...

Biology: protein synthesis, types of mutations, protein synthesis
types of mutations, protein synthesis, base deletion: Hi bob: A deletion or a substitution of a base will alter the codon and a different polypeptide will result. For example the hemeglobin molecule has two chains of amino acid an alpha and a beta chain. Normally there is a glutamic acid at the 6th position...

Biology: protein synthesis, process of protein synthesis, 20 amino acids
process of protein synthesis, 20 amino acids, ribsome: Hi Rachael; I am going to start from scratch and hopefully answer your question. Translation is not a complicated thing when you get your facts in order so burn these things into your brain first; 1.The type of protein made depends upon the sequence of...

Biology: proteins in the lipid bilayer, hydrophilic heads, biology text
hydrophilic heads, biology text, hydrophobic tails: Hi Jordan Carbohydtare chains join with proteins to form glycoproteins and lipids to form glycolipids. Both of these provide energy. They are complicated. Search the two at google for more information. Blood types are determined by these two compounds....

Biology: proteins, protein diet, amino acids
protein diet, amino acids, kreb cycle: Hi ron All ingested organic compounds are digested and proteins are broken down into amino acids. Some of these amino acids are deaminated. The NH2 becomes urea and the carbon chain becomes pyruvate and enters the Kreb cycle. Therefore proteins enter respiration...

Biology: protists, apicomplexans, sarcodina
apicomplexans, sarcodina, apicomplexan: Hi Carrie; The protists belong to a Kingdom and there are many more phyla than those you mention here and it keeps changing. Here is what I can tell you about the categories you mention. It is true that the basis of the classification is movement. The...

Biology: protists, red blood cells, taxonomic level
red blood cells, taxonomic level, protistan: Dear Lily, if this question arose from a school lesson you should have given the context of that question (was there a list of possible candidates? or was a specific subgroup of protists meant?). The problem of uncultivability is most serious concerning...

Biology: protists, kingdom protista, ecosytem
kingdom protista, ecosytem, food webs: Hi Carrie There are a lot of different protists. They exist in the food webs as first and second order consumers. Some feed on producers (algae). These are the first order consumers. The second order consumers feed on the first order consumers. Some are...

Biology: about protons and electrons, protons and electrons, electron numbers
protons and electrons, electron numbers, number of protons: You cannot tell electron numbers from the atomic number alone but if the atom has no charge then the electron and proton numbers are equal. If the atom has a charge than ther are either more or fewer electrons. If the atoms has a + charge there are fewer...

Biology: protozoa, noxious stimuli, aquatic organisms
noxious stimuli, aquatic organisms, phototaxis: Hi, and thanks for the question. There are several ways in which an organism can move without possessing muscles or a central brain. These methods include: chemotaxis, hydrotaxis, magnetotaxis, phototaxis, and thermotaxis. Chemotaxis is a kind of taxis, where...

Biology: pulmonary arteries in the heart, veins and arteries, pulmonary arteries
veins and arteries, pulmonary arteries, right ventricle: Hi jackie: Because they are carrying deoxigenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.(away from the heart) You must not mix up the terminolgy for veins and arteries. Any vessal carrying blood away from the heart is an artery. Vessels carrying...

Biology: punnett squares, punnett squares, square matrix
punnett squares, square matrix, punnet square: Dear Garrett, To set up a Punnett Square for two traits, you don t really need to know which trait is dominant and which is recessive. You can simply designate the two alleles with different symbols. For example, white hair could be B and black hair could...

Biology: Question about Biology, prey and predator, bacterium
prey and predator, bacterium, food sources: Bacteria and fungi compete for the same food sources. If both are growing on the same substrate and one, say one strain of fungus mutates to produce an antibiotic the bacteria will we inhibited of killed in that area. However, if a single bacterium mutates...

Biology: Question about eye color inheritance, eye color inheritance, dark pigmentation
eye color inheritance, dark pigmentation, recessive genes: Dear Laura, Although eye color inheritance is turning out to be far more complex than scientists first thought, it s still generally true that there is a gene coding for dark pigmentation of the iris (Brown eyes, usually written in shorthand as B to represent...

Biology: Question about fire in a jar, rapid oxidation, partial vacuum
rapid oxidation, partial vacuum, biology teacher: Simple Jay: Fire is rapid oxidation: Oxygen is being combined with the paper (burning). When the oxygen is gone the fire will burn out. Remember also that the oxygen in the jar had mass and was taking up space. When it is gone there is a partial vacuum...

Biology: Question about genetics, ligers, tigon
ligers, tigon, liger: Hi Jade; The names tiger and lion do not have reference to the sex of the animal. It is just a matter of using the first two letters of the animals name. What else could you call them? By the way, Ligers and tigons do not occur in nature. In...

Biology: Question on genetics, man of science, room thanks
man of science, room thanks, pindar: I have heard the idea before that Jesus came from outer space. From what you have told me Eagle is no man of science and obviously has no idea what science is all about. It takes all kinds doesn t it. There are still people that think the Earth is flat....

Biology: Question about Human Biology, sensory nerves, human biology
sensory nerves, human biology, pain thanks: These systems are all tied into your nervous system through your brain. You have sensory nerves in you epidermis that when stimulated send impulses to your spinal cork and brain. Your brain tells you it hurts and causes you to move your muscles which use...

Biology: Question about plant respiaration, c6h12o6, storing energy
c6h12o6, storing energy, presense: Hi Nathaniel What you have stated is photosynthesis not respiration. Here are the equations 6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2 (photosynthesis) When the reaction goes the other direction it is respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 ...

Biology: Question, electron carriers, carbon hydrogen
electron carriers, carbon hydrogen, glucose c6h12o6: I will try Brittini. There are two steps involved. The first is the captute of energy and the second involves utilizing the energy to synthesis Glucose from carbon dioxide and water. First: capture of photons (energy packets of light) Electrons are...

Biology: Questions, trna anticodon, nitrogen fertilizer
trna anticodon, nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen fixing bacteria: a is actually but is merely restating the question. It is saying that when tRNA binds to mRNA it binds to mRNA on the ribosome so I thought it was a bad answer b states that the AA detaches from the tRNA and adds to the polypeptide. This is true. c and...

Biology: Questions, nerve impulses, nerve impulse
nerve impulses, nerve impulse, glands in the brain: Hi Teresa 1. I chose c for this reason: Deposits of minerals (mostly calcium) could not be made intercellular. Mineral buildup in a clee would disrupt the cell. Remember that bone is mostly non living material. Living cells occur in the marrow which is part...

Biology: Questions about Biology, male pattern baldness, x linked recessive
male pattern baldness, x linked recessive, university of arkansas in little rock: 1. A female whose father was colorblind marries a normal male whose father was also colorblind. What is the probability that their daughter will be colorblind? A. 0% mother = XXc father = XY All daughters would be XX or XXc (Normal)...

Biology: Questions on reproduction, self pollination, cross pollination
self pollination, cross pollination, sperms and eggs: Hi terence; Cross pollination brings about variation on plants. Without it we could not see color variations. Self pollination is merely cloning. In body cells chromosomes are paired. Sexual reproduction requires sperms and eggs and these cells must...

Biology: my Questions, elements in the human body, vital hormones
elements in the human body, vital hormones, anaerobic bacteria: 1.Anaerobes are not found within any body tissues. There may be Tetanus spores on the skin 2. I don t have thisinformation. You can probably find it at Google 3.Not necessarily. It depends upon why the kidney is being removed. The adrenal secretes vital...

Biology: Quotes, abraham lincoln, sigmund freud
abraham lincoln, sigmund freud, vices: The first quote is supposed to mean that when humans became good at speech they were then able to solve conflicts by talking rather than by physical means. Civilization relies on communication between individuals to settle problems rather that fighting. ...

Biology: quantity of cells, theo van, precise answer
theo van, precise answer, human body: Dear Theo van Looy, The number of cells varies with the size of the individual so that there is no precise answer. However,according to one web site, the number in an adult might be on the order of 100 trillion. I hope that this helps you. Barbara...

Biology: Not sure how to go about this question, dna analysis, stem cell research
dna analysis, stem cell research, scientific technology: Cell biology is responsible for developments in various technologies that have increased food supplies and are used in agriculture, plant, and animal science. It is also important in the medical fields such as, developing vaccines, treatment of cancer, creating...

Biology: question, male pattern baldness, sex influenced traits
male pattern baldness, sex influenced traits, sex linked traits: Hi vida Sex linked traits are those carried on the 23rd pair of chromosomes. Sex linked traits are carried on any of the 23 pairs but depend upon the influence of sex hormones for expression. Male pattern baldness is sex influenced. Females may carry...

Biology: question, concentration gradient, carrier molecules
concentration gradient, carrier molecules, simple diffusion: Hello sara Simple diffusion involves movement of molecules from an area of high density to and area of lower density. Osmosis is simple diffusion. Facilitated involves such movement across a membrane but requires carrier molecules to aid in the movement....

Biology: question, incomplete dominance, blood proteins
incomplete dominance, blood proteins, red x: With incomplete dominance both alleles are expressed. When we cross some flowers for example a third phenotype results; red x white equals pink. With codominance two traits will dominate over a third but not over each other. The best example involves...

Biology: question, atp energy, electron acceptor
atp energy, electron acceptor, brain cells: Simple ANS: because oxygen is used by cells of your body to breakdown the food you eat. Breaking down the food creates energy that the body uses for functions like keeping your heart beating and your brain cells active. When there is no oxygen there is no...

Biology: question, predator prey relationship, bower birds
predator prey relationship, bower birds, google: This is a pretty broad topic Edu C. Consider trophic relationships and food webs. The predator prey relationship would be a good example. To be more specific consider a hawk and a mouse. Mating behavior is another. Birds are well known for mating ritual...

Biology: question, urine testing, menstrual period
urine testing, menstrual period, fertilization: Hi Randy There is some mystery about this. I have heard some women (including my wife) claim that they know about a day after conception but I cannot attest to this as word of mouth is not evidence. Any claims before cessation of menstrual period or...

Biology: question for you, progesterone hormones, fertilization capacity
progesterone hormones, fertilization capacity, sex cells: Dear Angela, This is an area of ongoing study, and I m sure there are more effects than what I ll mention briefly here. By sex cells I will assume you mean sperm and eggs. Recent studies have indicated that progesterone may enhance the ability of...

Biology: question, lakeland community college kirtland ohio, lakeland community college
lakeland community college kirtland ohio, lakeland community college, lakeland community college kirtland: Hi BM; I believe that such laws should be passed. Vaccinations for childhood diseases are already required in most states. Requiring vaccinations has saved the lives of countless children. It is necessary to force parents to have this done since many...

Biology: question about HPV vaccine, cervical cancer, opionion
cervical cancer, opionion, positive women: Dear BM, In my personal opinion, the state should leave that decision to the individual. Vaccines are not without risk, and there are some people who prefer not to vaccinate their children against anything, for fear of reactions to the vaccine or the carrier....

Biology: question about the hair/eye color of my unborn child, light blonde hair, reddish brown hair
light blonde hair, reddish brown hair, eyes color: Dear Delonie, Your child s hair should be some form of blond. There is at most a 50% chance that the eye color would be blue but there is a 50% likelihood that it could range from hazel to brown. Good luck with your baby may it be happy and healthy....

Biology: question of interest, visual memories, occipital lobe
visual memories, occipital lobe, blind person: Dreams are based upon visual memories stored in the occipital lobe. They cannot visualize memories they do not have. However they have memories based upon other senses sucn as touch so they would be able ti visualize those. This is just conjecture on my...

Biology: A question regarding germs and hygeine, fecal bacteria, strain of bacteria
fecal bacteria, strain of bacteria, fitting category: You do not have to worry about germs from your own feces or urine. (Urine is essentially sterile unless you have a urinary infection) You are immune to those bacteria under normal circumstances with a functioning immune system. Fact is, your entire body...

Biology: a question, aldehyde group, light absorption
aldehyde group, light absorption, clorophyll: Hello Pragya, the name chlorophyll is used for a group of related pigments that occur in plants and certain bacteria. The basic chemical structure is quite complicated but nevertheless the same for all chlorophylls: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/6/63/Chlorophyll_structure.png....

Biology: questions on 5 kingdoms and classfication, 5 kingdoms, five kingdoms
5 kingdoms, five kingdoms, invertebrate fossils: Hi joegiggs 1.All organisms considered to be living are classified within the five KIngdoms. Biologist do not considera virus to be alive. If you stick to the term alive in some sense you include viruses, viroids and prions. You can look up the last...

Biology: Two questions about microbiology., dangerous bacteria, sterilization
dangerous bacteria, sterilization, sea level: This would depend on the number of organisms and the type. I believe they recommend 10 - 15 min to make sure the water is safe. As far a prions are concerned they are much more resistant than bacteria. Ordinary cooking and sterilization in water will...

Biology: questions, dung beetle, raw nutrients
dung beetle, raw nutrients, dead organisms: I assume that by detritive you mean detritivore, and in that case there are a couple of key differences. First, a decomposer usually breaks down a considerable amount of the material upon which it feeds (thus decomposing it), while a detritivore (such as a...

Biology: Rabbit reproduction, rabbit reproduction, release eggs
rabbit reproduction, release eggs, sexual intercourse: Dear Alexander Fisher, Your idea of one egg producing six offspring is certainly a possibility although four or eight would have been more likely. Armadillos do have four identical offspring routinely (quadruplets from 1 egg). Rabbits are reflex ovulators...

Biology: Racial determination, anglo saxson, black poodle
anglo saxson, black poodle, human genes: Hmm.. this is a good question, that needs alot of explaining. There is no such thing as black blood, or race- these are socially constructed norms to differentiate people by physical characteristics. It is like saying that a black poodle is physically/ genetically...

Biology: Radiological Technology, temporary employment agency, age background
temporary employment agency, age background, medical area: Hi courtney; Working in any health or medical area would certainly be a plus. AS to the job market, I am not sure whether you could get a paid position. It depends upon your age, background and where you live. Check with a temporary employment agency....

Biology: Rainforest Biome, rate of deforestation, rain tree
rate of deforestation, rain tree, biome: Dear Dan, I think you will be able to find the answers to these questions and more here: http://www.rain-tree.com/facts.htm The current rate of deforestation of rainforest is about 1.5 - 2 acres per second--about 130,000 acres per day. Scary. ...

Biology: Rat reproduction (Urgent), mammal, maximum number
mammal, maximum number, hamster: This is difficult to estimate because there too many variables. Each female would have to have a maximum number possible in a litter of mostly females. The mammal with the highest reproductive rate is the hamster and the rate with them under ideal conditions...

Biology: RE:Unborn Baby, last dad, strawberry blonde hair
last dad, strawberry blonde hair, light hair: Dear Amy, From the information given, with nothing about the dad s parents or siblings, it is impossible to predict. At most there is a 50% chance that the baby will have your coloring, there could be a 100% chance that it would take after the dad. Good...

Biology: REACTANTS & PRODUCTS, glycolysis krebs cycle, plant and animal cells
glycolysis krebs cycle, plant and animal cells, electron transport: This question is too general and ambiguous to answer here. It involves both glycolysis, Krebs cycle and electron transport. You will need a text book or you can use Google to do a search on these terms. Reactants are what go into a specific reaction and the...

Biology: RESTRICTION MAP, enzymes, restriction map
enzymes, restriction map, google: A restriction map is simply a diagram showing where various restrictive enzymes cut DNA. These sites should help. The first one shows a circle map. http://www.fermentas.com/techinfo/nucleicacids/mappbr322.htm http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/genetics/biotech/enzymes/maps.html...

Biology: Re: Evolution, photosynthetic organisms, biological evolution
photosynthetic organisms, biological evolution, life in water: Hello again Trish: Greater numbers mrans more possible variations Before the beginning of photosynthetic organisms there was no oxygen in the atmosphere. Only anaerobes were present. The atmosphere now has 21 % O2 Anything that keeps changing the...

Biology: Re: Evolution, internal parasites, adult birds
internal parasites, adult birds, liquid environment: Hi trisha Migration is an adaptation that evolved as a survivor factor in response to climatic conditions First set 1. Highly improbable. The second Law does not change 2.I would say this is probable 2nd set 1. Yes All wild animals can make...

Biology: Recombinant Factor VIII, hepatitis c virus, recombinant factor viii
hepatitis c virus, recombinant factor viii, coagulation cascade: Hello Mekhi, factor VIII (abbr. FVIII) is a glykoprotein, that is a protein with sugar residues covalently linked. Regarding its function it belongs to the coagulation or clotting factors which means it is involved in clotting of the blood (which usually...

Biology: Recombination, parental genotypes, gene locus
parental genotypes, gene locus, homework question: Hi, Geetha, The question you ve asked would need an entire Genetics lecture to adequately answer, but I ll try to do my best in an email. Let me start with the stuff you probably already know. Usually, when we say parental genotype, we refer to the...

Biology: Regeneration in humans, hair follicles, hair nails
hair follicles, hair nails, skin cells: Hello again! It is difficult to say why we can t, for no one explanation truly explains it all. You could say, from an evolutionary standpoint, that humans never needed to, so we didn t. It is simply not in our normally activated genes to regenerate limbs,...

Biology: Regeneration, stem cell differentiation, embryonic stem cell
stem cell differentiation, embryonic stem cell, human ailments: Dear Hayden, Starfish retain in their bodies a number of cells that continue to be totipotent throughout their lives. That means that the cells can differentiate into any type of cell that the organism needs to replace--a little bit like the way our own...

Biology: Regulated Iris Pigmentation?, inheritance of eye color, skin cells
inheritance of eye color, skin cells, color of your eyes: Hi julie: You probably know as much as I do about eye color and maybe even more since you have done a lot of research. As to your questions I don t believe that you can compare the maintainance of pigmentation in the eye with the sloughing off of epithelial...

Biology: Relation of eye fatigueness with the nervous system, eye muscles, eye fatigue
eye muscles, eye fatigue, 6th grader: Hi Atrouli: I am afriad that I have not read nor studied much about eye fatigue but I beieve it envolves the eye muscles more that the nervous system because it involves focusing. In fact I have been answering questions for about an hour now and am having...

Biology: Relaying messages to the brain, sensory impulses, motor nerves
sensory impulses, motor nerves, sensory nerves: The peripheral nervous system. You have nerves that extend throughout the body to every organ and extremity. There are motor nerves and sensory nerves. The sensory nerves send information to the brain and the motor nerves send impulses to the muscles and...

Biology: Repeated blood trusfusion, platelet transfusion, red blood cell
platelet transfusion, red blood cell, white blood cells: Most patients do not have any side effects from blood transfusions. About 1 to 2% of transfusions may cause fever and chills or an allergic reaction, such as hives. If your mom had had these side effects during past transfusions, she should ask her doctor...

Biology: Replication and reproduction of genes, college level biology, fsahion
college level biology, fsahion, biology class: Hi Anthony: This is tough to answer because I do not know how much you already know about DNA and meiosis. I will have to summerize it for you so you can do a little checking and then get back to me if yopu are havinga problem understanding something. ...

Biology: Reproduction or Rabbits, grown crop, cats and dogs
grown crop, cats and dogs, estrous cycle: Hi Liana: Just like all other mammals rabbits reproduce sexually by copulation. Like cats and dogs they do have an estrous cycle whereby the female will only mate at certain periods. (this is described as being in heat ) Like cats the mating procedure...

Biology: Request, member databases, parasitologists
member databases, parasitologists, nadir ali: Hello Nadir Ali, I don t know any parasitologists personally, but you may want to start finding an expert by searching the member databases of the various parasitological societies. Such societies exist in almost any country (try Google). American Society...

Biology: Research review, hyperlinked titles, hyperlinked words
hyperlinked titles, hyperlinked words, wiesbaden germany: Dear Larry, This is a very extensive site, and an interesting idea. I will try to find the time to have a closer look. Your contention that the human nervous system is a reflection of the Big Bang is quite poetic. However, because it it not really...

Biology: Respiration, jungle vine, arteries in the neck
jungle vine, arteries in the neck, lack of oxygen in the blood: The carotids are arteries in the neck. The teachers answer is not correct. The blood levels of CO2 are what stimulates the nervous system not the CO2 in the lungs. An increase in CO2 in the air (in the lungs) however would lead to increased levels of CO2...

Biology: Respiration?, denaturing of enzymes, homeostatic mechanisms
denaturing of enzymes, homeostatic mechanisms, oxygen uptake: Hi Pati Animls use energy in the form of heat. Respiration involves the degradation of glucose into CO2, H2) and energy.(stored in ATP and released as heat.) Respiratory rate is governed by enzymes. Certainly invertebrates need O2 to carry out their activities...

Biology: Respiration, lipids and proteins, oxidation reduction
lipids and proteins, oxidation reduction, chemical bonds: Oxidation involves Redox reactions (oxidation/reduction) Enzymes stimulate the chemical reactions whereby oxygen combines with glucose breaking it down and releasing in teh form of heat and producing CO2 and H2O. This is a simplification. The chemical process...

Biology: Respiration, chemical receptors, cellular respiration
chemical receptors, cellular respiration, oxygen debt: I assume that you are talking about breathing and not cellular respiration. There are a number of factors. First of all there are chemical receptors that monitor the amount of C02 in the blood. If it increases then you breath harder. Secondly when you...

Biology: Restriction Enzyme Eco R1, recombinant dna technology, dna ligase
recombinant dna technology, dna ligase, plasmid vector: Hello Katie The short answer is: Recombinant DNA is produced when a fragment of DNA, containing the gene desired to be cloned, is inserted into a second (usually circular, i.e. bacterial plasmid) DNA molecule, which is called a ‘cloning vector . In this...

Biology: Ribs, book of genesis, ribs
book of genesis, ribs, human body: I am afraid that Grandma is wrong. The normal human body has 24 ribs, twelve on each side. This is easy to prove. Look at any skeleton or picture of one and count them. According to the book of genesis God took a rib from Adam to make Eve. This is where...

Biology: Room Temperature/Weather, thyroid gland, winter clothes
thyroid gland, winter clothes, temperature regulation: Hi Gail: I have to admit it but I too wonder why this is so. Temperature regulation of our bodies varies with individuals so it seems that your body has a problem deciding what temperature is just right. My wife has this problem. She can never seem to...

Biology: Root study, weed species, thesis committee
weed species, thesis committee, root competition: Dear Abbas, This is an interesting problem, but I don t think it s going to be easy to discriminate between the root systems with a simple dye, since both plants will likely take up the dye, even if the wheat tops are cut off. Although most water movement...

Biology: Round Worms, square shapes, nematode
square shapes, nematode, students questions: Hi cody: I know that teachers sometimes give students questions like this and I get a lot of them but they do not make very much sense. What would good would it do for a nematode to be square? Shapes of organisms are evolutionary in origin and the development...

Biology: Runny noses in the cold, runny noses, longstanding argument
runny noses, longstanding argument, cold weather: During cold weather, the cilia which normally sweep mucus away from the nostrils and towards the back of the throat (see respiratory epithelium) become sluggish or completely cease functioning. This results in mucus running down the nose and dripping (a runny...

Biology: rabbits, mother rabbits, forages
mother rabbits, forages, rabbits: I am not an expert in this area. All I know is: Rabbit pups are born with their eyes closed and depend on their mother for milk for about 27 days. During this period the pups will mainly stay in the den while the mother forages for food. She will suckle...

Biology: Why are the ratios of elements..., methane gas, molecular formulas
methane gas, molecular formulas, c2h6: Hi corie-ann; This is a good question and one that I often get from my students. Chemical language is a lot like spelling. First all all keep in mind that the chemical language that we use( the formuli) is our way of observing what conditions actually...

Biology: reactants of photosynthesis, reactants of photosynthesis, photosythesis
reactants of photosynthesis, photosythesis, chemical compounds: Dear Lauren, The reactants are the chemical compounds that change into something else over the course of the photosynthetic reactions. Chlorophyll is the pigment that captures the light energy, but neither of those things is truly a reactant. The water...

Biology: reactions to harmful stimuli, nerve fibers, nerve impulse
nerve fibers, nerve impulse, sensory nerve: This is a very interesting question, however some clarifications need to be made. First off, let us define consciousness. We shall define it here as an awareness of one s existence through the perception of basic senses such as sight, touch, hearing, smell,...

Biology: reactions of human body, homeostatic mechanisms, defense responses
homeostatic mechanisms, defense responses, defense response: Dear Jack, The only other automatic defense response I can think of off the top of my head is the reflexive blink we do--even before we are conscious of an object approaching the eye--to avoid a flying foreign object from hitting the eye. It s a good thing...

Biology: reactions, dehydration synthesis, c6h12o6
dehydration synthesis, c6h12o6, glucose: Hi JOy This is dehydration synthesis. Galactose and glucose are simple sugars (C6H12O6) and lactose is a disacharride (double sugar) (C12H22O11) An OH is taken from one and a H from the other bonding them together. The OH and H combine to form water....

Biology: reading bio papers, experimental design, biologist
experimental design, biologist, research paper: I have been a biologist for a long time now and I know what you mean. You are probably trying to read every word. When you research an article you should be looking for specific points to consider. Many articles contain a lot of information that is not pertinent...

Biology: recent question regarding species classification., multicellular organism, human attributes
multicellular organism, human attributes, human genes: I have noticed that you and another questioner named Doyle (not sure if you know each other) have been going to many experts on this site with these questions. Are you participating in a debate or something of the sort? I don t mind your questions, I really...

Biology: recent questions regarding zygotes, species classification, imparticular
species classification, imparticular, valid answer: Dear Janet, Please don t worry about having caused anyone to send me odd questions about classification. Although the person in question claimed he was not religious, it s pretty obvious he had a religious agenda, and he s pretty much given up on me, I...

Biology: red blood cells etc....., gargle with salt water, red blood cells
gargle with salt water, red blood cells, isotonic solution: Hi Amy: 1.They will take in water and burst. 2.Bacteria will be bathed in a isotonic solution and lose water and dehydrate. 3.They absorb water and become turgid. 4.Salt water has a lower freezing point and the plants will lose water just like the bacteria...

Biology: red blood cells, atomic mass units, red blood cells
atomic mass units, red blood cells, red blood cell: Hello Ryan, a microliter of blood contains about 4 to 6 million red blood cells. Considering the total volume of blood is 5 to 6 liters in adults, this amounts to 20 to 30 trillion (2 x 1E13 to 3 x 1E13) red blood cells per individual. Generally, the amount...

Biology: Is having red hair a recessive gene?, dark pigments, reddish brown hair
dark pigments, reddish brown hair, recessive gene: Hi Denise Yes! Red hair is recessive but all pigments involve multiple genes and not a single pair. And the father of the children must be carrying genes for red. This is the reason we get different shades. The same is true for skin color when dark pigments...

Biology: red hair, brown pigment, basic genetics
brown pigment, basic genetics, hair shaft: Dear Betty, Hair color in humans is controlled by several different genes, including genes that code for the particular color of pigment (eumelanin is brown; phaeomelanin is red) as well as others that code for how much pigment is deposited in the hair...

Biology: reference, carbon dioxide level, carbon dioxide levels
carbon dioxide level, carbon dioxide levels, blood ph: Dear Chew, Try going to google (www.google.com) and typing in blood pH and carbon dioxide level ; there should be several references. A good textbook in physiology would also have the information. As you know the low pH and high CO2 levels are directly...

Biology: regeneration of flatworms, carolina biological supply, carolina biological supply co
carolina biological supply, carolina biological supply co, flatworms: Two weeks is not much time and it takes more than two weeks for generation in planaria to occur. They can be collected from a stream but at this time of a year in N.E. it is out of the question. You can buy them from Carolina Biological supply Co. (find...

Biology: relationship of life cycles worms, flukes and tapeworms, animal host
flukes and tapeworms, animal host, sexual reproduction: Worms that require an animal host for sexual reproduction will have a better chance of finding said host if they produce lots of eggs and shed them constantly so that the environment where they can acquire another host has a large number. Many of these worms...

Biology: what is the relationship between..., predatory birds, food crops
predatory birds, food crops, rodents: Hi jessica: Raptors are predatory birds feeding mainly on rodents. They are consumers. Rodents are first order comsumers. They feed on plants. If you have rodents eating crops and raptors eating rodents than the bird aids in the conservation of food crops...

Biology: researching, gastrointestinal disorder, medical journals
gastrointestinal disorder, medical journals, city libraries: Hi Sam The internet is the wrong place to find scientific journals especially in the medical field. When it comes to some things the internet is not necessarily the answer. You need to go to a library, preferably a medical library. Do you have a...

Biology: resources, biology the easy way, barnes and nobles website
biology the easy way, barnes and nobles website, barnes and nobles: Hi and thanks for the question. Here are some useful books that are fairly easy to understand. I honestly don t know any of any good biology books that aren t textbooks. I ve only had to read one and it was called genome . I don t recommend it because it...

Biology: resources, stephen jay gould, quantum mechanics
stephen jay gould, quantum mechanics, matter waves: Dear Luke, Because Biology is such a HUGE field, with many subdisciplines, there is no single work that could be likened to any of the works you describe here. At least, I am not aware of them. There are many interesting works to read in the field of...

Biology: resources, pearson prentice hall, david krogh
pearson prentice hall, david krogh, quantum mechanics: Hi luke I teach a course in biology for non-majors and use one of the best books that I have found so far. It is called A Brief Guide To Biology By David Krogh ISBN 0-13-185965-x Is published by Pearson/Prentice Hall Unfortunately this is a text...

Biology: respiration, diaphragm contracts, blood capillaries
diaphragm contracts, blood capillaries, lung cavity: The diaphragm muscle relaxes lowering the pressue inside the lung cavity and air rushes in through the bronchi and bronchioles. Air rich in O2 fills the alveoli that are next to venules rich in CO2. CO2 diffuses out of the venules and O2 diffuses in. The...

Biology: respiration, blood capillaries, chest cavity
blood capillaries, chest cavity, chest pressure: Hi katherine; The diaphragm expands lowering the pressure inside the chest cavity and air rushes in through the bronchi and bronchioles and into the alveoli. The alveoli are in contact with capillaries carrying CO2 laden blood and the air within the capillaries...

Biology: ribosomes, true likeness, moldable material
true likeness, moldable material, ribosome: Yes indeed the ribosome is very small and up until now it s true likeness was foggy at best. You are lucky because scientists have now been able to photograph one, so that we have a clearar view of what it REALLY looks like. You can go to the internet and...

Biology: ribosomes, artistic endeavor, modeling clay
artistic endeavor, modeling clay, ribosome: Hi Mandy This is sort of an artistic endeavor and I have no artistic ability but I would suggest this. A model of an organelle would be exaggerated to show the structure. go to this site to see conceptualized model of a ribrosome and make a schematic sketch....

Biology: ribosomes, plant and animal cells, animal and plant cells
plant and animal cells, animal and plant cells, cell membrane: Hi Lisa, Ribosomes are found in both animal AND plant cells as ALL cells have to translate mRNA into protein and this is what the ribosomes are used for. As for the cell membranes, yes, both plant AND animal cells have the cell membrane, but ONLY plant...

Biology: rings, fungus spores, walter hintz
fungus spores, walter hintz, fungus infection: Hello Abdul; It sounds like a fungus infection of the skin called ringworm. It is related to the fungus causing athletes foot. There are a lot of medicines available to control this infection. The fungus spores of ringworm are often carried on cats and...

Biology: Why do ripe fruits - especially when canned - smell bad?, stinky cheese, olfactory perception
stinky cheese, olfactory perception, science newsgroups: Dear Green, Interesting question! I don t think you have an olfactory perception disorder. But I do think you may be much more sensitive to certain chemicals or chemical combinations in ripe fruit than the average person. My guess would be that...

Biology: Why do ripe fruits - especially when canned - smell bad?, stinky cheese, olfactory perception
stinky cheese, olfactory perception, science newsgroups: Hi, and thanks for the question! I will do my best to answer it. First of all I don t think that you have an olfactory perception disorder. It sounds to me like you just don t like a certain smell. Everyone doesn t like certain smells; it s perfectly normal...

Biology: room temp, core body temperature, room temp
core body temperature, room temp, avrage: Dear TR, Your reasoning sounds correct. Humans do maintain a constant core body temperature but the limb temperature may be lower. Her hands should be no colder than that of the environment. Now, have you actually measured the temperature of her hands...

Biology: rubber plants and growth in top soil, rubber plants, top soil
rubber plants, top soil, guestions: Hi Mitch 1.I an an instructor of biology and physical science at a college 2.Teaching these sciences 3.Not much as I do not teach much botany except the simple concepts 4.4 year degree in biology with a major in Botany 5. Obviously research is important....

Biology: Savanna, animal populations, desert lands
animal populations, desert lands, lush forests: Savannahs are grasslands in Africa. In Australia they are called rangelands, in Europe and Asia they are called steppes, in North America they are called prairies, and in South America they are called pampas. Since the only distinction is that of geography...

Biology: SCIENTIFIC NAME, mountain lion, concolor
mountain lion, concolor, scientific names: If we want to study organisms we must first classify them them into groups. The scientific name becomes a universal language to all biologists. Do you know what a Puma is? How about a cougar or a mountain lion. They are all the same thing but the biologist...

Biology: Scanning electron microscope magnification, electron microscope magnification, scanning electron microscope
electron microscope magnification, scanning electron microscope, light microscopes: In microscopy, you increase the size of the image lets say 10um to 1mm, but when you try to increase size of the image 300.000 fold, you have to look at the image size smaller than 10um, you will have smaller area to look at it, lets say 100nm. You just focus...

Biology: Science, acute lymphocytic leukemia, white blood cells
acute lymphocytic leukemia, white blood cells, acute leukemia: Thanks for using AllExperts, Jennifer. A lymphocyte is a particular type of white blood cell; it is part of the immune system, as are all white blood cells. They live primarily in the lymphatic system (most other white blood cells live in the blood stream)....

Biology: Science, google search, central web
google search, central web, medical community: Dear Jack, I know of no central web site like the one you describe. But one good way to find a PI is to do a Google search for the subject, and find out who is doing recent research in your area of interest. Alternatively, you can check the web sites...

Biology: Science Expert Questions, high school biology, mold growth
high school biology, mold growth, expert bio: Hi Bobby: 1. I am an adjunct professor of biology 2. Teaching classes in science and biology to college students. 3.By preparing materials and teaching and guiding my students 4. In a typical day (at this time) I teach a morning class and sometimes and...

Biology: Science Fair, research standpoint, science fair project
research standpoint, science fair project, co2: Hi Keith It seems that you have a couple of problems here. The growth of corral is extremely slow so I do not know how you can measure it. As to the CO2 you could always bubble it into the water. I think you may have to approach this from a research...

Biology: Science Fair Projects NEED HELP!!!, science fair projects, short term memory
science fair projects, short term memory, please give me something: Your sisters are still young. The younger sister and the two cousins would make good subjects but You will need someone over 65. Now look for some kind of a memory test. You will want to test short term memory. A good one is to place about twenty items...

Biology: Science Fair Projects, science fair projects, science biology
science fair projects, science biology, science experiment: Hi Kevin; Answer these questions and get back to me. What grade level Which branch of science (biology, physical science, etc) Plants or animals What resources do you have? does your school provide some materials? Answer at my email ...

Biology: Science Fair, standard atmospheric pressure, science fair project
standard atmospheric pressure, science fair project, dry ice: What a neet project... 1. RE: problems with how to put the CO2 in the water. ANS: Have you tried using dry ice? if not put the dry ice into the water- however at standard atmospheric pressure the CO2 turns to gas quickly... I don t know how this will...

Biology: Science Help, combustion system, dumb question
combustion system, dumb question, respiratory system: No offense to your teacher, Sabrina,but this really a dumb question. The best I can say is that oxygen is utilized and carbon dioxide is given off and heat is released in both eystems. The chemistry is not comparable as the heating systems are only using...

Biology: Science Project, gram negative bacteria, bacillus cereus
gram negative bacteria, bacillus cereus, gram positive bacteria: Hi Jackie You are introducing too many variables here. You are using two different organisms and varying amounts of oil. You also have at least four hypothesis.. If you want to test the effect of different amounts of oil you should work with only a single...

Biology: Science Project (Imaginary Animal), vivid imaginations, imaginary animal
vivid imaginations, imaginary animal, science project: I like this assignment. Your kids have a good teacher. Third graders have vivid imaginations. I would suggest putting together two different animals that They know about. like maybe a mouse and a lizard or something and then let them go at it. Let them...

Biology: Science Project, pinto bean, pinto beans
pinto bean, pinto beans, science project: HI Ebone: I doubt if you will find any information about alcohol and pinto beans. I doubt if anyone has ever done this project. After all you are trying to discover something here. Please tell me how you are designing your experiment. Are you growing the...

Biology: Science skills and reasoning, atp molecule, phosphate groups
atp molecule, phosphate groups, calvin cycle: Yes they do, the phosphate bonds in ATP are very unstable and as such are able to do alot of work (expend energy for example if you were to push something like a ball down a slide) and ATP s have alot of energy. The phosphate groups want to give off elections...

Biology: Science "X" Project (please help), field biology, nature lab
field biology, nature lab, science x: I apologize for being late with this question Khara but I have been out of town. 1.I am an instructor of Biology 2.I teach college classes in physical science and biology 3.I am semi retired so I teach in the mornings or evenings spending about 3 hours...

Biology: Science, heavy smokers, increases heart
heavy smokers, increases heart, cigarette smoking: Hi Dominick This is an ambitious project. The first thing you must do is state your hypothesis.A good hypothesis would be Cigarette smoking increases heart rate Secondly you must design your experiment. You will need to find some test subjects:...

Biology: Scientific Experimentation, organic molecules, paradox
organic molecules, paradox, earth: No. Experiments have shown that life comes from life and is not spontaneously generated. Some organic molecules have been artificially produced but not living material. But life had to spontaneously appear at some time didn t it. We have a paradox...

Biology: Scientific essay, biology class, doing research
biology class, doing research, spiders: Hi Moose: An essay is a narrative written from the authors point of view. It is non fiction and subjective and usually written in prose although some essays are done poetically. Let s say for example( in biology) that you are asked to write an essay about...

Biology: Scientific evidence proving the theory of evoution to be a scientific fact., genus equus, pet donkey
genus equus, pet donkey, evidence of evolution: I am afraid Brad that you are not aware of the nature of the creation-evolution debate. There are those, who despite all evidences of evolution, will absolutely not accept it because it contradicts the Bible. Reason makes no difference. Anybody who believes...

Biology: Scientific Method, prep biology, growing plants
prep biology, growing plants, experimental design: There are many good questions that lend themselves to scientific inquiry but scientific requires an experimental design and data collection. Just pick a topic you are curious about. Here are two questions to consider: What types of food do mice prefer....

Biology: Scoliosis (spelling), upcoming science, degree of curvature
upcoming science, degree of curvature, science project: Hi damaja Scoliosois is curvature of the spine. Effects on the body depend upon the degree of curvature. Some people hardly know they have while others are confined to a wheelchair. The study of this problem certainly falls under the realm of science...

Biology: Sea anemone regeneration?, sea anemone, cnidarians
sea anemone, cnidarians, science project: This is not my area of expertise but I did a search on Google.com and found the following that may be of interest to you. Good luck. http://www.waquarium.org/MLP/root/pdf/MarineLife/Invertebrates/Cnidarians/SeaAnemones.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regeneration_(biology)...

Biology: Second Law Thermodynamics/Entropy, second law thermodynamics, kinds of organisms
second law thermodynamics, kinds of organisms, second law of thermodynamics: Good question Chastity. The Law of entropy states that with any change of energy from one form to another there is a loss of useful energy. Life does not violate this tenet. In a living system the 2nd law is continually in force during the metabolic process....

Biology: Seed Germination of flowers, seed germination, seed dispersal
seed germination, seed dispersal, smoe: I see your problem Tiffany. Have you utilized the library? Look for a college botany texbook. Try googling seed germination . How about including information about seed dispersal. Smoe do not germinate right away but can de spread from the intestines...

Biology: Seeing things when my eyes are closed, occipital lobe of the brain, short sightedness
occipital lobe of the brain, short sightedness, basic internet: Hi Sam I am afraid that I must join all of the others who can offer no explanation for this. It appears that there is no answer. Frankly this sounds a bit scary. Our visual images are stored in the occipital lobe of the brain. I can visualize faces that...

Biology: Selfish Gene Theory, selfish gene theory, genetic survival
selfish gene theory, genetic survival, biology community: Dear Jeffrey: I realize that you have already received an answer saying that this is outside my expertise. Let me clarify a bit, as part of your question is well-established within the biology community, and part of it is still the subject of debate; I...

Biology: Selfish Gene Theory, selfish gene theory, stephen jay gould
selfish gene theory, stephen jay gould, selfish genes: Dear Jeffrey, Richard Dawkins is nothing if not controversial! His work has provoked a great deal of support, as well as derision--but no one can say that he hasn t crafted exquisite arguments for his ideas about selfish genes. The scientific evidence...

Biology: Senses, occipital lobe of the brain, light receptors
occipital lobe of the brain, light receptors, rods and cones: 1. sounds,light,chemical smells and tastes, touch,heat 2. You lose the sense of flavor not taste and flavor is the combination of taste and smell. Colds affect the nose. 3.The retina has special light receptors called rods and cones. Rods detect low...

Biology: Sex linked traits, dominant and recessive traits, x chromosomes
dominant and recessive traits, x chromosomes, y chromosomes: Thanks for using AllExperts, Byrd. The answer to this question requires a visual presentation, so I m including links at the end that show how Punnet squares are formed for sex-linked traits. First, recall that sex-linked traits are those carried on the...

Biology: Shape of Salmonella typhi, bacteria salmonella, staphylo
bacteria salmonella, staphylo, salmonella typhi: Hi Cesar. On special media S typhi grows in circular colonies but the individual bacteria are separate. There is no pattern.A few species of Salmonella are non motile and will form chains. S. typhi however have flagella and are motile bacilli. Incidentally...

Biology: Shrimp, mantis shrimp, chesapeake bay
mantis shrimp, chesapeake bay, warmer waters: There ia a crustacean in the bay called Mantis shrimp that are edible but not the prawns and commercial shrimp that we see in markets that thrive in the warmer waters of the Gulf. These are not really shrimp however. They grow to 8-10 inches long The mantis...

Biology: Sickle Cell Anemia, abnormal blood cells, what is sicle cell anemia
abnormal blood cells, what is sicle cell anemia, red blood cells: Dear Samera, This is a genetic condition carried by about 1 in 10 people in the U.S. of African descent. A small mutation causes a change in the hemoglobin carried by red blood cells, resulting in the hemoglobin changing shape when it s exposed to acidic...

Biology: Silly me. lol., thermal insulation, neat job
thermal insulation, neat job, shaven face: Dear James, I can not give you an expert s opinion on these questions but just a couple of thoughts. The term clean shaven refers to shaving thoroughly, doing a neat job of shaving not as to whether or not the face is clean. As to the protective...

Biology: Singing, human vocal cords, extreme stress
human vocal cords, extreme stress, breath support: Hi heng: I really do not know much about singing or the techniques involved but the human vocal cords are not really designed for the extreme stress that singing puts upon them. Great singers however seem to overcome this. I do not know what is meant by...

Biology: Single cells linked to Multicellular organisms, eukaryotic organisms, multicellular organism
eukaryotic organisms, multicellular organism, prokaryotes and eukaryotes: After answering the previous question I came to this one. Again this seems complicated and I am not sure what to say. Here is a concept that might help. Single cells are immortal in the sense that they can only die by accident. In other words that as...

Biology: Size of the elephant brain, brain size, brain and body
brain size, brain and body, minimum resources: Hello Eddie. Why questions cannot be easily answered. The size of the elephants brain came about through evolutionary proscesses. It is as it is because it works best for the elephant. Also keep in mind that there is a correlation between brain size and...

Biology: Size of organisms, small dogs, hi bob
small dogs, hi bob, size ranges: Hi Bob Size and growth is under control of the DNA. I realize that this is not much of an answer unless you understand DNA but that is another story. I can get into that if you wish. Lets just say that elephants are big because their parents were big...

Biology: Skin Conductance, conduction properties, foods carbohydrates
conduction properties, foods carbohydrates, skin conductance: I wish I could help you more Lauren but I am unaware of the connection between relaxation and the conduction properties of the skin. I think that it will be difficult to make measurements when doing this study. Also your controls may prove difficult...

Biology: Skin colour, skin pigmentation, northern latitudes
skin pigmentation, northern latitudes, suns rays: Hi Bruce: We are talking about visible light rays here and not infra red nor UV rays. Black absorbs the light within a certain area of wave length and white shows a reflection of these rays. Electromagnetic waves at the wide end of the spectrum (infra red...

Biology: Skin Pigment, skin pigments, multiple alleles
skin pigments, multiple alleles, skin pigment: Hi James; Skin color depends upon multiple alleles and as far as I know there is no real limitation to the number of possible skin colors. There are other physiological factors besides DNA that can alter pigmentation. The computer graphics designed to...

Biology: Skin structure, self mutilation, sloughs off
self mutilation, sloughs off, nerve endings: The outer layer (epidermis)of the skin is produced by a deeper layer called the dermis where the cells are dividing and there is an abundance of blood vessels and nerve endings. A tattoo needle penetrates into this layer and damages does damage (causing bleeding...

Biology: Sleeping, rem phase, conections
rem phase, conections, eye movement: Eye movement occurs during dreaming just as it does when you are awake and aware of what is going on. Think about it. You are actually observing and seeing things when you dream. I cannot speak to the genetics of sleep walking and talking. I am unaware...

Biology: Sliding Filament Theory Analogy, sliding filament theory, actin myosin
sliding filament theory, actin myosin, sarcomere: Dear Jack, I can t think of any analogies that would encompass all the components of the sliding filament theory. Which part of it is the hardest to visualize? The chemical energy component, or just the sliding filaments? If it s the sliding filaments,...

Biology: Small Pox effects, england in the eighteenth century, memory cells
england in the eighteenth century, memory cells, viral diseases: In any population there are individuals that are immune or have resistance to a disease. Smallpox and other related viruses were not controlled in those days so that more people would have been exposed immunity. The older you were the better the chances you...

Biology: Soil Chemical Appreveations, coal mining history, hydrogen ions
coal mining history, hydrogen ions, soil sampling: Good for you Robert. West Virgina is a beautiful state. I am a neighbor in Ohio. A lot of reclamation of strip mines has been done in Ohio. As to your questions: Al is the chemical symbol for Aluminum but I am not sure what the significance is of Al...

Biology: Sonic waves affect the brain?, phillips sonicare, sonic toothbrushes
phillips sonicare, sonic toothbrushes, sonic waves: Hi Joan: I am not an expert on sonic waves. However sound waves have been used by dental hygenists to clean teeth for years with no negative effects. I suspect that sonic toothbrushes are even less powerful. They also have been subjected to rigorous testing...

Biology: Soy Isoflavones, dear walter, growth plates
dear walter, growth plates, medical claims: Hi Ron; I know these compounds have been used in some therapies treating menopause but reactivating growth plates? Was this tv program reporting studies done at a reputable medical institute? I am extremely skeptical about any medical claims made on TV ads...

Biology: Speciation of dogs and cats, breeds of domestic cats, felis catus
breeds of domestic cats, felis catus, species of dogs: Hi Josh If you are talking about domestic pets there is only a single species of dog (As familiaris) and cat(Felis catus) But there are many breeds. AS to dogs the AKC lists 150 breeds and the Westminster KC lists 162 breeds. There only 30 to 40 breeds...

Biology: Species that have changed, single cell organisms, species hybrids
single cell organisms, species hybrids, theory evolution: The answer to this question is indeed challenging. Through evolution species have changed and new species (hybrids, etc...) have formed. Survival of the fittest would indicate that only individuals with characteristics that place them above other members of...

Biology: Speed of Human Blood Circulation, human blood circulation, heart pumps blood
human blood circulation, heart pumps blood, adult human: Hi Jim: The only way to answer this is to tell you that your heart pumps blood at the rate of five liters per minute when you are at rest so it would pump much faster after running. The actual time it takes for a complete circulation would depend upon...

Biology: Speed of Human Blood Circulation, human blood circulation, homework question
human blood circulation, homework question, adult human: Dear Jim, There are many factors that must be considered in determining a circulation time including heart rate, volume of blood pumped per beat, total blood volume (this is dependent both on the size of the person and the protein and salt content of the...

Biology: Spiders' Strength, pounds per square inch, google
pounds per square inch, google, spiders: I do not know of anybody who has studied this Jason. There are claims that spiders have great strength but I do not even know how it can be measured. I typed in spider strength at google and only got references to spiderman. Go to google and search for...

Biology: Sponge Origins, collar cells, true tissues
collar cells, true tissues, totipotent cells: Sponges, as you might already know, are the simplest of all the multicellular animals. They have no true tissues, and no organs whatsoever. They are almost completely sessile, although many specimens have been shown to move at very slow speeds. (However some...

Biology: Squirrel and human organs, female squirrel, human organs
female squirrel, human organs, squirrels: This assignment creates a problem since organs and systems of all mammals are very much alike and the only contrast is basically in size between squirrels and people. It is difficult to contrast and compare things that are alike. The only thing that comes...

Biology: Staph, staphylococcus epidermidis, band aids
staphylococcus epidermidis, band aids, antibacterial properties: I do not know what kinds of antibacterial material is used on band-aids so I can t help you there. There are many substances that could be used. As far as the action of silver, the following article may be of help. http://www.silverinstitute.org/news/4f03.htm...

Biology: Static shock, free electrons, static shock
free electrons, static shock, static electricity: Static electricity is generated by friction. When some materials are rubbed together (like shuffling feet on a carpet or puling off a sweater) there is a buildup of free electrons on the surface of your body. This is a static charge and when you come in...

Biology: Stem Cell Research, embryonic cells, stem cell research
embryonic cells, stem cell research, stem cells: Hi stacy 1. They are embryonic cells that can be extracted microscopally from embryos of umbellical cord blood 2.I support stem cell research. Such research can lead to cures and treatments in people. 3.Hopefully such research can lead to reversing...

Biology: Stem Cell Research, what are stem cells, cells and tissues
what are stem cells, cells and tissues, embryonic cells: Hi Sara: Stem cells are embryonic cells. wE all start out with a stem cell after fertilization of the egg. Then the cells begin to change into other types of cells and tissues like muscles, bones organs etc. The research is done to find out this differentiation...

Biology: Stomach, physiology of digestion, stomach muscles
physiology of digestion, stomach muscles, hormonal stimulation: The growls and other noises of the stomach are usually due to contraction of the stomach muscles stimulated by hunger or the actual process of digestion. There is both air and liquid in the stomach which can produce the sounds. Acid and other liquids are secreted...

Biology: Stomach, satiety center, stomach muscles
satiety center, stomach muscles, sphincter muscle: You have muscles in your stomach which churn food- if no food is present the muscles churn, and acids build up creating gasses or air gets caught in there, which may push through a small opening called a sphincter. You have two sphincters on your stomach:...

Biology: Stomata, leaf layers, wet climate
leaf layers, wet climate, spongy layer: It has to do with the structure of the leaf layers. The spongy layer is located closer to the lower epiermis and permits greater gas exchange than the palisade layer. The numbers of stomata depends upon the enviromental factors. Plants that grow fast...

Biology: Structures and Functions in the Human Body, posterior pituitary gland, antidiuretic hormone
posterior pituitary gland, antidiuretic hormone, insulin shock: 1. B 2. D 3. C 4. D 5. C 6. A 7. B 8. D 9. B (the hypothalmus also is a center for agression, however the limbic system is the main center of emotion that is why it is called the emotional brain and why I would choose B) 10. D (because gonadotropin...

Biology: Structures and Functions in the Human Body, alveolar macrophages, respiratory distress syndrome
alveolar macrophages, respiratory distress syndrome, renal tubule: 1. The actual damage done at the site of an infarct is due to A. one or more blood clots. C. myocardial angina. B. arterial plaque. D. oxygen deprivation. (my answer) CORRECT 2. The cell most likely to be attacked by an HIV virus is...

Biology: Suprachiasmatic nucleus, sleep experts, personal application
sleep experts, personal application, dark areas: Hi, James. There s a lot of information that s available online. One website you can go to is: http://www.stanford.edu/~dement/circadian.html. It has several links for different kinds of information about circadian rhythms. This website is also interesting:...

Biology: Surface area to volume ratio, surface area of a cube, surface area to volume ratio
surface area of a cube, surface area to volume ratio, volume of a rectangle: Correct Let me give you one more example If we use a side of 10 cm SA is 10 x 10 x 6 = 6000 sq cm Vol is 10 x10 x10 = 10000 cu cm ratio is 0.6 to 1 Are you asking about this in relation to cell size and if so do see the relevance as...

Biology: Surface area to volume ratio, surface area to volume ratio, high surface area
surface area to volume ratio, high surface area, surface volume: Hi Megan: Exchanges of nutrients, gases and wastes occur through the cell membrane(surface area) As cell size increases the surface -volume ratio decreases. The larger cell nedds more nutrients and there is less surface for exchanges. The cell must divide...

Biology: Surface area, cell volume, metabolic activity
cell volume, metabolic activity, surface area: Hi sunny Assuming you are thinking about cell volumes: There is a ratio between cell volume and surface area. As the cell size (volume ) increases the SA-VOL ratio decreases but the larger cell volume increases metabolic activity and all materials must...

Biology: Swallowed, human stomach, swallowing air
human stomach, swallowing air, strange question: Dear Ian, I ll assume this is a serious question and answer. 1. No amount of antacids would get a stomach to a high enough pH to allow an animal to survive the human stomach. Death by acid certainly would not be pleasant. 2. There is little or...

Biology: Swallowed, peristaltic movements, fundus of the stomach
peristaltic movements, fundus of the stomach, duodenum jejunum: 1. You would have to be alittle less than a cubic inch. Hopefully she will swallow, no chewing. 2. You wouldn t survive long in her stomach. The stomach acids, which are pH=1, would begin to dissolve your body very rapidly . In the stomach you would be...

Biology: Sweat and Salt, sweat glands, hot humid climate
sweat glands, hot humid climate, salt content: Hi Curious. Yes this is weird. All sweat glands have basically the same structure. I would expect the salt content to vary with different conditions ( for example if your salt intake increases) but not necessarily from different parts of the body. A possible...

Biology: Symbiotic Relationships, mutualism commensalism, remora fish
mutualism commensalism, remora fish, example of mutualism: Hi Catherine; With Mutualism both organisms benefit. The algae and fungi of a lichen is an example With commensalism one benefits and the other is not harmed. The remora fish attach themselves to a shark to hitch a ride and eat scraps. With parasitism...

Biology: sciatic nerve, biceps femoris, question pool
biceps femoris, question pool, hyperpolarization: Thanks for using AllExperts, Ulia. I ve pulled this question out of the Question Pool in order to clarify for you, while recognizing that you asked this some time ago. 1) The sciatic nerve does not run underneath the gluteus medius, but rather the gluteus...

Biology: science, asexual and sexual reproduction, rapid propagation
asexual and sexual reproduction, rapid propagation, reproduction asexual: Question: what are some advantages and disadvantages for asexual and sexual reproduction? Asexual: 1:Chance of continued survival increased by the fact that a partner is not needed. 2:Rapid propagation. 3:Decreased probability of genetic...

Biology: science, life on earth, important things
life on earth, important things, biology: Without biology, there wouldn t be existence of any life on earth. Biology, is what helps us learn about diseases, and figure out what makes them happen, and what it will take to fix the problem. It is one of the most important things there are about life...

Biology: science, water co2, cellular respiration
water co2, cellular respiration, complementary processes: Hi Lillie They are opposite chemical processes. Chemical changes that are reversible. During photosynthesis water and carbon dioxide are used to store light energy in the from of glucose and Oxygen is released During cellular respiration glucose is oxidized...

Biology: science, brittle metal, thanksgiving dinner
brittle metal, thanksgiving dinner, waheed: Dear Waheed, Well, for one thing, it s a very brittle metal in its pure form. And, more importantly, it reacts explosively with water (or water-based substances). So Thanksgiving dinner would be truly spectacular if you had sodium dinnerware! :) ...

Biology: science assignment, potato buds, flower petals
potato buds, flower petals, plant hormones: Hi Emma: Ethylene oxide is a plant hormone different from others because it is a gas. It is used mainly to hasten the ripening of fruits.It hastens the formatiom of an abcission layer which brings about the breaking off of fruits, flower petals and leaves....

Biology: science and biology, father of biology, who is the father of biology
father of biology, who is the father of biology, characteristics of non living things: Lot of questions here pogs. There are a lot of definitions here for science. My favorite is that science is the process by which we arrive at organized knowledge. There is no clear decision on the father of biology. Aristotle is often considered in...

Biology: About my science fair project, us weather bureau, phases of the moon
us weather bureau, phases of the moon, science fair project: Hi Kindra There are a lot of books and articles about this topic. Are you acquainted with Google? If not go to google.com and type in weather and the moon and you will find some information. You might also get some help from the US Weather Bureau....

Biology: my science fair project, depth perception, optic nerve
depth perception, optic nerve, occipital lobe: Sounds like an interesting topic Cat. During your research part see if you can find out information about animals that do not have binocular vision like those with eyes to the side of their heads. Horses for example. Perhaps you could also find out about those...

Biology: My science fair project!, earth worm, bright flashlight
earth worm, bright flashlight, moist soil: Hi kristina: you may have some difficulties with this project. First of all you will have to motivate the worm to move. To do this I would suggest using light. Worms will move away from light. In fact you may want to use light instead of electricity. ...

Biology: science fair question, egg shell, calcium carbonate
egg shell, calcium carbonate, grade science: Nah, not a problem. All that is needed is to be sure that the same (or close to) amount of egg shell is used in all your test samples so that you can determine/ observe only one factor, the affect of the acetic acid on the calcium carbonate of the shell....

Biology: science fair question, canned tuna, cat problem
canned tuna, cat problem, science fairs: Hi erin; You need a different question here. There is no way to measure what your pet is communicating. Try something you can measure. I have judged science fairs where someone tested the food preferences of their pets. Pick a specific brand or type...

Biology: science project, small circles, petri dishes
small circles, petri dishes, petri dish: There are a number of ways to do this Jay. You will need bacteria media plates. Here is what I would suggest. Decide which mouthwashes you are going to test. Cut som small circles of filter paper and soak them in the different mouthwashes. Swap your mouth...

Biology: science project, sterilization equipment, mouthwashes
sterilization equipment, mouthwashes, science project: What do you have to work with? Is the school going to supply the growth media, materials and sterilization equipment? I would think the first thing you would have to do is isolate the bacteria that cause bad breath. This might be difficult. Here is a site...

Biology: science project cleaner mouth, high school biology, container lids
high school biology, container lids, flat dish: Hi Liz: I don t remember what or when I gave advice to Aubrea but I would be glad to help you. The first think you have to do is make a plan: state your problem, make a hypothesis and then design your experiment. You will not be able to use the term cleaner...

Biology: science project model, anatomy of the digestive system, flat cardboard
anatomy of the digestive system, flat cardboard, large intestine: Hi Angie: This is an ambitious project for a 10 year old but not impossible. Do you have information about the anatomy of the digestive system? If not you can find drawings in almost any biology book at the library. Personally when it comes to artistic...

Biology: I am doing a science project..., nerve cells, biology class
nerve cells, biology class, michael ps: Hi Michael; Many years ago I some students in biology class who worked on projects like this. Their results were inconclusive. My hypothesis would be that sound waves do not affect the growth of beans. Since the effect of sound on living things depends...

Biology: science, conn river, calvin cycle
conn river, calvin cycle, requiered: The Calvin Cycle represents the dark cycle or light-independent cycle of photosynthesis. During the light cycle, ATP is generated from light energy, water is split and oxygen is released. The ATP is then the source of energy for the dark cycle. For lots...

Biology: scientific definition of pain, overwhelming sadness, alarm clocks
overwhelming sadness, alarm clocks, emotional experience: Hello again! Don t worry, you aren t abusing my time! If we experts here did not have time to answer questions, we wouldn t be here, now would we? (: Okay, now to your questions. It matters not how one does (or does not) perceive a sensation; the fact...

Biology: scientific names of organisms, scientific names of organisms, moth larva
scientific names of organisms, moth larva, domestic cow: Dear Akinniyi Here are those names. Note that a scientific name is correctly written only if the genus (first name) is capitalized, and the species (second name) is lower case, and the entire name is written in *italics* to indicate that it s Latinized....

Biology: sclera, evolution of mammals, elastic fibers
evolution of mammals, elastic fibers, nocturnal animals: Hi morfeus You are asking why questions and why questions are difficult to answer. I sometimes shock my students by answering Because. That s why Why questions deal with evolutionary biology. Things are like they are because that is the way they evolved...

Biology: second law of thermodynamics, energy pyramid, second law of thermodynamics
energy pyramid, second law of thermodynamics, law of thermodynamics: No.The second states that with any conversion of energy from one form to another this a loss of useful energy. The bear converts the chemical energy in the fish to heat. Here is an example of an energy pyramid Bear eats salmon ...

Biology: second law, starch production, atp energy
starch production, atp energy, friction heat: Secomd law= the energy in the universe moves toward disorder- in other words it becomes non-usable energy. Example: imagine a ball resting at the top of a slide. The ball is at rest (potential energy- the potential to do work like falling down the slide)...

Biology: seed germination, bean seeds, paper towels
bean seeds, paper towels, seed coat: I thought that I answered this one Jamie but maybe I didn t send it. I don t believe so because the nutrients would not pass through the seed coat. But than again science is a discovery process. Plant some bean seeds or cover them with wet paper towels...

Biology: seed germination, seed coat, nutrients
seed coat, nutrients: Hi Jamie: I suspect that seed germination is accelerated by water but not additional nutrients because I am not sure that the nutreints can get through the seed coat . This sounds like a good project though. Why not design an experiment to test it...

Biology: segregation distorters, mutant genes, richard dawkins
mutant genes, richard dawkins, mutant gene: Dear Josh, I just joined AllExperts in the Biology category, and found your question. If I m not mistaken, Dawkins may be using the term egg in this paragraph as a synonym for zygote, as the term fertilized egg might have been too cumbersome. ...

Biology: selective breeding, parental genotypes, market animals
parental genotypes, market animals, parental generation: We have benefited by getting better foods. Our fruits are the result of artificial selection. Take apples for example. Wild apples do not look like those big red juicy ones you see at a market. Market animals are quite different from wild game.. Inbreeding...

Biology: a semipermeable sac contains..., dialysis tubing, hypertonic solution
dialysis tubing, hypertonic solution, semipermeable: Hi Lourdes: There are some questions about this problem and some considerations. First of all I assume this is an experiment using plastic dialysis tubing and does not involve live cell membranes. It is a good study to show diffusion. Here are my conclusions...

Biology: the sense of smell, science fair research, google
science fair research, google, sense of smell: Hi Cheryl: Go to google and type in olfaction and you will find a lot of sites about smell. As far as aging goes you should check out some texts on the biology of aging. There are many factors affecting smell especially changes in the sense of tast...

Biology: Do we have the same sense of taste?, human taste, sense of taste
human taste, sense of taste, emotional state: There is no way to taste something as someone else, however, all humans are very similar and have the same basic senses. That, said, everybody is also different and this includes the brain. People have different sensitivities to different odors and a tastes....

Biology: The senses, sensory mechanisms, light waves
sensory mechanisms, light waves, balance mechanism: It depends upon the sense. With vision the eye receives light waves and with hearing the ears receive sound waves. Taste and smell are attuned to chemical changes and touch involves changes in pressure and temperature. It is important to remember that sensory...

Biology: Our senses, electro magnetic radiation, cosmic radiation
electro magnetic radiation, cosmic radiation, infrared radiation: Interesting question. Organisms respond to stimuli that in some way enhance their survival or has done so in the past. Humans are no exception. It all boils down to the environment and what information is out there. There are: All sorts of electro...

Biology: sensitivity - biology, lower animals, eyesight
lower animals, eyesight, mammals: Hello Tom, I am sorry, but I don t understand your question. I assume sensitivity refers to the senses (visual, hearing, taste, touch, temperature). But these senses aren t really highly efficient compared to other mammals; in fact, all of our senses...

Biology: what are the sensors of the..., carotid sinus, internal carotid
carotid sinus, internal carotid, feedback mechanisms: They are called baroreceptors and are located in the internal carotid sinus and in the aortic arch. Pressure is detected by stretching of the arterial walls and impulses are sent to the medulla. Feedback mechanisms change cardiac output and vasoconstriction...

Biology: sensory and nervous system, anatomy and physiology of the ear, physiology of the ear
anatomy and physiology of the ear, physiology of the ear, nervous impulses: The first question involves the anatomy and physiology of the ear. To summerize the air vibrations cause cause vibrations on the typanum. These vibrations cause waves in the fluid in the inner ear affecting the auditory nerve.These auditory nerve inpulses...

Biology: sensory and nervous system, nerve impulse, nerve cells
nerve impulse, nerve cells, nerve cell: This question requires a very long involved explanation. This information should be in your text along with drawings and explanations. I will give you some key words to help you reasearch the topic. Nerve impulse or depo;arization wave Sodium pump...

Biology: serious queastion for a final, cells in the human body, lack of oxygen
cells in the human body, lack of oxygen, essence of life: Oxygen is the essence of life. All cells in the human body require it to live, otherwise it will die (the part of the body). For example. When there is lack of oxygen to an area of the heart, due to a blockage of blood flow (which carries the oxygen), then...

Biology: serology, brucellosis test, protein markers
brucellosis test, protein markers, serologist: Dear Pegah, Some serology assays, such as ELISA, are not specific enough to tell the difference between the protein markers of certain pathogens. Researchers are working on ways to overcome this shortcoming of the test, but so far it is still a problem....

Biology: I am in seventh grade and..., color perception, science fair project
color perception, science fair project, information thanks: Hi rachel I have not heard of a study involving color perception and memory so I typed in color and memory at google and found some references. They may help you so go there. Meanwhile I find your topic interesting. When you decide upon your hypothesis...

Biology: sex determination, y chromosome, x chromosome
y chromosome, x chromosome, males and females: Hello again Lisa, (a) wrong as you already knew. (b) true. Among the few genes on the Y chromosome, one is of central importance (SRY gene). If this gene is non-functional an XY individual would develop female genitals. (c) wrong. I m not sure about...

Biology: sex-linked recessive traits, x chromosome, y chromosome
x chromosome, y chromosome, dominant gene: Hi Brett The Y chromosome in males does not carry genes so if a recessive trait occurs on the X chromosome it is expressed since it does not have a dominant gene to counteract it. In females unless the genotype is homozygous it is not expressed. In...

Biology: sex-linked traits, x chromosome, sex linked traits
x chromosome, sex linked traits, gametes: If X = normal chromosome and X = hemophilia chromosome A heterozygous female would be XX or a carrier. She can produce two kinds of gametes one with the X or one with the X Male = XY and can produce only X or Y. The four possibilities when gametes...

Biology: sex reproduction system, male offspring, reproduction system
male offspring, reproduction system, organisms: Hi lait: I have never made a lot of observations about this topic. I am not sure why you see a paradox regarding numbers of hermaphroditic organisms. I would expect heterosexuality to be the norm. It would appear that feeding of young is a females job...

Biology: sexuality, haploid spores, inconspicuous flowers
haploid spores, inconspicuous flowers, small mammals: Trees are plants and hardwoods have flowers. A lot of trees have inconspicuous flowers so that you never notice them. In the temperate zones many bloom early in the spring before the leaves show. The softwoods (pines etc.) have cones or structures which...

Biology: shark question, buoyancy, respiration
buoyancy, respiration, organs: Dear Erinn, One reason is that the watery habitat provides buoyancy for the shark s body. The fish can be out of water for a little while. But gravity would eventually take its toll, and the organs would suffer damage from being compressed under each...

Biology: What signals a potato to sprout?, doing research, hormones
doing research, hormones, potatoes: Dear Denzil, I do not do school related assignments. I will say that all the suggestions you make of darkness, warmth, moisture and hormones probably play some role in the sprouting, but particularly temperature and hormones. For further information and...

Biology: silicone elements., silicate minerals, rocks and minerals
silicate minerals, rocks and minerals, silicates: Hi Maurice: I am not sure what you mean by silicone elements. Silica is an element. I believe you are looking for silicate minerals. There are many, including quartz, opals and feldspar.My guess is that you need diagrams of the crystals. There are two...

Biology: A simple question on drugs, body chemicals, mental depression
body chemicals, mental depression, o level: I am not an expert on drugs so my answer could be wrong, however, as far as I know aspirin is basically an analgesic. It may depress the synthesis of certain body chemicals as part of its effect but I have never heard of it causing depression as mental depression....

Biology: single cells from multicellular organisms., single celled organism, multicellular organism
single celled organism, multicellular organism, multicellular organisms: Hi Judy Tecbnically the first part is correct since one definition of an organism is a living thing which a cell is. Classifying a cell from a multicellular organism however as a member of the species does not make much sense. It would be a stretch to call...

Biology: single cells and zygotes, parent species, blue gill
parent species, blue gill, zygote: Hi judy A zygote is destined to develop into an individual of the species. If the egg has been fertilized by a male of a different species then the individual will be hybrid or subspecies. (example- A cross between a blue gill and a red eared sunfish....

Biology: the six propeties of life, living organisms, human language
living organisms, human language: If you define life as something that exhibits the 6 properties of life then no. If you define it as something else I suppose you could but that would be stretching the definition. If you are talking about viruses it depends on how you define life and organisms....

Biology: skeletal muscles, antagonistic muscles, skeletal muscles
antagonistic muscles, skeletal muscles, musle: When you use a muscle you deplete ATP and produce lactic acid through an anaerobic pathway. The lactic acid is what makes the muscle tired. Muscles can only pull or contact they do not expand. This would mean that in order to relax his grip the antagonistic...

Biology: skin, bone, and muscle, broken blood vessel, red cells
broken blood vessel, red cells, red marrow: 1. The periosteum 2. No red cells would be made causing organ failure from anemia (no oxygen to tissues) 3.The obliteration of the sutures in the skull can be studied. They disappear with aging. The cartilage between the head of the long bones and the...

Biology: skin, bed sores, sharp point
bed sores, sharp point, definitive answer: I don t know if this has ever been measured James. There are a lot of factors to consider. The skin is thicker on some parts of the body than other parts. It would also depend upon the way the pressure is applied. pressure from a sharp point or a dull one...

Biology: sleep&sex, sexual feelings, physiological explanation
sexual feelings, physiological explanation, chanuka: Hi chanuka; 1.I am not sure about this but I think this might be an individual thing that not everyone experiences because I know of no physiological explanation 2. Since most sexual activity occurs at night in bed I would think that anticipation...

Biology: sleeping with closed eyes, autonomic nervous system, strange question
autonomic nervous system, strange question, closed eyes: Hi Abdul: To say we close our eyes when we sleep is to say we have something to do with it but we don t. Our eyes close automatically. Whether our eyes are open or shut is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. The condition is involuntary. Although...

Biology: small intestine, chemical digestion, small intestine
chemical digestion, small intestine, nutrient absorption: Thanks for using AllExperts, Jake. You have an interesting idea here, but your instructor asks the right question in how you will get nutrients with the small intestine. Recall that the small intestine not only chemically digests the majority of our food,...

Biology: small intestine, immune system response, small intestine
immune system response, small intestine, intravenous drip: Dear Jake, You *might* be able to live for a while without your small intestine if you were put on intravenous drip with lactated Ringer Solution and a very dilute solution of sugars. But it s doubtful you could get enough over time to sustain you for...

Biology: small intestine, part of the small intestine, simple sugars
part of the small intestine, simple sugars, glucose fructose: I am afraid that you are on the losing end Jake. The main part of the small intestine (ileum and jejunum) is not necessary for digesting the carbs fats and proteins down to simple sugars and amino acids. This is done in the duodenum. The rest is nedded for...

Biology: smelling, olfactory receptors, sensory neurons
olfactory receptors, sensory neurons, sensory organs: Hi gowher: The sense of smell is called the olfactory sense. In the top of the nose there is a small area containing olfactory receptors connected to sensory neurons that lead to the olfactory area of the brain located in the temporal lobe.. Impulses entering...

Biology: smells, hydrogen sulfide, harmful organisms
hydrogen sulfide, harmful organisms, new chemicals: Hi Andrea: I get this question about once a year. During digestion foods are broken down and new chemicals are formed. Two of them are Hydrogen sulfide and Indole. These compounds give off the fecal odor. Sulfur is a component of proteins and indole results...

Biology: Do soaps contain any other harmfull ingredients other then triclosan?, antibacterial soaps, dangerous bacteria
antibacterial soaps, dangerous bacteria, harmful bacteria: Dear Jordan, Some antibacterial soaps contain triclocarban instead of triclosan. Besides being harmful to some individuals skin these soaps have the potential to create superbugs . By killing off the weaker bacteria they allow the more harmful bacteria...

Biology: soil microbiology, soil microbiology, misleading data
soil microbiology, misleading data, weight of soil: I am not really sure why this is done but I suspect it is because there is so much variation in the amount of water in the soil that including it in the weight would give us misleading data. The water is avariable we want to eliminate. We are interested only...

Biology: species classification, species homo, human attributes
species homo, human attributes, immature stage: From a genetic standpoint, yes, a human is still a human at any stage of its life, even at the moment of conception. It is merely an immature stage of the human lifecycle, just as much as a tadpole is still genetically a frog (or toad). But if one considers...

Biology: species classification, sexual maturity, species classification
sexual maturity, species classification, hintz: Hi Doyle; As far as I know the classification of immature organisms is pretty forthright and established. In the past there have been cases when juvenile forms were thought to be a different species. Neotany among invertebrates led to some confusion (Sexual...

Biology: species' extinction, species extinction, gene pool
species extinction, gene pool, probability: If a species is confined to a smaller area there is a narrowing of the gene pool making it more difficult to adapt to environmental changes. If a species becomes too specialized the options for survival decrease. lets assume that an animal depends upon a...

Biology: species membership, definition of organism, testable hypothesis
definition of organism, testable hypothesis, species classification: Dear Doyle, [And since living sperm and living egg combine to form a living creature with a new DNA code, it seems to me that action marks the beginning of the existence of a new organism. That s what I meant.] This is not an unreasonable definition,...

Biology: speculative biology, star trek episode, blood pigment
star trek episode, blood pigment, biology class: Hi Mike: In the original Star Trek (episode #26) the crew came across a life form based upon silicon instead of carbon. It has been speculated before by J.B. Haldane that perhaps this would work because of the similarities between carbon and silicon. Silicon...

Biology: should we spend time in the sun, time in the sun, should we spend time in the sun
time in the sun, should we spend time in the sun, skin damage: Hi chloe I would present it by making some qualifying statements like how long to stay in the sun and whether some people with light collections should do so. Then I would list the pros and cons of sunbathing; For example: Overexposure cause skin...

Biology: sperm cell, maricris, female reproductive tract
maricris, female reproductive tract, pregnancy test: Dear Maricris, It is impossible to give you a precise time for the life of a sperm cell exposed to air - it certainly could be several minutes before it dries out. Usually, many sperm are needed to enter the female reproductive tract to fertilize one egg....

Biology: sperm cells, rhythm method, sperm cells
rhythm method, sperm cells, viable sperm: There should be no viable sperm unless he ejaculates. As long as there is a condom present after this event and it does not break you should be OK. The risk is that the condom may break. You can always use an acid douche after intercourse if this happens...

Biology: spermatogenesis, egg cell, spermatocytes
egg cell, spermatocytes, genetic info: So what is your answer? I am not an expert on this subject but from what I remember. 1,2 and 4 are incorrect which leaves 2., primary spermatocytes are diploid. I would check a text book or the Internet to make certain if I had to answer the question...

Biology: spices effect on bacteria growth, bacteria growth, bacillus
bacteria growth, bacillus, agar: Sounds good Stephanie. I have never heard of this being done so I cannot predict the results. Science is a discovery process so when you try it you will find out. Be sure that you use a pure culture of bacteria. Bacillus would be the best since it is the...

Biology: spine, spinal curvature, center of gravity
spinal curvature, center of gravity, size increases: Hi Michelle Spinal curvature gives is greater flexibility. The size of vertebrae involve the protection of the spinal cord and depend upon the center of gravity, The size increases from top to bottom. This is a why question which can only really...

Biology: spleen and liver, cow blood, spleen
cow blood, spleen, liver: Hi Sam. There is no evidence that ingesting blood is harmful. Eating uncooked meat can be harmful if certain bacteria are present on the surface. There is a tribe in Africa where the main diet is fresh cow blood and milk. Incidentally I have never heard...

Biology: the splitting of warter during photosynthesis is, electron transport chain, oxygen molecule
electron transport chain, oxygen molecule, photosystem ii: When water is absorbed from the soil.. when light hits photosystem II reaction center it makes these molecules more energetic- they loose 2 electrons and pass them along to the primary electron acceptor (which has now donnated those electrons to the electron...

Biology: spontaneous combustion ?, spontaneous combustion, microbial action
spontaneous combustion, microbial action, release heat: There is microbial action and slow oxidation both of which release heat. Once the bacteria die the oxidation generates more heat which increases the rate of oxidation. Since the pile is insulated because of its depth the heat builds up in the center. D....

Biology: why starch for storage?, energy storage, term storage
energy storage, term storage, energy release: It is difficult to answer why questions Raymond. Things are the way they are because they work best. We do have to store energy and it is important to have a long term stroage system as well as a short term one.For even longer term storage we have lipids....

Biology: structure and function, structure of a cell, animal cells
structure of a cell, animal cells, cell phospholipid membrane: Usually form (structure) fits function. For example the structure of a cell (phospholipid membrane in this example) produces the function of selective permiablity (due to its structure) inabling chemical processes to occur. An animal cells contains these...

Biology: structures and functions in the human body, antidiuretic hormone, fetal skeleton
antidiuretic hormone, fetal skeleton, glucose level in blood: Hello Silvana, 1d - slightly moveable (or immoveable? I m not entirely sure, because hyaline cartilage is found in the trachea and the nose as well as in the fetal skeleton, but also in amphiarthrosis joints which are slightly moveable) 2d - antidiuretic...

Biology: stunted evolution, beneficial gene, evolution changes
beneficial gene, evolution changes, galapagos islands: Dear Willem, Mutations are random changes in the genetic material. Some mutations result in genes that are beneficial while others are detrimental. Furthermore, some are beneficial in a single dose while detrimental in a double dose (Sickle Cell Anemia...

Biology: suffocation, volume air, rule of thumb
volume air, rule of thumb, cubic meter: It would depend on how air tight the lift was and the volume air available. As a rule of thumb one man at rest should last about 3 hours in 1 cubic meter of air. With activity it would reduce the time to less than one half hour depending on how active he...

Biology: suggestion for biology project, biology project, arid environment
biology project, arid environment, quality poster: This is a research project which I designed for someone on this site in Oct. Perhaps you can look it over and make some changes as you see fit. This project is about determining the amount of yeast that would grow in a water saturated environment, some...

Biology: survival of the luckiest, gene pool, finding food
gene pool, finding food, organism: Premises 1,3, and 4 are false. Also, survival of the fittest is not the most accurate way to describe natural selection. It should be survival of the DNA. Even though a fit organism may not live as long as another if it can reproduce more it is considered...

Biology: swollen abdomen in older men, swollen abdomen, hereditary factors
swollen abdomen, hereditary factors, drink alcohol: I wish I could help you Adam because I have a belly problem. My doctor claims it is due to too much food and not enough exercise. There are also some hereditary factors involved and this is discouraging because there is not much you can do about heredity....

Biology: symptom, vena cava, mosquito bites
vena cava, mosquito bites, lymph vessels: The lymphatic system collects fluid from the blood and returns it to the vena cava. If the vessels in the system are clogged the fluid builds up they expand. Lymph vessels have weak walls. Why it is untreatable is because we have no treatment that can kill...

Biology: how does a synapse wor..., sodium ions, nerve impulse
sodium ions, nerve impulse, depolarization wave: The synapse is between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another. I am not sure what you know about the nerve impulse hannah but basically it involves the flow of sodium ions across the neuronal membrane into the cellular fluid. This is called a...

Biology: TASTE., john weir, sour salt
john weir, sour salt, nasal passage: Dear John Weir, You are partially correct, The basic tastes for many years were established as sweet, sour, salt, and bitter. A few years ago scientists determined that monosodium glutamate was a fifth basic taste. All other tastes are the result of their...

Biology: "Talking" to plants..., good vibes, academic studies
good vibes, academic studies, loud music: Yes studies have been made with talking and also music. There is no evidence that either of these things has any significant effect on plant growth. Loud music,however, was found to increase the temperature of the soil and to a slight degree the plant itself...

Biology: Tannins and bugs attraction, plants and insects, mustard oils
plants and insects, mustard oils, purple grapes: Hello Julie Ann, I can t imagine insects being drawn to tannins under any circumstances. After all, tannins are part of a plant s defense system against herbivores. Insects (including moths) can t digest tannin -- it even impedes digestion of other plant...

Biology: How Taste Affects Smell, bacterial and viral diseases, biology classes
bacterial and viral diseases, biology classes, sinus infection: Hi lauren 1.I am a college biology teacher 2.I teach biology classes 3. My classes involve some physiology which includes human senses 4.Advanced degrees in biology are required 5.Without scientific research we would be in the stone age. ...

Biology: Taste buds, human tongue, taste buds
human tongue, taste buds, tip of the tongue: Ria, thank you for using AllExperts and I d be happy to answer your question. The simple answer is no, the human tongue does not have specific, isolated areas for separate tastes. Rather, small, individual taste buds (which can detect either sweet, sour,...

Biology: Taxonomy, binomial nomenclature, 10th grade biology
binomial nomenclature, 10th grade biology, genus and species: Hi Kyle 1. The science of classifying living things 2. To classify and catagroize living organisms 3. He developed the system known as binomial nomenclature 4. Phylum.class,order,family.genus and species 5. At each level the organism is narrowed...

Biology: Taxonomy, true bacteria, homework question
true bacteria, homework question, unicellular organisms: Dear Anthony, Although this sounds like a homework question, I ll give you some hints. There are three domains used to classify living things. The first is Archaea, which includes only the very primitive, unicellular organisms known as Archaebacteria,...

Biology: Taxonomy, 10th grade biology, homework kind
10th grade biology, homework kind, domain system: Dear Kyle, I m sorry but I don t answer the homework kind of question - one where you can find the answer right in your textbook or from another souce (library or on-line). When you look up the answer yourself you will learn more and better than if I do...

Biology: TB, x ray, doing the right thing
x ray, doing the right thing, blood test: I am a biologist and do not have a license to practice medicine but I can tell you that TB is not difficult to diagnose so your doctor is doing the right thing for you. If TB is diagnosed it is easy to treat today. i am sure that there is no connection...

Biology: Tear, dear alice, brain cells
dear alice, brain cells, emotional factors: Dear Alice, I am not an expert on tears but they do come from the body and pass through a tear duct into the eye. The headache may be due to emotional factors but since I am not a doctor I will not diagnose your headaches. Don t panic, you are not doomed....

Biology: Teeth Science Project, hard boiled egg, pickle juice
hard boiled egg, pickle juice, tooth enamel: Hi Victoria: I would try to explain acids by example. Here is what I would tell them. Acids are special chemicals that are found in foods. They all have a sour taste like that of vinegar that you have in Italian salad dressings. They are found in oranges...

Biology: Terminology, e mail address, dictionary definition
e mail address, dictionary definition, kind regards: They pretty well mean the same thing but one would be used for a more technical oriented audience (biochemistry) Life chemistry would probably me a bit more general. Did you try a dictionary definition. Words mean various things to different people. ...

Biology: Testosteroone and aggression, testosterone and aggression, male tigers
testosterone and aggression, male tigers, lions and tigers: Hi Scott First of all I must tell you that I am not an expert on aggression in mammals. I did a little research and found out that the idea of testosterone stimulating aggression is controversial but most physiologists refute the idea. As to battles between...

Biology: Theory of Evolution, human purpose, theory of evolution
human purpose, theory of evolution, personal experiences: Theories in science are simply ways to explain what we see in the universe. All theories have been tested and are used extensively to figure out things that have puzzled humans for thousands of years. Theories can be falsified because they make certain...

Biology: Therapeutic Cloning, writing a persuasive essay, therapeutic cloning
writing a persuasive essay, therapeutic cloning, embryonic tissues: Dear Leighanne, I answered this before but it must have become lost in cyberspace. Briefly, I am in favor of therapeutic cloning. Stem cells or other embryonic tissues could either be used directly or to manufacture substances that would cure and/or...

Biology: Threat to environment, human population, easy solution
human population, easy solution, critical factor: Both factors are important. There is no single factor, although the more people you have the more resources you use. If you reduce the amount of resources per person all that does is allow you to increase the population and this simply delays the time that...

Biology: TickleMe Plants, venus fly trap, plant fibers
venus fly trap, plant fibers, edmund scientific: Hi again Ira I am unsure of your background in biochemistry and plant anatomy so I simplified the answer somewhat. It has to do with action on the cell membranes and osmosis. At the base of the Mimosa leaf petals (And also flowers that close at night)...

Biology: Tiny White Flying Parasite, question thanks, related resource
question thanks, related resource, information thanks: I have reached a dead end. Even if you find somebody I don t think they will be able to help if you do not have more info on the pest. If an entomologist saw this thing and looked at it with a microscope he should be able to tell you at least what it is...

Biology: Tonoplast & Chloroplast, host cell membrane, light dependent reactions
host cell membrane, light dependent reactions, dictionary of biology: Why lysosomes are called vacuolar organelles? Why the membrane of plant vacuole is called Tonoplast? To differentiate it from the cell membrane. I do not know from where the term comes. How many membranes (in total) are present in Plastids either 3...

Biology: Totipotency in plants v. little totipotency in humans, mammal cells, totipotency in plants
mammal cells, totipotency in plants, parenchyma cells: Theoretically all cells are totopotent. i.e. they all have a complete genome. The thing is that as a multicellular organism develops certain sequences of genes are switched on and others off and the cells become differentiated into cells having specific functions....

Biology: TRIBULUS, puncture vine, genus of plants
puncture vine, genus of plants, male sexual performance: Dear George, This from our old pal, Wikipedia: Tribulus is a genus of plants found in many warm regions. The best-known member is T. terrestris (Puncture Vine), a widespread weed and also the source of a dietary supplement claimed to increase the body...

Biology: Traits, blood type rh factor, punnet square
blood type rh factor, punnet square, offpring: Ans= B Because 1) Rh + is when one has this protien and Rh - is the abscence of the protien-- So: it is not possible for the mother to be heterozygous for Rh because she doesn t have the protien she is --. The father however has the protien and can be...

Biology: Transcription DNA/RNA/Protein Synthesis, dna rna, mrna strand
dna rna, mrna strand, dna strand: The DNA strand transcribes an mRNA template so I made the mRNA strand according to the base pairing rule DNA mRNA A U T A G C C G Then I referred to a codon table to find out which amino...

Biology: Transcription, table of codons, mrna codons
table of codons, mrna codons, rna sequence: I am sorry that I do not have the time to go through all of this Sara but I am busy with summer classes. Unless you have some specific questions than you should have little trouble doing all of this. All myou have to do is follow thw base pairing rule. I...

Biology: Transpiration of different domestic dog races, sweat glands, body shapes
sweat glands, body shapes, breeds of dogs: All dogs are the same species so there are no differences in physiology among breeds although there are more difficulties in thermoregulation because the amount of fur and extreme body shapes and sizes among breeds. Remember that breeds have come about as...

Biology: Transpiration, level biology course, plant hormones
level biology course, plant hormones, atmospheric co2: I don t think I can be too much help George but there are more factors involved than just the wind when stomata are involved. Did you control the photoperiod? I think that the amount of atmospheric CO2 could be involved. Plant hormones like abscisic acid...

Biology: Trihybrid Cross, purple people eaters, biology class
purple people eaters, biology class, trihybrid punnett square: This is indeed quite complicated Dee. I will show you how to set it up but you will have to complete the punnett square and draw conclusions; As I see it the genotypes are as follows EeHhFf x EeHhFf Your square will have 36 boxes...

Biology: Tropical Forest Biome Interesting info., rain forest plants, blue morpho butterfly
rain forest plants, blue morpho butterfly, tropical rain forests: There are some differences in tropical rain forests or jungles depending on where they are. The animals vary in African and Central and South American jungles. I have done a lot of study of jungles and have been in the central american jungles in Belize...

Biology: Tropical RainForest, tropical rain forests, tropical rain forest
tropical rain forests, tropical rain forest, carnivores plants: Hi Shruti; This is difficult because all tropical rain forests(jungles) are not alike. The central american jungle is not like the african jungle or the jungles of asia. Do some research on jungle life and than make some connections. List the carnivores,...

Biology: Tropisms and Metabolic Processessof plants, root hairs, root tips
root hairs, root tips, seedlings: Hi Brenda: I am not exactly sure about this question. I assume you are asking about root tips. The tips have root hairs and it is at the tips that we find the area of cell division. Removing the tips will kill the plant since it will not be able to...

Biology: Trypsinization, protein molecules, chemical addition
protein molecules, chemical addition, digestive process: Hello Teck Trypsin is an enzyme that breaks down protein molecules during the digestive process. Trypzinization is the name given to this process. Trypsin helps bring about a chemical process called hydroylsis. Hydrolysis is the chemical addition...

Biology: Tundra, precipation, human intervention
precipation, human intervention, biomes: Abslolutely. Biomes are as they are due to abiotic factors like precipation and temperature so a change in temperature would have an impact. With regard to human intervention it depends upon the type of human activity we are talking about. Drilling for...

Biology: Tundra, precipitation averages, alpine tundra
precipitation averages, alpine tundra, ap biology: Hi Joey Ther is not alot of difference in weather between arctic and alpine tundra. Bout are cvery cold in winter. In the alpine temps range from -20 to -30 F. In the summer 45 F is the highest. Precipitation averages 30 cm per year. In the Arctic the...

Biology: The Tundra Biome, global climate change, tundra biome
global climate change, tundra biome, ice floes: Dear Adam, Of all the earth s biomes, the tundra and arctic/antarctic habitats are probably going to be the most severely affected by global climate change. The species that live there year-round are evolved to withstand a relatively narrow range of temperatures...

Biology: The Tundra, terrestrial biome, growing seasons
terrestrial biome, growing seasons, lichens: i Have already answered this question. OOps. Sorry Rachel. I just checked Someone named Scott had asked this question. Do you have the same teacher? There are two kinds of Tundra: arctic and alpine Both are very cold although the arctic is colder....

Biology: Twin genetics, egg twins, heredity and environment
egg twins, heredity and environment, tony dear: Dear Tony, Genetically, identical twins are the same. However, as we are all the product of heredity and environment, there could be a multitude of external factors that would lead to very different personalities: disease, diet, psychological mistreatment...

Biology: Twin lore, sperm cells, family lore
sperm cells, family lore, molecular biologist: This is a really interesting subject, but not at all my field of expertise. If I would to guess, I wouldn t say that one twin absorbs another. When an incomplete twin occurs (such as conjoyed twins, or twin with extra limbs) this is because the egg didn...

Biology: Twins And Daughters, chance of having twins, twin girls
chance of having twins, twin girls, identical twins: I could not get completely. What I am saying right now is unknown, I am just speculating about possible hypothesis. Having a twin may be determined by genetic factors. Some people, actually women not men- having such kind of a gene may increase the...

Biology: Twins, twins, egg
twins, egg, babies: I don t understand what you mean by twofold . If you re asking which twin is older , technically speaking - twins are created at the same time since the two babies came from just one fertilized egg that split completely during its first division. So, both...

Biology: t cells, t cells, friend bobby
t cells, friend bobby, antigen: Hi! Well, the first thing I thought of was that Bobby s immune system will reject Tonya s T cells since they re non-self . So Bobby s body will immediately attack Tonya s T cells and they would not even have a chance to work against the infection. Hope this...

Biology: Can't remember this name of this..., number of chromosomes, chromosome number
number of chromosomes, chromosome number, chromsomes: Thanks for using AllExperts. There s a lot of terminology related to this subject, in fact, so let me describe some of the various terms that might apply. The genotype of an organism is the genetic information carried in a person s DNA; determining this...

Biology: Can't remember the name of this..., dna sequencing, dna sequence
dna sequencing, dna sequence, gene sequence: Dear J, Are you referring to DNA sequencing? One way to determine how closely related two species are is to sequence a particular gene or DNA sequence in both species, and see how much of the DNA they share in common. When this is done, the gene sequence...

Biology: I can't think of the name of this..., rna nucleotides, nucleotide sequences
rna nucleotides, nucleotide sequences, phylogenetic taxonomy: Well, I found one good one: http://www.man.poznan.pl/5SData/ Once you get there, click on the sequences button and then you can search the taxonomic browser or you can type in the genus and species if you already have one organism in mind. Here, they list...

Biology: taking it too cold, brain pain, cold causes
brain pain, cold causes, forebrain: It certainly does happen. It is often called brain pain It happens to me if I get too much ice crean of cold drink on the roof of my mouth. It only lasts for a few seconds and is intense. IT is not dangerous and it is thought that cold causes a constiction...

Biology: temperature, body temperature, proteins
body temperature, proteins, fever: I don t know what type of answer you want. When the temperature rises, the animal has a fever . The body will react by trying to cool the body - sweating, panting etc. If the temperature rises to high, proteins start to denature, resulting in the death of...

Biology: termites, auditory organs, long distances
auditory organs, long distances, strangest thing: Hi Bill Termites have antennae for feeling I do not know how often they molt but I suspect it depends upon the species and their growth rate. Hearing is the strangest thing about them. They make noises and the sound is detected over long distances...

Biology: test cross, test cross, b brown
test cross, b brown, short hair: I can best answer this with an example. Consider a cross with rabbits Let B =brown Let L = long hair Let l + short hair According to your question we are pairing 2 homozygous Brown heterozygous Long haired rabbits BBLl x BBLl ...

Biology: thanks so much for everthing., malaria parasite, dwarf plants
malaria parasite, dwarf plants, pea plants: 9. Air sacs hold a resavoir of oxygen. Runner would have a greater supply 10. Biological- Will the wasp attack this particular insect. Would the was attach other helpful bugs No Biol Cost? 12 F 13 I do not know this one either. My guess would be c...

Biology: about theb Cell, single celled organisms, prokaryotic
single celled organisms, prokaryotic, organelles: Hello Mary, organization in the context of cells usually means: prokaryotic or eukaryotic (see first link below). Regarding a single cell organization pertains to the internal structure (nucleus and organelles, membranes, cytoskeleton). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_celled_organisms#Types_of_cells...

Biology: theoretical plants, extraterrestrial life forms, underground caves
extraterrestrial life forms, underground caves, coal age: In my opinion only the so-called primitive forms of life, perhaps a primitive fungus, or maybe even a primitive moss could survive there. There is, perhaps, a very thin chance that they might survive in deep underground caves. But I want to put my...

Biology: thermoneutral zone and endotherms?, core body temperature, david haas
core body temperature, david haas, endotherms: As the core body temperature cools below a certain point the metabolism of an endotherm increase to bring it up to norm. This requires burning more sugar which means the animal must eventually eat more food to make up for the extra energy loss. The same is...

Biology: thermoregulation, core temp, body temperatures
core temp, body temperatures, heat stroke: Depends on your definition of better . All animals have evolved regulations mechanisms that are suited for the specific environment they have evolved in. Humans evolved in a hot humid environment where the need to travel over fairly long distances and expend...

Biology: thickness of blood, density mass, beaker
density mass, beaker, mass divided by volume: Hi regina; You will have to get some blood The formula is as follows: Density = mass divided by volume Get a graduate cylinder or beaker and weigh it. record weight. Add 10 cc of water to the contained and weigh together. Subtract...

Biology: time, sundial, physicist
sundial, physicist, specifics: Hi Michelle, This is really a physics question, not a biology one, but I can give you a general answer. If you need specifics, I suggest you look for a physicist at this site. I m sure there are lots of experts who know this stuff inside and out. One...

Biology: timerates of biological processes, gas absorption, wind erosion
gas absorption, wind erosion, visual explanations: Hi Annegrete Of course time is relative and I can only speak in generalizations. Decomposition of plant and animals depends upon environmental factors like temperature and presence of decomposers as well as the size. Organic breakdown can take from a...

Biology: tissue culture, plant tissue culture, sperms and eggs
plant tissue culture, sperms and eggs, plant physiology: Hello kawtherhamdan: Plese be assured that you are not wasting my time. If I did not want to answer questions I would not do this. As to your question, I do not think that you can breed plants by culturing tissues. Breeding implies crossing two different...

Biology: tissues, endosymbiotic hypothesis, cell origin
endosymbiotic hypothesis, cell origin, course lectures: Dear Stephanie, The notes from one of my Evolution and Biodiversity course lectures can help explain this to you. Please read: http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/160/160S07_9.html The explanation for eukaryotic cell origin (Endosymbiont Model or Hypothesis)...

Biology: title (Stain Attack) research paper help, dentist office, chocolate milk
dentist office, chocolate milk, tea coffee: Glad to hear from you mimi and that you have gotten the materials (teeth) that you need. As to your search for factors regarding tooth staining: I searched tooth staining at Google and found a lot of information. Try that. You might also try to find an...

Biology: do tomato plants gorw better in tomato juice or water?, tomato plants, bean seeds
tomato plants, bean seeds, tomato juice: Hi McKenna: Never fear: help is here: You will have to set up an experiment to test this. Follow the scientific method. Make a hypothesis ( aguess as to which makes aplant grow best) Plant some bean seeds and when you get leaves, measire them ...

Biology: A tough bet question., which came first the chicken or the egg, chickens
which came first the chicken or the egg, chickens, eggs: The question is usually which came first the chicken or the egg? I never heard it asked which would be the first to disappear. Since chickens produce eggs and eggs produce chickens the question is pointless and the question as to which came first is also...

Biology: two-trait test cross, testcross, test cross
testcross, test cross, rrtt: I assume that the other is homozygous. Look at an example Flowers Let R= red and r = white Let T = tall plant and t = short plant Cross RrTt x RRTT RT Rt rT rt RT RRTT RRtt RrTT RrTt Result...

Biology: transmission of AIDS, aids virus, transmission of aids
aids virus, transmission of aids, female vagina: Hi poonam: First of all keep in mind that the virus is found in body fluids otrher than blood and that includes vaginal fluids and seminal fluid.This is how it is spread through anal intercourse. Secondly the virus is extremely small and can pass the placental...

Biology: trees, tree farming, joyce kilmer
tree farming, joyce kilmer, monetary gain: Hi Rachel; I certainly share your convern. Fortunately most of our oxygen comes from the ocean (80%)so we do not need trees for survival. (If the ocean goes therefore than so do we.) Millions of people live in areas where there are no trees. Trees have...

Biology: true and flase question, sodium ions, central nervous system
sodium ions, central nervous system, breathing rate: 1) when a neuron is stimulated, positively charged sodium ions move outside the axon (T or F) SODIUM MOVES IN AND POTASSIUM MOVES OUT 2) the receptors in the eye which detect color are the rods (T or F) CONES DETECT COLOR NOT RODS 3) Nicotine depresses...

Biology: tundra biome, questoins, outer clothing
questoins, outer clothing, arctic tundra: I assume you will be going in the summer? If you will be hiking or working it would be good to dress in layers so that you can remove outer clothing when you get warm. Again what food you would take would depend on your activity and how long you would stay....

Biology: twin babies, nonidentical twins, dieseas
nonidentical twins, dieseas, twin babies: Dear Raheema, There are numerous possibities for twinning. However, usually when there are identical twins the cell mass divides in half early on. In this case it is one ovum and one sperm that produces the twins. For fraternal or nonidentical twins the...

Biology: twins, heredity, identical twins
heredity, identical twins, chemistry: Whether or not twins are conceived is mostly due to the mothers heredity. However, the sex of the twins is mostly decided by the fathers sperm. Here s an excellent site to show you how if the mother of the baby comes from a family of twins, then she s...

Biology: twins, ovulation cycle, genetic tendency
ovulation cycle, genetic tendency, genetic composition: Dear Beth, It is likely, since twinning in both sides of your future children s families has been sporadic, at best, that this is not necessarily genetic, but rather due to chance. In families that actually do have a genetic tendency towards twinning,...

Biology: twins eye color, determining eye color, eye colors
determining eye color, eye colors, genetic cause: Hello Robin, the eye color is determined by about five to six genes, which makes it difficult to predict a child s eye color. In contrast to, e.g, body height, environmental factors play almost no role in eye color; scientists say the heritability of eye...

Biology: twins, semi identical twins, sacks
semi identical twins, sacks, sexes: Dear MaryBeth, There is no way of knowing for sure without their being tested if your twins are identical or fraternal if they are of the same sex. If they are of different sexes then they are fraternal. I have not heard the term semi-identical. I hope...

Biology: Understanding evolution, random mutation, understanding evolution
random mutation, understanding evolution, process of evolution: Dear Ken Ji, I am not an authority on evolution but in talking about the eye I believe that eyes have evolved at least three times: insects,mollusks such as squids, and vertebrates. These structures are very different, however they are each eyes . In each...

Biology: Urban Myth question, alternative health products, age of the dinosaurs
alternative health products, age of the dinosaurs, aerobic organisms: Hi Geoff I have never heard of this idea and I doubt that it is true. Before green plants the Earth had no O2. Once photosynthesis began atmospheric O2 increased until it stabilized at 21%. There is no reason to expect that it would increase above that...

Biology: More to go!, endocrine system, average joe
endocrine system, average joe, physiology: Hi Phillip You asked for an explanation of the endocrine system that you could explain to the average joe so I tried to explain in general terms. For further explanation you will have to me a little more specific. Are asking about the physiology or...

Biology: Urgent! science test tomorrow!!!, vitro fertilization, fish release
vitro fertilization, fish release, prey species: Hi terence She may be using bad habits that can affect the baby such as too much alcohol, smoking or using certain medicines. Traveling from the cervix to the oviduct can be a perilous journey for sperms. I once heard on analogy. Suppose a million...

Biology: Urinary system, nitrogenous wastes, doo doo
nitrogenous wastes, doo doo, cellular level: Hi Evee: I just learned another name for feces (doo doo). No. Feces is the solid waste and urine is water containing nitrogenous wastes. Suppose you eat an apple. The fruit contains both cellulose that is not digestable and water. The cellulose becomes...

Biology: Using Gelatine to investigate the activity of pepsin under different temperatures., color differentiation, water baths
color differentiation, water baths, pepsin: Hi Saad Apparently checking the activity of pepsin on albumin by looking for clarity does not work well. It may be possible to measure the rate of albumin digestion by checking the color differentiation using Biuret reagent. Biuret tests for protein the...

Biology: Can u answer these questions for me im just curious, phenotype and genotype, dominant allele
phenotype and genotype, dominant allele, what is an organism: Most organisms are diploid, which means they have two copies of each gene or trait, one on each of a matched pair of chromosomes in their nucleus. If an individual is heterozygous for a specific trait, that means it has a different allele at the same locus...

Biology: Can u correct these questions that I have answered, messanger rna, sickle cell anemia
messanger rna, sickle cell anemia, dna nucleotide: You missed 11 dwayne; I followed them in order. If I put a c you got it right 1Inc dominance 2c 3PKU 4c 5GUanine cytosine 6c 7c 8 Pt mutation 9 Both parents 10 c 11.Polydactyly (I am not sure about this one 12Father 13 Downs and Turners 14...

Biology: my unborn child's hair and eye color, dark brown hair, light brown hair
dark brown hair, light brown hair, maternal mother: Dear Marquita, Hair and eye color in humans are controlled by several genes each, which makes predicting the outcome of a baby s genetics usually full of guesswork. From the information given, and if you have NO blue eyes in your family tree anywhere,...

Biology: On the understanding of evolution, random mutation, wingless species
random mutation, wingless species, winged species: Hi Tan Ken Ji: You have brought some very legitimate questions here and I agree that they are thought provoking. Unfortunately I doubt if I can give you a satisfactory answer. With science we sometimes have to distinguish behind fact and theory. In...

Biology: unicellular creatures, unicellular organism, children and dogs
unicellular organism, children and dogs, cell surface: Hi Chastity; This is a good question. A unicellular organism that could engulf a large animal would in itself have to be very large. The problem is that Individual cells are limited in size by what we call the scale effect. To stay alive a cell must take...

Biology: unicellular creatures, rate of diffusion, children and dogs
rate of diffusion, children and dogs, surface area: There are numerous problems. Rate of diffusion is one. It is very slow in liquids and it would take hours for materials such as food and oxygen to reach all parts of a large organism. Another problem is surface area compared to volume. As an organism gets...

Biology: the unit of measurement that scientists use to determine the diameter of an animal cell is the?, homework question, homework questions
homework question, homework questions, unit of measurement: Tami, thank you for using AllExperts, but many of the people here prefer not to simply answer homework questions for you. If you would like help with a homework question, ask in a format distinct from the multiple-choice format you re using above. That way,...

Biology: Why a urinary bladder?, terrestrial mammal, urinary bladder
terrestrial mammal, urinary bladder, cloaca: Dear Kristie, Well, for one thing it gives you a place to store urine, if you re a terrestrial mammal, so that you don t constantly leak it and burn yourself. Aquatic animals such as fish don t need a urinary bladder, since they constantly flush ammonia...

Biology: urine on plants, test plants, soil ph
test plants, soil ph, science experiment: You have picked a smelly but interesting project. It is not the nitrogen but the ammonia that can make a difference and ammonia can act as a fertilizer. Urine is highly acidic however and can alter the soil pH. Be sure your test plants are all the same...

Biology: Variation in Bacteria, bacterial chromosome, chromosome mutations
bacterial chromosome, chromosome mutations, genetic variation: Hi Lisa! answer (a) is definitely true. Since bacteria possess a single copy of their chromosome, mutations have an immediate effect. The main cause of genetic variation in eukaryotes is chromosomal crossover (-- meiosis); because of their single chromosome...

Biology: Vernal Pools, ecological relationship, lupine species
ecological relationship, lupine species, vernal pools: The following I got from the website below. You can go there and get more info. These would all be producers. Flora commonly found at vernal pools include Downingia and lupine species, yellow pansies, several sweet-scented clovers, a variety of goldfields,...

Biology: Viral dangers, human predators, rabbit population
human predators, rabbit population, pathogenic viruses: Dear Alec, Whether a virus can jump species and become a dangerous pathogen in the new host depends on the virus and on many other conditions. Most pathogenic viruses are fairly host-specific, and will not cause problems in the situation you describe...

Biology: Do Virons Live?, mad cow disease, wikipedia encyclopedia
mad cow disease, wikipedia encyclopedia, biological entities: Hello Keith, actually it is virion, not viron. Viruses are called virions before they enter a host cell. Your question concerns a fundamental problem in biology. It is far from easy to define life in all its possibilities (past, present and future; on...

Biology: Virus: living or not?, life virus, living organism
life virus, living organism, homework assignments: Dear Ryan, It depends on your definition of life. A virus may be said to be the ultimate parasite as it is incapable of independent life. Virus is not listed among the various kingdoms. I do not do homework assignments; you will benefit from doing...

Biology: Virus & Nucleus sizes, plant cell nucleus, virus good luck
plant cell nucleus, virus good luck, royal horticultural society: No. A virus, when infecting a host cell, does not itself enter the cell. What happens it that the virus will attach to the membrane of the cell (attaching to cell receptor sites on the membrane) and then inject the DNA or RNA in it s head into the cell....

Biology: Virus, virus genome, reproductive cells
virus genome, reproductive cells, nucleic acids: Hello Hadya, viruses need to reproduce inside of a living cell. There is no other way, because viruses are extremely small and contain little more than nucleic acids (the virus genome). They lack most of the enzymes which are necessary to replicate the...

Biology: Viruses, tissue metabolism, living organism
tissue metabolism, living organism, cellular structure: Hi Ryan; A living organism ,by definition, exhibits certain characteristics. All living thins do the following: They move They are composed of cells They respond to stimuli They grow They reproduce They change over time (evolve)...

Biology: Viruses, protein shell, virus particle
protein shell, virus particle, virus particles: Hi Emily It has to do with the structure and physiology of the bacteria and the virus particle. Antibiotics destroy bacteria by disrupting the cell walls during cell division or by altering the biochemistry of the organism. Virus particles are not living...

Biology: Viruses??, human papilloma virus, hydrogen electron
human papilloma virus, hydrogen electron, virus replication: HPV is an oncogenic virus extremely difficult to cultivate in vitro so there is much speculation regarding binding mechanisms. Extrapolating, viruses in general attach themselves to receptors in the cell membrane and not inside the cell. The particle gets...

Biology: Viruses, cough and sneeze, causative organism
cough and sneeze, causative organism, killer cell: My answer would be all choices(A,B,C,D) The pathogen is the causative organism The antigen is the killer cell formed to combat or destroy the pathogen The vaccine is the dead pathogen that stimulates the formation of the antigen The serum contains...

Biology: Vision of various species, human spectrum, violet range
human spectrum, violet range, extreme ranges: Comparing color vision between humans and other animals is difficult since we cannot easily test what they see. Normal humans can perceive about a million different colors that exhibit wave lengths between 380 and 750 nanometers Complexity in color vision...

Biology: vaginitis, trichomonas vaginalis, neisseria gonorrhoeae
trichomonas vaginalis, neisseria gonorrhoeae, chlamydia trachomatis: Hello Toinnett, vaginitis describes any infection of the vaginal tract. It may be caused by fungi, protozoa or bacteria. Additionally, there may be several opportunistic pathogens involved (which profit from the primary infection). Commonly found in...

Biology: variation in Bacteria, diploid organisms, chromosome mutations
diploid organisms, chromosome mutations, exchange pieces: Hi Lisa, true: (a) since bacteria possess a single copy of their chromosome, mutations have immediate effects (diploid organisms contain two copies of each gene) (b) this type of transformation is called conjugation wrong: (c) meiosis occurs in...

Biology: why do vascular plants have..., non vascular plants, nonvascular plants
non vascular plants, nonvascular plants, nonvascular plant: Hi priscilla; Vascular plants can survive in a wider range of environmental conditions because they have a transpot system. This allows them to grow larger and develop a more spphisticated system of sexual reproduction. A nonvascular plant depends upon...

Biology: I've got a boring bio project for you to look over., cell cytoplasm, protein synthesis
cell cytoplasm, protein synthesis, transfer rna: Hi Dan: In an attempt to do my patriotic duty (dispite my distain for George Dubya) I have read your lengthy treatise even though I am in the finalization of my fall college classes and in preparation for the next semester. I find little to disagree with...

Biology: vegetative state, suspense novel, place patients
suspense novel, place patients, comatose state: Hi Simon Doctors often place patients in a comatose state when there is a serious head injury to aid in the healing process. Later they return them to consciousness. Unfortunately I do not know what drugs are used but I suspect they are barbiturates....

Biology: veins, blue veins, anatomy book
blue veins, anatomy book, reflection of light: Hi Damien: Veins carry deoxygenated blood toward the heart. Although veinous blood is darker than arterial blood it is not blue (Actuall it has no color while in the vessel since color is a reflection of light) The veins are translucent and appear bluish....

Biology: viral and bacterial diseases, electron microscopes, bacterial and viral diseases
electron microscopes, bacterial and viral diseases, viral and bacterial diseases: Hello again abdul Although there are a lot of differences between viruses and bacteria the diseases they cause have some similiarities. Take pnemonia for example: The symptoms are about the same in viral pneumonia as in bacterial pnemonia. The main difference...

Biology: viral dangers, ebola virus, smallpox virus
ebola virus, smallpox virus, reason doctors: Thanks for using AllExperts, Alec. There s no simple answer to this question because not all viruses are alike. Let s start at the beginning with the dead body of the animal that s going to be eaten. Viruses might not even survive the death: some are relatively...

Biology: viral infection, protein shell, bacteria viruses
protein shell, bacteria viruses, mammalian cells: Bacteria are prokaryotes. They have a cell wall but no organizes nucleus nor organelles Mammalian cells have no cell walls and have organelles and an organized nucleus Viruses are not alive and are not cells . They are particles made up or a piece of...

Biology: viral meningitis outbreak, meningitis outbreak, causal agents
meningitis outbreak, causal agents, viral meningitis: Hello Christine Meningitis is an inflammation of the linings of the spinal cord and is a condition with different causal agents. The bacterial menuingitis is very serious much more so than the viral type. The prognosis certainly depends upon the cause...

Biology: virus, walter hintz, infectious particle
walter hintz, infectious particle, protein coat: Hi Abdul: I live in the state of Ohio which is in the midwestern part of the US. The virus enters the human body through external orifices. It can enter through the mouth and nose and through the genital tract. The aids virus enters through a break...

Biology: virus, living organism, viral structure
living organism, viral structure, structure and function: You must look at those things the define the living condition. Like homeostasis, metabolism, irritability or sensitivity, growth, reproduction, evolution. Which of these things can viruses do on their own? What things do viruses have that enable them to do...

Biology: virus, bacteria, viruses and bacteria, colds and flu
viruses and bacteria, colds and flu, long periods of time: I isn t nature it is the way natural selection works. If the virus in too successful it limits its self by destroying its hosts. An analogy would be a feed back loop where the product slows its own production. You could even use this analogy for the population...

Biology: virus, world hi, metabolic processes
world hi, metabolic processes, border line: Hi Akinbobola; A virus exihibits some characteristics of a living thing in that it reproduces in kind. It can only do so however by invading a live cell and incorporating its DNA with that of the host. It is different from living cells however in that...

Biology: viruses and bacteria, circular chromosome, viruses and bacteria
circular chromosome, viruses and bacteria, eukaryotic cells: Hello Brittany, prokaryotes are usually defined by what distinguises them from eukaryotic cells. By the way, viruses should not be considered as prokaryotes since they are not really alive (they lack metabolism). True prokaryotes are bacteria and archaea....

Biology: viruses and bacteria, viruses and bacteria, protein coat
viruses and bacteria, protein coat, antibotics: Hello Jess: A virus is too small to be seen under a light scope. Bacteria are not. Bacteria have cytoplasm but viruses do not Bacteria have cell membranes and a nucleus but viruses do not. Viruses have a protein coat, bacteria have a cell wall...

Biology: viruses and HIV, protein shell, white cells
protein shell, white cells, system tag: Hi Hayley; Imagine your are walking down the street with a certain coat that you wear all the time. In fact people recognize you by the coat you wear. Now you if don t want anybody to know who you are anymore you just put on a different coat and no one...

Biology: Walking Mushrooms?!, barbie dolls, fairy rings
barbie dolls, fairy rings, maroon color: Hey Kelly: Mushrooms cannot move. However they do appear and disappear quickly. Usually they come up overnight and than decay rapidly. They can also form rings called fairy rings that appear overnight. Perhaps this is how they surrounded a doll. The doll...

Biology: Wasps and Tigers, blue morpho butterfly, human predators
blue morpho butterfly, human predators, yellow stripes: Coloration of animals usually has to do with protection or enable it in it s search for prey The sripes on a tiger help it to sneak up on it s meal and also make ti harder for human predators to see it. There is no connection between striped hornets and...

Biology: Water intake, regulating system, salty foods
regulating system, salty foods, fluid balance: Your body has a self regulating system so that you should maintain the correct fluid balance without drinking extra water. If you sweat a lot or eat salty foods you should be more thirsty and drink more naturally. It doesn t hurt to drink extra but you...

Biology: Water molecules in redwood trees, soil moisture content, sequoia trees
soil moisture content, sequoia trees, vessel elements: Dear Sharon, Unfortunately, there isn t a single, simple answer to your question. The rate of transpiration (i.e., the movement of water from the roots through the stem and out through the gas exchange pores on the leaves of a plant) varies tremendously...

Biology: Water Potential, water molecules, force per unit area
water molecules, force per unit area, kinetic energy: Water potential is a result of the total kinetic energy and results in a force per unit area. This is how I view it. Pure water at STP has a specific potential or energy which causes it to want to move. This energy causes pressure. Pascal or bar or psi. ...

Biology: Water in petri dishes., bacteria in petri dishes, petrie dish
bacteria in petri dishes, petrie dish, petri dish: Hi Kutibah: The agar must be in a jell form to grow bacteria and it must be sterile before putting bacteria on it. I am not really sure what you mean by putting water in the petri dish. Do you have powdered agar? If so you will have to dissolve the...

Biology: Water in petri dishes., bacteria in petri dishes, petrie dish
bacteria in petri dishes, petrie dish, nutrient rich water: Hello Kutibah Chihabi, your approach will certainly be successful. However, there are several aspects to consider: (1) the volume of sample taken. Aquatic environments contain much less bacteria than soils or sediments, but there are still PLENTY of...

Biology: Water Striders and Surface Tension, water strider insects, water striders
water strider insects, water striders, surface tension of water: Sounds like a great project Melissa. I doubt if you can purchase live water striders as there is not really much of a market for them. You might try to collect them with a seine if you have a pond nearby and the weather is right but it will not be easy as...

Biology: Water transport in trees, south aspect, time sarah
south aspect, time sarah, water transport: This is an interesting observation. I do not know if anyone has done any research to determine what could be the cause of this. I can speculate but one would have to do some experiments to see what could be going on. One idea would be that the moisture content...

Biology: Weight of Mold, triple beam balance, digital scales
triple beam balance, digital scales, experimental design: Hello again A: I asked about grade level because it makes it easier to make suggestions. If this were an elementary school project or a college project I would approach things differently. You may have to determine the growth by actual observation rather...

Biology: Wich one of these are true?, carbon atoms, saturated fats
carbon atoms, saturated fats, human cells: Hi- These are true: Human cells use lipids for energy storage and protective covering, lipids are organic compouds, saturated fats dont have any double bond between carbon atoms, and cholestrol serves role in function in cell membrane. have a nice day Fatime,...

Biology: Wild salmon vs. cattle ranch cow, cow anatomy, leg muscles
cow anatomy, leg muscles, cattle ranch: To be honest Karen I have no idea how to answer this. I would suspect that a swimming fish uses all it has and I do not know how many that is. As to the cow I would think that all leg muscles are involved and I would have to look at cow anatomy to get this...

Biology: Wilting Lettuce, lettuce, knives
lettuce, knives, cause cell damage: I don t really know if this is the case. I have heard about it but have never tried it. Actually it doesn t make sense that it would brown quicker when cut. Cutting and tearing both cause cell damage which will hasten browning. Perhaps knives cause greater...

Biology: WORMS IN MY SINK, drainage hole, drainage area
drainage hole, drainage area, bug killer: Hi Emily I feel sure that these worms are maggots from the flies you see. Pour about a half a bottle of heavy duty drano down the drain. Wait a couple of hours and pour down the rest of it. If they are in the drain that should kill them. They need energy...

Biology: Wondering..., air sacs, autotroph
air sacs, autotroph, organic source: 1. Invaginations. Villi micro villi. Small air sacs in lungs. Cells use cytoplasmic streaming and ER to increase transport in large cell. 2. Auto can make own food from raw materials.(CO2 and H2O) Heterotrophs must get it from preformed organic source....

Biology: Write the letter of the word that completes the sentence, smooth muscle contractions, red blood cells
smooth muscle contractions, red blood cells, white blood cells: Hi Lindsey: It seems to me that these are questions that you can easily find answers to in your book. I will answer these but from now on do some research and if you cannot find out or do understand I will help you. I am not helping you by doing your homework...

Biology: Write the question out in complete sentences, lung fish, lungfish
lung fish, lungfish, exoskeleton: Hi Toni; 1. In the early stages of life amphibians breath with gills instead og lungs and must stay in water. 2.Lizards are cold blooded and need the sun for warmth. 3. Animals in the water are not subject to the same changes in temperature as the water...

Biology: Written experiment, orville popcorn, theater popcorn
orville popcorn, theater popcorn, kernals: Hi Donny: It looks like you did your experiment and now need to organize your report. Let s go over the whole scientofoc method as though you are just starting. 1. You problem or question is Some brands of popcorn pop better than others. 2. Now you...

Biology: I want some more information on the internet about ecosystem, nceas web, wikipedia encyclopedia
nceas web, wikipedia encyclopedia, world biomes: Hello Sangeeta, I think you are looking for general information on biomes and not just information on specific ecosystems? In ecology desert is defined as a biome and it comprises all the various desert ecosystems of the world. The following is the...

Biology: warmbloods, cellular respiration, chemical energy
cellular respiration, chemical energy, hi mike: Hi Mike; By the constant production of heat through metabolic processes. Energy is stored in large molecules called ATP as chemical energy. When body temperature starts to fall phopphorus is split off of teh ATP and the chemical energy ids converted to...

Biology: in wat form is memory stored..., nerve cells, nerve cell
nerve cells, nerve cell, memory information: Hi, Abhi. I got this passage from this link: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/528617.stm Neurobiologists call the process Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) when a nerve cell is stimulated by a neighbouring cell and acts as if it remembers the stimulation....

Biology: water droplets on agar, water droplets, petri dishes
water droplets, petri dishes, sterile technique: This is why you should stack the plates on top of one another while they are still warm. Only the top plate with have much condensed water on it. It also helps to let the agar cool to around 50 degrees C before pouring. This is condensed water and you...

Biology: water intake, liquid absorption, sweat glands
liquid absorption, sweat glands, absortion: Dear Bill, No, humans do not absorb much liquid through our skin. The skin on fingers submerged in water for a lengthy period will appear wrinkled from the water they have absorbed. As you say, our liquid absorption is via the mouth and the digestive tract....

Biology: water properties, water molecules, water properties
water molecules, water properties, solid water: HI Sherri A common property is that it is colorless,odorless and tasteless. It exists in all three states of matter It is referred to as the universal solvent It reaches maximun density at 4 degrees C It has a high surfact tension I believe...

Biology: water, mahatma ghandi, pound person
mahatma ghandi, pound person, how long can a person live without water: There are so many different circumstances that would determine this that it is tough to answer. For example with respect to water it depends upon temperature. A person in the desert under a hot sun will suffer sooner than one in a shaded area. With respect...

Biology: ways molecules can pass into the cell, concentration gradient, cellular energy
concentration gradient, cellular energy, active transport: 1. Ordinary diffusion down a concentration gradient where no cellular energy is necessary it is provided by the kinetic energy of the molecules. 2. Facilitated diffusion where a molecule that would diffuse if it could is helped by attaching to another molecule...

Biology: white fungus, white fungus, fungus infection
white fungus, fungus infection, candida albicans: I answered thhis yesterday but perhaps you did not receive it. Your mother had thrush, a yeast infection caused by Candida albicans. This yeast is common but aften flairs up when people take antibiotics which I suspect your mother got after surgery. ...

Biology: wildlife biology, grade biology class, gaining self confidence
grade biology class, gaining self confidence, homework questions: Dear Jimm, First of all I am a volunteer and it is not a job. I do not know what your teacher wanted. There is one possibility that the teacher means that scientists have to communicate between each other to further knowledge. Moreover, scientists must...

Biology: woodlice, rollie pollies, little critters
rollie pollies, little critters, humidity conditions: This sounds like an interesting project. Unfortunately, I know very little about these little critters. I assume you are talking about those little crustations that roll up in a ball when disturbed? We call them rollie pollies or pill bugs in the US. ...

Biology: woodlice, pillbugs, temperature conditions
pillbugs, temperature conditions, experimental design: Hi Xaviera I assume you are studying sowbugs or pillbugs (Isopods) I have never done this study. Are you working with live isopods? If so what do your observations tell you? Have you set up an experimental design? It seems to me that you will have to...

Biology: The world as we know it. lol, suns rays, plant genetics
suns rays, plant genetics, lack of oxygen: A human in space would not be crushed but would due to the cold temperature and lack of oxygen almost instantly. A tank of oxygen would not help as the person would be frozen. Since there could be no survival ther could be no evolutionary changes. There is...

Biology: What worm is this?, mosquito larvae, toilet tank
mosquito larvae, toilet tank, fruit flies: Hello Rose, Well yours is definately the most interesting question I ve had from this site in quite a while! I wish I could give you a certain answer, but the pictures are a little fuzzy for confident ID. My best guess is that they are one of two things......

Biology: What worm is this?, mosquito larvae, toilet tank
mosquito larvae, toilet tank, fruit flies: Without a photograph of what these things look like it is hard to say. It was probably some kind of insect like a mosquito that lays eggs in water and then the hatching larvae are aquatic. Do you know what mosquito larvae look like? Sorry I can’t be of...

Biology: "worms" in my sink!, strong drain, plumbing fixtures
strong drain, plumbing fixtures, knat: Hi Mary; Lets face it . We live in a buggy world. However it is possible to keep most critters from our living areas. I am unable to identify these insects from your descriptions except to say that they appear to be insects and not worms. From their location...

Biology: wow....wat a question, single celled organisms, cell specialization
single celled organisms, cell specialization, mr locke: Thanks for using AllExperts, David. Cell specialization is a prerequisite for complex life, so perhaps the biggest advantage of having specialized cells is the ability to become a complex organism. More complex organisms can move greater distances, interact...

Biology: Why is a wrong Hypothesis..., null hypothesis, drugs
null hypothesis, drugs: I do not believe that a hypothesis that proves false is necessarily better than one that is true but it still is valuable. With some scientific studies we form a Null Hypotheis and try to disprove it. The idea of the null hypothesis works this way. Suppose...

Biology: not sure!, free floating anxiety, vagus nerve
free floating anxiety, vagus nerve, apparent problems: Dear Sue Croft, This is a question that you should discuss with your primary care physician. Nerves, anxiety, digestion and neurotransmitters/hormones (adrenaline/ noradrenaline) such are certainly interrelated. The vagus nerve when stimulated slows the...

Biology: something, soil composition, living organisms
soil composition, living organisms, ecological study: Definitions: 1. Community: all the organism that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of the populations of different species living close enough together for potential interaction (Campbell, Reese, Mitchell 1999). 2. Ecosystem: A level of ecological...

Biology: how do!!!!!!!!!!, liver cells, different chemical processes
liver cells, different chemical processes, adrenal glands: Hello Isabella Dicaprio: 1. Is the first question how can a nucleus of a preexisting cell get transfered into another cell? If so a biologist can take a very small needle and suck up the nucleus of one cell and then transfer it to another cell that has...

Biology: what to do..., biology microbiology, school coursework
biology microbiology, school coursework, necessary prerequisites: Dear Lauren, As long as you have the necessary prerequisites for Med School or Grad School in your favorite science, major in the subject you are really interested in be it art history or English literature or anything else. If medicine is the area you...

Biology: ..., nitrogen compounds, plant tissues
nitrogen compounds, plant tissues, cigarette smoke: Dear Douglas, It depends on what component of smog or cigarette smoke you re considering. Some compounds, such as carbon dioxide, are vital for photosynthesis. Others, such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds, can cause acidification of soil water and plant...

Biology: should we, time in the sun, skin and skin
time in the sun, skin and skin, skin cancer: Hi abbie: If I understand your question you are looking for the bad effects of too much time in the sun. Is that correct? If that is the case, your essay should be about aging of the skin and skin cancer. Look up information on skin cancer. Just google...

Biology: YEASTS, alteration of generations, different groups of fungi
alteration of generations, different groups of fungi, host organism: Yes, yeasts are placed in both basidiomycota and ascomycetes classes. As such the yeasts of today originated from an ancestor that somehow interacted symbiotically with other species of fungi or through the sexual (diploid) generation (yeasts experiance an...

Biology: Yeast autolysis, yeast cells, sugar concentration
yeast cells, sugar concentration, double boiler: I would think that sugar would act much the same as salt at similar concentrations although salt would be twice as osmotically active. Why couldn t you simply kill the cells using heat. They would then break down naturally. Bacteria and other fungi would...

Biology: Young species, fertile offspring, microscopic creatures
fertile offspring, microscopic creatures, genetic system: I do not know of any specific populations that could be called a new species. The species concept is not as simple as one might imagine and there is more than one definition for the term. I like to think that species do not exist. Only the human need...

Biology: yeast, yeast products, acidophilis
yeast products, acidophilis, source of contamination: Yes some yeast organisms can still be presnt after the bread has been cooked. The reason is because many organims produce spores that can survive in severe heat, cold, etc... and these spores can then sporulate to produce new yeast/fungi/bacteria/etc... that...

Biology: yeast, recurrent yeast infections, blood sugar level
recurrent yeast infections, blood sugar level, high blood sugar level: Dear Roy, I answered this yesterday, but perhaps the answer became lost in cyberspace. I am not a physician and do not know who gave your wife the advice. You are correct that the heat of the oven kills the yeast cells in thoroughly baked bread and cakes....

Biology: yeast, yeast, test tube
yeast, test tube, haas: The yeast will use up most of the food in a few days but many of the cells will go dormant so that even after a week or two there should be enough cells alive to start growing again. It also depends on how large a tube they are in. The larger the container...

Biology: yeast and artificial sweetners, yeast metabolism, rise yeast
yeast metabolism, rise yeast, aspertane: This is what science is all about. My hypothesis would have been that the reaction would be slow or lacking with artificial sweeteners but your results have shown this to be false. I am as surprized as you are but not confused. Facts are facts. Your experimental...

Biology: yeast, bakers yeast, brewers yeast
bakers yeast, brewers yeast, glucose solution: I have had a chance to rethink the answer about metabolic rate with maltose and I do not believe the rate would be any different. Brewers yeast is produced commercially but as with all fungi is found in nature. Bakers ,of course, will use the commercial...

Biology: Zoology: Non-mammalian external ears, external ears, aquatic mammals
external ears, aquatic mammals, common ancestor: Dear Keith, This is an interesting question, but the answer might be really simple. Animals don t evolve things because they need them or because they would be adaptive. Traits are selected and kept in the population if they evolve by accident (incrementally...

Biology: Zoology, march of the penguins, aesthetic value
march of the penguins, aesthetic value, great joy: Zoology is the study of animals. We of course are animals so this study becomes important when we obtain knowledge that we can use to benefit our lives. There is aesthetic value to animals and their behavior. I just got great joy out of watching the March...

Biology: zoology, presentation graphs, type of bacteria
presentation graphs, type of bacteria, control variables: It appears Alexis that you have not been given the Scientific method. Her is what you do. Your problem is the amount of bacteria in a dogs and a human mouth. First state a hypothesis which is a good guess as to the answer. IT May be A dog s mouth...

Biology: zoology, flexible spine, body cavity
flexible spine, body cavity, marine biologist: Hi Robin: Both belong to the jawless fishes (Agnatha) Lampreys are freeswimming and are found in both salt and freshwater. They have a flexible spine of cartilege The hagfish is found only in saltwater. It is a bottom dweller and has no fins....

Biotech & Biomedical: My 18 year old daughter has..., fda recalls, cosmetic establishments
fda recalls, cosmetic establishments, fda regulations: You say your daughter has prepared the names, packaging, and design for a cosmetic line. You should understand the government (FDA) regulations concerning cosmetics: FDA is only able to regulate cosmetics after products are released to the marketplace. Neither...

Biotech & Biomedical: blood brain barrier, blood brain barrier, list of drugs
blood brain barrier, list of drugs, meperidine: Hi, Sabiya, Thanks for your question. Relatively easy - any drug that is designed to be given orally, i.m. s.c. or i.v. and acts on the brain MUST cross the blood-brain barrier. e.g. opiates (morphine, methadone, meperidine), anxiolytics (diazepam,...

Biotech & Biomedical: morphine - follow up, morphine sulfate, ms contin
morphine sulfate, ms contin, arthritis pain: Hi, Th, This must have been a pretty bad time for you. I m sorry. As to eye colour, there is very little in the scientific literature that can help us here - BLUE eyes are just the absence of pigment and so turning from hazel to blue is just a loss...

Biotech & Biomedical: fraud, health ailments, ill consequences
health ailments, ill consequences, health consequences: I don t know if I would call it fraud. I would think if a person / scientist / company knew that there are certain chemical reactions in the brain that stimulate pleasure, that person / scientist / company would want to create a product / experience that...

Biotech & Biomedical: fraud, drug dependence, product approval
drug dependence, product approval, pharmaceutical product: Hi, Jon, Interesting question! Whilst many pharmaceutical products can lead to drug dependence, no company would intentionally develop a product with this intention (it would not be ethical and would not get product approval). I have never heard of any...

Biotech & Biomedical: testing a pain pump implant, morphine, metals
morphine, metals, stainless steel: Are you trying to determine what the metals are in the pump or if the metals leached into you body? Do you know the manufacturer of the pump? If so, I would contact them directly with your question. A pump is undoubtedly made of more than 1 material, FYI....

Biotech & Biomedical: BECKER MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY GENE, becker muscular dystrophy, muscular dystrophy gene
becker muscular dystrophy, muscular dystrophy gene, dystrophin gene: Hi, Lynn, Short answer - no. Clarithromycin is closely chemically related to erythromycin and almost certainly is cross-reactive - so if you are allergic to erythromycin you will most likely be allergic to clarithromycin as well. Avoid. Best wishes,...

Biotech & Biomedical: Stress and the BBB, jennifer thanks, harmful drugs
jennifer thanks, harmful drugs, mental stress: Hi, Jennifer, Thanks for follow-up question. One good example is penicillin - thus, can be used in such conditions although it would not normal reach its site of action. Can then cause convulsions. Other is isoprenaline (isoproterenol) - epinephrine...

Biotech & Biomedical: Deep Kissing & Sucking, transmitting hiv, transmission of hiv
transmitting hiv, transmission of hiv, slim hope: Hi, Prashanth, Thanks for your question. Whilst the HIV is found in saliva of infected individuals, it is in very low numbers - HIV is not thought to be able to penetrate intact skin and normally requires blood contact for effective transmission. ...

Biotech & Biomedical: bioanalytical, plasma proteins, human plasma
plasma proteins, human plasma, bioequivalence studies: Hi, Unfortunately, there is no easy, single answer to this question as every drug differs! Some drugs bind extensively to plasma proteins (warfarin binds 99%) whereas others have virtually no binding. Extraction depends on the type of drug - there...

Biotech & Biomedical: G6PDD, oxygen radicals, doubt check
oxygen radicals, doubt check, hemolytic anaemia: Hi, Anoj, Thanks for your question. The compounds you mention are nearly all common constituents in various medicines and other products for oral (by mouth) use. Some are anti-oxidants, some are buffers and some preservatives. I can find no information...

Biotech & Biomedical: bioanalytical, confidence interval, bioequivalent
confidence interval, bioequivalent, experimental error: Hi, Simi, To be bioequivalent two preparations or drugs need to give the same biological effect. The usual experimental error put on this is 20% - thus, 80-120% is considered bioequivalent . 90% confidence interval means that statistically it...

Biotech & Biomedical: bioanlytical, fatty acid salt, liquid liquid extraction
fatty acid salt, liquid liquid extraction, organic solvent: Hi, Simi, I assume you are using extraction to/from an organic solvent from a water-based one. The idea of adding acid/base is to change the lipid (and therefore organic solvent) solubility of the components you want to extract. For example, a fatty...