German Language Sitemap - Page 1 2016-09-26

Nena: '99 Luftballons' Song Lyrics in German and English
'99 Luftballons' was a smash hit for the German pop singer Nena in the 1980s. Learn the German lyrics and discover how they translate into English.

5 Peculiarities of the German Language
Discover five peculiarities that are particular to the German language -- including some odd similarities between German verbs and sausages.

German Lessons and Courses
Academic and informal German courses, lessons, and other instruction for learning German. Includes free and paid instruction, beginning to advanced German courses - online or in a school setting.

Learn to Tell Time in German
Learn how to tell time in German. Includes phrases for use like

3 Hit Rammstein Songs Translated From German
Their songs may be controversial, yet there's no denying Rammstein's fame. Learn the German lyrics and English translation to three of the band's songs.

Articles, lessons, and links to expand your German vocabulary.

Word Games
German word games. German Language.

German-English Glossary of Popular German Abbreviations
Use this German-English glossary to familiarize yourself with common German abbreviations. Review them and compare them to their English counterparts.

A Glossary of Weather Words for German Learners
If you plan to travel to Germany or simply want to improve your knowledge of the language, it's important that you know common German weather words.

A Glossary of Popular Computer Terms in German
If you travel to Germany, it will help you to know common German computer terms. Use this guide to boost your digital vocabulary in the language.

German grammar, grammar guides, lessons and exercises.

How to Recognize the German Subjunctive I, II
Improve your understanding of the subjunctive tenses of German verbs with this review. When you finish, take the quiz at the end to test yourself.

German Pronunciation
Lessons and resources to help you speak German correctly.

Popular Animal Sounds for German Learners
People in different cultures interpret animal sounds differently, so if you're beginning German, learn how Germans perceive animal sounds.

Conjugating German Verbs (A-Z)
In this lesson, you will learn conjugation - alphabetical list - conjugating German verbs.

German Phonetic Spelling Code
In German, A is Anton, not Alpha. See how the German phonetic spelling code is different from the English/international code, with a full chart.

Listening to German
Resources to help you with your listening to German. The better you learn to listen to German, the better you will be able to speak in German.

Learning About German Dialects
In this story, you will learn about the many German dialects.

German Verb Conjugations
In this lesson, you will learn the German verb lassen and conjugate it in all tenses - lassen (to let, leave, allow).

Punctuation Marks Part 1
In this lesson, you will learn all about German punctuation.

German Verb Conjugations
In this lesson, you will learn how to conjugate nehmen (to take) in all tenses.

German Verb Conjugations
In this lesson, you will learn about German Verb Conjugations - liegen (to lie, recline, rest) - In All Tenses.

German Verb Conjugations
In this lesson, you will learn aboutGerman Verb Conjugations - laufen (to run, walk) - In All Tenses

German Verb Conjugations
Learning about German verb conjugations, kommen (to come) - Present and Past Tenses

German Verb Conjugations
In this lesson, you will learn about German Verb Conjugations - helfen (to help) conjugated in all tenses.

How to Conjugate Geben ("To Give") in German
Learning German Verb Conjugations - geben (to give) - Past Tenses.

German Verb Conjugations
in this lesson, learn about German Verb Conjugations - heissen (to be named, called) - Present Tense.

German Verb Conjugations
In this lesson, you will learn German Verb Conjugations - finden (to find, think) - Present Tense.

German Verb Conjugations
In this lesson, you will be learning about German Verb Conjugations - fahren (to travel, drive, go) Present Tense.

German Verb Conjugations
In this lesson, learn German Verb Conjugations - denken (to think) - Past Tenses.

German Verb Conjugations
In this lesson, you will learn about German Verb Conjugations - essen (to eat) - Past Tenses.

About German Society
Anything interesting about the German society

Articles, lessons, and links for German culture and customs in Austria, Germany and Switzerland.

These Are The Best German Films for German-Learners
In this story, you will learn about the films that are best for people learning German.

German “Particles” and How to Use Them
In this article, you will learn how to use tricky German words like Doch!

How to Talk About the Weather in German
Small talk sometimes relies on your ability to converse about the weather. Here are popular German

Dog and Cat Names in German
Want to give your pet a name that stands out from the crowd? Try one of the popular German names suggested here.

Right now in Germany
News from Germany. German Language.

Living in Germany
Everything you always wanted to know but didn't dare to ask about the Germans and their habits.

Lesson 19 Verbs | Separable Prefixes
In this lesson, you will learn about separable prefixes in German.

German for Beginners: Haus und Hof - House and Home
German for Beginners: Haus und Hof - House and Home - all about German housing.

German for Beginners: German Modal Verbs
German For Beginners: German Modal Verbs, see its conjugation.

German for Beginners kennen und wissen - How to say 'know' in German
German for Beginners: How to say 'know' in German - kennen und wissen.

Lesson 15: German Parts of the Body (3) - The dative reflexive
Learning German Parts of the Body (3) - The dative reflexive

German for Beginners: Occupations
In this lesson, you will find out how to ask a German speaker what their occupation is.

Top 100 Most-Used German Words
What are the most-used and most-spoken words in German? Getting familiar with these words will be important for those just learning the language.

Common English-German Cognates
Between the English and German languages there are many words which look and sound the same, and have similar meanings. These are known as cognates.

Artists and Groups Performing in German
Musical artists, bands, and groups that perform in German.

German Music and Songs - Artists Lyrics Resources
Information about performers, songs, lyrics and other German music-related topics.

Die Prinzen 'Deutschland' and 'Millionär' German Lyrics
The German pop band Die Prinzen many hit songs with lyrics that are filled with satire and humor. Learn how to sing 'Deutschland' and 'Millionär.'

How "Eins, zwei, Polizei" Can Help You Learn German
Do you want a fun way to practice your German? Learn the simple children's nursery rhyme,

German for Beginners: Pronunciation and Alphabet
For beginning students of German, it's important to understand pronunciation rules and how each letter of the alphabet sounds in spoken German.

Learn German by Singing "Gruen sind alle meine Kleider"
A fun and easy song filled with basic vocabulary,

German Children's Songs: "Backe, backe Kuchen"
Do you know the German counterpart to

Learn How to Sing "Happy Birthday" in German
Do you want to sing a 'happy birthday' song in German? Learn the lyrics to the simple

Rock Me Amadeus and Der Kommissar Lyrics by Falco
Falco was an Austrian pop star who dazzled 1980s music fans with his mix of German and English lyrics. Find the translations for two of his top hits.

Learn How to Sing "Jingle Bells" in German
Do you want to learn how to sing

Hildegard Knef Sings 'Mackie Messer' in German

When The Beatles Sang in German
The Beatles recorded two of their hit songs in German in 1964. Why did they do that? Find the answer and learn how the lyrics were translated.

What Are the German Lyrics for "Edelweiss"?
Can you sing

Essen und Trinken (Eating and Drinking)
This German lesson introduces the proper vocabulary for eating, drinking and grocery shopping.

German for Beginners: give and take - geben, nehmen
Learn the concept of giving and taking when speaking German.

Lektion 10 (Part 3) Wohin?
Learn even more German vocabulary including questions and answers in German and English.

Directions - Adverbs of Time
In this lesson, you will learn German grammar related to going places, asking for directions, as well as receiving directions.

Lesson 9 - My Family (2)
In this lesson, learn how to talk to German speakers about their family.

German Numbers and Counting
Learning how to count in German from 21-100 after lesson one 0-20, you'll find that numbers past 20 are easier to master.

German Numbers and Counting (0-20)
In this lesson, you will learn how to count in German from 0-20.

German for Beginners: Lesson 6 - Countries - Land und Leute
German for Beginners: learning about German-speaking countries.

German for Beginners: Lesson 5 - Adjectives and Colors - Adjective Endings
In this German for Beginners lesson, you'll be learning about adjectives and colors and adjective endings.

German for Beginners
This guide is German for beginners, understanding verbs while learning german.

German Vocabulary Related to Cars and Driving in German Europe
The German Vocabulary to know related to driving and cars in German Europe.

Essential German 1-Page Phrasebook
This is the essential German phrasebook all on one page, including common phrases, getting around, dining out, shopping, at the hotel and more.

How to Speak Business German
Doing business in German-speaking countries, or with German organizations can be challenging for non-native speakers. Here are some business phrases and terms to learn.

German Holidays Customs and Celebrations
Germany has many traditional holidays celebrated throughout the year, many of which will seem familiar to Americans, including Easter and Christmas.

Reading German
Read German online and in print. German-language books, literature, poetry, newspapers, magazines, and other reading resources for German.

Books of the Bible in German and English
Learn the history of various German Bible translations, and read some of the most frequently quoted passages in German, with English translations.

German Writers Every German Learner Should Know
Reading for pleasure is a wonderful way to acquire language skills. Here's a look at some German writers every German learner should know.

Learn All the Tenses of the German Verb Gehen (to Go)
Gehen (to go) is one of the most-used verbs in Germany. Learn how to conjugate it in all tenses with these charts.

How to Say Thank You and You're Welcome In German
Show your gratitude in German by learning how to say thank you and you're welcome, in both an informal and formal way.

Did Hitler Snub Jesse Owens at the Berlin Olympics?
Did Hitler shun Jesse Owens at the Berlin Olympics? How did his experience in Berlin compare to his experiences in his native land?

Learn to Conjugate All Tenses of the German Verb Werden
Learning to conjugate

German Verb Conjugations - haben (to have) - Present Tense
Haben (to have) is one of German's most important verbs. Learning to conjugate helping verbs like this one can expand your fluency exponentially.

Dirty, Offensive, and Otherwise Inappropriate German Words
You are probably better off not knowing any of these off-color, dirty, and sometimes offensive German works. But click through if you must.

German Verb Conjugations - Bleiben - to Stay
Learn how to conjugate the German irregular verb bleiben - to stay or remain. It doesn't follow a strict rule. You will need to memorize its tenses.

The Brothers Grimm Were More Than Mere Storytellers
The Grimm Brothers introduced the world to German culture and folklore with tales like Cinderella, Snow White, Sleeping Beauty, and other classics.

The Common German Verbs Always Take the Dative Case
Some German verbs are always followed by the dative case. While there are a couple of tricks, the best approach is to memorize the chart on this page.

German Verb Conjugations - Beginnen - to Begin
Learn how to conjugate the German irregular verb beginnen - to begin. While it sounds familiar to English-speakers, it doesn't follow a simple rule.

How to Pronounce German Words in English
Some commonly used and often mispronounced German words and how to really say them (without sounding hopelessly pretentious).

German Verb Conjugations - Anfangen - to Begin
Learn how to conjugate the German strong verb anfangen, which means to begin or to start. It is a separable-prefix verb. See examples for all tenses.

Dates and Time in German - English-German Glossary
Do you know how to speak about dates, times and seasons in German? Explore this annotated English-German glossary of timely words and phrases.

Clothing and Fashion in German
Are you ready to shop for clothes in a German-speaking country? Prepare with phrases, size conversions, and a glossary of fashion items and terms.

English-German Shopping Phrases and Vocabulary
Are you ready to go shopping in a German-speaking country? Use these shopping phrases and see a glossary to words related to retail shops or stores.

Sports and Olympics Vocabulary - English-German
Find the German names and terms used for sports, whether recreational, professional, or the Olympics. This glossary can keep you in the game.

Writing Better German
Lessons and resources to help you write better German, including personal and business correspondence.

How to Write Personal Letters in German
Learn how to write and address personal letters in German-speaking countries. Explore the vocabulary and a sample letter in German and English.

Most Frequent German Words in Speech and Writing
What are the most frequent words in spoken German and in German reading materials? See the lists and how they differ for conversation and print.

What if German was the Official US Language?
A German speaking US-America. A German tutor's nightmare? A movie by Wolfgang Emmerich (RIP)? Or just ridiculous Nazi propaganda?

English-German Glossary: House and Apartment
This annotated English-German glossary has words, expressions, and abbreviations connected with the rooms and furnishings in a house or apartment.

German Holidays and Folk Customs
Special days on the calendar and folk customs in the German-speaking world.

Christmas / Weihnachten
Information and links related to the Christmas celebration in German-speaking Europe.

The Many German St. Nicks
What are the Santa Claus characters in German-speaking countries? Learn about Saint Nicholas, der Weihnachtsmann, and his helpers in various regions.

Soccer Vocabulary - German-English
Use this annotated glossary of soccer (football) terms in German and English to understand the words used in playing or watching the popular sport.

German to Englilsh Cooking Glossary - Kochglossar
This German-English glossary of cooking ingredients, instructions, and food-preparation terminology can help you interpret recipes that are in German.

German Herbs and Spices Glossary
See how to translate the words for herbs, spices and seasonings from German to English and from English to German with this cooking glossary.

Als der Nikolaus kam - German "Night Before Christmas"
See German author Erich Kaestner's 'Als der Nikolaus kam' which is a German version of 'A Visit from St Nicholas' or 'The Night Before Christmas.'

A Simpler German: No Cases, No Gender, No Capital Nouns
Soon there will be no more complaints about German being difficult. An expert commission is already working out simplifications to the language.

Pronouncing German Words in English
As German words become commonly used in English, especially brand names like Porsche and Deutsche Bank, the pronunciation often gets mangled.

Discover the Real Truth Behind These Persistent German Myths
These German myths, from the Christmas pickle to Hitler snubbing Jesse Owens at the 1936 Olympic games are fun, but the truth is even more compelling.

German Medical and Dental Vocabulary
Use this English to German annotated glossary of vocabulary related to medicine, healthcare, dental care, and diseases. What to call what ails you.

German Words of Love and Romance
How can you speak of love in German? Find the right words to describe your feelings, and see pet names that German couples might use for each other.

German Nouns and Cases
All about German nouns and the four German cases.

How to Use Harry Potter to Learn German
You can improve your German by reading and listening to the Harry Potter books and audiobooks in German. How to magically boost your language skills.

Accusative and Dative Case Endings for German Adjectives
Learn the German adjective endings for the dative and accusative cases. Page 2.

German Adjective Endings: The Nominative Case
Learn the nominative endings for German adjectives.

What German Learners Need to Know About the Genitive Case
The German genitive case, which indicates possession, is sometimes replaced by

Did Goethe Really Say "Boldness has genius"?
A quote commonly misattributed to Goethe was more likely penned by William Hutchinson Murray in his 1951 book

Shakespeare in German - Links
German Language. Page 3.

Why Germans Revere Shakespeare
Learn why William Shakespeare is extremely popular in Germany, in both the original English and German translation.

Shakespeare in German 2
German Language. Page 2.

Is die Weihnachtsgurke (Christmas Pickle) a Real German Tradition?
A popular Christmas tradition, hanging a glass pickle ornament on the tree, claims German origins, but the truth has proved elusive.

Die Bremer Stadtmusikanten - German Reading Lesson
Practice German by reading the tale of the Bremen Town Musicians - Die Bremer Stadtmusikanten - in German, English, and side-by-side versions.

Im Kaufhaus - Beginner German Reading Lesson
Use this German reading selection based in a department store - kaufhaus - to build vocabulary and comprehension. It includes a glossary and quiz.

German Verbs - Kennen - to Know
Learn how to conjugate the irregular German verb kennen, which means to know a person or thing. See its different tenses and sample sentences.

German Verb Conjugations - Wissen - to Know
Learn how to conjugate the German irregular verb wissen, which means to know a fact. See its different tenses and uses in sentences and idioms.

German Verb Conjugations - Tun - to Do
Learn how to conjugate the German irregular verb tun, which translates to English as

German Verb Conjugations - Trinken - to Drink
How do you conjugate the German irregular verb trinken - to drink? See the present and past tenses and how this verb is used so you can drink up.

German Verb Conjugations - Stehen - to Stand
See how to conjugate the German verb stehen, which means to stand. It is an irregular verb, so you must memorize the different forms for each tense.

German Verb Conjugations - Sprechen - to Speak
The German verb sprechen means to speak or to talk. See how it is conjugated through all tenses and moods, including past, present and future.

German Verb Conjugations - Sehen - to See
The German verb sehen means to see. Learn how to conjugate this irregular, stem-changing verb in all of its tenses, both singular and plural forms.

German Verb Conjugations - Schreiben - to Write
The German irregular verb schreiben means to write. You must memorize how to conjugate it. See its present and past tenses, both singular and plural.

German and world history in German and English.
German and world history in German and English.

Why the Pennsylvania Germans are Often Called Dutch
How did a group of German speaking settlers become known as the Pennsylvania Dutch?

German Names for Pets - Haustiernamen
What German name can you give your cat or dog? See popular names that German-speakers choose for their pets, along with their meaning in English.

German-English Glossary of Fish and Marine Animals
What do you call fish in German? See hundreds of aquatic and marine animals with German to English translation, Latin species names and annotations.

Kinderreime - German and English Nursery Rhymes
Hoppe hoppe Reiter is a favorite German nursery rhyme for young children, or Kinderreime. See more such verses, with some English translations.

Conjugating Irregular German Strong Verbs
See how to conjugate hundreds of irregular German verbs, also called strong verbs. They don't follow a strict rule, so you need to memorize them.

Bilingual Parenting and Familes
Helpful information and a collection of German and English Web links for parents trying to raise bilingual/multilingual kids.

Examples of Regular and Irregular German Verbs
See example sentences with German regular and irregular weak and strong verbs. Learn how to conjugate German verbs in five different tenses.

Conjugating German Modal Verbs Muessen, Sollen, Wollen
How do you conjugate the German modal verbs muessen, sollen, and wollen? See the different tenses, sample modal sentences and idiomatic expressions.

Conjugating German Modal Verbs Duerfen, Koennen, Moegen
How to conjugate three German modal verbs. See the different tenses of duerfen, koennen, and moegen, plus sample sentences and idiomatic expressions.

Die Familie - The Family - An English-German Glossary
Die Familie: An annotated English-German glossary with vocabulary related to the family and relatives. See the terms to use for different relations.

German Lesson - Comparison of Adjectives
German adjectve comparison is similar to English, but there are a few tricks you should know. Part One.

German Travel
Articles, information, and links about traveling to or in German-speaking countries.

Spelling Reform: German Language
About the new German spelling rules and the rules for the double-s spelling in German.

German Travel Phrasebook
Useful basic German vocabulary and phrases for travelers to German-speaking Europe.

German Language and Culture
Learning German involves more than just vocabulary and grammar. Cultural knowledge is just as important as these other elements.

German Keyboards
The computer keyboard, cyber cafes, and German computer terms in Austria, Germany and Switzerland.

German Color Symbolism
German color expressions and color symbolism - red, green, blue, brown, black and white - and how they can differ from English color expressions or symbolism.

How to Say 'to' in German
A grammar and vocabulary guide to the German prepositions 'zu' and 'nach'.

The English Meanings of German Last Names
Learn the genealogical history, tradition, and meaning of popular German last names (Nachnamen).

Two-Way Prepositions Part 3
How do you decide whether a two-way preposition takes the accusative or dative case? Part Two - Dual verbs that go with two-way prepositions.

Word Order in German
How to figure out word order in German including the present perfect tense, weak verbs, strong verbs, mixed verbs, and helping verbs.

Word Order in German
How to figure out word order in German including the present perfect tense, weak verbs, strong verbs, mixed verbs, and helping verbs.

Keyboard Help for German
Computer keyboard help for German - tips and how to's.

German Verb Review of Modal Verbs
Verb Review 2: Modals, with a self-scoring exercise for verb tenses in German.

People Translated in German: Leute - Menschen - Volk
How to avoid a common translation danger - the German words for 'people'

German Capitalization Rules with Examples
The ins and outs of German capitalization. Part 2: A closer look at the rules.

German Verbs with Prepositions 1
The ins and outs of German capitalization. Part 2: A closer look at the rules.

German Holidays and Customs Calendar - German-English
Feiertag-Kalender: A special calendar with the dates for national and regional holidays, custom days and movable feast days in German-speaking Europe.

How To Use The Two German Past Tenses
The two basic German past tense forms and their uses

Introduction To Signs of the Zodiac in German
The German zodiac signs - your horoscope in German and English.

German/English Quotations by Goethe
A collection from previous daily Quotations of the Day in German and English - J.W. von Goethe.

U.S. Pledge of Allegiance in German
German vocabulary - The U.S. Pledge of Allegiance in German

German and Austrian New Year's Customs
A look at some traditional German and Austrian New Year's customs, known in German as neujahrsbräuche.

German Loan Words in The English Language
A glossary of German loan words used in English.: everyday english vocabulary national spelling bee alzheimer krankheit felix hoffmann german neurologist

German Regular Verbs - Past Tense Verb Conjugations
A German thesaurus offering alternate vocabulary and synonyms for common German words and expressions.

English-German Food and Drink Glossary
An annotated glossary of food and dining-related words and expressions in German and English.

Why Are There Whinnying Horses in "Young Frankenstein?"
Legend has it that horses whinny in

Does Santa Really Have Reindeer Named Donner and Blitzen?
If you think you know the names of Santa's reindeer (Rudolph! Donner! Blitzen!) you might be surprised to learn how these names have changed over the years.

English-German Glossary
An annotated English-German glossary of words and expressions connected with school and education in German and English. Part One: A-L

How to Use German Separable-Prefix Verbs
German separable prefix verbs are similar to words like

The Houses of Windsor and Hanover
Is the British royal family actually German royalty? How the 'House of Windsor' came from the 'House of Saxe-Coburg' and the 'House of Hanover'.

The Best German Idioms
Many classic German idioms are similar to their English counterparts, but a fair number of them also feature sausage (

German Thesaurus - Synonyms in German
A German thesaurus offering alternate vocabulary and synonyms for common German words and expressions.

German Future Tense Conjugations
In German, the future tense (das Futur) occurs less frequently than in English, but all beginners should master these future tense conjugations.

German Regular Verbs - Present Tense Verb Conjugations
Regular German verbs follow a predictable pattern in the present tense. Learn how to conjugate regular German verbs in the present tense.

50 Common German Verbs Including Sample Sentences
Learn the 50 most common German verbs along with their English translations and basic sample sentences for beginners.


The German, Austrian, and Swiss National Anthems
The history of Germany's, Austria's, and Switzerland's national anthems, and a translation of the German anthem.

Inseparable German Verb Prefixes
Learn about German verbs with inseparable prefixes. For example, these verbs do not add the normal past participle prefix ge- in the perfect tenses.

The Passive Voice in German
How to form the passive tense in German using the verb

Games, Exercises, and Tests for German
German learning games, exercises, quizzes, and tests. Practice and test your German in the areas of grammar, vocabulary, or culture.

How to Build Proper German Sentences
Word order (die Wortstellung) in German is more variable than in English, with verbs moving to the end of the sentence following a subordinate clause.

Learn About Months, Dates, Seasons, and Days in German
Learn German expressions related to calendar dates, days of the week, prepositional phrases, months

German Gender: Tips to Remember Der, Die, and Das
Many languages have masculine and feminine words, but German has neuter, too. These rules can help you remember when to use der, die, das and ein, eine.

German Personal Pronouns: Formal and Informal 'You"
Learn the German personal pronouns (ich, de, er, sie, es, wir, ihr, and Sie) as well as the distinction between the formal and informal forms of

The Most-Used German Verbs With Conjugations and Examples
The most popular German verbs with their conjugations and sample sentences.

The Names of the Chemische Elemente (Chemical Elements) in German and English
The German names for the chemical elements, plus general information on the periodic table.

Find Out What That German Last Name Means
Learn the history and meaning of German last names, from Achen to Zweig.

Essential German Verbs: Haben (to Have) and Sein (to Be)
Haben (to have) and Sein (to be) are two of the most important verbs to learn in German for beginners.

O Tannenbaum Lyrics in English and German
Learn to sing the German words to a traditional holiday song, O Tannenbaum (O Christmas Tree) and discover this song's history.

German Christmas Vocabulary and Traditions
German Language. Page 2.

Wish Family and Friends Merry Christmas and Happy New Year in German
Learn to say Merry Christmas, Happy New Year and many other traditional holiday greetings in German.

Prepositional Pitfalls in German
This lesson shows the potential hazards in using German prepositions and tells you how to avoid many 'prepositional pitfalls' you may encounter.

Learn to Count From 0 to 1,000 in German
Count on this article to give you all the information you need on German numbers from 0 to 1,000, dates, ordinals, cardinals, math terms, more.

Stille Nacht - German Christmas Carol Lyrics & History
The history, lyrics, and different interpretations of the Christmas carol Silent Night. Includes both English and German words to the song.

Erntedankfest: Thanksgiving in Germany
The history and traditions of German Thanksgiving with information about Thanksgiving in the Americas. Includes vocabulary in English and German.

Erntedankfest: Thanksgiving in Germany
The history and traditions of German Thanksgiving with information about Thanksgiving in the Americas. Includes vocabulary in English and German. Page 2.

The Many Meanings of the German Verb 'lassen'
The German verb 'lassen' has many uses. Our lesson examines each meaning and provides examples in German and English.

Terms of Endearment - German Love Pet Names
Learn German pet names and terms of endearment. Includes English translation and name equivalent.

German Prepositions- Präpositionen
Explanation of the German prepositions and which prepositional case they fall in.

Five Peculiarities of The German Alphabet
There are more than 26 letters in the German alphabet. Here is a breakdown of five peculiar letters and how they are used.​

Von Versus Aus- Expressing Where You Are From
Tricky prepositions 'von' and 'aus': How to express where you are from or where you came from correctly.

How To Say Sorry In German
Learn the appropriate way to apologize in German within any context. Also, includes expressions to excuse yourself.

About the German Verb Infinitive
An overview of German infinitive- the basic form of each German verb.

German Words Used in English
A look at German and other loan words in English and the Germanic elements of English, plus the German Loan Words dictionary.

German Gift Ideas - Geschenkideen
A comprehensive list of gift ideas for people who love German and the German-speaking countries of Austria, Germany, and Switzerland.

DER SPIEGEL German News Magazine in English
The German news magazine DER SPIEGEL publishes some of its content in English. International readers can subscribe to a free newsletter or RSS feed.

Essential German Greetings - Hello, How Are You & More
Essential German greetings and greeting behaviors. Formal and informal versions with audio so that your German pronunciation is correct.

Birthday Customs and Traditions in Germany
A breakdown of German traditions and customs associated with birthday celebrations.

Expressing Congratulations and Best Wishes in German
Need to congratulate a German? Here is how to express congratulations and other wishes in German to integrate quickly into the German society.

German Teenage Slang
A glossary of German slang spoken by teenagers.

Online Options for German Lessons for Beginners
Online resources for beginning German learners. Introductory vocabulary and concepts, plus apps to help you stay motivated and on track.

German for Beginners: Learning Tips
How to be a better German-learner. Learning tips and hints for our online German course for beginners and intermediate learners who wish to review.

German for Beginners: Learning Tips
How to be a better German-learner. Learning tips and hints for our online German course for beginners and intermediate learners who wish to review. Page 2.

Die romantische Straße: Schwangau
Schwangau lies at about 800 meters above sea level and is a mere four kilometers north of Füssen.

German Toasts: Trinksprüche - with English
A look at German toasts and good wishes for many occasions, complete with English translations.

German Toasts and Good wishes
A look at German toasts and good wishes for many occasions, complete with English translations. Page 2.

German Girls' Names and Their Meanings
A thorough list of German girls names, both traditional and contemporary, as well as their meanings and derivations. Page 2.

Favorite German Baby Names for Boys and Girls with Meanings and Derivations
A thorough list of German boys' names, both traditional and contemporary, as well as their meanings and derivations

Learn All Tenses of the German Verb Sein ("To Be")
Learn to translate the verb

How to Write a Letter in German, Format and Language
All the elements of a great letter in German, addressing, greetings, conclusions, email, texting abbreviations, and more.

The Four German Noun Cases
An overview of the 4 German noun cases, Nominative, Genitive, Dative, and Accusative, and declensions of the definite and indefinite articles and pronouns.

Prepositions that Take the Genitive Case in German
There are a few prepositions in German that properly take the genitive case: statt, trotz, wegen, während, außerhalb, innerhalb among them.

How to Use German Dative Prepositions Correctly
Certain German prepositions always take the dative case. Here's how to use words like aus, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, and zu correctly

The Top 10 German Mistakes Made by Beginners
A look at the ten most frequent errors made by students of German and tips for avoiding them.

How to Use Dual Prepositions in German
A lesson on German doubtful/dual/two-way/ prepositions that can take on both the dative (location) and accusative (direction or destination) cases.

German Prepositions That Take the Accusative Case
Learning the few German prepositions that are always following by a noun or pronoun in the accusative case is fairly straightforward.

The Romantische Straße - in the beginning
Germany’s Romantische Straße (the Romantic Road) is not entirely an ab novo 20th -century innovation.

German for Beginners: Talking About Family and Relatives
Simple German lesson for beginners, with audio, that covers family and relationship words.

Tricky Masculine Nouns in German
There are no rules without exceptions. Learn about some German masculine nouns with unusual case endings.

Special German-English Nouns Glossary
A glossary of special masculine nouns that take irregular endings in the accusativem dative, and genitive cases. Page 2.

A Quick History of Adidas and some Curious Facts
Everyone knows the brand Adidas. But do you know its origins? What was Adidas' founder Dassler's position in WWII?

There Are Lots of Ways to Say "I Love You" in German
The many ways to say

How the English Days of the Week Got Their Names
English speakers don't often pause to think about the impact other languages have on our lives, including the way we refer to the days of the week.

World Class Drama - The short Life of Georg Büchner
Georg Büchner was a lot of things, but he is known best for his dramas such as Danton’s Tod (Danton’s Death), Leonce und Lena and Woyzeck.

Frankenmuth – Michigan’s Little Bavaria
With roughly three million visitors per year, the Michigan town of Frankenmuth is the state’s number one tourist attraction.

Can There Actually Be a "Longest Word" in German?
More than most languages, German opts to string words together to form new ones. We challenge you to come up with longer words than these -- in any language.

After Cologne – The new Chronology after the 2015 New Year’s Eve Assaults
On said New Year’s Eve, an incoherent large group of men assaulted a large number of women.

german politics
Articles about politics in Germany

Terror, Blitzkrieg and Beyond – Nazi Reign over Poland
n this article, we are taking a closer look at a specific period of German history that is not actually set in Germany. In fact, it is a part Polish history as well as it is German.

Famous German Soccer Clubs – Part 1: FC Bayern München and FC St. Pauli
To give you a deeper understanding of the German love of their favorite pastime, soccer, we’d like to tell you a little more about a few important German soccer clubs.

Germany’s favorite Pastime - The German Soccer League System
The rest of the world is pretty much busy playing, watching or discussing Football – and by Football I mean Soccer. That definitely goes for Europe and, of course, for Germany. To gain further understanding of the German affection for their favorite pastime, let us take a look at the history of the sport.

The Böhmermann-Scandal or What counts as Satire?
Who is Böhmermann? Jan Böhmermann is a German satirist and TV-Host.

Resistance and Opposition in the GDR
Even though the authoritarian regime of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) lasted for 50 years, there had always been resistance and opposition.

Viniculture in Germany: Saale-Unstrut
This text is about one of Germany's several famous wine regions. This time it is about the area of Saale - Unstrut

The Dark Sides of Martin Luther
Without a doubt, Martin Luther is one of the most influential personas in European history. As a reformer, he played huge parts in creating the Protestant Christian Church. But there is a dark side...

Unexploded Ordnance in Germany - The dangerous legacy of World War II
Although World War II ended 70 years ago, the legacy of this devastating war is still present in everyday life in Germany.

The Deutsche Mark and its precious legacies
Germans still can not forget abouth their Deutsche Mark - Read the article to find out why.

Wurst comes to Wurst - or: What about the German Sausage?
Leave all your prejudices behind and let the German Wurst convince you. There is a lot of sausages to try!

Terror, Blitzkrieg and Beyond - Nazi Reign over Poland
In this article, we are taking a closer look at a specific period of German history that is not actually set in Germany. In fact, it is a part Polish history as well as it is German.

A Tour of Germany Through Its City Names
Germany is a very old country, with its oldest cities dating back to hundreds of years BC. Its name in many languages hints at the tribes and languages of its past:

German Comedy on a European Scale - Die Partei
There is a phenomenon in Germany. It is called “Die Partei (The Party)” and it relentlessly parodies all other parties and politicians. And since 2014, it does so on a European scale.

Viniculture in Germany - Hessische Bergstraße
The Hessische Bergstraße is the smallest of the thirteen German Specified Wine Regions. It has only two, non-contiguous districts, Umstadt and Starkenberg, comprising three collective vineyards, and about two dozen individual vineyards.

“No one has the intention, to build a Wall.” - Erection of the Berlin Wall
“No one has the intention, to build a Wall.” Ulbricht, probably the most influential politician of the GDR in his time, voiced them in June 1961, two months before construction work on the Berlin Wall was begun.

Working in Germany
Find out the possibilities and requirements to find a job in Germany.

Win a Basic Income to Live in Germany for One Year
What would you do with 12x ~$1100 per month? The Germans are organizing a lottery for everyone even for you with exactly this one price. More...

A quick Overview of the German TV-Series Landscape
First of all, compared to the British or American TV-Show market, Germany is a desert.

Occupy Germany - What happened to the German Occupy Movement?
The Occupy Movement caught on like a wildfire and quickly spread into 81 countries throughout the world.

David Bowie in Berlin
The late David Bowie coined pop music for a couple of decades. He was, without a doubt, one of the most influential artists of the last 40 years, releasing countless hits and creating a huge global fan base. Three of his most important works, “Low,” “Heroes” and “Lodger,” were actually created during a time Bowie lived in Germany. Well, between Germany would be more accurate.

Art and Youth Culture in the German Democratic Republic
Art and culture in the German Democratic Republic were represented by many creative people who felt the obligation to make their works about problems and challenges in their society. Up until 1965, the GDR Government did allow art to be free and critical. Western trends, such as beat music, spread amongst the young people unopposed. Bands like the Beatles continued their triumphant procession into Eastern Germany.But in December of 1965, the government changed their opinion ...

About German Language: Grammar, Courses, and Vocabulary, german culture
Learn to speak German with these basic and advanced grammar and vocabulary lessons, quizzes, study tips, and articles about German culture.

Far from Empire - German Colonial History and its Memorials
Europe’s long and sinister colonial history can still be experienced in many places. Forced-upon European heritage, such as languages or the ominous right to militarily intervene, are found all over the globe.

Bauhaus, Black Mountain and the Invention of Modern Design
One of the most influential art and design movements to ever come out of Germany is mostly simply called Bauhaus. Even if you have never heard of it, you will have been in contact with some of the design, furniture or architecture that has ties to the Bauhaus. The enormous legacy of this design tradition was established in the Bauhaus Art School.

Jedem das Seine - A German Proverb changed through History
“Jedem das Seine” – “To Each his Own” or better “To Each what They are Due,” is an old German proverb.

Viniculture in Germany
There are wines in Germany that demand personal attention and there are many, many outstanding German wines with which you may not be familiar or which will astonish you when you learn of them. A journey of delight and enlightenment awaits. Prosit!

Berlin Airport opened with a grand gala after 10 years
I thought I wouldn’t see the day but they have finally finished Europe’s most modern airport: Flughafen Berlin Brandenburg (BER). Serious construction issues lead to an eight-year delay until finally every issue was solved.

Denglisch Dictionary: When Languages Collide
When German and English collide you get Denglisch (Denglish) or Neudeutsch, the strange mixture of German and English used by many Germans and most English-speaking expats in Germany. Learn more about Denglisch, its various uses and several definitions. Includes the annotated Denglisch Dictionary.

More Denglisch (2)
German Language. Page 2.

More Denglisch (3)
German Language. Page 3.

More Denglisch (4)
German Language. Page 4.

German Textbook Guide
A guide to textbooks for German for all levels - from kids to adults, elementary school to college.

More German textbooks
More German textbooks. German Language. Page 2.

Improve your German Pronunciation with Tongue Twisters
Do you want to master your German pronunciation skills? A collection of German tongue twisters - Zungenbrecher, 'tongue breakers'.

German Hit Songs and Golden Oldies
German hit tunes ('Schlager') from the 1950s and '60s can be ideal for German-learners, offering simple lyrics and listenable tunes. A look at German musical history and an interesting musical resource for German.

Deutsche Schlager: German Hit Songs - Part 2
Part 2 of a look at German musical history and an interesting musical resource for German. Page 2.

German Proficiency Tests and Certification
A guide to German proficiency tests and German-language certification. Which German examination should you take and who offers it? Such tests range from the basic Zertifikat Deutsch to the Zertifikat Deutsch für den Beruf (for business German).

German Language
German Language. Page 2.

German Language
German Language. Page 3.

German Myth 13: Teufelshunde - Devil Dogs and the Marines
Part of our collection of misnomers, mistakes, myths and falsehoods concerning the German language. Did the Germans really give the U.S. Marines the nickname 'Teufelshunde' or 'Devil Dogs' during WWI?

Teufelshunde - Devil Dogs (Part 2)
German Language. Page 2.

Teufelshunde - Devil Dogs (Part 3)
German Language. Page 3.

Raising Bilingual Kids - German English Parenting
Part One of a personal account by an American mother who has experience raising her two children to be bilingual in German and English - guest article.

Movie Titles in German - Plus the Film Title Glossary
Movie titles in German with online resources related to German cinema in German and English.

Denglisch Dictionary: H-K - English Words Used in German
A glossary of English loan words commonly used in German - Part 3: H-K.

Denglisch Dictionary - English Words Used in German - Anglicisms Denglish
A glossary of English loan words and Anglicisms - Denglisch or Denglish - commonly used in German.

Black History and Germany - Afro Germans - Afrodeutsche
Of the 82 million people living in Germany an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 have some form of African heritage. Germany's blacks fall into several historical and ancestral categories. A few of them are well-known as writers, TV personalities, entertainers, sports figures, and actors.

Black History and Germany 2
German Language. Page 2.

Black History and Germany 3
German Language. Page 3.

Black History and Germany - Afro-German Glossary
German Language. Page 4.

Wo spricht man Deutsch? German-speaking Countries
An overview of the countries where German is spoken. It's not just Germany. With a related brief German lesson.

Where Is German Spoken? Part 2
Part 2 of an overview of the countries where German is spoken. It's not just Germany. With a related brief German lesson. Page 2.

Where Is German Spoken? Chart of German-Speaking Countries
Part 3 of an overview of German-speaking countries. Page 3.

German Websites for Children and Teenagers
Have your children or grandchildren improve their German online with these websites.

Listening to Podcasts in German
A guide to finding and enjoying podcasts in German. Learn where to find them and how to subscribe and listen to them.

English-German Travel Glossary: A-K - Travel Vocabulary
An annotated glossary of travel-related words and expressions in German and English. Part One.

Web and Satellite TV in German - USA and Canada
Listening to and watching German televison programming in North America via satellite and on the Web. Includes information about watching ProSiebenSat1 Welt and DW-TV via satellite.

German Christmas: Lasst uns froh und munter sein
German Christmas Carol Lyrics in German and English - 'Lasst uns froh und munter sein' in German.

German Songs: Halloween - Lyrics in German and English
German songs with a Halloween theme - with lyrics in German and English.

Uhland: Ich hatt' einen Kameraden - German Poetry
Learn German with traditional German poems like 'Ich hatt' einen Kameraden' by Ludwig Uhland - with English translation.

Laugh and Learn German - Humor online
German humor online.

German Authors: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
A short biography with links and additional info for the German author, poet, and playwright Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

Germanic Genealogy: Old Occupations - alte Berufe
Old Occupations found in old Germanic records - Part of a German genealogy guide with vocabulary words.

English-German Geographic Dictionary - Place Names in German - Gazetteer - Ortslexikon
A dictionary of geographic names in English and German.

Movies in German-Index 1-German DVDs-German Films
A movie index of films in German. An alphabetical index of movies in German language made in Austria, Germany, Switzerland.

Movies in German - Index 2 - German DVDs - Deutsche Filme - German Films
Part 2 of a movie index of films in German. An alphabetical index of films made in Austria, Germany, Switzerland.

Top 100 Germans: Die Besten
A ranked listing of the top 100 Germans, as voted by Germans in November 2003.

Famous German-Americans | Profiles - Biographies
A biographical index of famous and not-so-famous Americans of German, Austrian, or German-Swiss ancestry.

Confusing Word Pairs in German
A helpful annotated glossary of commonly confused word pairs in German.

Austria's 9 Provinces - Oesterreich: Bundeslaender
Österreich - Austria's nine federal provinces and their names in German and English.

Books in German - Used, Antiquariat
A directory of sources for finding and purchasing books in German - online and locally. Used, antiquarian, out-of-print books.

Books in German - Children, Kinderbuecher
A directory of sources for finding and purchasing books in German - online and locally. Children's books in German and bilingual books.

Sources of Books in German - Deutsche Buecher - Online Bookstores for German
A directory of sources for finding and purchasing books in German. Online booksellers with German titles.

German Companies and their subsidiaries in the U.S.- Deutsche Unternehmen in den USA
The best links for finding your next dream job in a German, Austrian or Swiss Company's Subsidiary in the United States.

German Abbreviations R-T
German Abbreviations R-T - Commonly used abbreviations in German and English.

Berlitz Kids German Language Pack
A review of the Berlitz Kids Language Pack for German

German Abbreviations D-F
German Abbreviations - Commonly used abbreviations in German and English.

Aeon Flux Made in Berlin | Babelsberg | Berlin Locations | Charlize Theron
A guide to the Berlin filming locations for 'Aeon Flux' starring Charlize Theron.

German Engineering and the VW Scandal
In the business world, there are few myths that last longer than the one of „German Engineering”.

Black, red, and Gold - Origins of the German National Flag
These days, when you come across a larger number of German flags, you are probably running into a bunch of soccer fans or walking through an allot settlement.

The Birth of a German Nation
Apart from being two nations for a while, Germany as a nation is relatively young - historically speaking.

The rise and fall of the famous Kommune 1
Like in many other parts of the world, in Germany, the youths of the 60s seemed to be the first political generation. This ist the story about the Kommune 1

Audiobooks in German
Books on CD, cassette, MP3, online, or in any audio format - for listening to fiction or non-fiction in German.

Books in German or About German
Books in German and about German. Articles, reviews and links to sources for Bücher auf Deutsch.

Articles and links related to German dialects.

German, Austrian, and European Universities
Academic German programs in Europe and other parts of the world. Universitäten - Unis - Links to Austrian, German, and Swiss universities.

German Magazines - Zeitschriften
Information, articles, and links related to periodicals published in German - in print and online.

German Newspapers - Zeitungen
Daily and weekly newspapers and other periodicals published in German - in print or online. German-language newspapers from Austria, Germany, and other parts of Europe, as well as the US and Canada.

German Idioms, Sayings, and Proverbs
A look at German idiomatic expressions, sayings, and proverbs. Includes English-German glossaries for this topic.

German Studies in North America
German studies in North America. Academic programs at colleges and universities in Canada and the USA.

Online Television and Video
Information and links for video and TV in German.

Resources and links for help with your German pronunciation. Find German audio files and other online or offline listening.

Quotations and Sayings in German
Zitate und Sprüche auf Deutsch. Links to quotes, proverbs and sayings in German.

Radio in German
Online streaming audio radio stations in German. Rundfunk aus Deutschland, Österreich, der Schweiz und anderen Ländern.

Translators for German
Translators and translation services for German.

Verb Conjugation and Grammar
All about German verbs and their practical use.

German Vocabulary Lessons and Tips
Tips, shortcuts, and helpful lessons on German vocabulary.

Academic German at Colleges and Universities
A guide to finding schools and universities that offer German language courses, German studies, and degree programs.

Cartoon and Comic Book Characters in German - Fun Links
Information about and links for comic book, cartoon and film characters in German, plus other miscellaneous fun links for German.

Computers and the Internet
Online computer, Internet and computer science glossaries, publications and other resources in German and English.

Deutscher Chat - German Chat
Links for chatting in German. Chatten Sie online!

Dictionaries - Phrasebooks
German-English dictionaries, glossaries, and phrasebooks plus other German vocabulary resources - online and in print.

DVD, Video, and TV in German
DVD and video reviews plus sources of video materials and TV in German. Includes films in German and about German-speaking cultures.

German Cinema / Deutscher Film
Articles, reviews, and links concerning German cinema, films in German, and Germanic film people.

Germanic Genealogy
Genealogy resources, how-to's, German-English glossaries, and other help for tracing your Germanic roots.

Homework Help for German
Find help for your grammar, vocabulary, and other questions related to German homework or exercises. From adjectives to verbs to culture, it's all here.

Language Schools for German
Find the right German language school or institute in Germany or worldwide. Summer, intensive and year-round courses for youths or adults.

German Literature
Famous authors and their works in German literature. Poetry and prose by authors from Austria, Germany and Switzerland.

News / Nachrichten
German-language news sources and news in German or in English about German-speaking countries.

Online German Lessons
Free and paid German instruction online.

Information and links for German-related associations, teacher groups, and institutions worldwide.

E-Pals - Pen Pals - Brieffreundschaften
Resources and links for finding e-pals and Web sites for German-English Brieffreundschaften.

Photos of Austria, Germany, and Switzerland
A photo gallery with scenes of the people, landmarks, and daily life in German-speaking Europe. With information in German and English.

German Cuisine, Recipes - deutsche Küche
Recipes and info for German and Austrian cuisine, baking, and cooking. Includes cook books, recipes, and measurement converters.

Software for German
Reviews and resources for software for learning German and using German.

Tutoring for German
Find a German tutor online or in your community.

Teaching German
Resources and information for teachers and students of German. Textbooks, teaching ideas, curriculum concerns, and more for all levels, from elementary to college.

Translating German
Information, resources, and links for translating to and from German. Includes translators—software and real people.

Learning the Alphabet in German - Overview
The German alphabet is not that difficult to learn! Use the tips listed here and the audio pronunciation guide and you'll soon be on your way to learning the ABCs in German.

German MP3 Music and Audio
Enjoy listening to the sounds of German music, audio books, and other German resources available in the mp3 audio format.

How to Stay Lucky in Germany
Germans have a reputation for being rational, efficient, accurate and punctual. With this type of mentality, it's difficult to imagine that there are also plenty of superstitions in the country.

Albrecht Dürer - Inventing the Selfie
Albrecht Dürer, 1471-1528, is undoubtedly one of the most famous German artists of all times. But besides his great paintings, he is known for practically inventing the logo.

Anglicism and Pseudo Anglicism in Germany
German is a beautiful language that can describe almost everything precisely and doesn't need to be replaced by another one - what do you think? Are anglicisms enriching or unnecessary?

German Rap Music - Between Fun pop and Real Gangsters
Actually German hip-hop and music affiliated with it is currently the most popular kind of music in Germany.

The Council of Elders or What is the Parliamentary Advisory Committee of the German Bundestag
As the Elder Council works in and for the parliament its duties sometimes broach very important democratic topics and thus make it a fundamental political organ.

Where to Buy German Books in the US, Canada, and Online
A listing of German bookstores and distributors both online and via telephone.

Descriptive Paragraph of Person - Sample Descriptive Paragraph
A sample descriptive paragraph. German Language. Page 2.

German Adjectives - Describing Others And Yourself
Descriptive German adjectives for describing yourself an others.

How to Use German Negation - Explanation and Examples
About German Negation Part II. German Language.

Beginner German Mistake der Freund - Proper Usage
Explanation of the German Definition of Freund.

Practice German With Riddles and Their Answers
German riddles with answers. German Language.

Tips That Will Help You Spell Better in German
Tips that will help you spell better in German. Learn some unique traits and rules of thumb of various German letters.

German Preposition Bei - Meaning and Usage
A detailed look at the German preposition 'bei.'

The Proper Way to Say "I'm Cold" in German
Explanation of German Mistake:

German Verb Brauchen - Meaning and Conjugation
A closer look at the German verb brauchen.

German Verbs Verwenden, Benutzen, Gebrauchen
The difference between German verbs 'verwenden, benutzen, gebrauchen.'

Flowers in German - Useful Vocabulary
Common Flowers in German. German Language.

German s, ss or ß - When to Use Which
When to use s, ss or ß in German sentences.

German Writing - Using Expressions to Organize Ideas
Using expressions to organize ideas in a longer German text.

Preposition Für - Explanation and Examples
The Difference Between für and for in detail.

Explanation and Examples of 'wo' and 'da' in German
Explanation of adverbs 'wo' and 'da'

How to Ask Questions in German - Grammar and Examples
Asking questions in German with the 6 w-words.

The Position of "Nicht" in German Sentences
The Position of Nicht. German Language.

The Many Meanings of "Bitte" in German
The Many Meanings of Bitte in German.

How to Use the German Personal Pronoun 'Es'
German Personal Pronoun 'Es'. German Language.

German Sentence Structure - Accusative and Dative
Tips on how to form the sentence structure when using the accusative and dative cases.

Creative New Year Wishes and Expressions in German
Creative and poetic ways to wish a happy New Year in German.

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs in German
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs.

Difference Between Samstag, Sonnabend, and Sonntag
What is the difference between the German words: Samstag, Sonnabend and Sonntag? Do you think you know it? See whether you are correct or mistaken.

Short Christmas Poems in German + English Translation
A few short Christmas poems in German.

How to Say No in German - Explanation and Examples
The difference between

Difference Between 'Sehr' And 'Viel' in German
Difference Between 'Sehr' And 'Viel'

Answers to Sehr and Viel - Answers to Exercise
Answers to Sehr and Viel. German Language. Page 2.