Grammar & Composition Sitemap - Page 7 2016-09-26

12 Examples of the Finer Points of Punctuation
As the examples in this article demonstrate, punctuation affects meaning--sometimes dramatically.

Swift's Essay on 'Good Manners and Good Breeding'
In this essay, Swift argues that

Practice in Using the Past Forms of Verbs
This sentence-combining exercise offers practice in using the past forms of regular and irregular verbs.

Practice in Using the Past Forms of Verbs (Answers)
Here are the answers to the two-part exercise in Using the Past Forms of Verbs. Page 2.

Carlin on Euphemisms, Redundancies, and Soft Language


Practice in Avoiding Misplaced Modifiers
This exercise will give practice in avoiding misplaced modifiers as you apply the principles introduced in Creating and Arranging Participial Phrases.

Answers to the Exercise in Adding Participial Phrases
Here are sample combinations for the 10 sets in our Exercise in Adding and Arranging Participial Phrases. Page 2.

Linguistic and Metaphorical Synesthesia
In semantics and cognitive linguistics, synesthesia is a metaphorical process by which one sense modality is described or characterized in terms of another.

Grammar Questions & Answers
We welcome your questions about grammar and usage, whether they arrive by email, in forum posts, or in response to blog entries. Here we offer concise answers to some of the most frequently asked questions about grammar.

Questions and Answers About Verbs and Verbals
In these 10 sets of questions and answers, you'll find simplified definitions and brief examples of key verb-related terms in English.

Editors and Editing - Profiles of Editors and Adv ice on Editing
Editing advice from writers and professional editors.

Spelling Rules and Exercises
Rules, lists, poems, and exercises to help you improve your spelling in English.

A Misspelled Tail: A Comic Exercise in Misspelling
When this comic verse appeared in a children's magazine, the editors encouraged youngsters to

Reading Quizzes on Essays
Multiple-choice reading quizzes (with answers) to test your familiarity with many of the works included in our Essay Samplers.

READING QUIZZES (60 Model Essays)
Multiple-choice reading quizzes (with answers) to test your familiarity with many of the works included in our Essay Samplers.

A Sample Instructional Essay (Process Analysis)
How successful do you think this writer has been in converting a set of instructions into a process analysis essay?

Great Opening Lines: Examples of How to Begin an Essay
Here are some great opening lines from essays that have appeared in recent volumes of

The Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives (2)
Here are the answers to the Exercise in Using the Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives. Page 2.

The Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives
This exercise will give you practice in effectively using the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives.

Graham Greene on Reading: 'The Lost Childhood'
In this brief narrative from the opening of the essay

Facts and Figures About Nouns in English
In this edition of Language Notes, we turn our attention to the

Barack Obama's Secret for Giving a Great Speech
One part of Barack Obama's secret for stirring a crowd is the magic number three. Obama's victory speech on November 4, 2008 was teeming with tricolons.

Backshift: The Sequence-of-Tense Rule in English
In English grammar, backshifting is the changing of a present tense to a past tense following a past form of a reporting verb.

Definition and Examples of Monologues
A monologue is a speech or composition presenting the words or thoughts of a single character.

Definition and Examples of Leading Questions
A leading question is a type of question that implies or contains its own answer.

Plurale Tantum: Definition and Examples in English
Plurale tantum refers to a noun that appears only in the plural form and does not ordinarily have a singular form.

Taglish (Philippines): Definition and Examples
Taglish is a dialectal mixture of Tagalog (or Filipino) and English used by many speakers in the Philippines.

English as an Additional Language (EAL)
English as an additional language is a contemporary term for English as a second language (ESL): the use or study of the English language by non-native speakers.

Commonly Confused Words: Compound Confusables
Here we'll look at 10 examples of compound confusables: words that mean one thing when written as a single word and something a bit different when written as two words.

Examples in 'The Great American Desert'
In this passage from

English Grammar -- Parts of Speech -- Sentence Structures
Here we will practice building effective sentences. After reviewing the basic parts of speech, we'll work with more advanced structures: adjective and adverb clauses, appositives, participial phrases, and absolutes. Finally, we will focus on ways to correct some common problems (fragments and run-ons) to ensure that our sentences are clear and complete.

G.B. Shaw's Classic Essay on Why Law Is Indispensable
In his essay

Orthography: Definitions and Examples
Orthography is (1) the practice or study of correct spelling; (2) the study of letters and how they are used to express sounds and form words.

Thomas Carlyle on Heroes and Hero-Worship
Thomas Carlyle's prose style, as exhibited in this excerpt from his lecture on

Punctuation in Prose by Gertrude Stein
In this excerpt from the lecture

Punctuation in Prose by Gertrude Stein (page 2)
In this excerpt from the lecture

Practice in Writing Imperative Sentences
This sentence-completion exercise will give you practice in using the base forms of verbs in imperative sentences.

Practice in Writing Imperative Sentences (Answers)
On this page you'll find the answers to the exercise on page one: Practice in Writing Imperative Sentences: Using Base Forms of Verbs. Page 2.

Practice in Using the Past Forms of Verbs
This exercise, based on a passage from Richard Wright's

Using the Past Forms of Verbs: Answers to the Exercise
On this page you will find the answers to the exercise on page one: Practice in Using the Past Forms of Regular and Irregular Verbs. Page 2.

Virginia Woolf's Essay on the Decay of Essay Writing (2)
This short piece on the familiar essay was one of Virginia Woolf's first published works. Page 2.

Virginia Woolf's Essay on the Decay of Essay Writing
This short piece on the familiar essay was one of Virginia Woolf's first published works.

Does a Word Have to Be in the Dictionary to Be a Word?
What makes a word a word (as opposed to just an unintelligible sequence of sounds or letters) is that it makes some sort of sense.

Dictionary: Definition and Examples
A dictionary is a reference book or online resource containing an alphabetical list of words, with information given for each word.

Definition and Examples of Free Relative Clauses
In English grammar, a

Poverty of the Stimulus: Definition and Examples
Poverty of the stimulus is the argument that the linguistic input received by young children is in itself insufficient to explain children's detailed knowledge of their first language.

The Rules of English: Definitions and Examples
In linguistics, the phrase

Models of Composition: Definition and Examples
In current-traditional rhetoric, models of composition are essays or themes developed according to familiar

Practice in Using the Correct Forms of 'Be'
This exercise will give you practice in applying the principles discussed in the article

Using the Correct Forms of Be: Answers to the Exercise
This exercise will give you practice in applying the principles discussed in the article

Chesterton's Essay on the Advantages of Having One Leg


Practice in Using Quotation Marks Correctly
This exercise will give you practice in applying our Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks Effectively (U.S. edition). On this page you'll find the answers to the exercise. Page 2.

Practice in Using Quotation Marks Correctly
This exercise will give you practice in applying our Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks Effectively (U.S. edition).

Writing Tips From Early-20th-Century Style Sheets
A century ago, practically every American newspaper had its own style guide. Surprisingly, perhaps, much of that editing advice still holds true.

Phonetic Letters in the NATO Alphabet
The NATO phonetic alphabet is a spelling alphabet used by airline pilots, police, the military, and other officials when communicating over radio or telephone.

Vocabulary Quiz on Dr. King's 'I Have a Dream' Speech
This multiple-choice quiz should help you build your vocabulary by using context clues to determine the meanings of Dr. King's memorable words.

Answers to the Vocabulary Quiz on "I Have a Dream"
This multiple-choice quiz should help you build your vocabulary by using context clues to determine the meanings of Dr. King's memorable words. Page 2.

Classical Rhetoric: Origins, Branches, and Concepts
For a concise overview of the historical development of classical rhetoric, we invite you to read these six articles on some

Ambrose Bierce's Essay on 'Unsought Introductions'
In this short essay, Bierce proposes a solution to the problem of

Robert Lynd's Classic Essay on Child's Talk


Jonathan Swift's Classic Essay on Conversation
In this essay, the great Anglo-Irish satirist Jonathan Swift enumerates

Jonathan Swift's Classic Essay on Conversation (2)
In this essay, the great British satirist Jonathan Swift enumerates

Jonathan Swift's Classic Essay on Conversation (3)
In this essay, the great British satirist Jonathan Swift enumerates

Jonathan Swift's Classic Essay on Conversation (4)
In this essay, the great British satirist Jonathan Swift enumerates

Joseph Addison's Classic Essay on Conversational Styles
In this classification essay, Joseph Addison (writing as Isaac Bickerstaff) compares people's conversational styles to musical instruments.

Constructed Dialogue: Definition and Examples
Constructed dialogue is a term used in conversation analysis to describe a re-creation or representation of actual, internal, or imagined speech.

Subject-Verb Agreement: A Sentence Combining Exercise
In this two-part exercise in subject-verb agreement, you will (1) select the correct form of the verb in the present tense, and (2) combine the sentences in the exercise into a cohesive paragraph.

Answers to Subject-Verb Agreement Exercise
Here are the answers to the two-part Subject-Verb Agreement Exercise. Page 2.

Adverbs of Time in English - Definitions and Examples
An adverb of time is an adverb that describes when the action of a verb is carried out.

Language in the News
A monthly roundup of language-related items in the news--from the linguistically profound to the lexically ridiculous.

Editing - Definition and Guidelines
Editing is a stage of the writing process in which a writer strives to improve a draft by correcting errors and by making words and sentences clearer and more precise.

Confused Words: Precedence, Precedents, and Presidents
The commonly confused words

Precedence, Precedents, and Presidents: Quiz Answers
The commonly confused words

Moses Illusion: Definition and Examples in Grammar
In pragmatics and psycholinguistics, the Moses illusion is a phenomenon in which listeners or readers fail to recognize an inaccuracy in a text.

Practice in Identifying Indirect Objects
This exercise will give you practice in identifying indirect objects in sentences.

Practice in Identifying Indirect Objects - Answers to the Identification Exercise
Here are the answers to the exercise Practice in Identifying Indirect Objects. Page 2.

Twain's Classic Essay on the Danger of Lying in Bed
In this humorous essay, Mark Twain combines the roles of economist and logician as he considers the relative death rates of rail travel and staying in bed.

How Word Meanings Change
Changes in word meanings happen for various reasons and in various ways. Four common types of change are broadening, narrowing, amelioration, and pejoration.

Definition and Examples of Brachylogy in English
Brachylogy is a rhetorical term for a concise or condensed form of expression in speech or writing.

How to Become a Creative Reader
Creative reading--

Proofreading Practice: Identifying and Correcting Verb Tense Errors - Answers to the Proofreading Exercise
Here are the answers to the proofreading exercise on page one: Identifying and Correcting Verb Tense Errors. Page 2.

Practice in Identifying and Correcting Verb Tense Errors
This proofreading exercise will give you practice in identifying and correcting verb tense errors.

Definition and Examples of Double Superlatives in English
The double superlative is the use of both

Practice in Identifying Adjective Clauses
After reviewing the article on Subordination With Adjective Clauses, try to identify the adjective clauses in these 10 sentences

Practice in Identifying Adjective Clauses: Answers
Here are the answers to the exercise on Identifying Adjective Clauses. Page 2.

H-Dropping: Definition and Examples in Pronunciation
H-dropping is a type of elision marked by the omission of the initial /h/ sound in words such as

Notes on Interjections, the Outlaws of English Grammar
Find out why interjections (from

Practice in Correcting Errors in Subject-Verb Agreement
Complete this editing exercise after you have reviewed the article on Correcting Errors in Subject-Verb Agreement.

Practice in Correcting Errors in Subject-Verb Agreement
Complete this editing exercise after you have reviewed the article on Correcting Errors in Subject-Verb Agreement. This page contains the answers to the exercise. Page 2.

Reflections in Westminster Abbey by Joseph Addison
Samuel Johnson characterized Addison's prose as

Jack London's Classic Essay: What Life Means to Me (4)
In 1905, after gaining fame with his novel

The Given-Before-New Principle in Linguistics
In linguistics, the given-before-new principle refers to the tendency of speakers and writers to express known information before previously unknown information.

Suspended Compounds in English Grammar
A suspended compound (or suspensive hyphenation) is a set of compound words in which an element common to all members is not repeated.

Intonation Phrase: Definition and Examples
In phonetics, an intonation phrase is a stretch (or chunk) of spoken material that has its own intonation pattern.

Exercise: Recasting a Paragraph in the Past Tense
This exercise will give you practice in using the appropriate past-tense forms of regular and irregular verbs.

Recasting a Paragraph in the Past Tense: Answers
This exercise will give you practice in using the appropriate past-tense forms of regular and irregular verbs. Page 2.

Practice in Punctuating Adjective Clauses
After reading the article on Subordination With Adjective Clauses, review the guidelines below and then complete the punctuation exercise that follows.

Practice in Punctuating Adjective Clauses - Answers to the Punctuation Exercise
Here are the answers to the exercise on Punctuating Adjective Clauses. Page 2.

Oliver Goldsmith's Classic Essay: 'A City Night Piece'
Goldsmith's

Model Paragraphs Developed With Examples
In each of these five paragraphs, the author uses specific examples to support the general observation in the opening topic sentence.

Unreliable Narrators in Fiction and Creative Nonfiction
An unreliable narrator is one whose perception of events in a narrative doesn't correspond with the perceptions of the author.

Preposition Stranding: Definition and Examples
Preposition stranding is a syntactic construction in which a preposition is left without a following object.

Revising to Make Your Writing Precise
Here are some points worth considering the next time you find yourself in search of the right word.

The Difference Between the Words 'Aural' and 'Oral'
Find out the difference between the words

Aural and Oral - Commonly Confused Words - Aural versus Oral
The adjective

Praeteritio - Definition and Examples in Rhetoric
Praeteritio is a rhetorical term for the argumentative strategy of calling attention to a point by seeming to disregard it.

A Brief Explanation of Systemic Functional Linguistics
Systemic functional linguistics is the study of the relationship between language and its functions in social settings.

Poisoning the Well: Definition and Examples
Poisoning the well is a logical fallacy in which a person attempts to place an opponent in a position from which he or she is unable to reply.

Phrase Structure Grammar: Definitions and Explanations
Phrase structure grammar is a type of generative grammar in which constituent structures are represented by phrase structure rules or rewrite rules.

Practice in Changing Verbs From Passive to Active Voice
In this exercise, you will practice changing verbs from the passive voice to the active voice by turning the subject of a passive verb into the direct object of an active verb.

Practice in Changing Verbs From Passive to Active - Answers to the Sentence-Revision Exercise
Here are the answers to the exercise in Changing Verbs From Passive to Active. Page 2.

Definition and Examples of Grammatical Constituencies
In grammar, a constituency is the relation between a linguistic unit (i.e., a constituent) and the larger unit that it is a part of.

Answers to Editing Exercise: Faulty Parallelism - Practice in Correcting Errors in Parallel Structure
When two or more parts of a sentence are parallel in meaning (such as items in a series or words linked by correlative conjunctions), you should coordinate those parts by making them parallel in form. Rewrite each of the following sentences, correcting any errors in parallelism. Page 2.

Practice in Correcting Errors in Parallel Structure
When two or more parts of a sentence are parallel in meaning (such as items in a series or words linked by correlative conjunctions), you should coordinate those parts by making them parallel in form. Rewrite each of the following sentences, correcting any errors in parallelism.

Past Progressive - Definition and Examples in English
The past progressive is a verb construction that conveys a sense of ongoing action in the past.

Locutionary Act - Definition in Speech-Act Theory
In speech-act theory, a locutionary act (also called a locution or an utterance act) is the act of making a meaningful utterance.

Negative-Positive Restatement - Definition and Examples
Negative-positive restatement is a method of achieving emphasis by stating an idea twice, first in negative terms and then in positive terms.

Transitional Expressions - Definitions and Examples
A transitional expression is a word or phrase that shows how the meaning of one sentence is related to the meaning of the preceding sentence.

Transition - Definition and Examples in Composition
A transition is the connection between two parts of a piece of writing, contributing to cohesion.

The Top 5 Bogus Rules of Writing
According to many college freshmen, these five words should never assume first place in a sentence. And every one of these so-called rules is bogus.

Future-in-the-Past - Definition and Examples in English
The future-in-the-past involves the use of

Present Perfect in English - Definition and Examples
The present perfect is an aspect of the verb expressing an action that began in the past and which has been completed or continues into the present.

object complement - definition and examples in English
An object complement is a word or phrase (usually a noun, pronoun, or adjective) that comes after a direct object and renames, describes, or locates it.

The 100 Most Important Words in English
British rhetorician I.A. Richards introduced this list of

gerund - definition and examples in English grammar
A gerund is a verbal that ends in

Hinglish - Definition, Etymology and Examples
Spoken by upwards of 350 million people in India, Hinglish is a mix of English and Hindi (the official language of India).

Positive Degree of Adjectives and Adverbs in English
In grammar, the positive degree is the basic, uncompared form of an adjective or adverb, as opposed to either the comparative or superlative.

Writers on the Compulsion to Write
Money? Madness? Some indefinable exuberance? Let's consider what compels writers to write.

Practice in Combining and Arranging Sentences - Sentence Combining Exercises
These exercises provide practice in combining various sentence structures and organizing sentences into clear and coherent paragraphs.

Pet Peeves About Words and Phrases
Here are 100 verbal pet peeves submitted by readers over the past 12 months.

Present Progressive - Definition and Examples
The present progressive is a verb construction that usually conveys a sense of ongoing action at the present time.

singular "they" - definition and examples in English grammar
Singular

Present Participles and Gerunds in English Grammar
In one respect, the present participle is a simple construction formed by adding

Definition and Examples of Feedback in Communication Studies
In communication studies, feedback is the response of an audience to a message or activity.

Degree - Definition and Examples
In grammar, degree refers to one of the three forms used in the comparison of adjectives and adverbs: positive, comparative, and superlative.

online writing - definition and examples
Online writing is a text created with (and usually intended for viewing on) a computer, smartphone, or similar digital device.

Why There's Nothing Wrong With Split Infinitives in English
The so-called split infinitive is a construction in which one or more words come between

Adverb of Manner - Definition and Examples
An adverb of manner is an adverb that describes how the action of a verb is carried out.

adverb of emphasis - definition and examples
An adverb of emphasis is an intensifier used to give added force or a greater degree of certainty to another word or to a sentence as a whole.

Place Adverb(ial) - Definition and Examples
An adverb of place (or place adverbial) is an adverb or adverb phrase that describes where the action of a verb is carried out.

Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms - Grammar, Rhetoric, and Composition - Figures of Speech
An extensive glossary of grammatical and rhetorical terms used in the study of the English language. Definitions are accompanied by examples and by cross-references to expanded discussions elsewhere on About.com Grammar & Composition.

adverb of frequency - definition and examples in English
In English grammar, an adverb of frequency is an adverb that tells how often something occurs or did occur.

cranberry morpheme - definition and examples in English
In morphology, a cranberry morpheme is a morpheme (that is, a word element, like the

Complementary and Complimentary - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Complementary and Complimentary - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Readings on the English Language - Studies of the History, Grammar, and Vocabulary of English
Excerpts from influential studies of the English language--its history, grammar, and vocabulary.

Language: Definitions and Observations
Language is a human system of communication that uses arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols.

Text - Definition and Examples of Texts in Language Studies
In linguistics,

Text Linguistics - Definition and Examples
Text linguistics is a branch of linguistics concerned with the description and analysis of extended texts in communicative contexts.

Claim Letter - Definition and Examples
A claim letter is correspondence sent by a customer to a business to identify a problem with a product or service. Also known as a letter of complaint.

Supporting Detail - Definition and Examples
In a composition or speech, a supporting detail is a fact, description, example or other item of information used to back up a thesis or topic sentence.

Premise - Definition and Examples in Arguments
A premise is a proposition upon which an argument is based or from which a conclusion is drawn.

congeries - definition and examples in rhetoric
Congeries is a rhetorical term for the piling up of words or phrases.

systrophe - definition and examples of systrophe in rhetoric
Systrophe is a rhetorical term for an expansive series of definitions, descriptions, or tropes.

Intertextuality - Definition and Examples
Intertextuality refers to the interdependent ways in which texts stand in relation to one another (as well as to the culture at large) to produce meaning.

segregating style - definition and examples in prose
The segregating style is a prose style characterized by sequences of fairly short simple sentences.

Social Dialect or Sociolect - Definition and Examples
A social dialect (or sociolect) is a variety of speech associated with a particular group within a society.

Literacy - Definition and Examples
Literacy is the ability to read and write at least one language.

Segment (Phonology) - Definition and Examples
In speech, a segment is any one of the discrete units that occur in a sequence of sounds.

Douglas Adams on Writing and the Writer's Life - Quotations on Writing
Join us as we mark International Towel Day by collecting some of Douglas Adams's reflections on writing and the writer's life.

Lingua Franca - Definition and Examples
A lingua franca is a language or a mixture of languages used as a medium of communication by people whose native languages are different.

Writing Instructions - Definition and Examples
In business writing and technical writing, instructions are written or spoken directions for carrying out a procedure or performing a task.

Post Hoc - Definition and Examples of the Logical Fallacy
Post hoc is a fallacy in which one event is said to be the cause of a later event simply because it occurred earlier.

Mother Tongue - Definition and Discussion
A mother tongue is a person's native language--that is, a language learned from birth.

Simple Subject (Grammar) - Definition and Examples
In traditional grammar, a simple subject is the particular noun or pronoun that tells who or what a sentence or clause is about.

What Is a Predicate?
A predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence. Here we'll use examples to show you some of the different types of predicates.

Predicate - Definition and Examples
A predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence or clause, modifying the subject and including the verb, objects, or phrases governed by the verb.

complete subject (grammar) - definition and examples
In traditional grammar, a complete subject is made up of a simple subject (usually a single noun or pronoun) and any modifying words or phrases.

complete predicate in English grammar
A complete predicate is made up of a verb or verb phrase along with its objects, complements, and/or adverbial modifiers.

Ordinal Number - Definition and Examples
An ordinal number is a number that indicates position or order in relation to other numbers: first, second, third, and so on.

List - Definition and Examples in Composition
A list is a series of particular images or details often used in essays and other works of creative nonfiction to evoke a sense of place or character.

Cumulative Adjectives - Definition and Examples
Cumulative adjectives are two or more adjectives that build on one another and together modify a noun.

Adjective Order - Definition and Examples in Grammar
Adjective order refers to the customary order in which two or more adjectives appear in front of a noun phrase.

coordinate adjectives - definition and examples
Coordinate adjectives are a series of two or more adjectives that independently modify a noun and are roughly equal in importance.

Spelling Rules and Exercises - Correcting Commonly Misspelled Words
Rules, lists, poems, and exercises to help you improve your spelling in English.

H.G. Wells on How to Begin an Essay
The most effective way to begin an essay, said H.G. Wells, is to

The Best Online Writing Labs for Students and Teachers
Many colleges and universities host exceptional online writing labs--or OWLs, as they are commonly called. Here are five of the best.

How Many Spaces Go After a Period, One or Two?
If you grew up using a typewriter, you were probably taught to put two spaces after a period. But that custom went out of fashion many years ago.

Six Good Reasons to Study English Grammar
If you can read this, it's a safe bet that you know English grammar. So why should anybody bother studying it? Here are six good reasons why.

dubitatio - definition and examples in rhetoric
Dubitatio is a rhetorical term for the expression of doubt or uncertainty.

Oration - Definition and Examples
An oration is a speech delivered in a formal and dignified manner.

Public Speaking - Definition and Examples
Public speaking is an oral presentation in which a speaker addresses an audience.

Definition and Examples of Mixed Metaphors
A mixed metaphor is a succession of incongruous or ludicrous comparisons.

Readings and Resources for Writers - Prose Models - Classic and Modern Essays - Great Essays in English
One of the most effective ways to improve our own writing is to spend time reading the best writing of others. This collection of notable essays, speeches, and articles from the past 400 years offers some very good reading indeed. Also, learn more about grammar and composition from the best reference works, online writing labs, ESL sites, editors' blogs, Q&A pages, and much more.

Teaching Composition - Can Writing Be Taught
After considering the following responses from seasoned journalists, novelists, scholars, and teachers, decide whether you think writing can be taught.

Remembering English Teachers Who Changed Our Lives
Most of us can probably recall at least one great English teacher--someone who challenged us, motivated us, and deepened our love of language and literature.

Chord and Cord - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words 'chord' and 'cord': definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Chord and Cord - Commonly Confused Words - Chord vs. Cord
The commonly confused words 'chord' and 'cord': answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Free Variation (Phonetics) - Definition and Examples
Free variation is an alternative pronunciation of a word that doesn't affect the word's meaning.

Irony and Metaphor Are Good for You - Figurative Language and the Brain
According to cognitive scientists, irony and metaphor are significantly

folk linguistics - definition and examples
Folk linguistics is the study of speakers' opinions and beliefs about language, language varieties, and language usage.

gender (sociolinguistics) - definition and examples
In sociolinguistics and other social sciences, gender refers to sexual identity in relation to culture and society.

Ellipses and Ellipsis Points Definition and Examples
Ellipsis points are three equally spaced points ( . . . ) used in writing or printing to indicate the omission of words in a quotation.

phonaesthetics (word sounds)
In language studies, phonaesthetics is the study of the positive and negative sounds of letters, words, and combinations of letters and words.

Lead (Lede) - Definition and Examples of Opening Sentences
A lead (also spelled lede) is the opening sentences of a brief composition, or the first paragraph or two of a longer article or essay.

euphony (prose) - definition, discussion, and examples
Euphony is the harmonious arrangement of sounds in a text, whether spoken aloud or read silently.

Attributive Noun - Definition and Examples
An attributive noun is a noun that modifies another noun and functions as an adjective.

bicapitalization - definition and examples of bicaps
Bicapitalization is the use of a capital letter in the middle of a word or name-- usually a brand name or a company name.

Noah Webster's Plan to Reform English Spelling
Four decades before publishing the first edition of his great dictionary, Noah Webster spelled out a plan to renovate American English spelling.

Parody - Definition and Examples of Parodies in English
A parody is a text that imitates the characteristic style of an author or a work for comic effect or ridicule.

Donald Murray's Revision Checklist - Advice on Revising Essays
Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Donald Murray offered this revision checklist as an example for novice writers.

John Steinbeck on Writing - Suggestions for the Beginner
Here the author of

Zero Relative Pronouns or Bare Relatives in Grammar
A zero relative pronoun is the missing element at the beginning of a relative clause in which the relative pronoun has been omitted.

construction grammar - definition and discussion
Construction grammar refers to any of the various approaches to language study that emphasize conventional pairings of form and meaning.

Names and Nicknames for Residents of States
In these tables, you'll find the official names for residents of the 50 states along with alternative names and nicknames.

Drafting (Composition) - Definition and Examples
Drafting is a stage of the writing process during which a writer organizes information and ideas into sentences and paragraphs.

Top Stories of 2012- Language in the News
These 11 language-related stories from 2012 continue to stir interest and debate.

Readings on Rhetoric and Style - Classic Essays and Lectures on Rhetoric and English Prose Style
A collection of essays and lectures on rhetoric and English prose style by Jonathan Swift, H.L. Mencken, William Hazlitt, Kurt Vonnegut, and many others.

100 Awfully Good Examples of Oxymorons
Oxymorons are often found in literature, but as shown by this list of 100 awfully good examples, they are also part of our everyday speech.

The Tenor of a Metaphor - Definition of Rhetorical Terms
In a metaphor, the tenor is the principal subject illuminated by the vehicle (that is, the actual figurative expression).

A Review of 'The Global English Style Guide' by John Kohl
If not all your readers speak the way you do, John Kohl's

English grammar - definition and examples
English grammar is the set of principles or rules dealing with the word structures (morphology) and sentence structures (syntax) of the English language.

Phrasal Verb - Definition and Examples in English
A phrasal verb is a type of compound verb made up of (1) a verb and (2) a prepositional adverb (also known as an adverbial particle).

Notes on Exclamation Points - Uses and Abuses of Exclamation Marks
Favored by advertisers, preteens, and writers of ransom notes, the exclamation point is less a mark of punctuation than a typographical shriek.

Caribbean English - Definition and Examples
Caribbean English is a general term for the varieties of the English language used in the Caribbean archipelago and on the Caribbean coast of Central America

epicene - definition and examples in English grammar
In traditional grammar, an epicene noun is one that can refer to either sex without changing its form; likewise, an epicene pronoun is gender-neutral.

Adjective Phrase - Definition and Examples
An adjective phrase is a word group with an adjective as its head. This adjective may be accompanied by modifiers, determiners, or qualifiers.

Definition and Examples of Ethos in Classical Rhetoric
In rhetoric, ethos is the persuasive appeal based on the character or projected character of the speaker or narrator.

Organization (Composition) - Definition and Examples
In composition and speech, organization is the arrangement of ideas, incidents, evidence, or details in a perceptible order in a paragraph or essay.

etymon - definition and examples of etymon
An etymon is the linguistic form from which a later form of a word derives.

focusing (composition) - definition and examples of focusing in composition
In composition,

privative affix - definition and examples in English
A privative affix is a prefix or suffix that marks the absence of the attribute indicated by the base to which it is attached.

Language notes and quotes on apostrophes, buzzwords, idioms, and more.
Join us on a visit to the lighter side of language: humorous quotations on buzzwords, apostrophes, idioms, interjections, and much more.

Brief Lessons in Brevity - Getting to the Point in Writing
Because readers tend to ignore lengthy introductions, let's keep this one brief. Today's lesson: Get to the point!

Notes on Second-Person Pronouns - Whatever Happened to "Thou" and "Thee"?
Now and then a new pronoun enters the language while some older items--like the second-person pronouns

How to Rant: Bernard Levin's All-Purpose Invective
Feel free to vent your wrath by adapting any or all of the 109 insulting adjectives in this powerful invective.

Loanwords in English From French, German, Latin, and Spanish
English has unashamedly borrowed words from more than 300 other languages, and there's no sign that it plans to close its lexical borders any time soon.

Topic Suggestions for Paragraphs and Essays - Writing Prompts
If you're having problems coming up with a good topic for a composition, consider these ideas for a variety of common writing assignments. Writing prompts such as these are intended to spark your imagination and help you discover a topic that's meaningful to you.

30 Prompts for a Persuasive Paragraph, Essay, or Speech
Any one of these 30 issues may serve as a good starting point for a persuasive essay or speech.

Active Vocabulary - Definition and Examples
An active vocabulary is made up of the words readily used by an individual when speaking and writing.

passive vocabulary - definition and examples
A passive vocabulary is made up of words that an individual recognizes but rarely uses when speaking and writing.

Definition and Examples of Multiple Exclamation Marks
Multiple exclamation points (or marks) are two or more exclamation points (!!!) following a word or sentence.

What Is Patriotism and What Shall We Do With It? by Max Eastman


What Is Patriotism and What Shall We Do With It? by Max Eastman (page two)


What Is Patriotism and What Shall We Do With It? by Max Eastman (page three)


Composition: Developing Effective Essays
Here we'll practice organizing paragraphs into various kinds of essays--those that explain, compare, analyze, classify, and argue.

Sister Miriam Joseph's Brief Guide to Composition - Style Guide
These passages from Sister Miriam Joseph's

Reading to Write: Old Essays for the New Year
From our collection of classic British and American essays, we offer these four meditations on the turning of the year.

Appeals to Humor Definition and Examples
The appeal to humor is a fallacy in which a rhetor uses humor to ridicule an opponent and/or direct attention away from the issue at hand.

pseudonym - definition and examples in English
A pseudonym (also known as a pen name) is a fictitious name assumed by an individual to conceal his or her identity.

Jokes & Word Play From the Lighter Side of English
Gather the kids and suspend your long-preserved maturity: we're about to visit the lighter side of language. Enjoy this new collection of jokes, puns, and riddles.

False Relations: Words and Meanings - Comic Verse About Language
This comic poem shows how appearances can be deceiving in language: words that look similar to each other may have very different meanings.

Lexis - Definition and Examples
Lexis is a linguistic term for the vocabulary of a language.

Polysemy - Definition and Examples
Polysemy is the association of one word with two or more distinct meanings.

ecphonesis - definition and examples
Ecphonesis is a rhetorical term for an exclamation expressing strong emotion.

Suppletion - Definition and Examples in English Grammar
In morphology, suppletion is the use of two or more phonetically distinct roots for different forms of the same word.

sentence expanding - definition and examples in English
Sentence expanding is the process of adding one or more words, phrases, or clauses to a main clause (or independent clause).

Writers on Writing - Quotations from Writers on the Art and Craft of Writing - The Writing Process
Professional writers have much to tell us about the writing process, from overcoming writer's block to revising and editing. In these articles and quotations, let's see what advice we can pick up from the pros.

The Challenge of Verifying Quotations - How to Avoid Misquotations and Incorrect Attributions
Quotation websites are highly unreliable. If we're going to borrow somebody else's words, we should make sure those words are authentic and accurately referenced.

24th December, by Mark Rutherford - Classic British Essays
In the short essay, Rutherford's seemingly desultory observations on the countryside culminate in a powerful elegiac lament.

Christmas and the New Year, an essay by Ambrose Bierce
In this end-of-year essay, Ambrose Bierce, author of

Six Classic Christmas Essays
Whether you're a sentimentalist or a scrooge, you should enjoy these holiday essays by Washington Irving, Robert Benchley, and other notable authors.

copia -- definition and examples of copiousness in rhetoric
Copia is a rhetorical term for expansive richness as a stylistic goal.

A List of 100 Interjections and Exclamations in English
This list of 100 interjections is G-rated. Hey! We'll leave it up to you to supply any rude or potentially offensive interjections.

tetracolon climax - definition and examples
In rhetoric, a tetracolon is a series of four members, usually in parallel form.

Finding The Writer's Voice - Ten Writers Comment
To spur your thinking on voice in writing, we've gathered these 10 observations (some contradictory, others complementary) from professional writers.

Writer's Voice - Definition and Examples
In rhetoric and literary studies, voice is the distinctive style or manner of expression of an author or of a narrator in a text.

Epistrophe - Definition and Examples - Rhetorical Terms
Epistrophe is a rhetorical term for the repetition of a word or phrase at the end of successive clauses.

Narration - Definition and Examples
In writing or speech, narration is the process of recounting a sequence of events, real or imagined.

narrative - definition and examples in paragraphs and essays
A narrative is an account of a sequence of events, usually in chronological order.

grammatical function - definition and examples in English
Grammatical functions is the role played by a word or phrase in the context of a particular clause or sentence.

Foreshadowing - Definition and Examples
Foreshadowing is the presentation of details, characters, or incidents in a narrative in such a way that later events are prepared for.

Paragraph and Essay Development - Definition and Examples
In composition, development is the process of adding informative and illustrative details to support the main idea in a paragraph or essay.

Nominalization - Definition and Examples in Grammar
Nominalization is a type of word formation in which a verb or an adjective (or other part of speech) is used as a noun.

Loose Sentence (Definition and Examples)
A loose sentence is a structure in which a main clause is followed by one or more coordinate or subordinate phrases and clauses.

Felicity Conditions - Definition and Examples
Felicity conditions are the conditions that must be in place and the criteria that must be satisfied for a speech act to achieve its purpose.

Overgeneralization - Definition and Examples in English
In linguistics, overgeneralization is the application of a grammatical rule in cases where it doesn't apply.

Writing Advice From Stephen King
Here are just a few of novelist Stephen King's helpful observations on the craft of writing.

Perlocutionary Acts Definition and Examples
In speech-act theory, a perlocutionary act is an action or state of mind brought about by, or as a consequence of, saying something.

Pronoun - Definition and Examples in English Grammar
A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun, noun phrase, or noun clause.

proof - definition and examples in rhetoric
In rhetoric, proof is the part of a speech or written composition that sets out the arguments in support of a thesis.

Stress in Speech - Definition and Examples
In phonetics, stress is the degree of emphasis given a sound or syllable in speech.

Noise - Definition and Examples in English
Noise is anything that interferes in the communication process between a speaker and an audience.

undistributed middle - logical fallacies - definition and examples
Definition, discussion, and examples of the deductive fallacy of the undistributed middle term.

10 Tips for Composing a Holiday Newsletter
A holiday newsletter can be a charming way of staying in touch with distant friends--and it doesn't have to be silly or boring.

Open-Class Words - Definition and Examples
In English grammar, open class refers to the category of content words--that is, parts of speech (or word classes) that readily accept new members.

obsolete word - definition and examples in English
Obsolete word is a label commonly used by editors of dictionaries to indicate that a word is no longer in active use in speech and writing.

double genitive - definition and examples in English grammar
The double genitive is a phrase in which possession is indicated by the preposition

Misplaced Modifier - Definitions and Examples
Misplaced modifiers are words, phrases, or clauses that do not clearly relate to the word they are intended to modify.

Semantics - Definitions and Examples
Semantics is the field of linguistics concerned with the study of meaning in language.

Lexical Ambiguity - Definition and Examples
Lexical ambiguity is the presence of two or more possible meanings within a single word.

Literal Meaning - Definition and Examples
Literal meaning is the most obvious or non-figurative sense of a word or words; language that is not perceived as metaphorical or ironic.

newspeak - definition and examples of newspeak
Newspeak is deliberately ambiguous and contradictory language used to mislead and manipulate the public.

clausal coordination - definition and examples in English grammar
Definitions, examples, and discussions of clausal or sentential coordination in English.

Exclamation Point - Definition and Examples
The exclamation point (!) is a mark of punctuation used after a sentence that expresses a strong emotion.

epimone - definition and examples in rhetoric
Epimone is the frequent repetition of a phrase or question; dwelling on a point.

simile - definition and examples of figures of speech
A simile is a figure of speech in which two fundamentally unlike things are explicitly compared, usually in a phrase introduced by

polysyndeton - definition and examples of polysyndeton
Polysyndeton is a sentence style that employs many conjunctions (opposite of

Epanalepsis - Definition and Examples in Rhetoric
Epanalepsis is (a) a rhetorical term for the repetition of a word at regular intervals, and (b) repetition at the end of a clause of the word or phrase with which it began.

nonsense words - definition and examples
A nonsense word is a string of letters that may resemble a conventional word but does not appear in standard dictionaries.

zero copula - definition and examples of the zero copula
The zero copula is the absence of an explicit auxiliary verb in certain constructions where it is customarily found in standard English.

Language in the News for Autumn 2015)
Archaic words, spy jargon, and poker metaphors are just a few of the topics considered in the autumn 2015 edition of Language in the News.

Copular Verbs - Definitions and Examples
A copula is a verb that joins the subject of a sentence to a subject complement.

Direct Object - Definition and Examples in English Grammar
In a clause or sentence, a direct object is a noun, noun phrase, or pronoun that identifies what or who receives the action of a transitive verb.

Complex Transitive Verbs - Definition and Examples
A complex transitive is a verb that requires both a direct object and another object (usually an object of a preposition) or a complement.

Building and Arranging Sentences With Specific Details
This exercise will give you practice in using specific descriptive details to create a vivid impression of a particular place.

Exercise in Using Specific Descriptive Details in Sentences - Building sentences and paragraphs with specific details - Sample Combinations
The following sentences served as models for the exercise in using specific descriptive details to create a vivid impression of a particular place. Page 2.

Fused Sentence - Definition and Examples in English Grammar
A fused sentence is a sentence in which two independent clauses are run together without an appropriate conjunction or mark of punctuation between them.

root - definition and examples of root
A root is a word or word element from which other words grow, usually through the addition of prefixes and suffixes.

Verbosity Definition and Examples in English
Verbosity is another word for wordiness--using more words than are needed to convey a message.

Definition and Examples of Reported Speech
Reported speech is the report of one speaker or writer on the words said, written, or thought by someone else.

professional communication - definition and examples
Professional communication refers to the various forms of speaking, listening, writing, and responding carried out both in and beyond the workplace.

Nonverbal Communication - Definition and Examples
Nonverbal communication is the process of sending and receiving messages without using words, either spoken or written.

Understanding Natural Selection, by Charles Darwin
This essay is an excerpt from chapter four of the first edition of Charles Darwin's

Understanding Natural Selection, by Charles Darwin (page two) - Classic British Essays - from Chapter Four of On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin
This essay is an excerpt from chapter four of the first edition of Charles Darwin's

Understanding Natural Selection, by Charles Darwin (page three) - Classic British Essays - from Chapter Four of On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin
This essay is an excerpt from chapter four of the first edition of Darwin's

Second-Person Point of View - Definition and Examples
The second-person point of view uses the imperative mood and the pronouns you, your, and yours to address a reader or listener directly. Learn more here.

Definition and Examples of Point of View
Point of view is the perspective from which a speaker or writer recounts a narrative or presents information.

Process Analysis: Definition and Examples (Composition)
Process analysis is a method of paragraph or essay development by which a writer explains step by step how something is done or how to do something.

Psycholinguistics - Definition and Discussion
Psycholinguistics is the study of the mental aspects of language and speech--a branch of both linguistics and psychology.

Main Verb - Definition and Examples
A main verb in English is (1) any verb that is not an auxiliary verb, and/or (2) the verb in a main clause.

6 Ways to Use the Present Tense in English - No Time Like the Present
In English grammar, the present tense can refer to actions that occur not only in the present but also in the past, in the future, and outside of time altogether.

Irrealis 'were' - definition and examples in English grammar
Irrealis is the use of

dialogue guide - definition and examples in English
In reported speech, a dialogue guide (or dialogue tag) is a phrase used to identify the speaker of directly quoted words.

flat adverb - definition and examples in English grammar
In English grammar,

What Is a Ghost Word? - Dictionaries and Words


kangaroo word - definition and examples in English
Kangaroo word is a playful term for a word that carries within it a synonym of itself.

Top Reference Works for Writers and Editors
Despite the ready availability of online dictionaries and style guides, every serious writer still needs a few good reference books by her side.

eggcorn - definition and examples in English
Eggcorns are words or phrases that are used by mistake, usually because they are homophones or sound similar to the original words.

Pathos and Persuasion: The Validity of Emotional Appeals
As Richard Whately acknowledges in these excerpts from chapter two of

Pathos and Persuasion: The Validity of Emotional Appeals - Part 2
As Richard Whately acknowledges in these excerpts from chapter two of

Pathos and Persuasion: The Validity of Emotional Appeals - Part 3
As Richard Whately acknowledges in these excerpts from chapter two of

Pathos and Persuasion: The Validity of Emotional Appeals - Part 4
As Richard Whately acknowledges in these excerpts from chapter two of

margins in essays and reports - definition and guidelines
A margin is the part of a page outside the main body of text. These specific guidelines on using margins have been drawn from the most commonly used style guides.

Qualifiers in English Grammar - Definition and Examples
A qualifier is a word or phrase that precedes an adjective or adverb, increasing or decreasing the quality signified by the word it modifies.

Suprasegmental Definition and Examples
In speech, suprasegmental refers to a phonological property of more than one sound segment.

Personal Pronoun - Definition and Examples in English
A personal pronoun is a pronoun that refers to a particular person, group, or thing.

Predicative Adjectives - Definition and Examples in Grammar
A predicative adjective (also called a predicate adjective) is an adjective that usually comes after a linking verb and not before a noun.

subject complement - definition and examples in English
A subject complement is a word or phrase that follows a linking verb and describes or renames the subject of the sentence.

What Is Technical Writing? Definition and Observations
Technical writing concerns written communications done on the job, especially in fields with specialized vocabularies.

précis - definition and examples
A precis is a brief summary of a book, article, speech, or other text.

writing prompt
A writing prompt is a brief passage of text (or sometimes an image) that provides a potential topic idea for an original piece of writing.

Why Students Need Practice In Composing Professional Emails
Because email remains the most common form of written communication in the workplace, students need to practice composing effective professional emails.

Word Boundaries - Definition and Examples
Word boundaries are the beginning and the ending of a word.

rhyming slang - definition and examples
Rhyming slang is a form of slang commonly associated with London Cockneys, though it's also found in other parts of Britain as well as in parts of Australia and the U.S.

Where Do Writers Come From?
Where do writers come from? For answers to that question, we turned to a number of professional writers and editors, and here's what they had to say.

basic writing - definition and examples in composition studies
Basic writing is a pedagogical term for the writing of

Problem-Solution Essays - Definition and Examples
In composition, a method for analyzing and writing about a topic by identifying a problem and proposing one or more solutions.

Embedding - Definition and Examples
In generative grammar, embedding is the process by which one clause is included (embedded) in another.

orator - definition and examples of orators
An orator is a skilled public speaker, in particular one who is versed in the art of persuasion.

ethopoeia - definition and examples in rhetoric
Ethopoeia means putting oneself in the place of another so as to both understand and express his or her feelings more vividly.

The Ph.D. Octopus, by William James - Classic British Essays
This classic essay by philosopher William James offers a powerful critique of the

The Ph.D. Octopus, by William James (page two) - Classic British Essays - William James on Sham Higher Degrees and Destructive Examinations
This classic essay by philosopher William James offers a powerful critique of the

The Ph.D. Octopus, by William James (page three) - Classic British Essays - William James on Sham Higher Degrees and Destructive Examinations
Originally published in the Harvard Monthly in 1903,

The Ph.D. Octopus, by William James (page four) - Classic British Essays - William James on Sham Higher Degrees and Destructive Examinations
This classic essay by philosopher William James offers a powerful critique of the

The Mutability of Literature, by Washington Irving - Classic Essays
In

The Mutability of Literature, by Washington Irving (page two) - Classic Essays
Washington Irving's

The Mutability of Literature, by Washington Irving (page three) - Classic Essays
Washington Irving's

The Symbolism of Poetry, by W.B. Yeats (page four) - Classic British and American Essays - Definition Essay by William Butler Yeats
W.B. Yeats's influential essay

The Irish Character, by Margaret Fuller - Classic American Essays
The two-part essay

The Irish Character, by Margaret Fuller (page two) - Classic American Essays
The two-part essay

The Irish Character, by Margaret Fuller (page three) - Classic American Essays


The Idea of Beauty, by Joshua Reynolds (page two) - Classic British Essays - Essay on Beauty by Joshua Reynolds
Joshua Reynolds's essay

The Idea of Beauty, by Joshua Reynolds - Classic British Essays - Essay on Beauty by Joshua Reynolds
One of the most celebrated painters of his day, Sir Joshua Reynolds was also an eloquent writer and a close friend of Samuel Johnson. This essay (originally untitled) first appeared in Johnson's

The Cries of London, by Joseph Addison (page two) - Classic British Essays
Composed in the form of a job application,

The Cries of London, by Joseph Addison - Classic British Essays
Composed in the form of a job application,

Rural Rides: Reigate, by William Cobbett - Classic British Essays
In this excerpt from

Rural Rides: Reigate, by William Cobbett (page two) - Classic British Essays
In this excerpt from Rural Rides, William Cobbett augments his descriptions of a long-vanished world with

On Reading for Amusement by Henry Fielding (page two) - Classic British Essays - An Essay by Henry Fielding
In his essay

Mary White, by William Allen White - Classic American Essays
William Allen White's famous eulogy for his 16-year-old daughter originally appeared in the

Mary White, by William Allen White (page two) - Classic American Essays
William Allen White's famous eulogy for his 16-year-old daughter, Mary, appeared in the Emporia Gazette on May 17, 1921, four days after her death. Page 2.

Portrait of an Ideal World, by H.L. Mencken - Classic American Essays - Proposal to keep the whole human race stewed
The essay

Portrait of an Ideal World, by H.L. Mencken (page two) - Classic American Essays - Proposal to keep the whole human race stewed
H.L. Mencken's

Ogres, by William Makepeace Thackeray
William Makepeace Thackeray's main subject in his essay

Ogres, by William Makepeace Thackeray - Classic British Essays
In the essay

Ogres, by William Makepeace Thackeray (page two) - Classic British Essays
In his essay

Of Eloquence, by Oliver Goldsmith (page two)- Essays on English Prose Style
In this essay on the art of rhetoric, Oliver Goldsmith utilizes a

Of Eloquence, by Oliver Goldsmith (page three) - Essays on English Prose Style
In this essay on the art of rhetoric, Oliver Goldsmith advocates a

Of Eloquence, by Oliver Goldsmith - Essays on English Prose Style
In this essay on the art of rhetoric, Oliver Goldsmith advocates a

Of Eloquence, by Oliver Goldsmith (page four) - Essays on English Prose Style
In this essay on the art of rhetoric, Oliver Goldsmith challenges the conventional wisdom that effective oratory depends foremost on complex sentence structures and the sophisticated use of figurative language. Page 4.

The First Inaugural Address of Barack Obama (page three) - Classic Essays and Speeches - President Obama's Inaugural
President Barack Obama's first inaugural address is presented here in its original form, a transcription different from the version given to journalists. Page 3.

The Art of Walking, by Christopher Morley (page two) - Classic American Essays - Essay on Authors and Walking
In

The Art of Walking by Christopher Morley - Classic American Essays - Essay on Authors and Walking
In

The Art of Walking, by Christopher Morley (page three) - Classic American Essays - Essay on Authors and Walking
In

The Art of Walking by Christopher Morley (page four) - Classic American Essays - Essay on Authors and Walking
American author, editor, and columnist Christopher Morley wrote the essay

"The Making of Harlem," by James Weldon Johnson - Classic American Essays - James Weldon Johnson and the Harlem Renaissance
In 1925, at the height of the period known as the Harlem Renaissance, African-American poet James Weldon Johnson composed this historical narrative for the magazine

"The Making of Harlem," by James Weldon Johnson (page two) - Classic American Essays - James Weldon Johnson and the Harlem Renaissance
African-American poet James Weldon Johnson composed the historical narrative

"The Making of Harlem," by James Weldon Johnson (page three) - Classic American Essays - James Weldon Johnson and the Harlem Renaissance
African-American poet James Weldon Johnson wrote the historical narrative essay

The Making of Harlem, by James Weldon Johnson (page four) - Classic American Essays - James Weldon Johnson and the Harlem Renaissance
The narrative historical essay

Grace Before Meat by Charles Lamb - Classic British Essays
In

Grace Before Meat by Charles Lamb (page two) - Classic British Essays
In

Grace Before Meat by Charles Lamb (page three) - Classic British Essays
In his essay

Happiness in a Great Measure Dependent on Constitution, by Oliver Goldsmith
In this essay, Goldsmith introduces three individuals (a slave, a famous cardinal, and a

Happiness in a Great Measure Dependent on Constitution, by Oliver Goldsmith (page two) - Classic British Essays
Oliver Goldsmith illustrates his thoughts on the nature of happiness in his essay

Essays and Essayists, by William Ernest Henley - Classic British Essays
In

Essays and Essayists - Essay by William Ernest Henley
William Ernest Henley was an essayist and magazine editor as well as a lyrical poet. Read his essay on

Deaths of Little Children, by Leigh Hunt - Classic British Essays
In the essay

Deaths of Little Children, by Leigh Hunt (page two) - Classic British Essays
Leigh Hunt was a poet, critic, and editor as well as one of the most popular British essayists of his time. Read his essay