Grammar & Composition Sitemap - Page 4 2016-09-26

Willie Morris's Descriptive Narrative - Concrete Details in "North Toward Home" by Willie Morris
In the following passage from his memoir

Status Details in Tom Wolfe's Descriptions - Excerpt from Tom Wolfe's "A Man in Full" - Effectio
In two paragraphs from the novel

Sentence Variety in Alice Walker's "Am I Blue?"
Alice Walker relies on a variety of sentence structures to hold our attention as she develops her affectionate description of a horse named Blue.

AP English Language and Composition Exam Key Terms
On these two pages you'll find brief definitions of 101 grammatical, literary, and rhetorical terms that have appeared on the multiple-choice and essay portions of the AP English Language and Composition exam. For examples and more detailed explanations of the terms, follow the links to the expanded entries in our Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms.

AP English Language and Composition Exam (page two) - Glossary of Important Grammatical, Literary, and Rhetorical Terms - Advanced Placement Exam
On these two pages you will find brief definitions of 80 grammatical, literary, and rhetorical terms that have appeared on the multiple-choice and essay portions of the AP English Language and Composition exam. For examples and more detailed explanations of the terms, follow the links to the expanded entries in our Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms. Page 2.

There's a Name for It - 20 Language-Related Terms
Even diehard language lovers may be surprised by some of these weird, witty, and wonderful linguistic terms.

Glossary of Copy Editing Terms
Copyediting is the work that an editor does to improve a manuscript and prepare it for publication. Here we reveal some of the jargon of the copyediting trade: 140 terms and abbreviations used by editors in their efforts to produce copy that is clear, correct, consistent, and concise.

Key Copyediting Terms (page 2)
Copyediting is the work that an editor does to improve a manuscript and prepare it for publication. Here we reveal some of the jargon of the copyediting trade: 140 terms and abbreviations used by editors in their efforts to produce copy that is clear, correct, concise, consistent, and comprehensible. Page 2.

Figures, Tropes, and Other Rhetorical Terms
These lists are intended to help you identify figures, tropes, and other rhetorical strategies and devices.

Rhetorical Terms by Type - Glossary of Rhetorical Terms - Figures of Speech - Page Two - Definitions and Examples of Tropes and Figures
These lists are intended to help you identify figures, tropes, and other rhetorical strategies and devices. Page 2.

Rhetorical Terms by Type - Glossary of Rhetorical Terms - Figures of Speech - Page Three - Definitions and Examples of Tropes and Figures
These lists are intended to help you identify figures, tropes, and other rhetorical strategies and devices. Page 3.

Glossary of Rhetorical Terms by Type - Page 4 of 4
These lists are intended to help you identify figures, tropes, and other rhetorical strategies and devices. Page 4.

Answers to the Multiple-Choice Quiz on Rhetorical Terms
This quiz should help you understand, distinguish, and remember many of the key rhetorical terms in our glossary. Page 2.

Correcting Needless Sentence Fragments in Paragraphs
This exercise offers practice in identifying and correcting needless sentence fragments during the editing stage of the writing process.

Sentence Fragment Editing Exercise I (page 2)
This exercise offers practice in identifying and correcting needless sentence fragments during the editing stage of the writing process. Page 2.

Exercises in Identifying Subjects and Verbs - Answers
These exercises will give you practice in recognizing two key elements in a sentence: the subject and the verb. Page 2.

Exercises in Identifying Subjects and Verbs
These exercises will give you practice in recognizing two key elements in a sentence: the subject and the verb.

Sentence Combining: Kazin's Kitchen in Brownsville
This exercise, adapted from a paragraph in Alfred Kazin's memoir, offers practice in combining sentences to create a descriptive paragraph.

Sentence Combining: Kazin's Kitchen in Brownsville (2)
This exercise, adapted from a paragraph in Alfred Kazin's memoir, offers practice in combining sentences to create a descriptive paragraph. Page 2.

"Once More to the Lake" by E. B. White: Reading Quiz
Take this multiple-choice quiz to test your understanding of E.B. White's classic essay '

Introduction to Sentence Combining Exercises
Sentence combining calls on you to experiment with different methods of putting words together.

Quiz on London's Essay on the San Francisco Earthquake
This multiple-choice quiz will test your familiarity with Jack London's vivid account of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.

Reading Quiz - "A Hanging" by George Orwell


Reading Quiz on 'Why I Want a Wife'
A short quiz on Judy Brady's satirical essay

Dr. King's "I Have a Dream" Speech Quiz
Though most Americans are familiar with the last section of the speech the rest of the speech deserves just as much attention for its social significance.

Practice in Using Commas and Semicolons Correctly
This exercise offers practice in using commas and semicolons correctly.

Practice in Using Commas and Semicolons Correctly
This exercise offers practice in using commas and semicolons correctly. Page 2.

Answers to the Reading Quiz on "Once More to the Lake" by E. B. White
To test your understanding of E.B. White's essay

Answers to the Reading Quiz on "A Hanging" by George Orwell - A Multiple-Choice Reading Comprehension Quiz
To test your understanding of Orwell's classic essay, take this brief quiz, and then compare your responses with the answers on page two. Page 2.

Answers to the Quiz on Dr. King's "I Have a Dream" Speech - Multiple-Choice Reading Quiz on "I Have a Dream" by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Take this multiple-choice reading quiz on Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s

Answers to the Reading Quiz on 'Why I Want a Wife'
Here are the answers to the multiple-choice reading quiz on the essay

25 Top Misspelled English Words
In each of the following pairs, only one is a word; the other is a common misspelling of that word. See if you can identify the correctly spelled word in each set.

Answers to the Quiz on 25 Commonly Misspelled Words - Twenty-Five Common Misspellings in English
Here are the answers to the quiz on 25 commonly misspelled words. Page 2.

Spelling Review Exercises: Commonly Misspelled Words
Practice your spelling skills by completing these seven short exercises.

Answers to Spelling Review Exercises - Groups A - G
Here are the answers to the Spelling Review Exercises, Groups A through G. Page 2.

The Spell Checker Poem by Mark Eckman and Jerrold H. Zar
We set the record straight on that well-traveled poem about spell checkers--

Reading Quiz on "A Modest Proposal" by Jonathan Swift
A multiple-choice reading quiz on Jonathan Swift's classic essay

400 Topics for Essays and Speeches
Coming up with a good topic can be one of the hardest parts of composing a paragraph or essay. These 400 topic suggestions should make that job a little easier.

The 100 Most Commonly Used Words in English
Listed here, according to the 100-million-word British National Corpus, are the 100 most frequently used words in English.

200 Words and Phrases That Ticked You Off in 2009
When invited to submit expressions that ticked them off, readers responded enthusiastically. Here are 200 pet peeves submitted by some very ticked-off defenders of the English language.

When to Use the Words A, An, and And
The commonly confused words

Advice and Advise - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Affect and Effect - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Aggravate and Irritate - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Adverse and Averse - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

A, An, & And - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Advice and Advise - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - Advice versus Advise
The noun

Affect and Effect - Answers to Practice Exercises


Aggravate and Irritate - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - Aggravate versus Irritate
The commonly confused words aggravate and irritate: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Adverse and Averse - Commonly Confused Words - What is the difference between Adverse & Averse - Glossary of Usage
The adjective

Answers to the Reading Quiz on "A Modest Proposal" by Jonathan Swift - A Multiple-Choice Reading Quiz on Swift's Classic Essay
Here are the answers to the multiple-choice reading quiz on Jonathan Swift's classic essay

Beside and Besides - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words beside and besides: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Commonly Confused Words: Allot, A Lot and Alot
The commonly confused words

Allusive and Elusive - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused adjectives

Allude and Elude - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Allusion and Illusion: Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words allusion and illusion: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Allusive and Elusive - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused adjectives

All Ready and Already - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words all ready and already: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

All Together and Altogether - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Amount and Number - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Answers to Practice Exercises: E-K (Glossary of Usage) - Answer Key - Commonly Confused Words
Here are the answers to the short practice exercises that accompany each set of words (E-K) in our Glossary of Usage. Page 2.

Answers to Practice Exercises: L-Q (Glossary of Usage) - Answer Key - Commonly Confused Words
Here are the answers to the short practice exercises that accompany each set of words (beginning L through Q) in our Glossary of Usage. Page 3.

Answers to Practice Exercises: R-Z (Glossary of Usage) - Answer Key - Commonly Confused Words
Here are the answers to the short practice exercises that accompany each set of words (R-Z) in our Glossary of Usage. Page 4.

Anyone and Any One - Glossary of English Usage
The commonly confused words

The Language of Baseball - The Dickson Baseball Dictionary
Does the game of baseball have its own language or jargon? To find out, we dip into the third edition of

Answers to Practice Exercises: Glossary of Usage - Answer Key - Commonly Confused Words
Here are the answers to the short practice exercises that accompany each set of words in our Glossary of Usage.

Allot, A Lot, and Alot - Commonly Confused Words - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Allude and Elude - Commonly Confused Words - Glossary of Usage - Allude versus Elude
The commonly confused words

Allusion and Illusion - Glossary of Usage
The noun

All Ready and Already - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - All Ready versus Already
The commonly confused words

All Together and Altogether - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - All Together versus Altogether
The phrase

Amount and Number - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Anyone and Any One - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Beside and Besides - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words beside and besides: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Breath and Breathe - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

A List of Common Contractions in English
In this table you'll find 50 of the most frequently used contractions in English.

Breath and Breathe - Definitions, Examples, Exercises
The commonly confused words

Close, Clothes, and Cloths: Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words close, clothes, and cloths: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

How to Eliminate Deadwood - Direct and Concise Writing
One of the most effective ways to improve our writing is to cut the clutter. Here are five more strategies to apply when revising and editing essays.

Complement and Compliment - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

A List of 35 Common Prefixes in English
Understanding the meanings of the common prefixes can help us deduce the meanings of new words. This table defines and illustrates 35 common prefixes.

Choosing the Best Words: Denotations and Connotations
These exercises will help you select words not only for what they mean according to the dictionary (their denotations) but also for what they imply (their connotations).

Continual and Continuous - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Device and Devise - Definitions, Examples, Exercises
The commonly confused words

The Earliest English Dictionaries
Contrary to popular belief, Samuel Johnson's two-volume

Close, Clothes, and Cloths - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words close, clothes, and cloths: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Complement and Compliment - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Continual and Continuous - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Device and Devise - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

200 Homonyms, Homophones, and Homographs (C - E)
These charts should help you recognize the differences between many commonly confused words.

200 Homonyms, Homophones, and Homographs (F - L)
Chart three of common homonyms, homophones, and homographs--words that are easily confused because they look alike or sound alike (or both) but have different meanings.

200 Homonyms, Homophones, and Homographs (M - R)
Chart four of common homonyms, homophones, and homographs--words that are easily confused because they look alike or sound alike (or both) but have different meanings.

200 Homonyms, Homophones, and Homographs (S - W)
Chart five of common homonyms, homophones, and homographs--words that are easily confused because they look alike or sound alike (or both) but have different meanings.

Commonly Confused Words: Explicit and Implicit
The commonly confused adjectives explicit and implicit: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Farther and Further - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words farther and further: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Few (Fewer) and Little (Less) - Glossary of Usage
In traditional grammar,

Campaign to Cut the Clutter - 10 Good Small Words
These 10 words are so common that some writers try to avoid their company, favoring longer expressions that mean the same thing.

Have and of - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Explicit and Implicit: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused adjectives explicit and implicit: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Farther and Further - Glossary of Usage


Few (Fewer) and Little (Less) - Answers to Practice Exercises


Have and Of - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words have and of: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

The Difference Between the Words Loose and Lose
The commonly confused words

Imply and Infer - Commonly Confused Words - Examples
The commonly confused verbs imply and infer: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Its and It's - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words its and it's: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

That the Worst Puns Are the Best, by Charles Lamb
As Charles Lamb makes clear in this brief essay, he enjoyed the taste of a good pun--that is, one which

Six Common Myths About Language and Grammar
In the book Language Myths, a team of leading linguists set out to challenge some of the conventional wisdom about language and the way it works.

Later and Latter - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Lay and Lie - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused verbs lay and lie: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Leave and Let - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Imply and Infer - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words imply and infer: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Its and It's - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words its and it's: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Loose and Lose - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - The Difference Between Loose and Lose - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Understanding Usage of Later and Latter
The commonly confused words later and latter: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Lay and Lie - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused verbs

Leave and Let - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - Leave versus Let - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Many and Much - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words many and much: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Maybe and May Be - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

The 201 Most Commonly Misspelled Words in English
Review this list of 201 of the most commonly misspelled words in English, and then focus on those that you find troublesome.

The 200 Most Commonly Misspelled Words in English (Part 3)
The final part of our list of 200 commonly misspelled words.

10 Facts Worth Knowing About Noah Webster
By way of introduction, here are 10 facts worth knowing about Noah Webster, founder of America's great dictionary dynasty.

How to Cut Out the Clutter in Professional Writing
Here we'll apply the strategies that we have learned for cutting out needless words--deadwood that only bores, distracts, or confuses our readers.

Principal vs Principle: Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Shop Names Featuring Puns
Enjoy our collection of punny shop names, from a liquor store named Boo's to a portable-toilet rental service called (get ready) Oui Oui Enterprises.

Store Name Puns: Bars, Barber Shops, and Hair Salons
Jest for the pun of it, here are the shamelessly punny names of bars, barber shops, and hair salons found throughout the English-speaking world. Page 2.

Store Name Puns - Cafes, Coffee Shops, and Restaurants
Jest for the pun of it, here are the shamelessly punny names of cafes, coffee shops, and restaurants found throughout the English-speaking world. Page 3.

Commonly Confused Words - Quiet, Quit, Quite
The commonly confused words

Quotation and Quote (Commonly Confused Words)
The commonly confused words

Passed and Past - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Quiet, Quit, and Quite - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words quiet, quit, and quite: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Quotation and Quote - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - Quotation versus Quote - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Many and Much - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - Many versus Much - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Maybe and May Be - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - Maybe versus May Be - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Passed and Past: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Principal and Principle - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Practice in Cutting the Clutter - Exercises in Concise Writing - Answers to Practice Exercises
Here we'll apply the strategies that we have learned for cutting out needless words--deadwood that only bores, distracts, or confuses our readers. Page 2.

Using Similes and Metaphors to Enrich Writing (Part 1)
Discovering fresh similes and metaphors to use in your own writing also means discovering new ways to look at your subjects.

Lists and Anaphora in Bill Bryson's "Neither Here Nor There"
In this paragraph from

John Berger's Extended Definition of Home
In this passage, John Berger draws on the philosophy of Mircea Eliade to offer an extended definition of home.

Raymond Chandler's Hardboiled Prose Style
These examples of Raymond Chandler's hardboiled prose have been drawn from the opening and closing chapters of his novel

Commonly Confused Words: Respectfully and Respectively
The commonly confused words

Should and Would - Commonly Confused Words
Use. Grammar & Composition.

Respectfully and Respectively - Answers to Practice Exercise
The commonly confused words

Should and Would - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - Should versus Would - Answers to Practice Exercises
Use

Examples in Margaret Drabble's "The Missing Piece" - Writing Styles
In this excerpt from

E.B. White's 'Here Is New York' Passage
In 1948, essayist E.B. White anticipated the terror that would visit New York City more than 50 years later.

E.B. White's Diction and Metaphors in "Death of a Pig"
In these opening paragraphs of the essay

Examples in E.B. White's "Progress and Change" - Scrapbook of Styles
After commenting on the gradual disappearance of the Pullman berth, E.B. White offers this reflection on the

Ian Frazier's List of Reasons in "Great Plains" - Scrapbook of Styles
This long anaphoric series in praise of Crazy Horse is an example of the artful playfulness that characterizes Ian Frazier's best prose.

Passage from 'Class' by Paul Fussell - Reasons and Examples
Paul Fussell offers examples of visible signs of social class: clothing and other belongings

A Definition of a Jerk by Sydney J. Harris
In this brief essay, journalist Sydney J. Harris offers an extended definition of a familiar character type--the jerk.

"The Lower Depths," by H.L. Mencken - Mencken on Teachers of English
In this book review, H.L. Mencken employs his lively, combative style to skewer

George Orwell's Rules for Writers
In the essay

H.L. Mencken on the Writing Life - Writers on Writing - Quotations by H.L. Mencken
Here are some of H.L. Mencken's observations on the writing trade--and some invigorating lessons on how not to be a dull writer.

Safire's Fumblerules for Writers (With Notes)
Language maven William Safire's best known column included these 17 fumblerules--

Writers on Writing - James Thurber -Quotations on Writing
Here are some of James Thurber's thoughts on reading, writing, and editing.

What Is Freewriting? Overcoming Writer's Block
Freewriting is a useful strategy to help you overcome writer's block and get started on any writing project.

Evaluating Your Writing Process
No single method of writing is followed by all writers in all circumstances. But we can identify four basic steps that most successful writers follow in one way or another.

Present Progressive vs. Present Participle Verb Forms
Find out what distinguishes a present participle in English grammar from the present progressive aspect.

How to Write a Letter of Complaint
This project will introduce you to brainstorming as you join with other writers to compose a letter of complaint.

Taking Inventory of Your Writing Attitudes and Skills
Compose a letter to yourself in which you examine your writing background and identify your strengths and weaknesses as a writer.

Writers on Writing - Overcoming Writer's Block
Many professional writers have experienced--and, more importantly, overcome--writer's block. So let's see what advice we can pick up from the pros.

25 Quotations on Style in Writing
In these brief passages, 25 professional writers attempt to explain the nature and value of prose style.

What Is Family Slang? - Examples of Kitchen Table Lingo
Family slang refers to words and phrases (neologisms) created, used, and generally understood only by the members of a family.

George Orwell's Use of Appositives in 'A Hanging'
An appositive is a word or group of words that renames another word. Let's look at some of the ways in which essayist George Orwell uses appositives.

What Is Sentence Combining and How Does It Work?
Sentence combining gives students practice in manipulating a variety of sentence structures. So let's start practicing.

The Value of Studying Grammar
From the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE), a lucid and sensible position statement on the value of teaching of grammar in American schools.

What Is the Difference Between Grammar and Usage?
Grammar is the rationale of a language; usage is the etiquette.

What Is a Placeholder? - Grammar and Composition Questions and Answers
A placeholder (also known as a tongue-tipper) is a word used by speakers to signal that they don't know or can't remember a more precise word for something.

"Hopefully" and Other Sentence Adverbs in English
Here we'll look at some examples of sentence adverbs and consider what--if anything--is wrong with the ever-optimistic adverb

Verbing - The Process of Turning Nouns Into Verbs
Verbing (that is, turning nouns into verbs) is a time-honored way of coining new words out of old ones. Sometimes it's also a kind of word play.

David Foster Wallace on SNOOTS - Extreme Usage Fanatics
After reading this article, decide if you are a SNOOT: one of

Metaphorical Perspectives on Language
The following metaphorical observations on language, drawn from the works of various writers and scholars, take us beyond simple definitions.

Why Should We Study the English Language?
In the preface to the Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, David Crystal answers the question,

Examples of Mixed Metaphors and Cliches
When two or more metaphors (or cliches) are jumbled together, often illogically, we say that these comparisons are

What Is an Essay? - History and Definitions
Since Montaigne adopted the term

The Progymnasmata - Classical Rhetorical Exercises
These ancient exercises in writing and speaking are regarded as the most influential teaching methods to emerge from the rhetorical tradition.

James De Mille on the Value of Figurative Language
A popular Canadian writer once offered several good reasons for studying the figures of speech. The points he made in 1878 still hold true.

Definition and Examples of Maxims and Dueling Maxims
A maxim is a brief expression of a general truth or rule of conduct. But as the examples here show, these nuggets of wisdom are sometimes contradictory.

Origin and Explanation of Sprezzatura - Castiglione "The Courtier"
A true aristocrat, Castiglione said, should preserve one's composure in all circumstances, even the most trying. He called such nonchalance

What Is Monologophobia?
There are worse things than repetition. Monologophobia is the baseless fear of using a word more than once in a single sentence or paragraph.

absolute metaphor - definition and examples
An absolute metaphor is a metaphor (or figurative comparison) in which one of the terms can't be readily distinguished from the other.

Abstract (Writing) - Definition and Examples
An abstract is a brief overview of the key points of an article, report, or proposal.

The Value of the 'You Attitude' in Professional Writing
In professional writing, the

Examples and Characteristics of Effective Analogies
In this article we examine the characteristics of effective analogies and consider the value of using analogies in our writing.

What Are 'Snarl Words' and 'Purr Words'?
S. I. Hayakawa coined the terms

Definition of Accent in English Speech
The term accent has various meanings: (1) in speaking, an identifiable style of pronunciation; (2) in metrics, the emphasis given a syllable; (3) a diacritical mark.

Acronym - Definition and Examples
An acronym is a word formed from the initial letters of a name or by combining initial letters of a series of words.

Acrostic - Definition and Examples of Acrostics in English
An acrostic is a series of lines in which certain letters--usually the first in each line--form a name or message when read in sequence.

Active Voice (Grammar)
Active voice refers to a type of sentence or clause in which the subject performs or causes the action expressed by the verb.

Ad Hominem - Definition and Examples
Ad hominem is a logical fallacy that involves a personal attack: an argument based on the perceived failings of an adversary rather than on the merits of the case.

Adjective - Definition and Examples in English
An adjective is the part of speech that modifies a noun or a pronoun.

Adjunct - Definition and Examples
An adjunct is a word, phrase, or clause that is integrated within the structure of a sentence and that can be omitted without making the sentence ungrammatical.

Adverbial - Definition and Examples
An adverbial is a word, phrase, or clause that performs the function of an adverb.

Definition and Examples of Agreement in English Grammar
In grammar, agreement refers to the correspondence of a verb with its subject in person and number, and of a pronoun with its antecedent in person, number, and gender.

Allophones - Definition and Examples
In linguistics, an allophone is an audibly distinct variant of a phoneme.

What Is an Allusion? (Definition and Examples)
An allusion is a brief, usually indirect reference to a person, place, or event--real or fictional.

alphabet - definition and examples of alphabet
Alphabet refers to the letters of a language, arranged in the order fixed by custom.

Definition and Examples of the Amelioration of Words
Amelioration is the upgrading or elevation of a word's meaning, as when a word with a negative sense develops a positive one.

ampersand - definition and examples
An ampersand is the symbol (&) representing the word

Amplification - Definition and Examples in Rhetoric
Amplification is a rhetorical term for all the ways that an argument, explanation, or description can be expanded and enriched.

Anacoluthon - Definition and Examples
Anacoluthon is an incoherent statement or a deliberate rhetorical effect created by an abrupt change in the syntax of a sentence.

Anadiplosis in Rhetoric - Definition and Examples
Anadiplosis is the repetition of the last word or phrase of one line or clause to begin the next.

Antanaclasis (Word Play) - Definition and Examples
Antanaclasis is a type of verbal play in which one word is used in two contrasting (and often comic) senses.

anaphora - definition and examples in rhetoric
Anaphora is a rhetorical term for the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or verses.

Anagram: Definition and Examples
An anagram is a type of word play in which a word or phrase is formed by rearranging the letters of another word or phrase.

Definition and Examples of Analysis in Composition
Analysis is a form of expository writing in which the writer separates a subject into its elements or parts.

Anastrophe - Definition and Examples
Anastrophe is a rhetorical term for the inversion of conventional word order.

Anecdote - Definition and Examples
An anecdote is a short account of an interesting or humorous incident, intended to illustrate or support some point.

Grammar: Animate Noun - Definition and Examples
Animate noun is a semantic category of noun, referring to a person, animal, or other creature.

Antecedent: Definition and Examples in English Grammar
An antecedent is the noun or noun phrase that a pronoun refers to.

anthimeria - definition and examples in English rhetoric
Anthimeria is a rhetorical term for the creation of a neologism by using one part of speech in place of another.

Definition and Examples of Anticipation in Rhetoric
In rhetoric, anticipation is a general name for argumentative strategies whereby a speaker or writer foresees and replies to objections.

Definition and Examples of Antistasis in Rhetoric
Antistasis is a rhetorical term for the repetition of a word in a different or contrary sense.

Anticlimax - Definition and Examples
Anticlimax is an abrupt shift from a noble tone to a less exalted one--often for comic effect.

Antimetabole - Definition and Examples in Rhetoric
In rhetoric, antimetabole is a verbal pattern in which the second half of an expression is balanced against the first but with the words reversed.

Antithesis - Definition and Examples of the Figure of Speech
In rhetoric and grammar, antithesis is the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases.

Definition and Examples of Antonomasia
Antonomasia is the substitution of a title, epithet, or descriptive phrase for a proper name to designate a member of a group or class.

Antonym: Definition and Examples in English
An antonym is a word having a meaning opposite to that of another word.

aphesis - definition and examples of aphesis
Aphesis is the gradual and unintentional loss of a short unaccented vowel at the beginning of a word.

Aporia Definition and Examples - Figure of Speech
Aporia is the expression of real or simulated doubt or perplexity. This article provides examples of the term as well as its etymology and more.

Aposiopesis in Rhetoric - An Unfinished Thought
Aposiopesis is a rhetorical term for an unfinished thought or broken sentence.

Analogies in Rhetoric: Definition and Examples
In rhetoric, an analogy is a type of reasoning or explaining from parallel cases.

Appeal to Force - Definition and Examples
Appeal to force is a fallacy that relies on force or intimidation (scare tactics) to persuade an audience to accept a proposition or take a particular course of action.

Definition and Examples of the Appeal to Ignorance
The appeal to ignorance is a fallacy based on the assumption that a statement must be true if it cannot be proved false.

Appeal - Definition and Examples in Rhetoric
In classical rhetoric, an appeal is one of the three main persuasive strategies.

Definition and Examples of Appeal to the People
Appeal to the people (argumentum ad populum) is an argument (generally considered a logical fallacy) based on widespread opinions, values, or prejudices.

Appendix (composition) - Definition and Explanations
An appendix is a collection of supplementary materials, usually appearing at the end of a report, proposal, or book.

Apposition - Definitions and Examples in English Grammar
Placing side-by-side two coordinate elements, the second of which serves to identify or rename the first.

aptronym - definition and examples in English
An aptronym (or namefreak) is a name that matches the occupation or character of its owner, often in a humorous or ironic way.

Archaism - Definition and Examples
An archaism is a word or phrase (or a particular meaning of a word or phrase) that is no longer in common use and is considered extremely old fashioned.

Argument (Rhetoric) - Definitions and Examples
In rhetoric, an argument is a course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating truth or falsehood.

Argumentation - Definition and Examples
Argumentation is the process of forming reasons, justifying beliefs, and drawing conclusions with the aim of influencing others.

Definition and Examples of Arrangement in Composition
In rhetoric and composition, arrangement refers to the parts of a speech or the structure of a text.

ars dictaminis - definition and examples in rhetoric
The ars dictaminis is the variety of medieval rhetoric that provided instruction in the composition of letters.

Artistic Proofs - Grammar Definitions and Examples
In classical rhetoric, artistic proofs are proofs (or means of persuasion) that are created by a speaker.

Asiatic - Definition and Discussions of Asiatic Style in Rhetoric
In rhetoric, Asiatic refers to a wordy and highly ornamented style.

Assonance - Definition and Examples
Assonance is the repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds in neighboring words.

Asyndeton - Definition and Examples
Asyndeton is a writing style that omits conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses (opposite of

Attributive Adjective - Definition and Examples
An attributive adjective is an adjective that usually comes before the noun it modifies without a linking verb.

Audience in Rhetoric and Composition
In rhetoric and composition, audience refers to the listeners or spectators at a speech or performance, or the intended readership for a piece of writing.

Autobiography - Definition and Examples
An autobiography is an account of a person's life written or otherwise recorded by that person.

auxesis - definition and examples of auxesis in rhetoric
Auxesis is a gradual increase in intensity of meaning with words arranged in ascending order of force or importance.

Back-Channel Signal - Definition and Examples
A back-channel signal is a noise, gesture, expression, or word used by a listener to indicate that he or she is paying attention to a speaker.

Definition and Examples of Backing in the Toulmin Model
In the Toulmin model of argument, backing is the support or explanation provided for the warrant.

Back Slang - Definition and Examples
Back slang is a form of slang in which words are spoken and/or spelled backwards.

bafflegab - definition and examples in English
Bafflegab is an informal term for confusing or unintelligible speech or writing.

Bandwagon - Definition and Examples of the Logical Fallacy
Bandwagon is a fallacy based on the assumption that the opinion of the majority is always valid: everyone believes it, so you should too.

Ogden's Basic English - Definitions and Discussion
Basic English is a simplified version of the English language with a vocabulary of 850 words.

Barbarism: Definition and Examples in Language
Broadly defined, barbarism refers to an incorrect use of language.

Base Form of a Verb - Definition and Examples in English
The base form of a verb is the simplest form of a verb, without a special ending; it is the form listed in the dictionary.

bathtub effect - definition and examples
The bathtub effect is the observation that, when trying to remember a word or name, people find it easier to recall the beginning and end of a lost item than the middle.

bdelygmia - definition and examples
Bdelygmia is a litany of abuse--a series of critical epithets, descriptions, or attributes.

Begging the Question - Definition and Examples of the Logical Fallacy
Begging the question is a fallacy in which the premise of an argument presupposes the truth of its conclusion.

Bibliography - Definition and Examples
A bibliography is a list of works on a particular subject or by a particular author.

Biography - Definition and Examples
A biography is the story of a person's life, written by another.

block language - definition and examples in English
Block language refers to language structures made up only of words that are essential to convey a message.

boosting - definition and examples of boosting in English
Boosting refers to an adverbial construction used to support a claim or express a viewpoint more assertively and convincingly.

Definition and Examples of Brackets in Punctuation
Brackets are marks of punctuation ([ ]) used to interject text within other text.

bureaucratese - definition and examples
Bureaucratese is obscure speech or writing that is typically characterized by wordiness, euphemisms, and buzzwords.

Business Writing - Definition and Examples
The term

cacography - definition and examples of cacography
Cacography is (a) poor handwriting, or (b) poor spelling.

Capital Letter - Definition and Examples
A capital letter (or uppercase) is the form of an alphabetical letter used to begin a sentence or proper noun.

Adverb (Adverbial) Clause: Definition and Examples
An adverb (or adverbial) clause is a dependent clause used as an adverb within a sentence to indicate time, place, condition, contrast, concession, reason, purpose, or result.

Cardinal Number - Definition and Examples in Grammar
A cardinal number is a number used in counting to indicate quantity.

Case - Definition and Examples of Grammatical Case
Case refers to the grammatical relationship of nouns and pronouns to other words in a sentence.

catachrestic metaphor - definition and examples
A catachrestic metaphor is (1) a word used in a figurative sense to remedy a gap in the lexicon, or (2) a type of strained metaphor that is logically misused but may be figuratively effective.

Catchphrase - Definition and Examples
A catchphrase is a vogue expression, often media-inspired and usually short-lived.

categoria--definition and examples in rhetoric
Categoria is a rhetorical term for the direct exposure of an adversary's faults.

Definition and Examples of Cause and Effect in Essays
Cause and effect is a method of paragraph or essay development in which a writer analyzes the reasons for (and/or the consequences of) an action, event or decision.

Chiasmus - Definition and Examples
Chiasmus is a verbal pattern in which the second half of an expression is balanced against the first but with the parts reversed.

Circumlocution - Definition and Examples
Circumlocution is the use of unnecessarily wordy and indirect language to avoid getting to the point.

Citation - Definition and Examples
A citation is a source quoted in an essay, report, or book to clarify, illustrate, or substantiate a point.

Claim Definition and Examples
In rhetoric and argumentation, a claim is an arguable statement--an idea that a rhetor (a speaker or writer) asks an audience to accept.

Clarity in Prose - Definition and Examples
Clarity is a characteristic of a speech or prose composition that communicates effectively with its intended audience.

Classification - Definition With Examples
Classification is a method of essay development in which a writer arranges people, objects, or ideas with shared characteristics into classes or groups.

clause - definition and examples in English grammar
A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate. A clause is either independent or dependent.

Cliché - Definition and Examples
A cliche is a trite expression--often a figure of speech whose effectiveness has been worn out through overuse and excessive familiarity.

Definition and Examples of Closed Class
In English grammar,

Cognate - Definition and Examples in English
A cognate is a word that is related in origin to another word that has a similar meaning in another language.

Collocation: Definition and Examples in English
A collocation is a familiar grouping of words, especially words that habitually appear together and thereby convey meaning by association.

Colloquialism - Definition and Examples in English
A colloquialism is an informal expression that is more often used in casual conversation than in formal speech or writing.

Colloquial - Definition and Examples in English
Colloquial is the characteristic style of writing that seeks the effect of informal spoken language as distinct from formal or literary English.

Colon (Punctuation Mark) - Definition and Examples
The colon is a mark of punctuation (:) used after a statement that introduces a quotation, an explanation, an example, or a series.

Definition and Examples of Comment Clauses in English
A short word group (such as

Commonplace: Definition and Examples (Rhetoric)
In rhetoric, a commonplace is any statement or bit of knowledge that is commonly shared by members of an audience or a community.

commoratio--definition and examples in rhetoric
The rhetorical term commoratio means dwelling on a point by repeating it several times in different words.

Compound Adjective - Definition and Examples in English
A compound adjective is made up of two or more words that act as a single idea to modify a noun (a part-time employee, a high-speed chase).

Comparative Clause - Definition and Examples
A type of subordinate clause that follows the comparative form of an adjective or adverb and begins with as, than, or like. Learn more here.

Comparative Degree - Definition and Examples in Grammar
In English grammar, the comparative is the form of an adjective or adverb involving a comparison of more or less, greater or lesser.

Comparison: Definition and Examples in Composition
Comparison is a rhetorical strategy in which a writer examines similarities and/or differences between two people, places, ideas, or objects.

Definition and Discussion of Comparative Grammar
Comparative grammar involves the analysis and comparison of the grammatical structures of related languages.

complex metaphor - definition and examples
A complex metaphor is a metaphor (or figurative comparison) in which the literal meaning is expressed through more than one figurative term.

Epigram, Epigraph, Epitaph - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words epigram, epigraph, and epitaph: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Epigram, Epigraph, and Epitaph - Commonly Confused Words - Epigram and Epigraph and Epitaph - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words epigram, epigraph, and epitaph: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Foreword and Forward - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

fortunate and fortuitous - glossary of usage
The commonly confused words

Full and Fulsome - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words 'full' and 'fulsome': definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

"Gourmand" vs. "Gourmet" - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Gourmand and Gourmet (page two) - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Foreword and Forward - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

fortunate and fortuitous - commonly confused words - glossary of usage - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Full and Fulsome - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - The Meaning of "Fulsome" - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words 'full' and 'fulsome': answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Historic and Historical - Commonly Confused Words - Usage - Historic vs. Historical - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Historic and Historical - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

The Lighter Side of Language - A Humorous Look at English
Eponyms, euphemisms, family slang, and mondegreens are just a few of the odd, amusing, and provocative topics considered on the lighter side of language.

Commonly Confused Words: Last and Latter
The commonly confused words

Lend and Loan - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Lessen and Lesson - Commonly Confused Words -- Lessen Versus Lesson
The verb

Commonly Confused Words: Liable and Libel
The commonly confused words

Lightening and Lightning - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Loath and Loathe - Glossary of Commonly Confused Words
Learn the difference between the words loath and loathe: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Last and Latter: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Lend and Loan - Commonly Confused Words - Lend versus Loan - Answers to Practice Exercises
In formal usage (especially in British English),

Lessen and Lesson - Commonly Confused Words -- Lessen Versus Lesson - Answers to Practice Exercises
What's the difference between

Liable and Libel: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Lightening and Lightning - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Loath and Loathe - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words loath and loathe: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Moot and Mute - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused adjectives

Moral and Morale- Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Noisome and Noisy - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words noisome and noisy: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Grammar & Composition
The commonly confused words noisome and noisy: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Personal vs Personnel - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words personal and personnel: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Personal and Personnel - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words - Personal versus Personnel - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words personal and personnel: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Moot and Mute - Glossary of Usage - Commonly Confused Words -Moot versus Mute - Answers to Practice Exercises
The adjectives

Moral and Morale - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Premier and Premiere - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words premier and premiere: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Premier and Premiere - Answers to Exercises - Commonly Confused Words - Premier versus Premiere
The commonly confused words

Perverse and Perverted - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused adjectives

Answers to Practice Exercises: Perverse and Perverted
The commonly confused adjectives

Poor, Pore, and Pour: Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Quiz on 20 Commonly Confused Words
In our Glossary of Usage you'll find more than 300 sets of commonly confused words. To test your familiarity with 20 of these word pairs, take a few minutes to do the following quiz.

Answers to the Quiz on 20 Commonly Confused Words - Review of Commonly Confused Words
Here are the answers to the Quiz on 20 Commonly Confused Words. Page 2.

Poor, Pore, and Pour: Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Rack and Wrack - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Rain, Reign, and Rein - Commonly Confused Words Defined
Rain refers to precipitation (falling water); reign, a period of sovereign power. Rein refers to restraint or the means by which power is exercised.

Raise, Raze, and Rise - Commonly Confused Words


Raise, Raze, and Rise - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
What are the differences between

Rack and Wrack - Commonly Confused Words - Wrack versus Rack - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Rain, Reign, and Rein - Commonly Confused Words - Rain, Reign, and Rein - Answers to Practice Exercises
All three of these words can be used as both nouns and verbs.

Waist and Waste - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words waist and waste: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Whoever and Whomever - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words whoever and whomever: definitions, examples, usage notes and practice exercises.

Preparing an Argument - Explore Both Sides of an Issue
The best way to get ready to explain and defend a position on some controversial issue is to explore a topic thoughtfully, considering both sides of the issue before preparing an essay plan. This kind of preparation has two chief advantages: (1) it encourages us to study the issue carefully, and (2) it allows us to anticipate the arguments that our opponents may use.

Preparing an Argument: Focus the Topic and Plan an Approach
Before deciding on the topic for our argument essay, we need to make sure that we're prepared to take a clear stand on the issue and back up our position with at least three or four solid points. Focusing a topic and planning an approach to the argument can help us decide whether or not we have selected an approriate issue. If not, we still have time to back up and consider another topic. Page 2.

Waist and Waste - Commonly Confused Words - Glossary of Usage - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words waist and waste: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Whoever and Whomever - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

End Punctuation - Basic Punctuation Rules
We begin our study of punctuation by focusing on the end marks: periods, question marks, and exclamation points.

Building Sentences With Participial Phrases
These sentence-building exercises will give you a chance to apply the principles introduced in How to Create and Arrange Participial Phrases.

Building Sentences With Participial Phrases - Answers
Here are sample combinations for the 10 sets of sentence-building exercises in Practice in Building Sentences With Participial Phrases. Page 2.

Plural Forms of English Nouns - "The English Lesson" Poem
Have you ever tried explaining to a child why two feet aren't foots or two mice aren't mouses? Here are some more rule-breaking English plurals.

Practice in Adding Adjectives and Adverbs to Sentences
In these exercises you'll practice adding adjectives and adverbs to the basic sentence unit.

Adding Adjectives and Adverbs to the Basic Sentence Unit - Answers to the Exercises
In these exercises you'll practice adding adjectives and adverbs to the basic sentence unit. On this page you'll find the answers to the exercise. Page 2.

Subordination with Adjective Clauses
To show that one idea in a sentence is more important than another, we rely on subordination. Here we look at ways to create and punctuate adjective clauses.

Grammar Basics: Sentence Parts and Sentence Structures
One of the keys to good writing is understanding the countless ways in which these basic sentence structures can be combined and arranged.

How to Build Sentences With Appositives
An appositive is a word or group of words that identifies or renames another word in a sentence. Appositive constructions offer concise ways of describing or defining a person, place, or thing. In this article you will learn how to construct sentences with appositives.

Participial Phrases - Creating and Arranging
Participles can add vigor to our writing as they add information to our sentences. Here we'll practice creating and arranging participial phrases.

Grammar - An Introduction in English
The more we are aware of how grammar works, the more we can monitor the meaning and effectiveness of the way we and others use language.

What Are the Parts of Speech in English?
One way to begin studying basic sentence structures is to consider the parts of speech. Learn the names and basic functions of these sentence parts.

Practice in Identifying Prepositional Phrases
This exercise, adapted from a paragraph by novelist John Steinbeck, will give you practice in recognizing prepositional phrases.

An Introduction to Irregular Verbs in English
Although fewer than 200 verbs are classified as

Correcting Phrase Fragments - Exercise in Correcting Needless Sentence Fragments
This exercise will give you practice in writing clear, complete sentences by correcting unnecessary phrase fragments.

Principal Parts of Irregular Verbs in English: A to G
In the table below, you will find the principal parts of the most common irregular verbs (from A to G).

Principal Parts of Irregular Verbs: H to S
In this table you'll find the principal parts of the most common irregular verbs in English (H to S).

Irregular Verbs S-W - Present/ Past/ Past Participle
In this table you'll find the principal parts of the most common irregular verbs in English (from S to W).

Practice in Identifying Appositives in Sentences
This exercise offers practice in identifying appositives--words that concisely identify or rename other words in a sentence.

How to Arrange Prepositional Phrases
Here we'll consider how to arrange prepositional phrases effectively--and, at times, how to condense or even eliminate them to cut the clutter.

What Are Prepositional Phrases in English Grammar?
This article identifies the two basic parts of a prepositional phrase and shows how these phrases are arranged in sentences.

Identifying Prepositional Phrases - Answers to the Exercise
In this version of John Steinbeck's paragraph, the prepositional phrases are in italics. Page 2.

Answers to Practice in Identifying Appositives
Here you'll find answers to the exercise on page one: Practice in Identifying Appositives. Page 2.

Correcting Phrase Fragments (page two) - Exercise in Correcting Needless Sentence Fragments
Need practice in writing clear, complete sentences? Try this exercise to correct unnecessary phrase fragments by combining phrases. Page 2.

Sentence Building With Coordinators (Answers)
Learn how to build sentences with coordinators in these sentence-combining exercises. Page 2.

Practice in Using the Present Perfect in English
Once you understand how to form the past tense of regular verbs, you shouldn't find it difficult to use verbs in the present perfect.

How to Form the Past Tense and the Present-Perfect
Here are the answers to the exercise on page one: Forming the Past Tense and the Present-Perfect. Page 2.

How to Use the 5 Relative Pronouns in Adjective Clauses
An adjective clause is a group of words that works like an adjective to modify a noun. Here we'll focus on the five relative pronouns used in adjective clauses.

Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses
In this exercise, we'll learn to distinguish between the two main types of adjective clauses: restrictive and nonrestrictive.

Revising Sentences with Absolute Phrases
These exercises offer practice in revising sentences with absolute phrases, which are especially useful, compact, and flexible constructions.

Building Sentences With Absolute Phrases
Among the modifiers that are used to add information to sentences, the absolute phrase may be the least common but one of the most useful.

Practice Using Absolute Phrases
These exercises in revising sentences with absolute phrases will help you learn correct English grammar and will help you become a better writer. Page 2.

Answers to the Exercise in Identifying Adjective Clauses - Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses
The two main types of adjective clauses are restrictive and nonrestrictive. Use this exercise to learn and practice how to distinguish them. Page 2.

Isolated Phenomena of Language: Grammar and Dictionary - From "The Practical Study of Languages" by Henry Sweet - Grammar and Philology
In this excerpt from his textbook

Identifying Participles, Gerunds, and Infinitives
In this article, after reviewing the three types of verbals, we'll practice identifying participles, gerunds, and infinitives in sentences.

Identifying Verbals - Answers to the Exercise
Verbals include participles, gerunds, and infinitives. Here are the answers to the identification exercise. Page 2.

Camping Out by Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway's famously economical style is already on display in this instructional article on setting up camp and cooking outdoors.

"Of Greatness," by Abraham Cowley - Cowley's Classic Essay on Greatness
Critic Bonamy Dobree has characterized Abraham Cowley as England's

"Of Greatness," by Abraham Cowley - Cowley's Classic Essay on Greatness - Page Two
Abraham Cowley is famous for being one of England's first essayists. His style is very accessible, as you can see in this essay,

"Of Greatness," by Abraham Cowley - Cowley's Classic Essay on Greatness - Page Three
Critic Bonamy Dobree has characterized Abraham Cowley as England's

Samuel Johnson's Classic Essay on Conversation
Samuel Johnson relies on classification in his discussion of an art that he often practiced in London taverns.

"Corn-Pone Opinions" Essay on Conformity by Mark Twain
In an essay not published until several years after his death, humorist Mark Twain examines the effects of social pressures on our thoughts and beliefs.

"Corn-Pone Opinions," by Mark Twain (page two) - Classic Essays
In his classic American essay

Stephen Crane's 'Experiment in Misery'
Though usually categorized as a short story, Steven Crane's

Stephen Crane's 'Experiment in Misery' (2)
Stephen Crane's writings often blur the distinction between nonfiction writing and fiction. Page 2.

Stephen Crane's 'Experiment in Misery' (3)
Best known today for his novel

Stephen Crane's 'Experiment in Misery' (4)
Though usually categorized as a short story, Steven Crane's

"Defence and Happiness of Married Life," by Joseph Addison - Classic Essays
In

'I Have a Dream,' Speech by Martin Luther King, Jr.
In August 1963, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. led the great march on Washington, where he delivered this memorable speech in front of 200,000 people.

"I Have a Dream," by Martin Luther King, Jr. (page two) - Classic Essays and Speeches
In addition to being a central text of the Civil Rights Movement, the

The Education of Women by Daniel Defoe
In an essay that first appeared in 1719, the author of Robinson Crusoe argues that women should be allowed full and ready access to education.

Gifts, by Ralph Waldo Emerson - Classic American Essays
In this short essay (an extended definition), Emerson encourages us to do some high thinking

"A Fable," by Mark Twain - Classic Essays - Progymnasmata
Consider what lesson about the nature of perception is contained in

A Classic Essay by Frederick Douglass, American Slave
In this narrative passage from Chapter 10 of his first autobiography, Frederick Douglass recounts

"My Wood" by E.M. Forster - Classic British Essays
E.M. Forster's essay

"Quality," by John Galsworthy - Classic British Essays
In this narrative essay, Galsworthy depicts a German craftsman's efforts to survive in an era where success is no longer determined by craftsmanship.

"Quality," by John Galsworthy (page two) - Classic British Essays
In the narrative essay

"Quality," by John Galsworthy (page three) - Classic British Essays - Narrative Essay by John Galsworthy
John Galsworthy was a popular and prolific novelist and playwright in the early decades of the twentieth century. Read his 1912 essay

On a Rainy Morning, by Charles S. Brooks - Classic Essays - Personification and Description
In this essay from the collection

On a Rainy Morning, by Charles S. Brooks (page two) - Classic Essays - Personification
In his essay

On Reading for Amusement by Henry Fielding - Classic British Essays - An Essay by Henry Fielding
As noted in the dedication of his comic masterpiece,

On Women's Right to Vote, by Susan B. Anthony
When Susan B. Anthony was arrested and fined $100 for casting an illegal vote in the 1872 presidential election, she refused to pay, defending her actions in the speech that follows. Note her reliance on parallelism and antithetical structures to convey her forceful message.

Classic Essay by William James on the San Francisco Earthquake
When the earthquake struck San Francisco on April 18, 1906, William James was profoundly affected not only by the terrible devastation but also by the heroic human response to this natural disaster.

William James on the San Francisco Earthquake
When the earthquake struck San Francisco on April 18, 1906, William James was profoundly affected not only by the terrible devastation but also by the heroic human response to this natural disaster. Page 2.

On Some Mental Effects of the Earthquake, by William James
When the earthquake struck San Francisco on April 18, 1906, William James was profoundly affected not only by the terrible devastation but also by the heroic human response to this natural disaster. Page 3.

Continuation of James' Essay on San Francisco Earthquake
When the earthquake struck San Francisco on April 18, 1906, William James was profoundly affected not only by the terrible devastation but also by the heroic human response to this natural disaster. Page 4.

"Which," by James Thurber - Classic American Essays
In this essay, James Thurber uses several examples to demonstrate both his fascination and frustration with a familiar English pronoun.

Slang in America by Walt Whitman - Full Text
Here, in an essay published in 1888, poet Walt Whitman offers many examples of slang expressions and

Slang in America, by Walt Whitman (page two) - Classic American Essays
Here, in an essay published in 1888, poet Walt Whitman offers many examples of slang expressions and

Slang in America, by Walt Whitman (page three) - Classic American Essays
Here, in an essay published in 1888, poet Walt Whitman offers many examples of slang expressions and

The Essence of Humanism, by William James - Classic American Essays


"The Essence of Humanism," by William James (page two) - Classic Essays


"The Essence of Humanism," by William James (page three) - Classic Essays


The Symbolism of Poetry, by W.B. Yeats
Composed in 1900, Yeats's influential essay

The Symbolism of Poetry, by W.B. Yeats (page two) - Classic British and American Essays - Definition Essay by William Butler Yeats
Composed in 1900, Yeats's influential essay