Grammar & Composition Sitemap - Page 6 2016-09-26

Word Class - Definition and Examples of Word Classes in English
A word class is a set of words that display the same formal properties, especially their inflections and distribution.

Writing Process - Definition and Examples
The writing process is the series of overlapping steps that most writers follow in composing texts.

zero plural - definition and examples in English grammar
The zero plural is a plural form of a count noun that is identical to the singular form.

Riddle Definition and Examples - Grammar
A question deliberately worded in a puzzling manner and presented as a problem to be solved.

Drafts in Composition - Definition and Advice
A draft is a version of a piece of writing, often an early version (a

100 Similes Using "Sweet" ("Sweet As...")
Although this list of sweet similes was created a century ago, students should have no trouble understanding these figurative comparisons.

Samuel Butler on Words and Writing - Excerpts from "The Note Books"
In these selections from his notebooks, Samuel Butler considers both the value of brevity in writing and the danger of being excessively concise.

Samuel Butler on Words and Writing (page two)
Samuel Butler considers both the value of brevity in writing and the danger of being excessively concise in these selections from his notebooks. Page 2.

Word Family - Definition and Examples in English
A word family is a group of words that share a common base to which different prefixes and suffixes are added.

Definition and Examples of Present Perfect Progressive
The present perfect progressive is a tense that emphasizes the ongoing nature of an action that began in the past and continues in the present.

tmesis - definition and examples of tmesis
Tmesis is the separation of the parts of a compound word by another word or words, usually for emphasis or comic effect.

Chinese English and Chinglish - Definition and Examples
Chinese English is speech or writing in English that shows the influence of Chinese language and culture.

Definition and Examples of Babu English
Babu English is a disparaging term for a variety of South Asian English marked in speech and writing by indirectness, stylistic ornamentation, and extreme formality and politeness.

spelling pronunciation - definition and examples
Spelling pronunciation is the use of a pronunciation based on spelling rather than in accordance with a word's conventional pronunciation

Sound Symbolism in English (Definition and Examples)
Sound symbolism is the association between particular sound sequences and particular meanings in speech.

cognitive grammar - definition and discussion
Cognitive grammar is a usage-based approach to grammar that emphasizes symbolic and semantic definitions of theoretical concepts.

orality - definition and examples
Orality refers to the use of speech, rather than writing, as a means of communication.

illiteracy - definition and discussion
Illiteracy is the quality or condition of being unable to read or write.

acrolect - definition and examples of acrolects
An acrolect is a creole variety that tends to command respect because its grammatical structures do not deviate significantly from those of the standard variety of the language.

Philippine English - Definition and Examples
Philippine English (also called Filipino English) is a variety of the English language that is used in the Philippines.

minced oath - definition and examples in English
A minced oath is a moderate form of swearing in which an offensive term is replaced by a similar-sounding word that expresses a comparable sentiment in a less objectionable way.

swear word - definition and examples
A swear word is a word or phrase that is generally considered blasphemous, obscene, vulgar, or otherwise offensive

Definition and Examples of Infixes and Infixation
An infix is a word element (a type of affix) that can be inserted within the base form of a word to create a new word or intensify meaning.

Quotes About Writing From Famous Authors
What is writing? Ask 20 writers and you'll get 20 different answers. But on one point most seem to agree: writing is hard work.

crash blossom - definition and examples in English
A crash blossom is an ambiguously worded headline.

Pronoun Exercise - Recasting a Paragraph With Pronouns - Revised Version of "The Fortune Teller"
This exercise will give you practice in using the different forms of pronouns. Here is a revised version of the paragraph that you worked with in the pronoun exercise on page one. Page 2.

Pronoun Exercise - Recasting a Paragraph With Pronouns
This exercise will give you practice in using the different forms of pronouns. Rewrite this paragraph about a fortune teller, substituting an appropriate pronoun for each italicized word or group of words.

Definition and Examples of Context Clues
A context clue is information that appears near a word or phrase and offers direct or indirect suggestions about its meaning.

A Wind-Storm in the Forests, by John Muir - A Classic Nature Essay


A Wind-Storm in the Forests, by John Muir (page two) - A Classic Nature Essay by John Muir - Chapter Ten of "The Mountains of California"


A Wind-Storm in the Forests, by John Muir (page four) - A Classic Nature Essay by John Muir - Chapter Ten of "The Mountains of California"


A Wind-Storm in the Forests, by John Muir (page three) - A Classic Nature Essay by John Muir - Chapter Ten of "The Mountains of California"


Common Ground in Rhetoric - Definition and Examples
In rhetoric, common ground is a basis of mutual interest or agreement that's found or established in the course of an argument.

Rogerian Argument - Definition and Examples
Rogerian argument is a negotiating strategy in which opposing views are described as objectively as possible in an effort to establish common ground and reach agreement.

The Logical Fallacy of Stacking the Deck
Stacking the deck is a fallacy in which evidence that supports an opposing argument is simply rejected or ignored.

subjunct - definition and examples
A subjunct is a type of adverb (or sentence adverb) that expresses a condition or hypothesis.

Definition and Examples of Confusables in English
An informal term for two or more words that are easily confused with one another because of similarities in spelling, pronunciation, and/or meaning.

Commonly Confused Words: Collaborate and Corroborate
The verb

Collaborate and Corroborate: Answers to Exercises
What's the difference between

genericide - definition and examples of genericide
Genericide is a legal term for the process whereby a brand name or trademark is transformed through popular usage into a common noun.

Deprecate vs. Depreciate - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused verbs deprecate and depreciate: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Deprecate and Depreciate - Commonly Confused Words - Deprecate versus Depreciate - Answers
The commonly confused verbs deprecate and depreciate: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Freewriting to Discover a Topic for a Narrative Essay
Freewriting is a kind of nonstop writing without rules. Here's how one student used freewriting to discover a topic for a narrative essay.

Freewriting to Discover a Topic (page 2)
Freewriting is a kind of nonstop writing without rules. Here's how one student used freewriting to discover a topic for a narrative essay. Page 2.

Speech Community - Definition and Examples
Speech community is a term in sociolinguistics for a group of people who use the same variety of a language and who share specific rules for speaking and for interpreting speech.

historical linguistics - definition and examples
Historical linguistics is the branch of linguistics concerned with the development of a language or of languages over time.

Assimilation (English Grammar): Definition and Examples
Assimilation is a general term in phonetics for the process by which a speech sound becomes similar or identical to a neighboring sound.

Critiques - Definition and Examples
A critique is a formal analysis and evaluation of a text, production, or performance.

Yes-No Question - Definition and Examples
A yes-no question is an interrogative construction that expects an answer of yes or no.

garden-path sentence - definition and examples
A garden-path sentence is a sentence that is temporarily ambiguous or confusing.

cooperative overlap - definition and examples
Cooperative overlap is a term used in conversation analysis to describe a face-to-face interaction in which one speaker talks at the same time as another speaker to demonstrate an interest in the conversation.

The 10 Greatest Hyperboles of All Time
These 10 passages demonstrate some of the ways in which hyperbole can be used to dramatize ideas and convey strong emotions.

Night Walks by Charles Dickens - Classic British Essays
In the haunting essay

Night Walks, by Charles Dickens (page four) - Classic British Essays - Chapter 13 of "The Uncommercial Traveller" by Charles Dickens
In

Night Walks, by Charles Dickens (page two) - Classic British Essays - Chapter 13 of "The Uncommercial Traveller" by Charles Dickens
In the haunting essay

Night Walks, by Charles Dickens (page three) - Classic British Essays - Chapter 13 of "The Uncommercial Traveller" by Charles Dickens
In

Stevenson's Classic Essay on Walking Tours (2)
Stevenson says,

Robert Louis Stevenson's Classic Essay on Walking Tours
Stevenson says,

Stevenson's Classic Essay on Walking Tours (3)
Stevenson says,

Hazlitt's Classic Essay 'On Going a Journey' (5)
The version of Hazlitt that emerges from his essays--witty, passionate, plain speaking--continues to attract devoted readers. As Robert Louis Stevenson observed in his essay

Hazlitt's Classic Essay 'On Going a Journey' (3)
The version of Hazlitt that emerges from his essays--witty, passionate, plain speaking--continues to attract devoted readers. As Robert Louis Stevenson observed in his essay

Hazlitt's Classic Essay 'On Going a Journey' (4)
The version of Hazlitt that emerges from his essays--witty, passionate, plain speaking--continues to attract devoted readers. As Robert Louis Stevenson observed in his essay

William Hazlitt's Classic Essay 'On Going a Journey'
The version of William Hazlitt that emerges from his essays--witty, passionate, plain speaking--continues to attract devoted readers. As Robert Louis Stevenson observed in his essay

Hazlitt's Classic Essay 'On Going a Journey' (2)
The version of William Hazlitt that emerges from his essays--witty, passionate, plain speaking--continues to attract devoted readers. As Robert Louis Stevenson observed in his essay

Character (Genre) - Definition and Examples
Character-writing is a brief descriptive sketch of a class or type of person rather than of an individual personality.

Three Characters by John Earle - Classic British Essays
In 1628, John Earle published a collection of character sketches under the title

Jack London's Classic Essay on 'What Life Means to Me'
In 1905, after gaining fame with his novel

Jack London's Classic Essay: What Life Means to Me (2)
In 1905, after gaining fame with his novel

Jack London's Classic Essay: What Life Means to Me (3)
In 1905, after gaining fame with his novel

Essay on Christmas from "The Sketch Book" by Washington Irving
American author Washington Irving affectionately describes an English Christmas from the point of view of an outsider.

Christmas, by Washington Irving (page two) - Classic Essays
American author Washington Irving affectionately describes an English Christmas from the point of view of an outsider. Page 2.

Broken English: Definition and Examples
Broken English is a pejorative term for a limited register of English used by a non-native speaker.

burlesque metaphor - definition and examples
A burlesque metaphor is a metaphor in which the figurative comparison is exceptionally comic, grotesque, or exaggerated.

Definition and Examples of Colonial Lag in Language
In linguistics, colonial lag is the hypothesis that colonial varieties of a language change less than the variety spoken in the mother country.

Chunk - Definition and Examples in Language Acquisition
In studies of language acquisition, chunk refers to several words that are customarily used together in fixed expressions.

Credible, Creditable, and Credulous - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Credible, Creditable, and Credulous - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Defuse and Diffuse: Answers to Practice Exercises - Commonly Confused Words - Defuse versus Diffuse
The commonly confused words defuse and diffuse: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Defuse and Diffuse - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words defuse and diffuse: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Correcting a Run-On Sentence With a Period or Semicolon
These guidelines and exercises will show you how to correct a run-on sentence (also known as a fused sentence) with a mark of punctuation--a period or semicolon.

Exercise in Correcting Run-on Sentences With Periods or Semicolons - Guidelines and Practice Exercises - Run-on Sentences
These guidelines and exercises will show you how to correct a run-on sentence (also known as a fused sentence) with a mark of punctuation--a period or semicolon. Page 2.

Answers to the Exercise in Correcting Run-on Sentences With Periods or Semicolons
Answers to the Exercise in Correcting a Run-on Sentence With a Period or Semicolon. Page 3.

narrative "eh" -definition and examples - Canadian discourse marker
Narrative

The Top 10 Best Metaphors of Stephen Colbert
As these observations make clear, comedian Stephen Colbert knows a thing or two about drawing surprising comparisons and uncovering concealed relationships.

Definition and Examples of Tall Talk
Tall talk is lofty, pompous, and extravagantly colorful speech or writing.

Rebuttals in Arguments and Debates
In an argument or debate, a rebuttal is the presentation of evidence and reasoning meant to weaken or undermine an opponent's claim.

Definition and Examples of Research
Research is the collection and evaluation of information about a particular subject.

Conversation - Definition, Examples, and Etymology
Conversation is the spoken exchange of ideas, observations, opinions, or feelings.

commonplace book - definition and examples
A commonplace book is a writer's personal collection of quotations, observations, and topic ideas.

Homiletics - Definition and Examples
The foundation for homiletics (or the art of preaching) lay in the epideictic variety of classical rhetoric.

There's Another Name for It - More Language-Related Terms
In our glossary you'll find playful words like

book report - definition, examples, advice
A book report is a written composition or oral presentation that describes, summarizes, and (often, but not always) evaluates a work of fiction or nonfiction.

Making the Grade: Evaluating a Narrative Paragraph
A narrative is a story--a real or an imagined event. The purpose of narrative writing is to show readers what happened at a particular time and place.

Making the Grade: Evaluating a Narrative Paragraph (page two) - Sample Paragraph - Narration - Tips for Writing a Narrative
Here are suggested responses to the questions that follow the narrative paragraph on page one,

Process Analysis: How to Make a Sand Castle
Read (and enjoy) this student composition on

Characteristics of an Effective Literature Review
A literature review is the process of reading, analyzing, evaluating, and summarizing scholarly materials about a specific topic.

International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
The most widely used system for representing the sounds of any language.

ontological metaphor - definition and examples
An ontological metaphor is a form of conceptual metaphor in which objects and substances are projected onto something abstract.

Postposition - Definition and Examples
A postposition is similar in function to a preposition, but it follows rather than precedes the object.

First-Person Point of View - Definition and Examples
The first-person point of view relies on first-person pronouns to relate the thoughts, experiences, and observations of a narrator.

third-person point of view - definition and examples
In the third-person point of view, third-person pronouns such as

Definition and Examples of Voice in Phonetics
In phonetics, voice refers to the speech sounds produced by the vocal cords.

Notes on English as a Global Language
In this edition of Language Notes, we turn our attention to Global English, World English, and the rise of the English language as a lingua franca.

Translation - Definition and Examples
Definitions and discussions of translation, the process of turning an original text into a text in another language.

General Semantics - Definition and Examples
General semantics is a discipline and/or methodology intended to improve the ways people interact with their environment and with one another.

Zimbabwean English - Definition and Examples
Zimbabwean English is the variety of the English language spoken in the Republic of Zimbabwe.

isogram - definition and examples in English
In morphology and verbal play, an isogram is a word with no repeating letters or, more broadly, a word in which the letters occur an equal number of times.

Definition and Examples of Pistis in Classical Rhetoric
In classical rhetoric, pistis can mean proof, belief, or state of mind.

Informal Language Style - Definition and Examples
Informal style is a broad term for speech or writing marked by a casual, familiar, and generally colloquial use of language.

Biased Language - Definition and Examples
The expression

The Temple of Learning, by Benjamin Franklin - Classic American Essays
Should all young people be required to attend college or university? That's the question explored in this dream essay by Benjamin Franklin--composed when he was just 16 years old.

The Temple of Learning, by Benjamin Franklin (page two) - Classic American Essays
Should all young people be required to attend college or university? That question is explored in this dream essay by Benjamin Franklin--composed when he was just 16 years old. Page 2.

Definition and Examples of Questions in English
A question is a type of sentence that requires (or appears to require) an answer. Linguists commonly recognize three main types of questions.

Alternative Question - Definition and Examples
An alternative question is a type of question (or interrogative) that offers the listener a closed choice between two or more answers.

the dozens - definition and examples of playing the dozens
The dozens is a game of put-downs: the rapid, ritualistic exchange of insults, often targeting family members.

Outline - Definition, Examples and Guidelines
An outline is a plan for--or a summary of--a writing project or speech.

title inflation - definition and examples of job-title inflation and title fluffing
Title inflation is the euphemistic practice of assigning a more impressive-sounding name to a job position.

Inner Circle English - Definition and Examples
In linguistics, the

Telegraphic Speech - Definition in Grammar
A simplified manner of speech in which only the most important content words are used to express ideas, while grammatical function words and inflectional endings are often omitted.

display question - definition and examples
Display questions are often used for instructional purposes to determine if students are able to

Definition and Examples of Declarative Questions
A declarative question is a yes-no question that has the form of a declarative sentence but is spoken with rising intonation at the end.

Rhetorical Analysis - Definition and Examples
Rhetorical analysis is a form of criticism that employs the principles of rhetoric to examine the interactions between a text, an author, and an audience.

Ambrose Bierce on Lexicographers - The Role of the Dictionary
What is the primary role of a dictionary? Consider how American satirist Ambrose Bierce answered this question in

Brand Name - Definition, Examples, and Discussion
A brand name is a name (usually a proper noun) applied by a manufacturer or organization to a particular product or service.

Kernel Sentence - Definition and Examples
In transformational grammar, a kernel sentence is a simple declarative construction with only one verb.

discourse domain - definition and examples
In sociolinguistics,

Definition and Examples of Exclamatory Questions
An exclamatory question is a question that has the meaning and force of an exclamatory statement.

sniglet - definition and examples of sniglets
Defined by comedian Rich Hall as

A Definition of a Gentleman, by John Henry Newman
In this excerpt from 'The Idea of a University,

Deep Structure - Definition and Examples
In transformational grammar, deep structure is the underlying syntactic structure (or level) of a sentence.

Surface Structure - Definition and Examples
In transformational grammar, surface structure is the outward form of a sentence--the version of a sentence that can be spoken and heard.

Gibe, Jibe and Jive - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Gibe, Jibe, and Jive - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Do Insects Think? by Robert Benchley - Classic British and American Essays
In this short comic essay, Robert Benchley uses a quirky example to refute the notion that insects do not think.

Writers on Writing: Where to Find Ideas and Inspiration
Where do professional writers find their ideas? According to these authors, just about everywhere.

Definition and Examples of Adjacency Pairs
In conversation analysis, an adjacency pair is a two-part exchange in which the second utterance is functionally dependent on the first.

Meronym - Definition and Examples
A meronym is a word that denotes a constituent part or a member of something.

Expository Writing - Definition and Examples
Expository writing is a pedagogical term for any form of writing that conveys information and explains ideas: exposition.

12 Types of Questions in Casablanca
To illustrate the various ways that questions can be framed in English, here are 12 memorable exchanges from the classic film Casablanca.

Schwa - Definition and Examples in English
Schwa is the most common vowel sound in English, represented by an upside-down

divergent spelling - definition and examples
Divergent (or sensational) spelling is the deliberate misspelling (or a non-standard alternative spelling) of a word.

logophile - definition and example of logophile
A logophile is a lover of words.

Phonics - Definition and Examples in English
Phonics is a method of teaching reading based on the sounds of letters, groups of letters, and syllables.

anthroponym - definition and examples of anthroponymns
An anthroponym is a personal name. The study of personal names is called anthroponymy.

Are the Rich Happy? by Stephen Leacock - Classic Essays
In this satirical essay (originally published in 1916), Leacock anticipates F. Scott Fitzgerald's observation that the

Consequently and Subsequently - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Consequently and Subsequently - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

How to Borrow Money, by Stephen Leacock - Classic Essays - A Classic Comic Essay by Stephen Leacock
In the narrative essay

How to Borrow Money, by Stephen Leacock (page two) - Classic Essays - A Classic Comic Essay by Stephen Leacock
In the essay

Coney Island at Night, by James Huneker (page three) - Classic American Essays - A Classic Essay by James Gibbons Huneker
James Huneker's

Coney Island at Night, by James Huneker (page four) - Classic American Essays - A Classic Essay by James Gibbons Huneker
Employing strategies that later came to be associated with creative nonfiction, Huneker recorded his impressions of Coney Island

Coney Island at Night, by James Huneker - Classic American Essays - A Classic Essay by James Gibbons Huneker
Employing strategies that later came to be associated with creative nonfiction, Huneker recorded his impressions of Coney Island

Coney Island at Night, by James Huneker (page two) - Classic American Essays - A Classic Essay by James Gibbons Huneker
James Huneker's

Sentence Variety - What It Is and How to Achieve It
In a composition, sentence variety is the practice of varying the length and structure of sentences to avoid monotony and provide appropriate emphasis.

Tongue Twister - Definition and Examples
Tongue twister is an informal term for a word group that's hard to pronounce properly.

The Solid Flesh by Simeon Strunsky - Classic American Essays
In the essay

Snark - Glossary Definition and Examples
Snark is abusive and sarcastic speech or writing--a form of invective.

Test Your Familiarity With These 50 Puzzling Word Pairs
To test your familiarity with 50 of these often puzzling word pairs, set aside 10 or 15 minutes to take this big quiz.

The Big Quiz on Commonly Confused Words - Test on 50 Sets of Confusables - Homophones and Homonyms - Answers


Way and Weigh - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words way and weigh: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Way and Weigh - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The noun

listing - definition and examples in composition
In composition, listing is a discovery strategy in which the writer develops an unordered list of ideas and images.

Monosyllable - Definition and Examples
A monosyllable is a word or an utterance of one syllable.

Top 8 Free Online Style Guides in English
If you're not already committed to one particular code of conventions, consider befriending one of these free online style guides.

Five-Paragraph Essay - Definition and Examples
The five-paragraph essay is a prose composition that follows a prescribed format: introduction, three body paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph.

epanorthosis - definition and examples - rhetorical terms
Epanorthosis is a figure of speech in which a speaker corrects or comments on something he or she has just said.

composition studies - definition and discussion
The term

Style Guides and Manuals - Examples and Definitions
A style guide is a set of editing and formatting standards for use by students, researchers, journalists, and other writers.

Speech (Rhetoric) - Glossary Definition
In rhetoric, a speech is a formal address delivered to an audience--an oration or oral presentation.

Capitalization: Guidelines for Using Capital Letters
Be guided by these 18 rules for capitalization in English, keeping in mind that there are always exceptions.

plain English - definition and examples
Plain English is clear and direct speech or writing in English.

Denouement - Definition and Examples
In a narrative, the event or events following the climax; the resolution or clarification of the plot.

Panglish - definition and examples of Panglish
Panglish is a simplified global form of the English language characterized by a large variety of local dialects.

writing center - definition and examples of writing centers
A writing center is a place on campus where trained tutors provide student writers with individual assistance in all aspects of the composing process.

Soggy Sweat's Whiskey Speech
One of the craftiest orations in the history of American politics was the

Definition and Examples of Indexicality
Indexicality deals with words with different meanings in different occasions. Learn about indexicality through these examples and observations.

Spacing: Definition and Examples in Composition
Spacing (or white space) is a general term for the areas of a page left blank, such as the areas between words, letters, lines of type, or paragraphs.

Complementizer - Definition and Examples
A complementizer is a word word (such as that or if) or part of a word used to introduce a complement clause (also known as a complement phrase).

Wordiness - Definition and Examples
Wordiness refers to the use of more words than necessary to convey meaning in speech or writing.

Faint vs. Feint - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words faint and feint: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Faint and Feint - Commonly Confused Words - Faint versus Feint
The commonly confused words faint and feint: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Commonly Confused Words: Coarse vs Course
The commonly confused words coarse and course: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Coarse and Course - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises - Coarse versus Course
The adjective

Stop Consonant - Definition and Examples in Phonetics
In phonetics, a stop consonant is a sound made by completely blocking the flow of air and then releasing it.

Allomorph - Definition and Examples in Grammar and Phonology
In phonology, an allomorph is a variant form of a morpheme.

Good Souls: A Character Sketch by Dorothy Parker
In this character study, Parker describes a type of person rather than an individual personality.

Good Souls: A Character Sketch by Dorothy Parker (2)
In this character study, Parker describes a type of person rather than an individual personality. Page 2.

morph - definition and examples of morphs in linguistics
In linguistics, a morph is a word segment that represents one morpheme in sound or writing.

Onomatopoeia in "The Tunnel" by William H. Gass
Gass relies on onomatopoeia and other sound effects to illustrate a character's cartoonish ability to

Plural Forms of English Nouns - Short Review Quiz
Here's an opportunity to test your familiarity with some particularly tricky plurals: 15 questions, two minutes, correct answers on page two.

A Quick Quiz on Tricky English Plurals - Plural Forms of English Nouns - Answers to Short Review Quiz
Here's an opportunity to test your familiarity with some particularly tricky plurals. Page 2.

20 Questions: A Quiz on the AP Stylebook (2015)
This 20-item quiz is based on the latest edition of

Answers to the Quiz on the AP Stylebook (2013) - Quiz on Style and Usage
This 20-item quiz is based on the latest edition of

15 Quirky Questions (and Answers) About the English Language
Take a few minutes to test your knowledge of the English language and then begin exploring this website.

Answers to the Quirky Quiz on the English Language - Facts and Figures About the English Language - A Review Quiz
Take a few minutes to test your knowledge of the English language and then begin exploring this website. Page 2.

Definition and Examples of Advanced Composition
Advanced composition is a university-level course in expository writing beyond the first-year level.

English as a Foreign Language (EFL) - Definitions
English as a foreign language is a traditional term for the use or study of the English language by non-native speakers in countries where English is generally not a local medium of communication.

English as a Second Language (ESL) Definition
English as a Second Language (ESL or TESL) is a traditional term for the use or study of the English language by non-native speakers in an English-speaking environment.

On Various Kinds of Thinking by James Harvey Robinson


On Various Kinds of Thinking, by James Harvey Robinson - Classic American Essays - Essay from James Harvey Robinson's "The Mind in the Making"


On Various Kinds of Thinking, by James Harvey Robinson


Essay from James Harvey Robinson's "The Mind in the Making"


On Various Kinds of Thinking by James Harvey Robinson


Five Theories on the Origins of Language
Here, identified by their disparaging nicknames, are five of the oldest and most common theories of how language began.

The Last Days of John Brown, by Henry David Thoreau
Thoreau's epideictic essay, an encomium to the revolutionary abolitionist John Brown, was written shortly after Brown was executed for treason.

The Last Days of John Brown, by Henry David Thoreau
This essay by Henry David Thoreau, an encomium to the revolutionary abolitionist John Brown, was written shortly after Brown was executed for treason. Page 2.

The Last Days of John Brown, by Henry David Thoreau - Classic American Essays - Thoreau's Encomium to the Revolutionary Abolitionist John Brown
Henry David Thoreau's 1860 essay, an encomium to the revolutionary abolitionist John Brown, was written shortly after Brown was executed for treason. Page 3.

Definition of Message in Communication Studies
In rhetorical studies and communication studies, a message is the information conveyed by (a) words (in speech or writing), and/or (b) other signs and symbols.

Collaborative Writing - Definition and Examples
Collaborative writing involves two or more persons working together to produce a written document.

Max Perkins' Advice to a Young Writer - Editors on Editing and Writing - Maxwell Perkins
Scribner's legendary editor Max Perkins nurtured a host of famous authors, yet somehow Perkins always found time to counsel would-be writers as well.

writing group - definition and examples of writing groups
A writing group is a small group of people (typically three to six) who meet regularly to read and respond to one another's writing.

The Connotative Power of Words
Essayist Sydney J. Harris draws some important distinctions between related words to illustrate the power of connotation.

Definition and Examples of End Weight in Grammar
In grammar, end weight is the principle by which longer structures tend to occur later in a sentence than shorter structures.

Critical Essay Topic - Three Poems About Death
Discuss how different attitudes toward human mortality are dramatized in these three poems by Dylan Thomas, John Donne, and Emily Dickinson.

Definition and Examples of Analogy in Composition
An analogy is a part of an essay or speech in which one idea, process, or thing is explained by comparing it to something else.

Correct and Effective Punctuation & Mechanics
The

10 Editing Tips for Business Writers
Here are 10 quick editing tips for on-the-job writers.

Sentence Building with Appositives: Answers
These exercises provide additional practice in building and combining sentences with appositives. On this page you'll find answers to the exercises. Page 2.

Sentence Building with Appositives
These exercises offer practice in building and combining sentences with appositives.

12 Writers Discuss the Writing Process
Enjoy these excerpts from 12 of the authors who have contributed pieces to the

Adding Relative Pronouns to Adjective Clauses
Test your understanding of the five relative pronouns by completing this short exercise.

Answers to the Exercise in Adding Relative Pronouns
Here are the answers to the Exercise in Using Relative Pronouns With Adjective Clauses. Page 2.

Sentence-Imitation Exercise: Compound Sentences
This sentence-imitation exercise will give you practice in connecting two or more independent clauses with coordinating conjunctions.

Exercise in Sentence Combining with Adverb Clauses
Here we'll practice building and combining sentences with adverb clauses.

Exercise in Sentence Combining with Adverb Clauses
Here are sample answers to the exercise Building and Combining Sentences with Adverb Clauses. Page 2.

Exercises in Building and Combining Sentences
These exercises offer practice in various ways of developing sentences to help you become a more confident and versatile writer.

Sentence Combining Exercises - Sentence Building & Combining
Sentence combining calls on you to experiment with different ways of building sentences and organizing paragraphs. A detailed knowledge of formal grammar is not required to complete these exercises. Regular practice in sentence combining should help you to develop a writing style that is both correct and effective.

Sentence Structures in English - Guidelines on Using Sentence Structures Effectively
An introduction to different sentence structures in English and guidelines on how to use these structures effectively.

CLASSIC ESSAYS
A collection of major essays, letters, fables, and speeches composed over the past four centuries.

Sir Thomas Browne's Classic Essay on Dreams
Browne's essay

Building Sentences With Noun Phrases and Clauses
In this exercise we'll practice building and combining sentences with noun phrases and noun clauses.

Building Sentences With Noun Phrases Clauses (page 2)
These sentences served as models for the exercises on page one: Building Sentences With Noun Phrases and Noun Clauses. Page 2.

An Exercise in Identifying Paragraph Breaks in Essays
This exercise will give you practice in paragraphing--organizing sentences into unified paragraphs in a coherent essay.

A Quiz on the Figures of Speech
This quiz should help you understand, distinguish, and remember many of the key rhetorical terms in our glossary.

Using Words Correctly, Effectively, and Imaginatively
Author Rudyard Kipling characterized words as

Vocabulary Quizzes - Vocabulary Tests Based on Readings
These multiple-choice vocabulary quizzes will test your familiarity with the words used by major British and American essayists.

Short Passages for Rhetorical Analysis - Paragraphs for Analysis
These excerpts from essays, short stories, autobiographies, and novels--most of which were published over the past 50 years--illustrate some of the key stylistic traits of their well-known authors.

A Scrapbook of Styles - Passages for Rhetorical Analysis
These excerpts from essays, short stories, autobiographies, and novels--most of which were published over the past 50 years--illustrate some of the key stylistic traits of their well-known authors.

Identifying Sound Effects in Poetry and Prose
After reading these 20 passages aloud, identify and discuss the specific type(s) of sound effect created in each passage--in particular, examples of alliteration, assonance, and rhyme.

Practice in Identifying Helping Verbs in English
This exercise will give you practice in identifying helping verbs (also called auxiliary verbs) in sentences.

Practice in Identifying Helping Verbs (Answers)
On this page you will find the answers to the practice exercise in Identifying Helping Verbs. Page 2.

How to Conduct an Audience Analysis
Your answers to the 20 questions in this checklist should help you conduct an effective audience analysis for a speech or written report.

Sentence Combining With Adjectives and Adverbs
This exercise will give you practice in combining sentences with adjectives and adverbs to build a coherent narrative paragraph.

Sentence Combining With Adjectives and Adverbs (page 2)
Here is the student paragraph that served as the basis for the sentence combining exercise on page one:

Pritchett's 'London': A Paragraph With Examples
In this paragraph from the essay

Practice in Adding End Marks of Punctuation
This exercise will give you practice in using the end marks of punctuation: periods, question marks, and exclamation points.

Practice in Adding End Marks of Punctuation (Answers)
This exercise will give you practice in using the end marks of punctuation: periods, question marks, and exclamation points. Page 2.

Revision Checklist for a Descriptive Paragraph
Once you have completed a draft of your descriptive paragraph, you can use this checklist to guide your revision.

Sentence Building With Coordinators
In this exercise you will apply the strategies introduced in

Quizzes on Commonly Confused Words
Here you'll find several quizzes (some short, some long) on commonly confused words in English.

Exercises and Quizzes
Here you will find (1) tests and exercises that offer additional practice in correctly and effectively building sentences and paragraphs, and (2) reading quizzes that measure your familiarity with many of the works included in our Essay Samplers.

Practice in Using the Prepositions In, Into, On, and At
This exercise will give you practice in using the prepositions

Preposition Practice: Answers to the Exercise
This exercise will give you practice in using the prepositions

Commonly Confused Words: Accept, Except, and Expect
The commonly confused words

Commonly Confused Words: Accept, Except, and Expect (2)
The commonly confused words

Introductions to Essays and Speeches
An introduction is the opening of an essay or speech. Typically it identifies the topic, arouses interest, and prepares for the development of the thesis.

Essay Assignments and Guidelines
Sample essays and guidelines for a wide range of assignments.

Answers to the Exercise in Unpacking Portmanteau Words
Here you'll find the answers to the exercise on page one: Blends: Practice in Identifying Word Parts. Page 2.

An Exercise in Unpacking Portmanteau Words
A blend is a new word formed by packing together two other words. In this exercise, you'll practice unpacking these words.

Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms - Icon to Lower Case
A glossary of grammatical and rhetorical terms, from ICON to LOWER CASE. Click on a term for definitions, examples, word history, pronunciation guide, and links to related articles.

Punctuation Exercises - Applying the Rules of Punctuation
These exercises offer practice in applying the rules of punctuation.

Grammar Exercises - Practice in Revising and Editing Sentences
Practice in recognizing, revising, editing, and correcting a variety of sentence structures.

Practice in in Eliminating Deadwood From Our Writing
Because what we take out of our writing can be just as important as what we put in, here we'll practice eliminating needless words--deadwood that bores, distracts, or confuses our readers. Page 2.

Practice in in Eliminating Deadwood From Our Writing
Because what we take out of our writing can be just as important as what we put in, here we'll practice eliminating needless words--deadwood that bores, distracts, or confuses our readers.

Punctuation Practice: Commas, Colons, and Semicolons
This exercise will give you practice in punctuating sentences with commas, colons, semicolons, and dashes.

Punctuation Practice: Commas, Colons, and Semicolons
This exercise will give you practice in punctuating sentences with commas, colons, semicolons, and dashes. Page 2.

Definition and Discussion of Reader-Based Prose
Reader-based prose is a kind of public writing: a text that is composed (or revised) with an audience in mind.

Definition and Examples of Reduced Adverb(ial) Clauses
A reduced adverb clause is an adverb(ial) clause that has been shortened to a phrase, usually by omitting its subject and a form of

Definitions of What's 'Ungrammatical' in English
Definitions, examples, and discussions of the different uses of the term

Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms - Cacography to Crot
A glossary of grammatical and rhetorical terms, from CACOGRAPHY to CUT SPELLING. Click on a term for definitions, examples, word history, pronunciation guide, and links to related articles.

Definition and Examples of Pedagogical Grammar
Pedagogical grammar is grammatical analysis and instruction designed for second-language students.

Definition and Examples of Linguistic Ecology
Linguistic ecology (also known as ecolinguistics or language ecology) is the study of languages in relation to one another and to various social factors.

Definition and Examples of Corpus Linguistics
Corpus linguistics is the study of language based on examples of

Definition and Examples of Relevance Theory
Relevance theory is the principle that the communication process involves not only encoding, transfer, and decoding of messages, but also numerous other elements.

Definition and Examples of Inflectional Morphology
Inflectional morphology is the study of the processes (such as affixation and vowel change) that distinguish the forms of words.

Definition and Examples of "You" Understood in English


Definition and Examples of an Implied Author
In reading, an implied author is the version of a writer that a reader constructs based on the text in its entirety.

Tool Kit for Rhetorical Analysis - Definitions and Examples of Figures of Speech
Brief definitions of 130 figures of speech and other rhetorical terms with links to expanded discussions and examples.

Definition and Examples of Judicial Rhetoric
Judicial rhetoric is speech or writing that considers the justice or injustice of a certain charge or accusation.

Definition and Examples of Serial Verbs in English
In English grammar, serial verbs are verbs that occur together in a single verb phrase without a marker of coordination or subordination.

Definition and Examples of Listemes in English
A listeme is a word or phrase that must be memorized because its sound or meaning does not conform to some general rule.

Definition and Examples of Aphaeresis in English
Aphaeresis is a rhetorical and phonological term for the omission of one or more sounds or syllables from the beginning of a word.

Quantifier Floating in English: Definition and Examples
The syntactic process by which a subject-related quantifier can be separated from the subject and appear in more than one location in a sentence.

Definition and Examples of Padding in Composition
In composition, padding is the practice of adding needless or repetitive information to sentences and paragraphs.

Definitions and Examples of Lexical Modality in English
In English grammar, lexical modality is the expression of modal meanings through nouns, adjectives, verbs, or adverbs used in a modal context.

Definition and Examples of Common Case in English
In English grammar, common case is the ordinary base form of a noun.

Third-Person Singular Forms of Verbs in English
The third-person singular verb ending is the suffix

Distinctive Features of the Grammar of Irish English
The English language as spoken in Ireland has many distinctive grammatical features. Here are just a few.

Definition and Examples of Subject-Auxiliary Inversion
The movement of an auxiliary verb to a position in front of the subject of a main clause.

Definition and Examples of the NICE Properties (Verbs)
NICE is an acronym for the four syntactic characteristics that distinguish auxiliary verbs from lexical verbs in English: negation, inversion, code, emphasis.

The Double Passive in English: Definition and Examples
In traditional grammar, the double passive is a sentence or clause that contains two verbs in the passive, the second of which is a passive infinitive.

The Principle of Least Effort: Definition and Examples
The principle of least effort (or Zipf's Law) is the theory that the guiding principle in any human action is the expenditure of the least amount of effort to accomplish a task.

Definition and Examples of Division in Rhetoric
In classical rhetoric, division (or partitio) is the part of a speech in which an orator outlines the key points and overall structure of a speech.

Definition and Examples of the Late Closure Strategy
Late closure is the principle that new words tend to be associated with the phrase or clause currently being processed rather than with structures farther back in a sentence.

Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms - Daffynition to Dysphemism
A glossary of grammatical and rhetorical terms, from DAFFYNITION to DYSPHEMISM. Click on a term for definitions, examples, word history, pronunciation guide, and links to related articles.

P-Q
A glossary of grammatical and rhetorical terms, from PADDING to QUOTATIVE FRAME. Click on a term for definitions, examples, word history, pronunciation guide, and links to related articles.

Definition and Examples of Telicity in English Grammar
Telicity is the aspectual property of a verb phrase (or of the sentence as a whole) which indicates that an action or event has a clear endpoint.

Dramatism in Composition: Definition and Discussion
Dramatism is a metaphor introduced by 20th-century rhetorician Kenneth Burke to describe his critical method.

Definition and Examples of Prolepsis in Rhetoric
Prolepsis is (1) foreseeing objections to an argument, and (2) a figurative device by which a future event is presumed to have already occurred.

Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms - Abbreviation to Buzzword
A glossary of grammatical and rhetorical terms, from ABBREVIATION to BUZZWORD. Click on a term for definitions, examples, word history, pronunciation guide, and links to related articles.

Definition and Examples of Belles-Lettres in English
In its broadest sense, the term

Definition and Examples of Functionalism in Grammar
In the study of grammar, functionalism considers the purposes to which language is put and the contexts in which language occurs.

Definition and Examples of Denominal Adjectives
A denominal adjective is an adjective formed from a noun, usually with the addition of a suffix.

Definition and Examples of Narratio in Rhetoric
In classical rhetoric, narratio is the part of an argument in which a speaker or writer provides a narrative account of what has happened and explains the nature of the case.

Definition and Examples of Arguments in Linguistics
In linguistics, an argument is any expression or syntactic element in a sentence that serves to complete the meaning of the verb.

Definition and Examples of Conduplicatio in Rhetoric
A rhetorical term for the repetition of one or more words in successive clauses.

Definition and Examples of Ellipsis in English Grammar
In grammar and rhetoric, ellipsis is the omission of one or more words, which must be supplied by the listener or reader.

Explaining the Writing Experience Through Metaphors
After considering these 20 similes and metaphors, see if you can fashion an analogy that aptly conveys your own writing experience.

A Sampler of Sentence Structures and Styles
Enjoy this sampler of sentence structures and styles, and then visit the complete collection in our Scrapbook of Styles.

Oliver Goldsmith's Classic Essay on the Man in Black
In this essay, Goldsmith introduces us to

Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms - Main Clause to Oxymoron
A glossary of grammatical and rhetorical terms, from MAIN CLAUSE to OXYMORON. Click on a term for definitions, examples, word history, pronunciation guide, and links to related articles.

Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms - RAS Syndrome to Syntax
A glossary of grammatical and rhetorical terms, from RAS SYNDROME to SYSTROPHE. Click on a term for definitions, examples, word history, pronunciation guide, and links to related articles.

Analyzing Language: 10 Types of Grammar
So you think you know grammar? That's all well and good, but which type of grammar do you know? Consider these 10 varieties of grammar--and take your pick.

Definition and Examples of Relational Grammar
Relational grammar is a formal model of descriptive grammar in which syntactic operations rather than syntactic structures are used to define grammatical processes.

Definition and Examples of Minimal Attachment Principle
The minimal attachment principle is the theory that listeners and readers initially attempt to interpret sentences in terms of the simplest syntactic structure consistent with the input.

Definition and Examples of the Greengrocer's Apostrophe
Greengrocer's apostrophe is an informal term for the nonstandard use of an apostrophe before the final

Questions & Answers About Rhetoric and Style
Responses to readers' questions about rhetorical strategies, figures of speech, and stylistic devices.

Exercise in Correcting Run-on Sentences (2)
One of the ways way to correct a run-on sentence is through coordination or subordination. This exercise will give you practice in putting those techniques to work. Page 2.

Practice in Correcting Run-on Sentences
Often the best way to correct a run-on sentence is through either coordination or subordination. Here is how those techniques work.

Correcting Run-on Sentences Through Coordination
Here are sample answers to the exercise in correcting run-on sentences through coordination and subordination. Page 3.

Evaluating Your Attitudes Toward Writing
The way we feel about writing both affects and reflects how well we can write. This questionnaire will give you a chance to examine your attitudes toward writing.

Hilaire Belloc's Essay on a Conversation With a Cat
In

Definition and Examples of Epilogues
An epilogue is a concluding section of (or a postscript to) a speech or literary work.

Definition and Examples of Apologia in Rhetoric
In rhetoric, an apologia is a speech that defends, justifies, and/or apologizes for an action or statement.

Definition and Examples of Paragraphing in Essays
The practice of dividing a text into paragraphs.

Definition and Examples of Alternation in Language
In linguistics, alternation is a variation in the form and/or sound of a word or word part.

Definition and Examples of Persiflage in English
Persiflage is a light, flippant, and/or mocking manner of speech or writing; banter or idle chatter.

Glossary of Grammatical to Rhetorical Terms - Fable to Hypotaxis
A glossary of grammatical and rhetorical terms, from FABLE to HYSTERON PROTERON. Click on a term for definitions, examples, word history, pronunciation guide, and links to related articles.

Definition and Examples of Hypocoristic Names
Hypocorism is a nickname or pet name--often a shortened form of a word or name.

Definition and Examples of Orientational Metaphors
An orientational metaphor is a figurative comparison that involves spatial relationships.

Commonly Confused Words - Glossary of Usage


The Commonly Confused Words Avocation and Vocation
The commonly confused nouns avocation and vocation: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Avocation and Vocation: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused nouns avocation and vocation: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Definition and Examples of Short Answers in English
In spoken English and informal writing, a short answer is a response made up of a subject and an auxiliary verb or modal.

Writers on Writing - Advice From the Pros - Quotations on Writing
Professional writers have much to tell us about the writing process, from overcoming writer's block to revising and editing. Let's see what advice we can pick up from the pros.

Definition and Examples of Perception Verbs in English
In English grammar, a verb of perception is a verb that conveys the experience of one of the physical senses.

Definition of the Elsewhere Principle in Linguistics
In linguistics, the Elsewhere Principle is the principle that the application of a specific rule or operation overrides the application of a more general rule.

William Somerset Maugham on Writing Without Frills
British novelist William Somerset Maugham understood that becoming a better writer involves confronting our limitations and building on our strengths.

Definition and Examples of Dissoi Logoi in Rhetoric
In classical rhetoric, dissoi logoi is the concept of opposing arguments, a cornerstone of Sophistic ideology and method.

Definition and Examples of the Middle Style in Rhetoric
In classical rhetoric, the middle style is speech or writing that falls between the extremes of the plain style and the grand style.

Definition and Discussions of Writer-Based Prose
Writer-based prose is a kind of private or personal writing: a text that is composed for oneself.

Irregular Verbs - Principal Parts of Irregular Verbs
Although fewer than 200 verbs are classified as

Correcting Errors in Verb Tense
Practice in correcting errors in verb tense.

Definition and Examples of Semantic Transparency (ST)
Semantic transparency is the degree to which the meaning of a compound word can be inferred from its parts (or morphemes).

Definition and Examples of Object Predicatives
An object predicative is an adjective, noun phrase, or prepositional phrase that qualifies, describes, or renames the object that appears before it.

Good Souls: A Character Sketch by Dorothy Parker (3)
In this character study, Parker describes a type of person rather than an individual personality. Page 3.

Composition: Developing Effective Paragraphs
A paragraph is a series of sentences related to a single topic. That may sound simple enough, but finding the right topic, building sentences with good details, and connecting those details clearly can sometimes be a challenge. Here we will practice various strategies for developing well-organized paragraphs that keep readers interested and informed.

Rhetoric and Style
Rhetoric and style are ancient arts--of persuasion, expression, and effective communication--that are just as valuable to writers today as they were to students in ancient Greece and Rome.

Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms - T-Unit to Zimbabwean English
A glossary of grammatical and rhetorical terms, from T-UNIT to ZIMBABWEAN ENGLISH. Click on a term for definitions, examples, word history, pronunciation guide, and links to related articles.

Ted Sorensen on the Kennedy Style of Speech-Writing
President Kennedy's chief speechwriter identifies several rhetorical strategies worth adopting, regardless of the occasion or the size of the audience.

Guidelines for Effectively Using Hyphens in English
Although hyphens have always been variable and unpredictable, we can offer several general guidelines for using hyphens effectively in English.

13 Engaging Ways to Begin an Essay
A good introduction lets readers know what your essay is about and encourages them to keep reading. Here are 13 opening strategies accompanied by examples from a wide range of professional writers.

C.S. Lewis on What Really Matters in Writing
In a letter to a young Narnia fan, author C.S. Lewis offered some practical advice on writing, including these points about

Why Everybody Speaks a Different Dialect
In this short article we consider what Robert Louis Stevenson meant when he said,

Definition and Examples of Syntactic Hierarchy
Syntactic hierarchy is any ordering of units or levels on a scale of size, abstraction, or subordination.

Definition and Examples of Sentence Processing
Sentence processing is the study of the ways in which sentences are produced and understood.

Commonly Confused Words: Climactic and Climatic
The adjective

Answers to Practice Exercises - Climactic and Climatic - Commonly Confused Words
What's the difference between

Public Speaking Anxiety: Definition, Examples, Solutions
Definition, discussions, and examples of public speaking anxiety (or stage fright), with strategies for managing anxiety and speaking effectively.

Excerpt From Louisa May Alcott's 'Hospital Sketches'
In this excerpt from 'Hospital Sketches,' Alcott records the final days of a young Virginia blacksmith named John.

Excerpt From Louisa May Alcott's 'Hospital Sketches' -2
In this excerpt from 'Hospital Sketches,' Alcott (1832-1888) records the final days of a young Virginia blacksmith named John. Page 2.

Excerpt From Louisa May Alcott's 'Hospital Sketches' -3
In this excerpt from 'Hospital Sketches,' Alcott (1832-1888) records the final days of a young Virginia blacksmith named John. Page 3.

Uses and Abuses of Qualifiers and Intensifiers
Intensifiers and qualifiers aren't bad words, not at all. Because they're so brutally overworked, you might actually say they deserve our sympathy.

H.G. Wells on the Writing of Essays
In

Definition and Discussion of Feminist Rhetoric
Feminist rhetoric is the study and practice of feminist discourses in public and private life.

Definition and Examples of Linguistic Appropriateness
In linguistics and communication studies, appropriateness is the extent to which an utterance is perceived as suitable for a particular purpose and audience in a particular context.

Definition and Examples of Semi-Negatives in English
A semi-negative is a word (such as

The Slot-and-Filler Method of Sentence Analysis
Definition, discussion, and examples of the slot-and-filler method of analyzing sentence structures.

Definition and Examples of British English
British English refers to the varieties of the English language spoken and written in Great Britain (or, as more narrowly defined, in England).

Frank McCourt on Writing and the Teaching of Writing
Frank McCourt (1930-2009), recipient of a Pulitzer Prize for his memoir

Expressive Discourse: Definitions and Perspectives
In composition studies, writing or speech that focuses on the identity and/or the experience of the writer or speaker.

Definition and Examples of Echo Words in English
In linguistics and composition, the term

The Running Style in Rhetoric: Definition and Examples
The running style is a sentence style that appears to follow the mind as it worries a problem through.

Definition and Examples of the High or Grand Style
In rhetoric, the grand style is speech or writing that is characterized by a heightened emotional tone, imposing diction, and ornate figures of speech.

Mary Austin's Essay on the Land of Little Rain (3)
Mary Austin wrote the book

Definition and Examples of Syncrisis in Rhetoric
Syncrisis is a rhetorical figure in which opposite persons or things are compared (usually in order to evaluate their relative worth).

Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms - Echo Question to Eye Dialect
A glossary of grammatical and rhetorical terms, from ECHO QUESTION to EYE DIALECT. Click on a term for definitions, examples, word history, pronunciation guide, and links to related articles.

Observations on Eloquence in Writing and Speaking
Eloquence is the art or practice of using fluent, forceful, and persuasive discourse.

Definition and Examples of Paragrams and Textonyms
A type of verbal play consisting of the alteration of a letter or a series of letters in a word.

Proofreading Strategies in Composition
Proofreading is the process of reviewing the final draft of a text to ensure that all surface errors have been corrected.

Definition and Examples of Passivization in English
In English grammar, passivization is the transformation of a sentence from an active form to a passive form.

What's the Difference Between a 'Track' and a 'Tract'?
The commonly confused words

Track and Tract: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Ergative Verbs and Processes in English Grammar
Definitions and examples of ergative verbs and ergative processes in English grammar and morphology.

Past Subjunctive in English: Definition and Examples
The past subjunctive involves the use of

Secondary Sources in Research: Definition and Examples
A secondary source is information that has been gathered by researchers and recorded in books, articles, and other publications.

Definition and Examples of Short Passives in Grammar
The short passive is a sentence construction in the passive voice in which the subject is absent rather than reduced to a prepositional phrase introduced by

Definition and Examples of Periphrastic Constructions
In grammar, a periphrastic construction is one in which an independent word or multi-word expression has the same role as an inflection.

Definition and Examples of Asides in Speech and Writing
In conversation or drama, an aside is a short passage spoken in an undertone or addressed to an audience.

Definition and Examples of Get-Passives in Grammar
In grammar, the

Definition and Examples of Monomorphemic Words
A monomorphemic word is a word that contains just one morpheme.

Definition and Examples of Participial Adjectives
Participial adjective is a traditional term for an adjective that has the form of a participle while exhibiting the ordinary properties of an adjective.

Syndeton: Definition and Examples in Rhetoric
Syndeton is a rhetorical term for a sentence style in which words, phrases, or clauses are joined by conjunctions.

Definition and Examples of Broad Reference in Grammar
In grammar, broad reference is an instance in which a pronoun refers to or replaces a complete clause or sentence rather than a specific noun.

Notional Agreement in Grammar: Definition and Examples
Notional agreement is agreement (or concord) of verbs with their subjects and of pronouns with their antecedent nouns on the basis of meaning.

Definition and Examples of Linguistic Imperialism
Linguistic imperialism is the imposition of one language on speakers of other languages.

IRAC Method of Legal Writing: Definition and Examples
IRAC is an acronym for issue, rule, application, and conclusion: a method used in composing certain legal documents and reports.