Geology Sitemap - Page 3 2016-09-26

Granodiorite - Igneous Rock Types
Granodiorite is one of the major igneous rock types. Page 9.

Komatiite - Igneous Rock Types
Komatiite is a rare and ancient ultramafic lava. Page 11.

Obsidian - Igneous Rock Types
Obsidian is one of the major igneous rock types. Page 13.

Pegmatite - Igneous Rock Types
Pegmatite is one of the major igneous rock types. Page 14.

Perlite - Igneous Rock Types
Perlite is one of the major igneous rock types. Page 16.

Pyroxenite - Igneous Rock Types
Pyroxenite is one of the major igneous rock types. Page 19.

Quartz Monzonite - Igneous Rock Types
Quartz monzonite is one of the major igneous rock types. Page 20.

Rhyolite - Igneous Rock Types
Rhyolite is one of the major igneous rock types. Page 21.

Syenite - Igneous Rock Types
Syenite is one of the major igneous rock types. Page 23.

Tonalite - Igneous Rock Types
Tonalite is a felsic plutonic rock without alkali feldspar. Page 24.

Latite - Igneous Rock Types
Latite is the extrusive equivalent of monzonite. Page 12.

Troctolite - Igneous Rock Types
Troctolite is one of the gabbroid rocks: igneous, plutonic and mafic. Page 25.

Historic Lime Kiln - Gallery of Artificial Rocks
Limestone was once burned in open-topped kilns. Page 3.

Gallery of Artificial Rocks - Lime Kiln Fire Bay
Entrance to an abandoned lime kiln.

Porphyry - Igneous Rock Types
Porphyry is one of the major igneous rock types. Page 17.

Granite - Igneous Rock Types
Granite is one of the major igneous rock types. Page 8.

Peridotite - Igneous Rock Types
Peridotite is one of the major igneous rock types. Page 15.

Pumice - Igneous Rock Types
Pumice is one of the major igneous rock types. Page 18.

Scoria - Igneous Rock Types
Scoria is one of the major igneous rock types. Page 22.

Tuff - Igneous Rock Types
Tuff is one of the major igneous rock types. Page 26.

Concrete in an Urban Park - Gallery of Artificial Rocks
Concrete is a tasteful framework at Seattle's Freeway Park. Page 13.

Gray Slag - Gallery of Artificial Rocks
A gray specimen shows the variety in this underappreciated artificial rock. Page 24.

Adobe Arch - Gallery of Artificial Rocks
Adobe constitutes an arch at the National Garden in Washington.

Glass Waste - Artificial Rocks
Waste glass is a common form of artificial rock. Page 21.

Brick and Mortar - Artificial Rocks
Brick column with oozing mortar in Laguna Beach, California. Page 8.

Plaster and Brick - Artificial Rocks
Brick and plaster combine in the elegant buildings of Old Oakland, California. Page 7.

Brick and Concrete Rubble - Gallery of Artificial Rocks
Bricks and concrete are fully recyclable by nature. Page 20.

Concrete Sidewalk - Gallery of Artificial Rocks
A concrete sidewalk from 1910 is ready for another century. Page 10.

Concrete Boulder in a Streambed - Artificial Rocks
Concrete joins natural boulders in a Nevada riverbed. Page 19.

Concrete Floor - Artificial Rocks
Concrete makes a fine floor for the display of fine art. Page 17.

Concrete Skateboard Rink - Artificial Rocks
The skateboard rink of Piedmont, California, shows concrete's native virtues. Page 15.

Aggregate in Concrete - Gallery of Artificial Rocks
San Francisco concrete reveals its local aggregate. Page 12.

Mortar - Gallery of Artificial Rocks
Mortar holds together a rustic stone wall. Page 5.

Plaster Frieze by Alexander Calder - Gallery of Artificial Rocks
Plaster makes up an elegant bas-relief in Oakland, California. Page 6.

Slag - Gallery of Artificial Rocks
Slag is a form of artificial rock. Page 22.

Brick Tile - Gallery of Artificial Rocks
Brickclay can be fashioned and fired into tiles. Page 9.

Eclogite, Greece - Eclogite Picture Gallery
A Mediterranean occurrence of this extreme metamorphic rock. Page 7.

Giant Concretions in Alberta, Canada
Northern Alberta may have the world's largest concretions. Page 24.

Concretion from South Africa
A concretion from coastal South Africa. Page 6.

Mushroom Shaped Concretion
A mushroom-shaped concretion found in Topeka, Kansas. Page 4.

Pennsylvania Concretion
A large, well-formed concretion from Pennsylvania. Page 14.

Concretions of Bowling Ball Beach, California
A beach full of great concretions near Point Arena, California. Page 19.

Concretions Eroding at Bowling Ball Beach, California
Concretions at Bowling Ball Beach erode out of their sedimentary matrix. Page 20.

Concretion with Crossbedding, Montana
Crossbedding in sand extends through a pair of concretions. Page 16.

Concretions, Scotland
Jurassic-age concretions on the Isle of Eigg, Scotland. Page 18.

Concretions - Ferruginous Gravel, Australia
Gravel-size ferruginous concretions from Australia.

Concretion Hoodoo, Montana
A large concretion tops a Montana hoodoo. Page 17.

Ironstone Concretion from Iowa
Ironstone concretion from Iowa that faintly resembles a brain. Page 9.

Bone-Shaped Concretion
Concretions may resemble bones and other fossils. Page 7.

Concretions in Shale, New York
A pair of Devonian concretions from western New York state. Page 12.

Broken Concretion at Moeraki
A giant concretion breaks open to reveal its inner structure at Moeraki, New Zealand. Page 23.

Moeraki Boulder Concretions
Large, spherical concretions are a scientific attraction at Moeraki, in New Zealand. Page 21.

Eroded Concretions at Moeraki, New Zealand, Showing Septarian Veins
Giant concretion at Moeraki, New Zealand, displays its septarian veins. Page 22.

Concretion in Claystone, Oakland, California
Ironstone concretion from an Oakland, California shale bed. Page 11.

Concretion, Genessee Shale, New York
A well-formed New York state concretion displays its growth pattern. Page 10.

Root-Cast Concretion, California
A small concretion forms where a plant root once ran. Page 2.

Ironstone Concretions, England
Jurassic concretions on the east coast of England. Page 15.

Louisiana Concretions
Concretions from the Eocene of Lousiana and Arkansas. Page 3.

Tubular Concretions, Flaming Gorge, Wyoming
Concretions may take cylindrical or tubular shapes like these ones in Wyoming. Page 8.

Concretion Cross Section
A concretion from the Caspian Sea region displays its inner layers in a cross section. Page 13.

Conglomeratic Concretion
Concretion from conglomeratic sediments. Page 5.

Conglomerate with Weak Phenoclasts
Conglomerate in Griswold Canyon, California, with weak phenoclasts. Page 10.

Pebble Conglomerate
A conglomerate boulder with pebble phenoclasts. Page 3.

Conglomerate with Weak Matrix
A conglomerate with weak matrix in the Tumey Hills, Californias. Page 9.

Conglomerate of Proximal Origin
A conglomerate boulder in a Nevada wash. Page 11.

Conglomeratic Texture
The typical texture of conglomerates. Page 2.

Puddingstone Conglomerate
Puddingstone is a picturesque variety of conglomerate. Page 16.

Bedding Features in Conglomerate
A California conglomerate displays bedding features. Page 13.

Cataclasis in Conglomerate
Conglomerate is not immune to metamorphism. Page 17.

Resistant Conglomerate
Conglomerate can stand out when the rock around it is weak. Page 15.

Conglomerate Decorative Boulder
Conglomerate makes an attractive and rugged boulder.

Conglomerate of Distal Origin
A conglomerate whose stones have come far. Page 12.

Petromict Conglomerate
A conglomerate with metastable phenoclasts. Page 8.

Arkosic Conglomerate
A reddish conglomerate of the Fountain Formation. Page 14.

Monomict Conglomerate / Intraformational Conglomerate
A conglomerate with stones of one rock type. Page 5.

Oligomict Conglomerate / Extraformational Conglomerate
Picture of an oligomict conglomerate. Page 6.

Polymict Conglomerate
An example of polymict conglomerate. Page 7.

Oolite or Oolitic Limestone
Some limestone preserves the ooids from the tropical seafloor. Page 10.

Limestones - Limestone in a Quarry, California
A quarry exposure of limestone. Geology. Page 3.

Limestones - Block of Hoyt Limestone
A block of Hoyt Limestone at its type locality. Page 7.

Limestones - Hand Specimen of Hoyt Limestone
A hand specimen of limestone from the Hoyt quarry, New York. Page 8.

Limestones - Outcrop at Hoyt Quarry New York
Limestone crops out in the old Hoyt Quarry in upstate New York. Page 4.

Limestones - Limestone in a Fresh Exposure, New York
Freshly exposed limestone in a New York roadcut. Page 2.

California Transect - Stop 5, the Glory Hole
An overflow structure helps drain Lake Berryessa in northern California. Page 26.

California Transect - Stop 5, Massive Sandstone
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 25.

California Transect - Stop 4-5, Lake Berryessa Turbidites
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 22.

California Transect - Stop 4-5, Wragg Canyon
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 21.

California Transect - Stop 6, Putnam Peak Basalt
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 27.

California Transect - Stop 6, Putnam Peak Basalt Sample Site
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 29.

California Transect - Stop 6, Columnar Jointing
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 28.

California Transect - Stop 7, Tehama Gravel
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 32.

California Transect - Stop 7, Putah Tuff
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 30.

California Transect - Stop 7, Putah Tuff Tuff
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 31.

California Transect - Stop 9, Prehistoric Village Site
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 34.

California Transect - Stop 3, Breccia
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 15.

California Transect - Stop 3, Fault Profile
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 16.

California Transect - Stop 3, Wooden Valley and Blue Ridge
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 17.

California Transect - Stop 3, Green Valley Fault
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 14.

California Transect - Stop 4, Sedimentary Serpentinite
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 18.

California Transect - Stop 4, Sedimentary Serpentinite Closeup
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 19.

California Transect - Stop 4, Serpentinite Slide
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 20.

California Transect - Stop 4-5, Lake Berryessa
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 23.

California Transect - Stop 5, Monticello Dam
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 24.

California Transect - Stop 30, Orinda Formation and Moraga Volcanics, Basalt Underside
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 102.

California Transect - Stop 30, The Outcrop
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 99.

California Transect - Stop 30, Orinda Formation and Moraga Volcanics
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 98.

California Transect - Stop 31, Lower Nappe Greenstone
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 108.

California Transect - Stop 31, Lower Nappe Rock
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 107.

California Transect - Stop 31, Upper Nappe Rock
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 106.

California Transect - Stop 31, Franciscan Nappes, Jadeite-Bearing Quartzite
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 105.

California Transect - Stop 31, Franciscan Nappes
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 103.

California Transect - Stop 31, Franciscan Nappes Site
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 104.

California Transect - Stop 32, Baker Beach Serpentinite
The long exposure of San Francisco's Baker Beach is a classic place to see subduction. Page 109.

California Transect - Stop 32, Slicing and Deformation
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 111.

California Transect - Stop 32, Graywacke Tafoni
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 112.

California Transect - Stop 32, Three Rock Types at Baker Beach
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 110.

California Transect - Stop 33, Merced Formation Bedding
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 116.

California Transect - Stop 33, Merced Formation Gravel
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 114.

California Transect - Stop 33, Merced Formation
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 113.

California Transect - Stop 33, Soft-Sediment Deformation
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 115.

California Transect - Stop 24, Polychrome Niche
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 85.

California Transect - Stop 24, Eastern Belt Metavolcanics Vista
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 83.

California Transect - Stop 25, Erosion and Paleorelief
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 89.

California Transect - Stop 25, Mehrten Formation Andesite
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 88.

California Transect - Stop 25, Emigrant Gap Vista Point
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 87.

California Transect - Stop 26, The Big Hole
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 91.

California Transect - Stop 26, Hydraulic Mining Effects
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 90.

California Transect - Stop 27, Pay Dirt
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 93.

California Transect - Stop 27, Auriferous Gravels
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 92.

California Transect - Stop 28, Lava Pillows
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 95.

California Transect - Stop 28, Lake Combie Complex
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 94.

California Transect - Stop 29, The Cordelia Fault
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 97.

California Transect - Stop 29, Cordelia Fault
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 96.

California Transect - Stop 2, Greenstone
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 12.

California Transect - Stop 2, High-Grade Serpentinite
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 13.

California Transect - Stop 2, Ring Mountain Preserve
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 10.

California Transect - Stop 2, Tamalpais Vista
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 11.

California Transect - Stop 30, Orinda Formation and Moraga Volcanics, Conglomerate Underside
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 101.

California Transect - Stop 30, Orinda Formation Conglomerate
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 100.

California Transect - Stop 1, Nappe Thrusts
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 8.

California Transect - Stop 1: The Golden Gate
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 6.

California Transect - Stop 1, Radiolarian Chert
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 7.

California Transect - Stop 1, Marin Headlands Setting
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 5.

California Transect - Stop 20, Lovejoy Basalt at Spring Garden, Basalt Flow Texture
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 73.

California Transect - Stop 20, Lovejoy Basalt at Spring Garden
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 74.

California Transect - Stop 20, Lovejoy Basalt Phenocrysts
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 75.

California Transect - Stop 20, Lovejoy Basalt at Spring Garden
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 72.

California Transect - Stop 20-21, Sierra Nevada Escarpment
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 76.

California Transect - Stop 21, Sierra Valley (and Stop 22)
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 77.

California Transect - Stop 23, Sierra Nevada Batholith and Donner Lake
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 79.

California Transect - Stop 23, Sierra Nevadan Granite
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 81.

California Transect - Stop 23, Igneous Conglomerate
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 80.

California Transect - Stop 23, Sierra Nevada Batholith
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 78.

California Transect - Stop 24, Jurassic Metavolcanics
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 84.

California Transect - Stop 24, Eastern Belt Metavolcanics
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 82.

California Transect - Stop 24, North Yuba River Streambed
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 86.

California Transect - Stop 16, Feather River Ultramafic Belt
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 54.

California Transect - Stop 17, Quartzite
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 59.

California Transect - Stop 17, Quartzite Hand Specimen
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 60.

California Transect - Stop 17, Shoo Fly Complex
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 57.

California Transect - Stop 17-18, Travertine Deposit
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 61.

California Transect - Stop 17, Metaturbidites
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 58.

California Transect - Stop 18, Basalt of Rock Creek
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 63.

California Transect - Stop 18, North Fork Feather River Valley Lava Benches
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 65.

California Transect - Stop 18, Basalt Closeup
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 64.

California Transect - Stop 18-19, Lake Almanor and Lassen Peak
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 66.

California Transect - Stop 18, Peale Chert
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 62.

California Transect - Stop 19, Spring Garden Serpentinite Hand Specimen back
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 71.

California Transect - Stop 19, Spring Garden Serpentinite Hand Specimen front
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 70.

California Transect - Stop 18-19, Pangaea Cafe & Pub
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 67.

California Transect - Stop 19, Spring Garden Serpentinite Outcrop
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 69.

California Transect - Stop 19, Spring Garden Serpentinite
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 68.

California Transect - Stop 1, Deformed Red Chert
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 9.

California Transect - Stop 9-10, Gold Dredgings
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 35.

California Transect - Stop 11, Basaltic Andesite
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 40.

California Transect - Stop 11, Smartville Volcanics Outcrop
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 39.

California Transect - Stop 11, Smartville Volcanics
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 38.

California Transect - Stop 12, Igneous Breccia
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 42.

California Transect - Stop 12, Large-Scale Mixing
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 44.

California Transect - Stop 12, Serpentinites
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 43.

California Transect - Stop 12, Jarbo Gap Ophiolite
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 41.

California Transect - Stop 13, Gabbro Deformation
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 46.

California Transect - Stop 13, Jarbo Gap Gabbro Hand Specimen
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 47.

California Transect - Stop 13, Deformed Gabbro of the Jarbo Gap Ophiolite
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 45.

California Transect - Stop 14, Country Rock
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 50.

California Transect - Stop 14, Granitic Mixing
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 51.

California Transect - Stop 14, Granitic Contact Zone
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 48.

California Transect - Stop 14, the Mixing Zone
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 49.

California Transect - Stop 15, Radiolarian Chert (Again)
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 53.

California Transect - Stop 15, Central Belt Chert
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 52.

California Transect - Stop 16, Serpentinite, Again
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 55.

California Transect - Stop 16, Serpentinite Vein
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 56.

California Transect - Stop 8, Active Folding in the Central Valley
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 33.

California Transect - Stop 10, The Lovejoy Basalt
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 37.

California Transect - Stop 10, Lovejoy Basalt
A photographic field trip to classic subduction-related rocks across northern California. Page 36.

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Metals
Links about the geology and history of the important commodity metals.

Geology and Geoscience Journals
Online primary and secondary literature, plus a few popular earth-science magazines.

Mercury
Links to the geology, hazard and lore of quicksilver, the element mercury.

Geology News Sources
Links to the best sources for geology-related news stories of today and tomorrow.

Petroleum Geology - Oil and Gas
Petroleum (oil and gas): how it forms, where it's found, what it means to geologists.

Salt
Links about the geology and history of salt, a most intimate mineral and important commodity.

Sediment and Soil
Links related to sediment (sand and loess), sedimentology, soil science, pedology, and similar fields.

Stone
Resources about the practical and artistic side of stone.

Water, Groundwater and Hydrology
Water and groundwater may be the future's most important world resource and hydrology its most crucial unsung science. Learn more here.

Ask-A-Geologist Sites
Ask-a-geologist and ask-a-scientist sites, people who welcome questions--and post ready-made answers.

Geologic Photos
Sites carrying photographs of geological subjects.

Geology Podcasts
Geology podcasts: audio stories that center on geology and related fields.

Geologic Photo Tours
Field trips with photographs from your About Geology Guide: California, New York, Alaska...

Geo-Quizzes
Geo-Quizzes are modeled on

Geology Glossaries
Word lists for all kinds of earth science and its specialized fields.

History of Geology
Sources for the history of the Earth sciences.

Infrasonics
Ultra-low frequency sound arises from many causes: cosmic impacts, volcanoes, weather and earthquakes--and nuclear bomb tests.

Geology in a Nutshell
Introductory pages to many geologic subjects, well linked in all directions for those who want to learn more.

Earth Science Scales
Official scales for earthquake magnitudes, mineral hardness, volcanic eruptions, space weather events, and cosmic impacts.

Earth Images from Space
Images of Earth's geology photographed by satellites and astronauts.

Sprites and Atmospheric Electricity
Upward-directed lightning in the ionosphere, first detected in 1989, is a thriving field of Earth science.

College Teachers' Resources
Geology.

K - 12 Teachers' Resources
Lesson plans, standards, and inspiration for teachers of grades kindergarten through high school.

Dinosaurs
Resources for dinosaurs and a few related Mesozoic (Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous) creatures.

Earthquake Prediction
Scientific approaches to foreseeing earthquakes.

Earthquakes in Your Region
Earthquake info for various regions and countries around the world--seismic history, earthquake hazard/risk, and more.

Geology and the Movies
Geologic themes--earthquakes, volcanism, dinosaurs and more--crop out in popular entertainment.

Geo-Safaris
guided tours geological geology tourism safaris trips guides earth science destinations namibia colorado fossils collecting minerals mines volcanoes africa wyoming dinosaurs avalon canada arizona bolivia flin flon grand canyon canyonlands iceland jurassic coast zealand santorini yellowstone caverns caves tourism geologic

Geology Poetry
Celebrating poets who venture into geology and geologists who venture into poetry.

Mars: Geology of Mars
Resources on Martian geology and the history of Mars.

Planet Mercury Geology
Geology and planetology of planet Mercury, innermost planet of the solar system.

Meteorites
Resources about meteorites. Geology.

Earthquake Magnitudes
Magnitude scales of all kinds. Geology.

Seismology
The science of earthquake research: faults, magnitudes, instruments, networks, sounds and sights, do-it-yourself observations and research programs.

Geology of Venus
Venus history and geology, as deduced from decades of spacecraft observations.

Alaska Geology
All sorts of content about Alaska geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Alabama Geology
All sorts of content about Alabama geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Arkansas Geology
All sorts of content about Arkansas geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Arizona Geology
All sorts of content about Arizona geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

California Geology
All sorts of content about California geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history including seismic information, hazard maps, and photo tours and galleries.

Colorado Geology
All sorts of content about Colorado geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Connecticut Geology
All sorts of content about Connecticut geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Delaware Geology
All sorts of content about Delaware geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Florida Geology
All sorts of content about Florida geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Georgia Geology
All sorts of content about Georgia geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Hawaii Geology
All sorts of content about Hawaii geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Iowa Geology
All sorts of content about Iowa geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Idaho Geology
All sorts of content about Idaho geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Illinois Geology
All sorts of content about Illinois geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Indiana Geology
All sorts of content about Indiana geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Kansas Geology
All sorts of content about Kansas geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Maine Geology
All sorts of content about Maine geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

USA Geologic Maps
Maps showing the geology of the whole USA or special aspects of US geology.

Kentucky Geology
All sorts of content about Kentucky geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Louisiana Geology
All sorts of content about Louisiana geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Massachusetts Geology
All sorts of content about Massachusetts geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Maryland Geology
All sorts of content about Maryland geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Michigan Geology
All sorts of content about Michigan geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Minnesota Geology
All sorts of content about Minnesota geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Missouri Geology
All sorts of content about Missouri geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Mississippi Geology
All sorts of content about Mississippi geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Montana Geology
All sorts of content about Montana geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

North Carolina Geology
All sorts of content about North Carolina geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

North Dakota Geology
All sorts of content about North Dakota geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Nebraska Geology
All sorts of content about Nebraska geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

New Hampshire Geology
All sorts of content about New Hampshire geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

New Jersey Geology
All sorts of content about New Jersey geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

New Mexico Geology
All sorts of content about New Mexico geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Nevada Geology
All sorts of content about Nevada geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Ohio Geology
All sorts of content about Ohio geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Evolution
Resources for the evolution of species.

Geology of Gemstones and Precious Stones
Gemstones from the geologist's viewpoint, in which they are excellent minerals.

Oklahoma Geology
All sorts of content about Oklahoma geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Oregon Geology
All sorts of content about Oregon geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Pennsylvania Geology
All sorts of content about Pennsylvania geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

Rhode Island Geology
All sorts of content about Rhode Island geology: its rocks, landforms and deep history.

More on Igneous Rocks
Deeper and more specialized resources on igneous rocks including classification, granite, obsidian and more.

More on Metamorphic Rocks
Deeper and more specialized resources on metamorphic rocks including classification, granite, asbestos, schist and more.

More on Sedimentary Rocks
Deeper and more specialized resources on sedimentary rocks including classification, coal, salt and more.

Petrology and Geochemistry
Going beyond rocks to the crust and its components: geochemical reservoirs, crustal provinces and more.

Start Rock Collecting
A set of choice links to get you started in the rewarding hobby of rock collecting.

Thin Sections
Sources at all levels about those essential bits of geology, the whisper-thin slices of minerals and stones that are studied under the polarizing petrographic microscope.

Current Volcanism
Bulletins, links, and live cams for volcanoes that are currently going off.

Canadian Geologic Maps
Maps showing the geology of Canada or its provinces.

Geologic Controversies
Geologic theories--small comets, the nuclear core, evolution, the Flood, creationism and more--that have aroused controversy.

Against Creationism
Arguments and armaments against the antiscientific doctrines of creationism,

Extinction
Links on the destiny of species -- extinction.

Flooding
Flooding is the most common geologic hazard, and nature's most important erosional agent.

Cosmic Impacts
Impacts, craters, and the geology that accompanies them.

Landslides
Landslides and other catastrophic earth movements.

Local U.S. Geologic Maps
Maps of the geology, bedrock, sediments and structures of U.S. cities and localities.

Geologic Maps of Other Countries
Maps showing the geology of countries outside the USA and Canada.

Global Paleogeographic Maps
Maps that show paleogeography, the appearance of the Earth in past geologic eras.

Plate Tectonic Maps
Plate tectonics in maps, showing the world's lithospheric plates and their activity.

Seismic Hazard Maps of the World’s Nations
Seismic hazard maps for the world's nations, based on the epochal GSHAP project.

Forensic Seismology
Seismic sleuthing: Long-distance detective work through analysis of seismic records, useful in investigating remote explosions and nuclear testing.

U.S. State Geologic Maps
Maps of state geology, bedrock, sediments and structures: the most complete collection of state geologic maps on the Web.

Stone Age Technology
What we're learning about the ways prehistoric people made their stone tools—and some modern people who are reviving and preserving the art of flint knapping and related technology from the age before metals.

Tsunamis
Tsunamis/tidal waves links, for introductory or in-depth research.

Geology and Wine
The relationship of wines and grapes to the soils and rocks from which they arise is part of terroir, and geology is an intimate partner to winegrowing.

Caves and Speleology
The science of underground caverns: the rock formations and the processes that formed them; also a few big lists for sport caving. Research organizations, underground radio freaks, museum exhibits, dictionaries, photographs, prehistoric art, cave fossils, and national parks with caves in them appear here.

The Earth's Core
Resources about the Earth's white-hot iron heart.

Collect Fossils
Practical and introductory material for fossil hunters.

Geologic Time and Dating
The geologic time scale and geologic age dating.

Glaciers and Ice Ages
Sites about glaciers, the polar regions, the Ice Ages, and the geology of these subjects.

World-Class Fossil Sites
Lagerstatten are special sites, scattered throughout the geologic record, where the world's best fossils are found.

The Earth's Mantle
Mantle studies are at the leading edge of geology.

Paleontology
Going beyond the surface of fossils: how did prehistoric life actually live? what are professional fossil scientists working on? what can computers do with fossils? and more.

Space Geoscience
The magnetosphere, Earth-Sun connection and space weather strongly affect Earth.

Oceanography and Marine Geology
Geology of the oceans and the rocks beneath them.

All About Granite and its Geology


Identifying Granitoids and Other Granite Rocks
How geologists sort out granite from the rocks that look like it.

The Great Cascadia Earthquake of 2xxx
Cascadia is America's tectonic version of Sumatra, where the great quake of 2004 occurred.

Seven Things You Need to Know about the Ocean
Want to be ocean-literate? You need to know these 7 main principles of ocean literacy.

List of Official State Fossils and Dinosaurs by State
Of the 50 states, 42 have official state fossils or state dinosaurs (or both). Check here for a list of them all with the year they were recognized.

What Is a Rock? Four Criteria
Everyone knows what a rock is, until you ask what it is exactly.

What's the Most Common Mineral?
This question has several answers, depending on what a mineral is and what part of the Earth we're talking about.

Before You Buy a Rock Collection
Advice on what to look for in those 'candy boxes' full of little rocks.

Mohs Hardness Scale of Minerals
The 10-mineral Mohs scale of relative hardness is based on which minerals scratch each other.

Ballfield Dirt - Ingredients and Maintenance
Baseball is played on a precision geotechnical product.

Sand - Terminology, Composition, Shape, and More
Sand-related sites are as numerous as sand grains.

A Look at the Playa
How and why do dry lake beds occur? And why are they called playas?

Index Fossils Defined and Explained
Index fossils come from organisms that were distinct, widespread, abundant and short lived. These fossils help define intervals of geologic time.

Sediment Grain Size Chart
What's the difference between clay, mud, sand and silt? Take a look at this sedimentary grain size chart for more information.

The Haiti Earthquake of 2010: Scientific and Geologic Explanations
Much of the devastation of the 2010 Haiti earthquake can be linked to the country's poor economy and infrastructure.

Zion National Park Geology
Nearly 275 million years of sedimentation, lithification, uplift and erosion can be seen in the geologic features of Zion National Park.

Dikes: Defined and Explained
Dikes are igneous or sedimentary intrusions that form in the pre-existing, vertical fractures of older rock.

Subduction: The Sinking of Tectonic Plates
Subduction occurs along convergent boundaries involving at least one oceanic plate. As the tectonic plates collide, one sinks below the other.

Age of the Ocean Floor
The oceanic crust is much younger than the continental crust, rarely reaching more than 180 million years in age.

Map of Natural Radioactivity
A look at natural radioactivity and some of the regions in the United States where Uranium is found in especially high or low concentrations.

Rock and Mineral Densities
Information and tables on the densities of the most common rocks and minerals, with a look at porosity.

Tectonic Plate Boundaries in Detail
This map gives a detailed look at the boundaries, motions and hotspots of the world's major tectonic plates.

Oxalic Acid Treatment Day 1 - Removing Iron Oxide Stains from Rocks Safely with Oxalic Acid
Oxalic acid cleaning of rusty rocks: the next morning.

Removing Iron Oxide Stains from Rocks with Oxalic Acid
Rusty gneiss specimens before cleaning with oxalic acid.

Put Rocks in Acid - Removing Iron Oxide Stains from Rocks Safely with Oxalic Acid
Rust-stained rocks bathed in oxalic acid.

Oxalic Acid Treatment Day 3 - Removing Iron Oxide Stains from Rocks Safely with Oxalic Acid
Speeding up oxalic acid cleaning of rocks and minerals.

Oxalic Acid Treatment Day 4 - Removing Iron Oxide Stains from Rocks Safely with Oxalic Acid
Oxalic acid treatment has made these rocks clean enough.

The Rocks After Treatment - Removing Iron Oxide Stains from Rocks Safely with Oxalic Acid
Rusty rocks are transformed after oxalic acid treatment.

Sand, Silt, Clay Content of Soil Classification Diagram
Triangular diagram to classify soils by their sand, silt and clay content.

How to Distinguish Brown Minerals - Photo Gallery
A guide to the most common and significant brown minerals.

How to Distinguish Brown Minerals - Photo Gallery
A guide to the most common and significant brown minerals.

The Acid Test - Calcite in Vinegar
Calcite passes the acid test in acetic acid (vinegar). Page 3.

The Acid Test - Crushed Carbonate Mineral
Crushed dolomite displays rhombic cleavage fragments. Page 6.

The Acid Test - Dolomite in Acetic Acid
Dolomite passes its acid test, fizzing slowly in hot vinegar. Page 7.

The Acid Test - Calcite Test Fails
A mystery carbonate (dolomite) does not react with cold vinegar. Page 5.

The Acid Test - Mystery Carbonate
Specimen shows the signs of a carbonate. Page 4.

The Acid Test in Geology - Image Gallery
Every geologist uses this simple test to tell limestone from dolomite.

The Acid Test - Calcite in Hydrochloric Acid
Calcite in a chip of marble fizzes in hydrochloric acid.

The Acid Test - Dolomite in Hydrochloric Acid
The typical reaction of dolomite to hydrochloric acid. Page 2.

Chert - Ingredients, Attributes, Meaning, and More
This interesting sedimentary rock has a key role in the geochemical cycle.

Magma and Lava - How It Melts, Rises, and Evolves
About the molten stuff from which all rocks arise.

Solifluction - Definition and Examples in Geology
The special form of soil flow typical of glaciated regions.

Fault Creep of Active Faults - Overview
Even when they aren't rupturing in earthquakes, some faults move very, very slowly.

About Mudrocks - Optional Ingredients and Complications
The most widespread sedimentary rock type, despite its looks, is not a simple stone.

Geochemical Abbreviations: History and Origin
Abbreviations list for chemical elements and reservoirs that will help you understand crustal and mantle geochemistry.

Gemstones and Minerals - Name Chart and List of Links
Big list of mineral names and their corresponding gemstone names.

Famous Stones and Their Legends and History
Real rock stars from around the world, from Plymouth Rock to the Blarney Stone to the Black Stone of the Ka'aba.

Best Places to Find Gifts for Geologists
Find the best gifts for geologists or geology hobbyists with this comprehensive gift guide. The geologist in your life will thank you.

About Isotopic Dating: Yardsticks for Geologic Time
Radioactivity and the barbecue model of dating.

Quartz: Identification, Varieties, and Meaning
Quartz is essential to the land as we know it.

Fault Types with Diagrams
Faulting can cause major earthquakes and create large mountain chains. Get a more in-depth look, with helpful diagrams, here.

Divergent Boundaries in a Nutshell
Take a deeper look at how oceans and continents split apart and form new Earth at divergent boundaries.

5 Different Ways of Classifying Volcanoes
Geology.

Geology
Geology.

Geology
Geology.

5 Ways to Classify Volcanoes
How do scientists classify volcanoes and their eruptions? The answer, as it turns out, isn't so simple.

Geology
Geology.

Geology
Geology.

Convergent Plate Boundaries
Convergent plate boundaries form the world's most intense volcanoes, deepest ocean trenches and highest mountains.

Erosion, Defined and Explained
Erosion is a key concept in geology - what causes it and how does it shape the Earth's surface?

Metamorphic Rocks - How They're Made and How They Look
Metamorphic rocks are formed by great heat and pressure. Most of the thousands of rare minerals known to science occur in these rocks.

Paleoclimatology: the Study of Past Climates
Paleoclimatology studies the Earth's past climates. The study has drastically changed in recent times, and now takes into account human-caused climate change.

What is an Orogeny?
A short explanation of orogenies, or mountain-building episodes, with examples.

- By Category
An index of categories in the

About the Hayward Fault of California
The Hayward fault may be America's greatest impending earthquake disaster.

Chemical Weathering Defined and Explained
A short explanation of chemical weathering and carbonation, hydration, hydrolysis and oxidation.

The 2015 Geologic Time Scale: Eons and Eras
The four eons and ten eras of the official geologic time scale.

South America: Geologic Maps and Landforms
A look at the simplified geologic maps and major landforms of all 14 South American countries and territories.

Generalized Geologic Map of Guyana
Generalized geology of Guyana

Generalized Geologic Map of French Guiana
Generalized geology of French Guiana

Generalized Geologic Map of Ecuador
Generalized geology of Ecuador

Generalized Geologic Map of Colombia
Generalized geology of Colombia

Generalized Geologic Map of Chile
Generalized geology of Chile

Generalized Geologic Map of Brazil
Generalized geology of Brazil

Generalized Geologic Map of Bolivia
Generalized geology of Bolivia

South America: Geologic Maps and Landforms
A look at the simplified geologic maps and major landforms of all ** South American countries.

Generalized Geologic Map of Uruguay
Generalized geology of Uruguay

Generalized Geologic Map of Trinidad
Generalized geology of Trinidad

Generalized Geologic Map of Surinam
Generalized geology of Surinam

Generalized Geologic Map of Venezuela
Generalized geology of Venezuela

Generalized Geologic Map of Peru
Generalized geology of Peru

Generalized Geologic Map of Paraguay
Generalized geology of Paraguay

Rock Identification Tables
Identify 44 of the most common igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock types with this chart.

Benjamin Franklin: Earth Scientist
Franklin contributed to basic and applied science in a practical and selfless way.

Geologic Time Scale Showing All Eons, Eras and Periods
The eons, eras and periods of the official geologic time scale.

Mercalli Earthquake Intensity Scale
The modified Mercalli intensity scale rates the observed impact of earthquakes from I to XII.

The 2015 Geologic Time Scale for the Paleozoic Era
Ages, epochs and periods of the Paleozoic Era, part of the official geologic time scale of 2015.

Biggest Volcanic Eruption in History?
The answer depends on what you mean by history. Let's take a look at the largest volcanic eruptions in recorded, human and geologic history.

About Liquefaction - Giving Ground
Liquefaction is a subtle and devastating effect of earthquakes that only now is being widely assessed.

The 8 Most Powerful Earthquakes Ever Recorded
A list of the 8 most powerful earthquakes ever recorded, based on total energy released.

A Look at the Valley and Ridge
Take a look at the geology, topography and landmarks of the Valley and Ridge physiographic province.

The Sumatra Earthquake of December 26, 2004
The greatest earthquake in 40 years killed 300,000 people.

Black Smoker - Hydrothermal Features
Black smokers are a type of hydrothermal feature.

Cold Seep - Hydrothermal Features
Cold seeps are a type of hydrothermal feature. Page 2.

Geothermal Power - Hydrothermal Features
Geothermal power relies on hydrothermal fluids. Page 4.

Geyser - Hydrothermal Features
Geysers are a type of hydrothermal feature. Page 5.

Hot Spring - Hydrothermal Features
Hot springs are a type of hydrothermal feature. Page 6.

Alteration - Hydrothermal Features
Hydrothermal alteration is found around hydrothermal features. Page 7.

Fumarole - Hydrothermal Features
Fumaroles are a type of hydrothermal feature. Page 3.

Mudpot - Hydrothermal Features
Mudpots are a type of hydrothermal feature. Page 8.

Travertine - Hydrothermal Features
Travertine is a type of hydrothermal feature. Page 12.

Vein - Hydrothermal Features
Veins are a type of hydrothermal feature. Page 13.

Silica Sinter - Hydrothermal Features
Siliceous sinter is a type of hydrothermal feature. Page 9.

Solfatara - Hydrothermal Features
Solfataras are a type of hydrothermal feature. Page 10.

Thermophiles - Hydrothermal Features
Thermophile microorganisms are a type of hydrothermal feature. Page 11.

White Smoker - Hydrothermal Features
White Smokers are a type of hydrothermal feature. Page 14.

World Heritage Sites of Geological Interest
UN World Heritage Sites that preserve geological treasures

Biographies - Canada
Geology.

Biographies - Europe
Geology.

World Heritage Sites, Geology: Asia
UN World Heritage Sites that preserve geological treasures: Turkey, Russia, China, Mongolia, Indonesia, Malaysia and more

World Heritage Sites, Geology: North America
UN World Heritage Sites that preserve geological treasures: North and Central America and the Caribbean

World Heritage Sites, Geology: South America
UN World Heritage Sites that preserve geological treasures: Peru Argentina Chile Ecuador and more

Geology Basics - Resources and Articles
Whatever your interest is in geology, here's where to start learning about it.