Grammar & Composition Sitemap - Page 3 2016-09-26

Classic Essay by George Orwell: 'A Hanging'
From 1922 to 1927, George Orwell served in Burma as a member of the Indian Imperial Police. Out of that experience came this classic essay,

Definition and Examples of the Plain Style in English
Plain style is an informal rhetorical term used to characterize speech or writing that is simple, direct, and straightforward.

Definition and Examples of Epigraphs in English
An epigraph is (1) a brief motto or quotation set at the beginning of a text to suggest its theme; (2) words inscribed on a wall, a building, or the base of a statue.

Definition and Examples of Glittering Generalities
A glittering generality is a vague word or phrase used to evoke positive feelings rather than to convey information.

Nobody, None, and No One: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words nobody, none, and no one: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Commonly Confused Words: Nobody, None, and No One
The commonly confused words nobody, none, and no one: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Top 4 Guidelines for Using Commas Effectively
We'll try to keep things simple as we consider four main guidelines for using commas effectively.

Definition and Examples of Appositives in English
An appositive is a noun, noun phrase, or series of nouns placed next to another word or phrase to identify or rename it.

Intonation: Definition and Examples in Speech
In speech, intonation is the use of changing vocal pitch to convey grammatical information or personal attitude.

Definition and Examples of Conceits in Language
Conceit is a literary and rhetorical term for an elaborate or strained figure of speech, usually a metaphor or simile.

Examples of Interviewing Techniques
An interview is a conversation in which one person (the interviewer) elicits information from another person (the subject or interviewee).

Definition and Examples of Brainstorming
Brainstorming is a discovery strategy in which the writer collaborates with others to explore topics, develop ideas, or propose solutions to a problem.

The Dicto Simpliciter Fallacy: Definition and Examples
Dicto Simpliciter is a fallacy in which a general rule is treated as universally true regardless of the circumstances: a sweeping generalization.

Punctuation Matters: Dear John Letter/ $2 Million Comma
If you think that punctuation is unimportant, here are two short stories that may change your mind.

Definition and Examples of Generative Grammar
In linguistics, generative grammar is a grammar (or set of rules) that indicates the structure and interpretation of sentences which native speakers accept as belonging to the language.

Definition and Examples of Backronyms in English
A backronym is a reverse acronym: an expression that has been formed from the letters of an existing word or name.

Definition and Examples of Primary Verbs in English
In English, the primary verbs (also known as the primary auxiliaries) are

Commonly Confused Words: Media, Medium, and Mediums
Strictly speaking,

Media, Medium, and Mediums: Answers to Exercises
The commonly confused words

Literally and Figuratively: Answers to Exercises
The commonly confused words

Commonly Confused Words: Literally and Figuratively
The commonly confused words

Hypotactic Sentence Structures: Definition and Examples
Hypotaxis is a rhetorical term for the arrangement of phrases or clauses in a dependent or subordinate relationship.

Parataxis: Definition and Examples in Grammar and Rhetoric
Parataxis is a rhetorical term for phrases or clauses arranged independently: a coordinate, rather than a subordinate, construction.

Listening - Definition and Examples in Grammar
Listening is the active process of receiving and responding to spoken (and sometimes unspoken) messages.

Choose, Chose, and Chosen: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Commonly Confused Words: Choose, Chose, and Chosen
Choose is an irregular verb, with chose as the past form and chosen as the past participle form.

Definition and Examples of Exclusive 'We'
Exclusive

Definition and Examples of the Inclusive 'We'
Inclusive we refers to the use of first-person plural pronouns to evoke a sense of commonality and rapport between a writer and his or her audience.

Definition and Examples of Interlanguage
The type of language (or linguistic system) used by second- and foreign-language learners who are in the process of learning a target language.

Definition and Examples of Language Planning
The term language planning refers to measures taken by official agencies to influence the use of one or more languages in a speech community.

Definition and Examples of Asterisks
The asterisk is a star-shaped symbol (*) primarily used to indicate an omission or call attention to a footnote.

Definition and Examples of Asterismos in Rhetoric
Asterismos is a rhetorical term for an introductory word or phrase that has the primary function of calling attention to what follows.

Writing a Research Paper: Guidelines and Tips
Definition of a research paper with concise guidelines and examples.

Critical Essay: Definition, Types, and Examples
A critical essay is a composition that offers an analysis, interpretation, and/or evaluation of a text.

Definition and Examples of the Simple Future in English
In English grammar, the simple future is a form of the verb that refers to an action or event that has not yet begun.

Definition and Examples of the Habitual Past in Grammar
The habitual past is a verb aspect that is used to refer to repeated events in the past. Also called past-habitual aspect or past-repetitive aspect.

Definition and Examples of the Historical Present Tense
The historical present is the use of a verb phrase in the present tense to refer to an event that took place in the past.

Definition and Examples of Reporting Verbs in English
A reporting verb is a verb used to indicate that discourse is being quoted or paraphrased.

Definition and Examples of Bad News Messages
In business writing, a bad-news message is a letter, memo, or email that conveys negative or unpleasant information.

Definition and Examples of Reporting Clauses in English
A reporting clause is an utterance that identifies the speaker (and sometimes the tone) of a reported clause in either direct or indirect speech.

Definition and Examples of Direct Quotations
A direct quotation is a report of the exact words of an author or speaker.

Definition and Examples of Block Quotations
A block quotation is a direct quotation that's set off from the rest of a text by starting it on a new line and indenting it from the left margin.

Quotation Marks - Definition and Examples
The uses of quotation marks in American English and British English.

Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks Effectively
Quotation marks are used in pairs to set off a direct quotation or a piece of dialogue. Here are five guidelines for using quotation marks correctly in American English.

Commonly Confused Words: Discover and Invent
The commonly confused words

Discover and Invent: Answers to Practice Exercises
What's the difference between

E.B. White on Writing (and Not Writing)
Meet essayist E.B. White--and consider the advice he has to offer on writing and the writing process.

Click and Clique: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Prodigy and Protege: Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Prodigy and Protege: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Guidelines for Using Double Possessives in English
Although the double genitive may appear overly possessive, the construction has been around for centuries and it's perfectly correct.

A Classic Essay by Richard Steele: Recollections
In

Noun Clause - Definition and Examples
A noun clause is a dependent clause that functions as a noun (that is, as a subject, object, or complement).

Noun Phrase (NP) Definition and Examples
A noun phrase (NP) is a word group with a noun or pronoun as its head.

The Running Style in English Prose
In contrast to the periodic sentence style, with its carefully layered subordinate clauses, the running style offers a relentless succession of simple and compound structures.

Commonly Confused Words: Click and Clique
The commonly confused words

A Rhetorical Analysis of U2's 'Sunday Bloody Sunday'
In this critical essay, student Mike Rios offers a rhetorical analysis of a well known song by the Irish rock band U2.

Commonly Confused Words: Human and Humane
The commonly confused words

Human and Humane: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Robert Louis Stevenson's Classic Essay on Marriage
Robert Louis Stevenson says that a man must recognize that a woman is

Robert Louis Stevenson's Classic Essay on Marriage (2)
Robert Louis Stevenson says that a man must recognize that a woman is

Robert Louis Stevenson's Classic Essay on Marriage (3)
Robert Louis Stevenson says that a man must recognize that a woman is

Robert Louis Stevenson's Classic Essay on Marriage (4)
Robert Louis Stevenson says that a man must recognize that a woman is

Commonly Confused Words: Band and Banned
The commonly confused words band and banned: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Band and Banned: Answers to Practice Exercises
Don't confuse the noun

20 Quick Tips for Business and Technical Writers
This writing checklist will help you produce professional documents that are clear, concise, considerate, and correct.

Figurative Language Exercise: Personification
The eight passages in this exercise are developed with personification. Your job is to identify these figures of speech and explain their significance.

A Brief History of Parentheses and a Guide to Their Use
In this article, we look at where parentheses came from, what purposes they have served, and how they should be used in our writing today.

Identifying and Correcting Sentence Fragments (Test #1)
This exercise will give you practice in identifying and correcting ineffective sentence fragments.

Identifying and Correcting Fragments (Answers)
On this page you'll find suggested answers to the exercise on page one: Identifying and Correcting Sentence Fragments. Page 2.

Definition and Examples of Hasty Generalizations
A hasty generalization is a fallacy in which a conclusion is not logically justified by sufficient or unbiased evidence.

The Top 10 Tip Sheets at Grammar & Composition
I used to poke fun at listicles, but now I regard them as pithy paragraphs of condensed wisdom. Here are the 10 most popular tip sheets for writers.

Definition and Discussion of Graphemics in Linguistics
Graphemics is a branch of linguistics that studies writing and print as systems of signs.

Transferred Epithet - Definition and Examples
A transferred epithet is a figure of speech in which an adjective grammatically qualifies a noun other than the person or thing it's actually describing.

Guidelines for Using Apostrophes Correctly
These six guidelines should help you decide when to use apostrophes and when to leave them out.

Apostrophe - Punctuation Definition and Examples
The apostrophe is a mark of punctuation used to identify a noun in the possessive case or indicate the omission of one or more letters from a word.

The Complimentary Close in a Letter or Email
The complimentary close is the word or phrase that conventionally appears before the sender's name or signature at the end of a letter, email, or similar text.

Salutation - Definition and Examples
At the beginning of a conversation, letter, email or other form of communication, a salutation is a polite greeting, expression of good will, or other sign of recognition.

Postscript (P.S.): Definition and Examples in Writing
A postscript is a brief message appended to the end of a letter (following the signature) or other text.

email message - definition, guidelines, and examples
An email message is a text, typically brief and informal, that is sent or received over a computer network.

Letter Writing - Definition and Examples
Letter-writing is the exchange of written or printed messages.

Commonly Confused Words: Desert and Dessert
The commonly confused words desert and dessert: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Desert and Dessert: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words desert and dessert: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Diagnosis and Prognosis: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words diagnosis and prognosis: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

The Commonly Confused Words Diagnosis and Prognosis
The commonly confused words diagnosis and prognosis: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Hoping and Hopping - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words hoping and hopping: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Hoping and Hopping - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words hoping and hopping: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Participial Phrases and Absolutes in Malamud's Prose
In this excerpt from the novel

Quick Facts About the English Alphabet


Yogh - A Letter of the Alphabet in Middle English
A letter of the alphabet in Middle English, yogh was derived from the Old English form of the letter

Definition and Discussion of Lexical-Function Grammar
Lexical-functional grammar is a model of grammar that provides a framework for examining both morphological structures and syntactic structures.

Is It Wrong to Begin a Sentence With 'And' or ''But'?
It has been common practice to begin sentences with a conjunction since at least as far back as the 10th century.

Epiphany - Literary Definition With Examples
Epiphany is a term in literary criticism for a sudden realization--a flash of recognition in which someone or something is seen in a new light.

Definition and Examples of Premodifiers in English
In English grammar, a premodifier is a modifier that precedes the head word in a noun phrase.

The English Pronunciation Poem by Charles B. Loomis
Composed well over a century ago, this bit of light verse by Charles Battell Loomis nicely illustrates the vagaries of English spelling and pronunciation.

The William F. Buckley Vocabulary Quiz (Answers)
Here are the definitions of the 20

The William F. Buckley Vocabulary Quiz
This vocabulary quiz is for the benefit of word lovers, admirers of William F. Buckley, and students preparing for the SAT.

Definition and Examples of Anti-Language
Anti-language is a minority dialect or method of communicating within a minority speech community that excludes members of the main speech community.

Swift's Classic Essay on the Art of Political Lying
Note the effects created by Swift's extensive use of personification in his acerbic essay on

The Best Time to Stop Rewriting
If you've ever found yourself stuck with a clumsy sentence that refuses to stand up straight and march smartly across the screen, our advice is to blunder on with your draft, knowing that eventually you'll return to that wayward sentence.

The Bogeyman: A Paragraph Developed With Reasons
In this sample paragraph--

The Essay, by G. K. Chesterton - Readings on Rhetoric and Style
The author of more than 4,000 essays, G.K. Chesterton was eminently qualified to write on

Practice in Identifying Prefixes, Suffixes, and Root Words - Answers to the Exercise
On this page you'll find the answers to the exercise in Identifying Prefixes, Suffixes, and Root Words. Page 2.

Practice in Identifying Prefixes, Suffixes, and Roots
This exercise will give you practice in recognizing and using common prefixes, suffixes, and root words in English.

The Twelve Men, by G.K. Chesterton - Classic British Essays
Like many of Chesterton's essays,

Nonrestrictive Relative Clause: Definition and Examples
A nonrestrictive relative clause is a relative clause (also called an adjective clause) that provides added (though not essential) information to a sentence.

Practice in Eliminating Sexist Language
This exercise will give you practice in recognizing gender-biased language and avoiding it in your writing.

Practice in Eliminating Sexist Language (Answers)
This exercise will give you practice in recognizing gender-biased language and avoiding it in your writing. On this page you will find sample answers to the exercise. Page 2.

The Somnambulists, by Jack London - Classic American Essays
In this extended analogy, Jack London fiercely attacks the hypocritical

The G.K. Chesterton Vocabulary Quiz - Practice in Using Context Clues
The words used in this vocabulary quiz have been drawn from five familiar essays by British author G.K. Chesterton.

Answers to the G.K. Chesterton Vocabulary Quiz - Practice in Using Context Clues
On this page you'll find the answers to the G.K. Chesterton Vocabulary Quiz. Page 2.

The Somnambulists, by Jack London (page two) - Classic American Essays
In this extended analogy, Jack London fiercely attacks the hypocritical

On Classical Education, by William Hazlitt - Classic British Essays
In this essay, Hazlitt argues that the value of studying classical literature

misspelling - definition and examples of misspellings in English
A misspelling is an act or instance of spelling a word incorrectly according to the conventions of Standard English.

Note-Taking - Definition and Methods
Note-taking is the practice of writing down or otherwise recording key points of information.

Francis Bacon's Classic Essay on Parents and Children
As demonstrated by the essay

online reading - definition and examples
Researchers agree that reading online is different from reading traditional texts. But the value of these different reading experiences is still being hotly debated.

Practice in Identifying Adjectives
This exercise, based on 12 sentences in E.L. Doctorow's novel

Answers to the Exercise in Identifying Adjectives
This exercise, based on 12 sentences in E.L. Doctorow's novel

Definition and Examples of Deep Reading
Deep reading is the active process of thoughtful and deliberate reading carried out to enhance one's comprehension and enjoyment of a text.

Neurolinguistics - Definition and Examples
Neurolinguistics is the interdisciplinary study of language processing in the brain.

Mechanics - Definition and Examples in Composition
In composition, mechanics are the conventions governing the technical aspects of writing, including spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and abbreviations.

Direct Speech - Definition and Examples
Direct speech is a report of the exact words used by a speaker or writer.

Definition and Examples of the Master Tropes
The master tropes are the four figures of speech that are regarded as the basic rhetorical structures by which we make sense of experience.

misleading vividness - definition and examples of the fallacy
Misleading vividness is a fallacy in which anecdotal evidence (or a single vivid experience) is offered as proof.

modification - definition and examples in English grammar
Modification is a syntactic construction in which one grammatical element is accompanied (or modified) by another.

Oxford English Dictionary - Definitions and Discussions
The Oxford English Dictionary is the largest and most comprehensive dictionary of the English language.

Personal Letter-Writing - Definition and Examples
A personal letter is a type of letter (or informal composition) that usually concerns personal matters and is sent from one individual to another.

particle movement - definition and examples in grammar
In a construction made up of a verb and a particle, particle movement is the relocation of the particle to the right of the noun phrase that serves as the object.

privilege of occurrence - definition and examples in English grammar
The functional location (or slot) in which a word or phrase can be used in a grammatical construction.

phonestheme - definition and examples of phonestheme
A phonestheme is a particular sound or sound sequence that (at least in a general way) suggests a certain meaning.

Definition and Examples of the Post-Creole Continuum
The post-creole continuum is the range of dialectal variations found in many creole-speaking communities.

Pronoun Agreement - Definition and Examples
Pronoun agreement refers to the correspondence of a pronoun with its antecedent in number, person, and gender.

Passive Infinitive - Definition and Examples
The passive infinitive is an infinitive construction in which the performer of the action either appears in a prepositional phrase following the verb or isn't identified at all.

Inflectional Morpheme - Definition and Examples in English
In English morphology, an inflectional morpheme is a suffix that's added to a word to assign a particular grammatical property to that word.

Present-Day English (PDE) - definition and examples
Present-day English is any one of the varieties of the English language (usually a standard variety) that is used by speakers who are alive today.

Definition and Examples of Informalization in English
Informalization is the incorporation of aspects of intimate, personal discourse (such as colloquial language and jargon) into public forms of spoken and written communication.

Definition and Examples of Lexicogrammar
A term used in systemic functional linguistics (SFL) to emphasize the interdependence of--and continuity between--vocabulary (lexis) and syntax (grammar).

language standardization - definition and examples
Language standardization is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained.

language and gender - definition and discussions
Language and gender is an interdisciplinary field of research that studies varieties of speech in terms of gender, gender relations, and sexuality.

critical analysis - definition and examples in composition
In composition, critical analysis is a careful examination and evaluation of a text, image, or other work or performance.

Introductory Paragraph - Definition and Examples
An introductory paragraph is the opening paragraph in a conventional essay or composition.

Indian English - Definition and Examples
Indian English is speech or writing in English that shows the influence of the languages and culture of India.

Indirect Speech - Definition and Examples
Indirect speech is a report on what someone else said or wrote without using that person's exact words.

listicle - definition and examples of listicles
Listicle is an informal term for an article made up of a series of facts, tips, quotations, or examples organized around a particular theme.

Literary Nonfiction - Definition and Examples
Literary nonfiction is a type of prose that employs the literary techniques usually associated with fiction to report on persons, places, and events in the real world.

Definition and Examples of Conceptual Meaning
In semantics, conceptual meaning is the literal or core sense of a word.

Inartistic Proofs: Definition and Examples in Rhetoric
In classical rhetoric, inartistic proofs are means of persuasion that are not created by a speaker--proofs that are applied rather than invented.

"-en" form - definition and examples in English grammar
In contemporary language studies,

Definition and Examples of Grammatical Concord
Concord is another term for grammatical agreement between two words in a sentence.

Wh- Words in English - Definition and Examples
A

Enumeratio - Definition and Examples in Rhetoric
Enumeratio (or enumeration) is a rhetorical term for the listing of details--a type of amplification.

exhortation - definition and examples
An exhoration is a speech that attempts to encourage, motivate, or incite an audience through strong emotional appeals.

Capitalization - Definition, Guidelines, and Examples
Capitalization is the practice of using capital letters in writing or printing.

contrastive rhetoric - definition and examples
Contrastive rhetoric is the study of ways in which the rhetorical structures of a person's native language may interfere with efforts to write in a second language.

Word Choice in English Composition
Word choice is a writer's selection of words as determined by a number of factors.

Definition and Examples of West African Pidgin English
West African Pidgin English is a continuum of English-based pidgins and creoles spoken along the west coast of Africa.

Definition and Examples of Composition-Rhetoric
Composition-rhetoric is the theory and practice of teaching writing, especially as it's carried out in composition courses in the U.S.

Character Sketch - Definition and Examples in Writing
A character sketch is a brief description in prose of a particular person or type of person.

coordinate clause - definition and examples in English
A coordinate clause is a clause (i.e., a word group containing a subject and predicate) that is introduced by one of the coordinating conjunctions.

Definition and Examples of Figures of Thought
In rhetoric, a figure of thought is an expression that depends for its effect less on the choice or arrangement of words than on the meaning(s) conveyed.

Faulty Parallelism - Definition and Examples
In traditional grammar, faulty parallelism is a construction in which two or more parts of a sentence are equivalent in meaning but not grammatically similar in form.

restrictive relative clause - definition and examples
A restrictive clause is a relative clause (also called an adjective clause) that limits--or provides essential information about--the noun or noun phrase (NP) it modifies.

Formal Essays (Definition and Example)
A formal essay is a short, relatively impersonal composition in prose.

The Simple Present Tense in English Grammar
In English grammar, the simple present tense is a form of the verb that refers to an action or event that is ongoing or that regularly takes place in present time.

Definition and Examples of Heuristics in Composition
In rhetoric and composition studies, heuristics are strategies for exploring topics, constructing arguments, and discovering solutions to problems.

First-Person Pronouns - Definition and Examples
First-person pronouns are pronouns that refer to the speaker or writer (singular) or to a group that includes the speaker or writer (plural).

Definition and Examples of the Habitual Present Tense
The habitual present is the use of the simple present tense to indicate action that occurs regularly or repeatedly

Synthetic Compound: Definition and Examples
In morphology, a synthetic compound is a compound that parallels a verbal construction, with the head derived from a verb and the other element functioning as an object.

Homonymy - Identical Spellings but Different Meanings
Homonymy is the relation between words with identical forms but different meanings--that is, the condition of being homonyms.

second language (L2) - definition and examples
A second language (L2) is any language that a person uses other than a first or native language (L1).

Spoken English - Definition and Examples
The ways in which the English language is transmitted through a conventional system of sounds.

Sentence Length - Definition, Examples, and Recommendations
Sentence length refers to the number of words in a sentence. Style guides generally recommend varying the length of sentences to avoid monotony.

Definition and Examples of the Second Persona
A term introduced by rhetorician Edwin Black to describe the role assumed by an audience in response to a speech.

Second-Person Pronouns - Definition and Examples
Definition and examples of second-person pronouns in English.

Subject-Verb Agreement - Definition and Examples
Subject-verb agreement is the correspondence of a verb with its subject in person and number.

sorites - definition and examples of sorites
In logic, sorites is a chain of categorical syllogisms or enthymemes in which the intermediate conclusions have been omitted.

Definition and Examples of Slips of the Ear
In speech-error studies, a slip of the ear is a mistake in listening: mishearing a word or phrase in speech or conversation.

reader - definition and examples of readers
(1) A person who reads. In composition studies, the term reader is generally synonymous with audience. (2) An anthology: a collection of essays, stories, or other works of prose or poetry.

Sports Writing as a Form of Creative Nonfiction
Sports writing is a form of journalism or creative nonfiction in which a sporting event, individual athlete, or sports-related issue serves as the dominant subject.

Speech-Act Theory - Definition and Examples
Speech-act theory is a subfield of pragmatics concerned with the ways in which words can be used not only to present information but also to carry out actions.

root compound - definition and examples in English
In morphology, a root compound is a compound in which the head element is not derived from a verb

Classic British and American Essays and Speeches
From the works of Francis Bacon to those of Martin Luther King, Jr.: more than 300 of the greatest essays and speeches composed by British and American authors.

Classic British and American Essays and Speeches (page two)
From the works of Francis Bacon and Daniel Defoe to those of Virginia Woolf and Martin Luther King, Jr., more than 300 of the greatest essays and speeches composed by British and American writers over the past four centuries. Page 2.

Classic British and American Essays and Speeches (page three)
From the works of Francis Bacon and Daniel Defoe to those of Virginia Woolf and Martin Luther King, Jr., more than 300 of the greatest essays and speeches composed by British and American writers over the past four centuries. Page 3.

The Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln - Classic Speeches
Lincoln's Gettysburg Address has been described as a prose poem, a prayer, and

Composing Descriptive Paragraphs and Essays
For ideas on how to compose a descriptive paragraph or essay, spend some time studying these guidelines, topic suggestions, exercises, and readings.

"A Piece of Chalk" by G. K. Chesterton - Classic Essays
In this short essay, English author and critic G. K. Chesterton relies on two common items--brown paper and a piece of chalk--as starting points for some thought-provoking meditations.

Story of an Eyewitness: The San Francisco Earthquake
Novelist and journalist Jack London offers a first-person account of the fiery aftermath of the 1906 earthquake in San Francisco.

"The Story of an Eyewitness: The San Francisco Earthquake," by Jack London (page two)


"Story of an Eyewitness: The San Francisco Earthquake," by Jack London (page three)


60 Essays: Contents of Essay Samplers
Here you will find the contents of our five Essay Samplers organized by title, author, and theme.

60 Essays, Classic Writings by Swift, Emerson, and Others
Here you will find the contents of our five Essay Samplers organized by title, author, and theme. Page 2.

Essay Samplers - Thematic Table of Contents - Classic Writings by Swift, Emerson, Woolf, Orwell, White, and Many Others
Here is the contents of five sample essays organized by title, author, and theme. Reading these essays may help you improve your own writing. Page 3.

Mencken's Classic Essay on That Old Time Religion
Mencken composed

Essay "On the Decay of the Art of Lying," by Mark Twain
American humorist Mark Twain composed this essay on the Art of Lying for a meeting of the Historical and Antiquarian Club of Hartford, Connecticut.

"On the Decay of the Art of Lying" (page two)
American humorist Mark Twain composed this essay

"On the Decay of the Art of Lying" (page three)
This is Mark Twain's essay

100 Major Works of Modern Creative Nonfiction
A list of 100 major works of British and American creative nonfiction published over the past 80 years.

"A Modest Proposal" by Jonathan Swift - Classic Essays
Jonathan Swift's

"A Modest Proposal" by Jonathan Swift (page two) - Classic British Essays
Jonathan Swift's

"A Modest Proposal" by Jonathan Swift (page three) - Classic British Essays
Jonathan Swift's satirical essay

Choose a Style Manual & Documentation Guide for Academics
This list of 28 standard style guides for students, researchers, and professionals is updated annually.

"Self-Reliance" by Ralph Waldo Emerson
One of Emerson's central doctrines--

Self-Reliance, by Ralph Waldo Emerson (page two)
Ralph Waldo Emerson is the author of the essay

Self-Reliance, by Ralph Waldo Emerson (page three)
Ralph Waldo Emerson is the author of the essay

Self-Reliance, by Ralph Waldo Emerson (page four)
Ralph Waldo Emerson is the author of the essay

Self-Reliance, by Ralph Waldo Emerson (page five)
One of Emerson's central doctrines--

Hurston's Classic Essay on Race and Identity
In this essay, Zora Neale Hurston explores her own sense of identity through a series of striking metaphors.

Excerpt from Life on the Mississippi by Mark Twain
In this excerpt from Life on the Mississippi, Mark Twain considers what may be lost as well as gained through knowledge and experience.

asymmetry (communication) - definition and examples
In conversation analysis, asymmetry is an imbalance in the relationship between speaker and hearers as a result of social and institutional factors.

Brevity in Speech and Writing
Brevity refers to shortness in duration and/or conciseness of expression in a speech or work of prose.

Definitions and Examples of Anthypophora in Rhetoric
Anthypophora is a rhetorical term for the practice of asking oneself a question and then immediately answering it.

Rough Rules for Combating Jargon - Writing With Style
In lecture five of his

John Updike on the Pleasures of Writing - Quotations
Here, gathered from a variety of interviews and articles, are a few language lessons from John Updike, one of the finest writers of the past 50 years.

Writers on Writing: The Myth of Inspiration
Professional writers say that waiting for inspiration to strike is usually just a striking waste of time.

The Power and Pleasure of Metaphor - Quotations on Metaphors
Here are the thoughts of 15 writers, philosophers, and critics on the power and pleasure of metaphor.

The Power and Pleasure of Metaphor (page two) - Quotations on Metaphors
What is a metaphor and why is it important? Find some great examples from famous writers, philosophers, and critics here from essays and excerpts. Page 2.

10 Writers Recall the Best Advice They Ever Received
Here are 10 inside tips from professional writers: sound, practical advice that can help you become a better writer.

Lewis Carroll on How to Compose a Letter
Known to the world by the pseudonym Lewis Carroll, Charles Dodgson was a lecturer in mathematics at Oxford University. His essay

Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter-Writing, by by Lewis Carroll (page two) - Charles Dodgson on How to Compose a Letter
Known to the world by the pseudonym Lewis Carroll (author of

Toni Morrison on Writing: Quotations on Composing
Here, in excerpts from a number of interviews, Nobel Prize-winning author Toni Morrison offers her thoughts on the practice and the process of writing.

Robert Pirsig on Overcoming Writer's Block and Narrowing a Topic - Passage From "Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance" - Writers on Writing
In

Edgar Allan Poe on Using Dashes Effectively


Writers on Rewriting and Revision
As these professional authors remind us, rewriting is an essential part of composing. And in the end it truly can be the most rewarding part.

"We Can Do Better" - Writing Advice From Dr. Seuss
Here we've gathered some grownup advice on writing from Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known to children and adults as Dr. Seuss.

Writers on Writing: Eudora Welty on Listening to Words


Adapt and Adopt - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Altar and Alter - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Ambiguous and Ambivalent - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Assure, Ensure, and Insure - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words assure, ensure, and insure: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Adapt and Adopt - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Assure, Ensure, and Insure - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Altar and Alter - Answers to Exercises
The noun

Ambiguous and Ambivalent - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Peace and Piece - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Peace and Piece - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Troop and Troupe - Commonly Confused Words - Troop versus Troupe - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Ravage and Ravish - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Regretful and Regrettable - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Sensual vs. Sensuous - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Commonly Confused Words: Serve and Service
The commonly confused verbs 'serve' and 'service': definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

What Is the Difference Between Shall and Will?
The commonly confused words shall and will: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Simple and Simplistic - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Troop and Troupe - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Ravage and Ravish - The Difference Between Ravage and Ravish - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words ravage and ravish: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Regretful and Regrettable - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - Regretful versus Regrettable - Answers to Practice Exercises
What's the difference between

Sensual and Sensuous - Commonly Confused Words - Glossary of Usage - Sensual versus Sensuous - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words sensual and sensuous: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Serve and Service: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused verbs 'serve' and 'service': answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Shall and Will - What Is the Difference Between Shall and WIll? - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words shall and will: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Simple and Simplistic - Commonly Confused Words - Simple versus Simplistic - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Distinct, Distinctive, and Distinguished - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Dual and Duel - Glossary of Usage
The adjective

Baited and Bated - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - Baited versus Bated - Answers to Practice Exercises:
The commonly confused words

Baited and Bated - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

A Comic Poem About English Spelling and Pronunciation
Composed by Dr. Gerard Nolst Trenité,

A Comic Poem About English Spelling and Pronunciation
Composed by Dr. Gerard Nolst Trenité,

Council and Counsel - Definitions and Examples - Commonly Confused Words - Council and Counsel
The commonly confused words council and counsel: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Discreet vs. Discrete - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused adjectives discreet and discrete: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Disinterested vs Uninterested - Commonly Confused Words
Learn how to use

Economic and Economical - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Eminent and Imminent - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Eventually and Ultimately - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused adverbs

Discreet and Discrete - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Council and Counsel - Definitions and Examples - Commonly Confused Words - Council and Counsel - Answers to Practice Exercises
The noun

Economic and Economical - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Eminent and Imminent - Answers to Practice Exercises
What's the difference between

Eventually and Ultimately - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused adverbs

Disinterested and Uninterested - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The adjective

Dual and Duel - Answers to Practice Exercises
What's the difference between

Distinct, Distinctive, and Distinguished - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Lady Hester Stanhope, by Lytton Strachey (page two) - Classic British Essays
Lytton Strachey's distinctive wit and uncommonly concise style are clearly in evidence in the biographical essay

Lady Hester Stanhope, by Lytton Strachey - Classic British Essays
Lytton Strachey's distinctive wit and uncommonly concise prose style are clearly in evidence in the biographical essay

On Inaccuracy, by Hilaire Belloc - Classic British Essays
Throughout his essay

Flounder and Founder - Commonly Confused Words - Flounder versus Founder - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused verbs

Daily Word Sites: Learn a New Word Every Day
Here are three of our favorite word-of-the-day sites: all are free and available through e-mail subscriptions.

Joseph Addison's Classic Essay on False and True Humour
In this short essay, Joseph Addison relies on allegory to distinguish the truly humorous writer from the

Mary Austin's Classic Essay on the Land of Little Rain
In the first chapter of

Mary Austin's Essay on the Land of Little Rain (2)
Mary Austin wrote her book

A Law of Acceleration- Essay by Henry Adams, 1907
Looking 100 years into the future, Henry Adams imagined a world in which people would

A Law of Acceleration, by Henry Adams (page two) - Classic American Essays
Read the essay

A Law of Acceleration, by Henry Adams (page three) - Classic American Essays
Looking 100 years into the future, Henry Adams imagined a world in which people would

A Law of Acceleration, by Henry Adams (page four) - Classic American Essays
Read the last part of the essay

Laughter, by Joseph Addison - Classic British and American Essays
In these reflections on the nature of laughter and ridicule, British author Joseph Addison relies on the organizational strategy of comparison.

Laughter, by Joseph Addison (page two) - Classic British and American Essays and Speeches
Joseph Addison's version of the essay in this work called

"Advice to Writers," by Robert Benchley - Classic Essays and Speeches
In this review of two books on writing, Benchley uses an extended analogy to illustrate the distinctive method and style of each author.

Mark Twain's Advice to Youth
In Advice to Youth, a talk he delivered to a group of young girls, Mark Twain turns the conventional moral lecture on its head.

"Advice to Youth," by Mark Twain (page two)
In

The Almost Perfect State, by Don Marquis - Classic American Essays


The Almost Perfect State by Don Marquis (page two) - Classic American Essays - - Essay by Don Marquis


The Almost Perfect State by Don Marquis (page three) - Classic American Essays - - Essay by Don Marquis


The Atlanta Compromise Address by Booker T. Washington
Convinced that Washington was too accommodating to white interests, his critics referred to this speech as the

"Battle of the Babies," by Agnes Repplier - Classic American Essays
Though her essays were described as

"Battle of the Babies," by Agnes Repplier (page two) - Classic American Essays
Agnes Repplier was a popular essayist in the early twentieth century. Her essay

Battle of the Babies: Classic Essay by Agnes Repplier
Agnes Repplier was a popular essayist in the late nineteenth and early and mid-twentieth century. Find her essay

Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others: Du Bois Essay
The following essay is an excerpt from Chapter Three of Du Bois's revolutionary collection of essays,

"Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others," by W.E.B. Du Bois (page two) - Classic Essays and Speeches
The follow essay is an excerpt from Chapter Three of Du Bois's revolutionary collection of essays,

The Art of Controversy, by Ambrose Bierce
In

Broken Memories by Edward Thomas - Classic British Essays - The Prose of Edward Thomas
Edward Thomas was born in the London borough of Lambeth, and in

The Battle of the Ants - Chapter 12 of Thoreau's Walden
Revered by many readers as the father of American nature writing, Thoreau characterized himself as a mystic, a transcendentalist, and a natural philosopher to boot.

Max Beerbohm's Classic Essay on 'Going Out for a Walk'
Here, in the essay

George Orwell's Classic Essay on the Homeless
In this excerpt from

Christmas Afternoon, by Robert Benchley - Classic American Essays
Robert Benchley's account of the Gummidge family's

"On War," by James Boswell - Classic British Essays
In this argumentative essay, composed in 1777, James Boswell rejects the

"On War," by James Boswell - Classic British Essays - Great Essays and Speeches in English
James Boswell's

"On War," by James Boswell - Classic British Essays
James Boswell's

A Classic Essay on the Difference Between Wit and Humor
Here--in an essay developed with examples, analogies, and personification--Charles S. Brooks offers an extended comparison of wit and humor.

Flounder and Founder - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused verbs

Writers on Writing: The Art of Paragraphing - How to Compose an Effective Paragraph
If you're prepared to go beyond conventional formulas for dividing a text into paragraphs, consider these observations by experienced authors, editors, and teachers.

Forceful and Forcible - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Forceful and Forcible - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Unconscious Plagiarism, by Mark Twain - Classic American Speeches
In this address, delivered at a dinner honoring Oliver Wendell Holmes, Mark Twain observes that

Home and Hone - Commonly Confused Words - Usage - Home in vs. Hone in - Answers to Practice Exercises
A missile

Commonly Confused Words - Hoard vs Horde
The commonly confused words

Hoard and Horde - Commonly Confused Words - Hoard versus Horde
The commonly confused words

Home and Hone - Commonly Confused Words
Some usage guides now recognize

Incredible and Incredulous - Definitions and Examples
Incredible means

Pakistani English - Definition and Examples of the English Language as Spoken in Pakistan
Speech or writing in English that shows the influence of the languages and culture of Pakistan.

platitude - definition and examples of platitudes in English
A trite and obvious observation, in particular one that's expressed as if it were fresh and significant.

Incredible and Incredulous - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

On the Knocking at the Gate in Macbeth, by Thomas De Quincey - Classic British Essays
The critical essay

negative concord - definition and examples of negative concord in English
A language (or a dialect of a language) in which one negative element in a sentence requires that certain other elements in that sentence also be negative--the technical term for a double negative.

Pretending, by Max Beerbohm - Classic British Essays
In the essay

Proofreading Practice: Correcting Run-On Sentences and Comma Splices - Answers to the Exercise
Here is the corrected version of the paragraph used in the exercise on page one: Proofreading Practice: Correcting Run-On Sentences and Comma Splices. Page 2.

The Passenger Pigeon, by John James Audubon (page two) - Classic American Essays
The result of Audubon's collaboration with William MacGillivray is descriptive prose that demonstrates the same faculty for keen observation that characterizes Audubon's renowned illustrations. Page 2.

Correcting Run-On Sentences - Proofreading Practice
This exercise will give you practice in identifying and correcting run-on sentences (fused sentences and/or comma splices).

The Passenger Pigeon, by John James Audubon - Classic American Essays
The result of Audubon's collaboration with William MacGillivray is descriptive prose that demonstrates the same faculty for keen observation that characterizes Audubon's renowned illustrations.

Semantic Field Analysis Definition and Examples
The arrangement of words (or lexemes) into groups (or fields) on the basis of an element of shared meaning. Also called lexical field analysis.

Answers to the Exercise in Using the Correct Forms of Irregular Verbs
Here are the answers to the Exercise in Using the Correct Forms of Irregular Verbs. Page 2.

Shadow Lake, by John Muir - Classic Nature Essays
In

Of Youth and Age, by Francis Bacon - Classic British Essays
The famous English essayist's third version of this essay can be read here.

Exercise in Using the Correct Forms of Irregular Verbs
This exercise will give you practice in using the correct forms of irregular verbs.

Assonance and Alliteration: Robert Louis Stevenson on Sound Effects in Prose - Advice on Writing for the Ear


Synonymy - Definition and Examples
The semantic qualities or sense relations that exist between words with closely related meanings (i.e., synonyms).

contact clause - definition and examples of contact clauses in English
A restrictive relative clause in which the relative pronoun (or other relative word) is omitted.

Samuel Johnson's Essay on the Decay of Friendship
Of the

Hazlitt's Essay on the Feeling of Immortality in Youth
William Hazlitt composed his essay

Hazlitt's Essay on the Feeling of Immortality in Youth
William Hazlitt was a great prose stylist of the 19th century. He wrote this essay

Hazlitt's Essay on the Feeling of Immortality in Youth
William Hazlitt was a great prose stylist of the 19th century. He wrote the 1827 essay

"Of Anger," by Thomas Fuller - Classic British Essays
Thomas Fuller's intelligence and engaging wit are clearly evident in his meditation

George Eliot's Essay on Fuller and Wollstonecraft
In this review essay, Eliot compares two books published 50 years apart:

Leigh Hunt's Essay on 'Getting Up on Cold Mornings'
British essayist Leigh Hunt illustrates various ways in which

Leigh Hunt's Essay on 'Getting Up on Cold Mornings' (2)
In the last part of his essay, Leigh Hunt offers strategies for persuading others to abandon the

Gin-Shops, by Charles Dickens - From "Sketches by Boz" by Charles Dickens - Classic British Essays


Gin-Shops, by Charles Dickens (page three) - From "Sketches by Boz" - Classic British Essays


On National Prejudices, by Oliver Goldsmith - Classic Essays
In his essay

On National Prejudices, by Oliver Goldsmith - Classic Essays - Page Two
In his essay

The Haunted Mind by Nathaniel Hawthorne
One of the dark sketches in Hawthorne's

Mencken's Classic Essay on 'The Libido for the Ugly'
H.L. Mencken's attack on American architecture in

T.H. Huxley's Classic Essay on a Liberal Education
Consider how Huxley's opening analogy--comparing life to a chess game--prepares us for his discussion of the value and purpose of education.

"Mrs. Post Enlarges on Etiquette," by Dorothy Parker - Classic American Essays - Book Review
While serving as a staff writer for

"Mrs. Post Enlarges on Etiquette," by Dorothy Parker (page two) - Classic American Essays - Book Review
While serving as a staff writer for The New Yorker magazine, Parker wrote this review of Emily Post's popular advice book, Etiquette, in December 1927. Page 2.

The Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy
Kennedy's use of biblical quotations, metaphors, parallelism, and antithesis all recall some of the most powerful speeches of Abraham Lincoln.

Stephen Leacock's Essay on How to Live to Be 200
In the essay

"The Nature of Liberty," by H.L. Mencken - Classic American Essays
Mencken uses an extended narrative example to demonstrate his thesis that the police have every right to

"The Town Week," by E.V. Lucas - Classic British Essays
Although his essays are now often regarded as quaint and sentimental,

"In Mammoth Cave," by John Burroughs - Classic American Essays - Nature Writing
In the following essay, first published in 1894, naturalist John Burroughs reports on a visit to Mammoth Cave in central Kentucky.

"In Mammoth Cave," by John Burroughs (page two) - Classic American Essays - Nature Writing
In the essay

"In Mammoth Cave," by John Burroughs (page three) - Classic American Essays - Nature Writing
In the essay

"The Watercress Girl," by Henry Mayhew - Classic Essays
In this moving excerpt from Henry Mayhew's

"The Watercress Girl," by Henry Mayhew (page two) - Classic Essays
In this moving excerpt from Henry Mayhew's

"The Penalty of Death" by H.L. Mencken
Consider how (and why) Mencken injects humor into his discussion of a grim subject--the death penalty.

Niagara Falls by Rupert Brooke - Classic British and American Essays - Essay by Rupert Brooke
Although best known for his poetry, Rupert Brooke was also a skilled essayist. He composed this highly descriptive piece of travel writing during a tour of the United States and Canada in 1913.

Niagara Falls by Rupert Brooke (page two) - Classic British and American Essays - Essay by Rupert Brooke
Rupert Brooke was a skilled essayist. He composed this highly descriptive piece of travel writing during a tour of the United States and Canada in 1913. Page 2.

New Year's Eve - Classic Essay by Charles Lamb
In an essay that was first published in January 1821, Charles Lamb reflects wistfully on the passage of time.

New Year's Eve, by Charles Lamb - Classic Essay by Charles Lamb - Page Two
In the essay

New Year's Eve, by Charles Lamb - Classic Essay by Charles Lamb - Page Three
In the essay

The First Inaugural Address of Barack Obama - Classic Essays and Speeches
Because a gift for oratory had helped propel him to the White House, expectations were high when President Barack Obama delivered his inaugural address on January 20, 2009. And because the country was mired in a deep recession, hopes were even higher.

The First Inaugural Address of Barack Obama (page two) - Classic Essays and Speeches
This version of the speech, transcribed from the original audio, differs in a number of minor ways from the copy that was distributed to journalists. Page 2.

A Classic Essay by D.H. Lawrence: 'Give Her a Pattern'
In

Ben Franklin's Essay on How to Procure Pleasant Dreams
In this classic essay, American statesman and scientist Benjamin Franklin offers advice on

Bertrand Russell's Classic Essay in Praise of Idleness
In this essay, first published in 1932, Russell argues in favor of a four-hour working day.

In Praise of Idleness, by Bertrand Russell (page two)
In this 1932 essay

In Praise of Idleness, by Bertrand Russell (page three)
In his essay

In Praise of Idleness, by Bertrand Russell (page four)
Noted British mathematician and philosopher Bertrand Russell wrote this essay

In Praise of Idleness, by Bertrand Russell (page five)
In this essay, first published in 1932, noted mathematician and philosopher Bertrand Russell argues in favor of a four-hour working day. Page 5.

G.B. Shaw's Description of His Mother's Funeral
In this letter to Mrs. Patrick Campbell, dramatist George Bernard Shaw recounts his mother's funeral service with humor and affection.

Chesterton's Classic Essay: The Superstition of School
Consider what compels Chesterton, in

"A Meditation Upon a Broomstick," by Jonathan Swift - Classic Essays -
Jonathan Swift's brief parody relies on an extended comparison to convey a bleak view of human life.

"On Virtue and Happiness," by John Stuart Mill
Philosopher John Stuart Mill relies on strategies of classification and division to defend the principle that

Continuation of "On Virtue and Happiness"
Philosopher John Stuart Mill relies on strategies of classification and division to defend the principle that

Correcting Errors in Subject-Verb Agreement
Here we will practice applying one of the most basic and yet also most troublesome rules of grammar: in the present tense, a verb must agree with its subject.

15 Common Usage Errors and How to Fix Them
Here are 15 commonly confused words with quick tips on how to keep them straight.

What Are the Present and Past Forms of the Verb 'To Be'?
The irregular verb. Grammar & Composition.

Using the Different Forms of Pronouns: Practice Exercise 1 - Review Quiz on Pronouns
If you have studied the guidelines for using the different forms of pronouns, you should be well prepared for this short practice exercise.

Using the Different Forms of Pronouns
Used correctly and effectively, pronouns can help make our writing concise and coherent. Here we'll briefly review the different forms of pronouns.

Using the Different Forms of Pronouns: Practice Exercise 1 - Answers to Practice Exercise - Review Quiz on Pronouns
If you have studied the guidelines for using the different forms of pronouns, you should be well prepared for this short practice exercise. Page 2.

Sample Topic Number One for the SAT Writing Test - SAT Essay Prompts - Sample Topic on Social-Networking Sites
One way to prepare for the writing portion of the SAT is to practice composing essays on topics similar to those that appear on the actual test. Sample topic number one concerns social-networking sites.

Sample Argumentative and Persuasive Writing Prompts
These 40 statements may be either defended or attacked in an argumentative essay or speech.

50 Writing Topics - Causes and Effects
Some of the following topic suggestions emphasize causes; others focus on effects. But these two approaches are closely related and not always easy to tell apart.

A Draft Cause & Effect Essay: Why I Hate Mathematics
Compare this student's draft of a cause & effect essay,

Methods for Developing Effective Paragraphs: Repetition
Repeating key words is a valuable technique for achieving cohesion in paragraphs. Used skillfully and selectively, this technique can help to hold sentences together and focus the reader's attention on a central idea.

Revising Paragraphs With Transitional Words and Phrases
These two revision exercises provide opportunities to apply the techniques introduced in Cohesion Strategies: Transitional Words and Phrases.

Cohesion Strategies: Transitional Words and Phrases
Transitional words and phrases show the direction of our thought as we move from one sentence to the next. Here you'll find a list of the common transitional words and phrases, grouped according to the type of relationship shown by each.

Paragraph Unity - Unity Guidelines and Exercise
As show in these examples and exercises, a unified paragraph is one that sticks to a single main idea from start to finish.

Paragraph Unity: Answer to Practice Exercise
Answer to the exercise on paragraph unity. Page 2.

Model Place Descriptions: Four Descriptive Paragraphs
In each of these four paragraphs, the author uses precise descriptive details to evoke a distinctive mood as well as convey a memorable picture.

Composing Topic Sentences Practice Exercises
This exercise will give you practice in expressing a main idea in a topic sentence that attracts the interest of your readers.

Supporting a Topic Sentence With Descriptive Details
This exercise offers practice in selecting appropriate supporting details in a descriptive paragraph.

Topic Sentences (page two) - Exercise in Supporting a Topic Sentence With Descriptive Details
This exercise offers practice in selecting appropriate supporting details in a descriptive paragraph. Page 2.

Gardner Botsford on Editing at The New Yorker
New Yorker magazine editor Gardner Botsford offers five

Learning to Hate Mathematics - A Cause and Effect Essay
In the following composition (a revised version of

How to Catch River Crabs - Process Analysis Essay
In this short essay, a student explains the process of crabbing--that is, the steps involved in catching river crabs.

The Colours of Prose Style, by James Burnett, Lord Monboddo
In this brief excerpt from his six-volume study

Revising Paragraphs With Transitions: Answers
These two revision exercises provide opportunities to apply the techniques introduced in Cohesion Strategies: Transitional Words and Phrases. Page 2.

Practice in Composing Topic Sentences (page two) - Topic Sentence Exercise
This exercise will give you practice in expressing a main idea in a topic sentence that attracts the interest of your readers. Page 2.

Teaching the Essay, by Emma Miller Bolenius - Survey of British and American Essayists - 1915
As educator Emma Miller Bolenius demonstrates in this survey, the essay has provided a rich variety of literary pleasures over the centuries.

Teaching the Essay, by Emma Miller Bolenius (page two) - Survey of British and American Essayists
As educator Emma Miller Bolenius demonstrates in this survey, the essay has provided a rich variety of literary pleasures over the centuries.

Teaching the Essay by Emma Miller Bolenius (page three) - Survey of British and American Essayists
As educator Emma Miller Bolenius demonstrates in this survey, the essay has provided a rich variety of literary pleasures over the centuries.

Teaching the Essay, by Emma Miller Bolenius (page 4) - Survey of British and American Essayists
As educator Emma Miller Bolenius demonstrates in this survey, the essay has provided a rich variety of literary pleasures over the centuries.

Teaching the Essay, by Emma Miller Bolenius (page five) - Survey of British and American Essayists
As educator Emma Miller Bolenius demonstrates in this survey, the essay has provided a rich variety of literary pleasures over the centuries.

H.L. Mencken's Hyperbolic Prose Style
Though Mencken died over half a century ago, his rip-roaring style--witty, combative, yet graceful--continues to

Miss Duling: A Character Sketch by Eudora Welty
Eudora Welty's precise physical description of her first-grade teacher, Miss Duling, also provides insights into the character of this

Points of View in Alice Walker's "Beauty" - Scrapbook of Styles
In the essay