Grammar & Composition Sitemap - Page 9 2016-09-26

Weather and Whether - Commonly Confused Words - Weather versus Whether
The noun

Weather and Whether - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words weather and whether: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Weak and Week - Glossary of Usage
The adjective

Weak and Week - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Waive and Wave - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words waive and wave: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Waive and Wave - Answers to Practice Exercises
The verb

Throes and Throws - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The plural noun

Throes and Throws - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words throes and throws: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Toe and Tow - Commonly Confused Words
Be sure to stay on your toes and toe the line when you go toe to toe with the commonly confused words

Toe and Tow - Answers to Practice Exercises
Toe and Tow - Answers to Practice Exercises. Page 2.

Tail and Tale - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words tail and tale: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Tail and Tale - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words tail and tale: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Stake and Steak: Answers to Practice Exercises - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Stake and Steak - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Stair and Stare - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Stair and Stare - Answers to Practice Exercises- Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Root and Route - Commonly Confused Words
For many English speakers (but not all), the words

Root and Route - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words root and route: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Real and Reel - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Real and Reel - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Plain and Plane - Commonly Confused Words - Plain versus Plane
As an adjective,

Plain and Plane - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words plain and plane: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Pedal and Peddle - Commonly Confused Words - Pedal versus Peddle
The verb

Pedal and Peddle - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The verb

Pail and Pale - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The difference between

Pail and Pale - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Fir and Fur - Commonly Confused Words
Commonly confused words

Fir and Fur - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
Commonly confused words

Dear and Deer - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Dear and Deer - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Cent, Scent, and Sent - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words cent, scent, and sent: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Cent, Scent, and Sent - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The noun

Canvas and Canvass - Commonly Confused Words
The difference between the words

Canvas and Canvass - Answers to Practice Exercises
The difference between

Ascent and Assent - Glossary of Usage
The difference between the words ascent and assent: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Ascent and Assent - Answers to Practice Exercises
The difference between the words

Cereal and Serial - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Cereal and Serial - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The noun

Flea and Flee - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Flea and Flee - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Wait and Weight - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Wait and Weight - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
Here we look at definitions and examples of the homophones

Whine and Wine - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Whine and Wine - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Language in the News for May 2015
Bilingualism, new Scrabble words, and 'Mx' are just a few of the topics considered in the May 2015 edition of Language in the News.

A Roundup of Language in the News for April 2015
The Noun Project and the Yale Grammatical Diversity Project are just two of the topics considered in the April 2015 edition of Language in the News.

Definition and Examples of Figurative Meaning
Figurative meaning is the metaphorical, idiomatic, or ironic sense of a word or expression, in contrast to its literal meaning.

Parenthesis - Definition and Examples
Parenthesis is (1) either or both of the upright curved lines, ( ), used to mark off explanatory remarks in writing, or (2) the insertion of a verbal unit that interrupts the normal flow of the sentence.

A Mini-Quiz on Punctuation - Punctuation Review Quiz
The five questions in this mini-quiz will give you an opportunity to review some of the basic rules of punctuation.

A Mini-Quiz on Punctuation: Answers and Explanations - Punctuation Review Quiz
Here you will find the answers (with brief explanations) to the Mini-Quiz on Punctuation. Page 2.

Answers to the Quiz on Idioms and Commonly Confused Words
This quiz will help you recognize some common English idioms and choose correctly between some commonly confused words. On this page you'll find the answers to the quiz. Page 2.

Quiz on Idioms and Commonly Confused Words
This quiz will help you recognize some common English idioms and choose correctly between some commonly confused words.

Top Stories of 2010: Language in the News
These eight language-related stories from 2010 continue to stir interest and debate.

A Quick Quiz on the History of the English Language
This quiz will test your understanding of some of the key events noted in our Timeline of the English Language.

Answers to the Quick Quiz on the History of the English Language
Here are the answers to our Quick Quiz on the History of the English Language. Page 2.

Top Stories of 2013: Texting, Tongue Twisters, and Dialect Maps
These 11 language-related stories from 2013 continue to stir interest and debate.

Epithet - Definition and Examples
An epithet is an adjective or adjective phrase (often used habitually) to characterize a person or thing.

Writing Advice From Twain, Thoreau, Stevenson, and Other 19th-Century Authors
In this installment of Writers on Writing, we turn to 10 authors from the 19th century for some timeless writing advice.

Chews and Choose: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

The Commonly Confused Words Chews and Choose
The commonly confused words

What Is Chiasmus? - Employing the Power of the Crisscross Figure of Speech
If you want to leave your audience with something to remember the next time you write or give a speech, try employing the Power of X: chiasmus.

oronym - definition and examples of oronyms in English
An oronym is a sequence of words (for example,

mystification - definition and examples
Mystification is the use of language to deceive others or to disguise the conditions of our social existence.

Malapropism (Definition and Examples)
A malapropism is an absurd or humorous misuse of a word, especially by confusion with one of similar sound.

Notes on the English Language - Quips and Quotes, Facts and Figures
If you prefer to learn about language in small doses, take a look at our growing collection of notes on the English language.

A Fish Story for Writers: A Lesson in Cutting the Fluff
As this story shows, often the quickest way to improve your writing is to cut the fluff and quit when you're done.

Feat and Feet: Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Feat and Feet: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words feat and feet: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

confrontational rhetoric - definition and examples
Confrontational rhetoric is a broad term for strategies of persuasion and forms of communication that directly challenge the authority of an opponent.

Advice for Poor Spellers - Four Options
If you've grown tired of hearing that you need to improve your spelling skills, consider these four options.

Formal Prose Style - Definition and Examples
Formal style is a broad term for speech or writing marked by an impersonal, objective, and precise use of language.

Purposefully and Purposely - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words

Purposefully and Purposely - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Pain and Pane - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Pain and Pane - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Writing Effectively on the Job - Communication Skills
In almost every profession these days, effective communication is a critical skill--or rather, a combination of critical skills. These 10 articles will show you how to improve those skills.

Business Writing - How to Write More Effective Emails, Memos, Letters, and Reports
Tips on writing effective emails, memos, letters, and reports.

Essay Exam Test-Taking Tips
These 10 tips you should help you manage exam pressures and compose a strong essay.

12 Questions and Answers About English Grammar
What's the connection between

What Are Grammatical Zeros and Bare Relatives? - Zero Infinitives, Zero Plurals, Zero Articles, and Zero Relative Pronouns
Linguists use the term

Past Twelve - A Classic Essay by Richard Dowling
In this playful essay, Dowling lists some of the many things he's safe from while

Definition of N.B. - Latin Abbreviations in English


Commonly confused word pairs in English
Here, from our Glossary of Commonly Confused Words, are 20 tricky word pairs that look and sound alike but have different meanings.

Clause and Claws: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words 'clause' and 'claws': answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

The commonly confused words 'clause' and 'claws'
The commonly confused words 'clause' and 'claws': definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Definition and Examples of Argumentum Ad Misericordiam
Ad misericordiam is an argument based on an appeal to the emotions; a logical fallacy that involves an irrelevant or exaggerated appeal to sympathy.

disambiguation - definition and examples in language studies
In linguistics, disambiguation is the process of determining which sense of a word is being used in a particular context.

10 Unusual Writing Tips: Start Strong, Get the Name of the Dog, and Sort Out the Peanuts
If you're tired of hearing the same old advice about how to improve your writing, consider these 10 unconventional tips.

foreign plural - definition and examples in English
A foreign plural is a noun borrowed from another language that has kept its original plural form rather than adapt the regular English plural ending.

double plural - definitions and examples of double plurals in English
In grammar, a double plural is a plural form of a noun with an additional plural ending attached.

How Not to Write a Critical Essay - Poor, Pitiful Miss Brill - Another View of Katherine Mansfield's Short Story "Miss Brill"
After reading

language myth - definition and examples in English
A language myth is a popular belief about language that the majority of linguists regard as untrue.

Definition and Examples in English Grammar
In English grammar, a relative adverb is an adverb that introduces a relative clause.

Theories of the origin and evolution of human language
The term 'language origins' refers to theories pertaining to the emergence and development of language in human societies.

The Romantic in the Rain, by
Chesterton's essay

Palate, Palette, and Pallet - Commonly Confused Words
The homophones palate, palette, and pallet: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Palate, Palette, and Pallet - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The homophones palate, palette, and pallet: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Palatable and Palpable - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Palatable and Palpable: Answers to Practice Exercises - Commonly Confused Words
Here are the answers to the practice exercises on the commonly confused words

Oral and Verbal - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Oral and Verbal - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Base and Bass
Unless you're going bass fishing, the words

Base and Bass: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

enallage - definition and examples
Enallage is a figure of syntactic substitution in which one grammatical form is replaced by another form.

inexpressibility - definition and examples in rhetoric
In rhetoric, inexpressibility refers to a speaker's inability to find or use the appropriate words to describe a situation or relate an experience.

adynaton (rhetoric)
In rhetoric, adynaton is a type of hyperbole that refers to an impossible action or event or to an unsatisfiable condition.

Exercise in Identifying Sentences by Function
This exercise will give you practice in identifying the four functional types of sentences: declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory.

Exercise in Identifying Sentences by Function - Answers
On this page you'll find the answers to the exercise on identifying sentences by function. Page 2.

On Being in the Blues, by Jerome K. Jerome - Classic British Essays
In this extended definition of melancholy, note Jerome's use of examples, analogies, and personification throughout the essay.

Language-Related Items in the News for March 2015
Endangered languages, grammar pedantry, and Australian English are just a few of the topics considered in the latest edition of Language in the News.

Language in the News for February 2015
Pigeon-think, spelling, and language acquisition are just a few of the topics considered in this month's edition of Language in the News.

Dialectology - Definition and Examples
Dialectology is the scientific study of dialects, or the regional differences in a language.

A.P. Herbert on Editing for the Ear - Sound and Sense
Listen to your words and sentences as you write them, and test them for sound as well as for sense.

monologophobia - definition and examples
Monologophobia is the fear of using a word more than once in a single sentence or even in a single paragraph.

Summer Rituals by Ray Bradbury - Scrapbook of Styles
In this passage from Ray Bradbury's novel

Definition and Examples of Clustering in Composition
Clustering is a discovery strategy in which the writer groups ideas in a nonlinear fashion, using lines and circles to indicate relationships.

About Bathrooms, by A.P. Herbert - Classic British Essays
In this essay, humorist A.P. Herbert offers a critique of

punctuation effect - definition and examples
The punctuation effect is the use of laughter as the oral equivalent of punctuation at the end of a spoken phrase or sentence.

genteelism - definition and examples of genteelisms in English
Genteelism is an informal term coined by H.W. Fowler for a type of euphemism in which a common word is replaced by a word considered more

Dam and Damn - Commonly Confused Words - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Dam and Damn - Commonly Confused Words
The difference between the commonly confused words

British spelling - definition and examples
British spelling refers to the spelling conventions generally followed by users of present-day British English.

At the End of the Day: 170 Expressions That Tick You Off
Awhile back (but not back in the day), we invited you to let us know what expressions tick you off. Here's what you told us.

Eulogy - Definition and Examples
A eulogy is a formal expression of praise for someone who has recently died.

Encomium: Definition and Examples - Rhetoric
An encomium is a tribute or eulogy in prose or verse honoring people, objects, ideas, or events.

Memorable Figures of Speech in the TV Series 'Lost'
Thanks to Netflix and DVDs, the TV series 'Lost' lives on--and so do these memorable turns of phrase.

Slang and Bad Manners in the Early 20th Century
In the composition textbooks of a century ago, slang was a major bugaboo--generally regarded as both a social offense and a moral failing.

Idle and Idol - Definitions, Examples, Usage Notes, and Exercises
To help you distinguish the homophones

Idle and Idol: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words idle and idol: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Meiosis - Definition and Examples in Rhetoric
In rhetoric, meiosis means (1) to belittle, use a degrading epithet or nickname, or (2) expressive understatement, especially litotes.

Levity of the Age, by Joseph Dennie - Classic American Essays
In this 200-year-old essay, Dennie expresses his disdain for the

merism - definitions and examples of the figure of speech
Merism is a rhetorical term for a pair of contrasting words used to express totality or completeness.

Avoid These 10 Words in Formal Writing - What's the Usage?
According to the conventions of Standard English, the 10 words in this list should generally be avoided in reports, essays, and other kinds of formal writing.

prosopopoeia - definition and examples in rhetoric
Prosopopoeia is a figure of speech in which an absent or imaginary person is represented as speaking.

Favorite Figures of Speech - Eight Masters of Figurative Language
As shown by these examples, some well-known authors are regarded as masters of particular figures and tropes.

Past Perfect Progressive - Definition and Examples
The past perfect progressive is a verb construction (made up of

double perfect - definition and examples in English
The double perfect is a construction in which instances of the perfect auxiliary

A guide to reviewing grammatical principles and key terms
If you'd like to review the basic principles of English grammar, these five articles will help you get started.

Correct Spelling Is Profitable for Online Businesses
Find out why

direct question - definition and examples in English
A direct question is a sentence that asks a question and ends with a question mark.

Learning to Write by Writing - Ungraded Writing Projects
Find out why John Holt's concept of

Adjustment Letter - Definition and Examples
An adjustment letter is a written response by a representative of a business or agency to a customer's claim letter.

How Not to Write a Letter of Complaint
In the article Compose a Letter of Complaint, we considered the characteristics of an effective claim. Here you'll find a letter that ignores our good advice.

deverbal - definition and examples of deverbals in English
A deverbal is a word (usually a noun or an adjective) that is derived from a verb.

composing - definition and examples of composing prose
In composition studies, composing is the process of writing an original work of nonfiction or fiction.

bomphiologia - definition and examples
Bomphiologia is a traditional rhetorical term for pompous or bombastic speech.

Bertrand Russell on the Connotative Power of Words
See how philosopher Bertrand Russell playfully illustrated how words convey attitudes and feelings (connotations) as well as literal meanings (denotations).

Bombast - Definition and Examples of Bombast
Bombast is a pejorative term for pompous and inflated speech or writing.

Epiphora (Rhetoric): Definition and Examples
The rhetorical term epiphora refers to the repetition of a word or phrase at the end of successive clauses.

Symploce - Definition and Examples
Symploce is a rhetorical term for the repetition of words or phrases at both the beginning and end of successive clauses or verses.

distinctio - definition and examples in rhetoric
Distinctio is a rhetorical term for explicit references to the various meanings of a word--usually for the purpose of removing ambiguities.

diacope - definition and examples of the repetitive figure of speech
In rhetoric, diacope is the repetition of a word or phrase broken up by one or more intervening words.

Examples of repetition in rhetoric--traductio
Traductio is a rhetorical term (or figure of speech) for the repetition of a word or phrase in the same sentence.

What's Wrong With the Five-Paragraph Essay?
Requiring a student to cough up an essay in 25 minutes is a fill-in-the-blank exercise, not a test of composition skills.

Survey suggests that "bad grammar" is a "major turnoff"
If your profile on eHarmony hasn't kindled much interest, it just might be time to do some serious editing.

Beautiful Sounding Words: Competitions and Composition
What is the most beautiful-sounding word in English? Consider these unpredictable choices by a number of well-known writers.

Journal - Definition, Examples, and Observations
A journal is a written record of incidents, experiences, and ideas.

Where Are the Best Places to Write?
If a cork-lined room doesn't happen to be available, where is the place to write? J.K. Rowling, Stephen King, Annie Dillard, and several other professional writers offer some advice.

Essays On Walking and Writing
There's a long tradition of writing about walking. Reading these classic essays should help you decide whether walking should be a part of your writing routine.

handwriting - definition, examples, and discussions
Handwriting is writing that's done by hand with a pen, pencil, or other instrument. The art, skill, or manner of handwriting is called penmanship

Beach and Beech - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words beach and beech: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Beach and Beech - Commonly Confused Words
Find out the difference between the commonly confused words beach and beech: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

reading speed - definition and examples
Reading speed is the rate at which a person reads written text (printed or electronic) in a specific unit of time.

The Advantages of Slow Reading and Slow Writing
Whether it's food and travel we're talking about or reading and writing, faster isn't always better.

Reading - Definition and Examples
Reading is the process of extracting meaning from a written or printed text.

diatyposis - definition and examples in rhetoric
Diatyposis is a rhetorical term for recommending useful precepts or advice to someone else.

Definition and Examples of Transformations in Grammar
In grammar, a transformation is a type of syntactic rule that can move an element from one position to another.

Structure-Dependency - Definition and Examples
Structure dependency is the linguistic principle that grammatical processes function primarily on structures in sentences, not on single words or sequences of words.

Exercise in Identifying Sentences by Structure
This exercise will give you practice in identifying four basic sentence structures: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex.

Identifying Sentences by Structure Exercise Answers
This exercise will give you practice in identifying four basic sentence structures: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex. Page 2.

George Ade's Fable on Education Versus Wealth
Attention to context should help you decipher most of the slang expressions in George Ade's lightly satirical fable.

"Defence and Happiness of Married Life," by Joseph Addison (page two) - Classic Essays
In

On Lying in Bed, by G.K. Chesterton (page two) - Classic British Essays
Chesterton's frequently anthologized essay

On Lying in Bed, by G.K. Chesterton - Classic British Essays
Chesterton's frequently anthologized essay

The New House, by G.K. Chesterton - Classic British Essays
The author of dozens of volumes of essays, G.K. Chesterton is known for his sense of humor and his love of paradox.

Cease, Seize, and Siege: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words cease, seize, and siege: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Cease, Seize, and Siege - Definitions, Examples, Exercises
The commonly confused words cease, seize, and siege: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

parrhesia - definition and examples of parrhesia
In classical rhetoric, parrhesia is free, frank, and fearless speech.

Langue - Definition and Discussion
Langue refers to language as an abstract system of signs (the underlying structure of a language), in contrast to parole.

12 Wonderful Things About Writing - Writers on Writing
For most of us, writing is hard work, but it can also be deeply rewarding. As these 12 authors point out, writing truly can be a wonderful experience.

William Zinsser on the Joy of Writing
If you happen to be stuck on a writing project, consider this uplifting reminder from author William Zinsser.

H.L. Mencken and the American Language
H.L. Mencken's groundbreaking study of American English offers proof that serious scholarship can be conveyed in lively prose.

flotsam phrase - definition and examples in English
Flotsam phrase is a term coined by Bryan A. Garner for an expression that

minor sentence - definition and examples of minor sentences in English
A minor sentence is a fragmented, elliptical, or incomplete sentence or clause that still conveys meaning.

The Third Big Quiz on Commonly Confused Words - Test on 50 Fresh Sets of Confusables
This quiz will test your familiarity with 50 fresh sets of confusables--words that are frequently mixed up because they look and/or sound alike.

Answers to the Third Big Quiz on Commonly Confused Words - Test on 50 Fresh Sets of Confusables
On this page you'll find the answers to the 50 questions in our Third Big Quiz on Commonly Confused Words. Page 2.

Why Do Writers Write?
If it's not money, what does motivate writers to write? Consider how 12 professional writers responded to this question.

How to Write a Passing Essay for a Standardized Test - A Comic Composition With Serious Advice
This comic narrative essay has some serious advice to offer about how to write a passing essay for a standardized test.

Quiz on Commonly Confused Words: Hollywood Comedies Edition
This quiz, based on lines from popular movie comedies, will test your familiarity with 15 of the entries in our collection of commonly confused words.

Answers to the Hollywood Comedies Edition of the Quiz
On this page you'll find the answers to the Quiz on Commonly Confused Words: Hollywood Comedies Edition. Page 2.

Perpetrate and Perpetuate - Answers to Practice Exercises
The verb

Perpetrate and Perpetuate - Glossary of Usage
The verb

Hortatory Discourse in Rhetoric
Hortatory discourse is speech or writing that urges or commands an audience to follow (or not follow) a particular course of action.

dehortatio - definition and examples in rhetoric
Dehortatio is a rhetorical term for dissuasive advice given with authority.

Definition and Examples of -ing Forms in Grammar
An -ing form is a contemporary linguistic term for the present participle and gerund in English grammar.

Mood (Composition and Literature) Definition & Examples
In essays and other literary works, mood is the dominant impression or emotional atmosphere evoked by the text.

Title Case and Headline Style - Definition and Examples
Title case is one of the conventions used for capitalizing the words in a title: capitalize the first word, the last word, and all major words in between.

What Was 'Good English' a Century Ago?
I've been thumbing through old books on business writing and office etiquette to find a reasonable definition of

Sentence Combining Exercises in the 19th Century - William Swinton's Exercises in Composition-Writing
In 1872, grammarian William Swinton introduced several teaching methods based on

typo - definition and examples of typographical errors
A typo (short for typographical error) is an error in typing or printing, especially one caused by striking an incorrect key on a keyboard.

Only One Is a Word - Another Quiz on 25 Commonly Misspelled Words
In each pair, only one is a word; the other is a common misspelling of that word. See if you can identify the correctly spelled word in each set.

Only One Is a Word - Another Quiz on Commonly Misspelled Words - 25 Commonly Confused Words
In this follow-up to our first Quiz on 25 Commonly Misspelled Words, you may find that some of the words are a little less common and a bit more challenging. Here are the answers to

Composing Sentences
Sentence combining calls on you to experiment with different ways of building sentences and organizing paragraphs. A detailed knowledge of formal grammar is not required to complete these exercises. Regular practice in sentence combining should help you to develop a writing style that is both correct and effective.

Spelling Matters
Does the occasional slip of the pen really matter? Decide for yourself as you review our most recent collection of (mis)spelling-related items in the news.

The American Dialect Society's Words of the Year - 1990 to the Present
Here, as determined by the American Dialect Society, are the words and expressions that have been recognized as Words of the Year since 1990.

psittacism - definition and examples of parrot writing
Psittacism is the parrot-like use of language: thoughtless repetition of words and phrases without regard for their meaning.

Brief Introductions to 30 Common Figures of Speech
What's the difference between a metaphor and a simile? personification and apostrophe? understatement and litotes? alliteration and assonance? Find out here.

Six Precepts for Writers From the Economist Style Guide
The Economist Style Guide is helpful, sensible, and refreshingly unstuffy. In other words, it heeds its own advice.

The Lowest Animal, by Mark Twain (page two) - Classic American Essays
Through a series of comparisons and examples, Twain argues that

The Lowest Animal, by Mark Twain, 1896
Through a series of comparisons and examples, Twain argues that

The Battle of the Ants (page two) - Classic American Essays
This excerpt from chapter 12 of

Love, by Henry David Thoreau - Classic American Essays
Biographer Robert D. Richardson says that despite the faults of Thoreau's essay,

Love, by Henry David Thoreau (page two) - Classic American Essays
Biographer Robert D. Richardson says that despite the faults of Thoreau's essay,

Henry David Thoreau on the Art of Writing - Thoreau Quotations
As these excerpts from his journal demonstrate, Henry David Thoreau's passionate reflections on writing may hold lessons for us all.

Born and Borne: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words born and borne: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

The Commonly Confused Words 'Born' and 'Borne'
The commonly confused words born and borne: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Emit and Omit - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

Emit and Omit: Answers to Practice Exercises - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words

The Subjunctive Mood, by James Thurber
One American writer who fought to preserve the subjunctive mood--and use it correctly--was humorist James Thurber.

The Importance of Citing Sources in Reports and Term Papers
Whether we're writing online or on paper, identifying sources is more than good etiquette.

18 Words About Words
If you take pleasure in words--their sounds, shapes, and multiple meanings--you'll probably also enjoy these words about words.

Laugh Lines From Bart, Lisa, Sideshow Bob, and Krusty the Clown
For your edification and amusement, here are some brief language lessons from one of the longest-running programs on television.

Last Year, by Horace Smith - Classic British Essays
In this look back at the year gone by, Smith offers evidence that

20 Uncommon Terms for Common Rhetorical Strategies
As a sequel to the article

The Pleasure of Quarrelling, by H.G. Wells - Classic British Essays - Classification and Process Analysis Essay by H.G. Wells
In this witty essay, British author H.G. Wells combines strategies of classification and process analysis as he examines the four principles of quarreling effectively.

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The Gift o' Gab, by Ambrose Bierce - Classic American Essays
Satirist Ambrose Bierce expresses his

The Clothing of Ghosts, by Ambrose Bierce - Classic American Essays
In his short sardonic essay

Top 10 Typos - Our Favorite Typographical Errors
For proofreaders everywhere, here are 10 of our favorite typographical errors.

Quick Tips on How to Fix 5 Common Writing Errors
Here are examples of five common writing errors--with brief instructions on how to fix them.

Janus Words: Two-Faced Words for the New Year
Our favorite Janus word for the new year is the noun

Look at Your Fish! - Essay by Samuel Hubbard Scudder
Scudder recalls his first encounter with Professor Agassiz, who subjected his research students to a rigorous exercise in observation and analysis.

Paragraph Transition - Definition and Examples
A paragraph transition is a word, phrase, or sentence that marks a shift in thought from one paragraph to the next.

A Trick for Overcoming Writer's Block and Getting Into a Writing Frame of Mind
Listing can help us overcome writer's block and discover fresh topics for paragraphs and essays.

Aristotle at Afternoon Tea, by Oscar Wilde - Classic Essays
In his review essay

English Language Facts and Figures-Notes on Verbs
In this edition of Language Notes, we turn our attention to the most active part of speech: verbs.

Sample Topics for Comparison & Contrast Essays
To be effective, a comparison-contrast essay needs to be focused on particular methods, characters, and themes. These ten sample topics demonstrate different ways of achieving that focus in a critical essay.

Exercise in Identifying Effective Thesis Statements
This exercise will help you understand the difference between an effective and an ineffective thesis statement--a sentence that identifies the main idea and central purpose of an essay.

Answers to the Exercise in Identifying Effective Thesis Statements
On this page you'll find suggested answers to the exercise on page one: Identifying Effective Thesis Statements. Page 2.

Vignette: Definition and Examples of Vignettes in Prose
A verbal sketch, a brief essay, or any carefully crafted short work of prose, either fiction or nonfiction.

What Is a Humorous Essay? - Definition and Examples
A type of personal or familiar essay with the primary aim of amusing readers rather than informing or persuading them.

Epideictic Rhetoric - Definition and Examples
Speech or writing that praises or blames.

Confirmation Bias - Definition and Examples
Confirmation bias is the tendency to accept evidence that confirms our beliefs and to reject evidence that contradicts them.

Transitional Paragraph - Definition & Example
A short paragraph in an essay, composition, or report that announces a shift from one section or idea to another.

Identifying Nouns Parts of Speech Exercise
This exercise, based on the opening sentences in Raymond Chandler's novel

Exercise in Identifying Nouns - Practice in Recognizing the Parts of Speech - Answers to Exercise
This exercise, based on the opening sentences in Raymond Chandler's novel

Sentence-Imitation Exercise: Complex Sentences
This sentence-imitation exercise will give you practice in connecting independent clauses with dependent clauses using subordinating conjunctions.

Science Writing - Definition and Examples
(1) Writing about scientific subject matter, often in a non-technical manner for an audience of non-scientists. (2) Writing that reports scientific observations and results in a manner governed by specific conventions.

A Brief History of Punctuation (Who Made Up the Rules?)
Hemingway's attitude toward punctuation sounds sensible: know the rules before you break them. But who made up these rules in the first place?

Figurative Language Exercise: Metaphors and Similes
The eight passages in this exercise are richly developed with metaphors and similes. Your job is to identify these figures of speech and explain their significance.

Paronym - Definition & Examples
(1) A word that is derived from the same root as another word. (2) A word linked to another by similarity of form.

Pragmatic Competence - Definition and Examples
The ability to use language in a contextually appropriate fashion.

Optative Mood: Definition & Examples - English Grammar
Optative is a category of grammatical mood that expresses a wish, hope, or desire.

Lexicology - Definition and Examples
The branch of linguistics that studies the stock of words (the lexicon) in a given language.

Sentence Completion Exercise - Parallelism - Using Parallel Structures - Sample Answers
Here are sample responses to the sentence completion exercise on parallelism. Page 2.

Sentence Completion Exercise: Parallelism
The 20 sentences in this exercise will give you practice in using parallel structures effectively.

Letter of Recommendation - Definition and Examples
A letter in which a writer evaluates the skills, work habits, and achievements of an individual applying for a job, admission to graduate school, or some other professional position.

Linguistic Performance - Definition and Examples
The ability to produce and comprehend sentences in a language

Dialectic (Rhetoric) - Definition and Examples
Dialectic is the practice of arriving at a conclusion by the exchange of logical arguments, usually in the form of questions and answers.

Disjunct - Definition and Examples
(1) A type of sentence adverb that comments on the content or manner of what is being said or written. (2) Any of two or more items connected by a disjunctive conjunction (

What Is a Caricature?
Find out the definition of caricature, its examples, how it can be used in a sentence, and applied in everyday life.

Adjectival - Definition and Examples
(1) A cover term for a single adjective or a word group with an adjective as a head. (2) A word or phrase that functions as an adjective to modify a noun.

Exercise in Identifying Adverb Clauses - Sentence Structures - Answers to Practice Exercises
This exercise will give you practice in identifying the adverb clauses in ten proverbial sayings. Page 2.

Exercise in Identifying Adverb Clauses - Sentence Structures
This exercise will give you practice in identifying the adverb clauses in ten proverbial sayings.

Identifying Adjective Clauses in "Hunger of Memory"
This exercise will give you practice in identifying the adjective clauses in 10 sentences adapted from a paragraph in Richard Rodriguez's memoir

Exercise in Identifying Adjective Clauses - Answers to the Exercises
This exercise will give you practice in identifying the adjective clauses in ten sentences adapted from a paragraph in Richard Rodriguez's memoir

Sexist Language Definition and Examples
Words and phrases that demean, ignore, or stereotype members of either sex or that needlessly call attention to gender.

Obituary - Definition and Examples
A published notice of a person's death, often with a brief biography of the deceased.

Nigerian English - Culture and Language of Nigeria
The varieties of the English language that are used in the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Definition and Examples of Memoirs
A memoir is a form of creative nonfiction in which an author recounts experiences from his or her life.

Non Sequitur - Definition and Examples
A non sequitur is a fallacy in which a conclusion does not follow logically from what preceded it.

Literary Present - Definition and Examples
The literary present is the use of a verb phrase in the present tense to refer to any aspect of a work of literature.

Indicative Mood - Definition and Examples
In traditional grammar, indicative mood is the mood of the verb used in ordinary objective statements and questions.

Identifying Infinitive Phrases - Exercises and Practice
This exercise will test your ability to recognize infinitive phrases and distinguish them from prepositional phrases.

Answers to the Exercise in Identifying Infinitive Phrases - Practice in Distinguishing Infinitive Phrases From Prepositional Phrases
Here are the answers to the Exercise in Identifying Infinitive Phrases. Page 2.

Fragment - Definition and Examples of Incomplete Sentences
A fragment is a group of words that begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, question mark, or exclamation point but is grammatically incomplete.

Foregrounding - Definition and Examples
In stylistics, linguistic strategies that call attention to themselves, causing the reader's attention to shift away from what is said to how it is said.

Evaluation Essay - Definition and Examples
A composition that offers value judgments about a subject according to a set of criteria.

Digression - Definition and Examples
The act of departing from the main subject in speech or writing to discuss an apparently unrelated topic.

Disjunction - Definition and Examples
Disjunction is a coordinate construction that uses a disjunctive conjunction (usually or or either . . . or).

Sample Letter - Professor's Recommendation of a Student
In this sample letter of recommendation, a college professor recommends a student for a place in a graduate program.

Diacritic Mark Definition and Examples
In phonetics, read the definition of diacritic mark.

Of Self-Praising, by Thomas Fuller
Fuller's wit and aphoristic style are clearly on display in the five-paragraph essay

Writing Prompts for Paragraphs
Use the following topic sentences as prompts to help you discover fresh images, examples, and narrative details.

Ernest Hemingway's Star Style Guide (Excerpts)
Hemingway said that

Peal and Peel - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words peal and peel: definitions, examples, idiom alerts, and practice exercises.

Peal and Peel: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words peal and peel: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

asteismus - definition and examples in rhetoric
Asteismus is a rhetorical term for a mocking or facetious reply that employs word play.

What Does It Mean to Feel at Home With Books?
Without the physical presence of books in the house, will children experience the same sense of discovery and adventure?

A Word for Autumn by A.A. Milne - Classic British Essays
In

The Diary Habit, by A.A. Milne - Classic British Essays
In

The Diary Habit, a classic essay by Gelett Burgess
In this essay, Burgess first questions the purpose of keeping a diary and then provides excerpts from the day book he has kept for seven years.

Definition and examples of adjectivitis--the excessive use of modifiers.
Adjectivitis is an informal term for the use of needless or overwrought modifiers in writing or speech

Purple Prose - Definition and Examples
Purple prose is a generally pejorative term for writing or speech that is characterized by ornate or flowery language.

15 Fresh Examples of Classical Figures of Speech
Roughly 2,500 years ago, Greek rhetoricians identified many of the key figures of speech. Here are 15 contemporary examples of those ancient figures.

200 Homonyms, Homophones, and Homographs
Homonyms, homophones, and homographs are words that are easily confused because they look alike or sound alike (or both) but have different meanings. These charts--which list some of the most common homonyms, homophones, and homographs--should help you to recognize the differences between many commonly confused words.

The Art of the Freshman Essay: Still Boring From Within?
By 1963, formulaic writing was well established as the norm in English classes throughout the U.S. Have we made any progress since then?

Questions and answers about English usage
Let's look at a pair of commonly confused verbs, a tricky case of subject-verb agreement, a much abused logical fallacy, and a trendy intensifier.

Spelling and Memory Prompts - Principal and Principle
Mnemonics can help us remember how to spell some commonly confused words, but certain memory aids create more problems than they solve.

What's the Purpose of Using Figures of Speech?
Since ancient times, the figures of speech have served these three main purposes.

Distill and Instill - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused verbs distill and instill: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Distill and Instill - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused verbs

Richard Lederer's poem on irregular verbs in English.
In his poem

Eliza Doolittle’s Grammar - Definitions of Grammar
Brief lessons in grammar and usage from My Fair Lady.

Dickens On Language: Tope’s Tenses, Pip’s Conjugations, Mrs. Merdle’s Verbs - Charles Dickens at 200
To mark the 200th birthday of Charles Dickens, we've gathered some of his characters' most memorable observations on the English language.

Lying Awake, by Charles Dickens (page two) - Classic British Essays


Lying Awake, by Charles Dickens - Classic British Essays


Mr. Barlow, by Charles Dickens - Classic British Essays - Profiles
In this wrathful character sketch, Dickens describes the

Mr. Barlow, by Charles Dickens (page two) - Classic British Essays - Profiles
In this wrathful character sketch, Dickens describes the

disputation - definition and examples of disputations in rhetoric
In classical rhetoric and literature, a disputation is a formal argument or debate.

agonistic - definition and examples
In rhetoric, agonistic refers to a discussion, debate, or argument perceived as a competition or contest.

polemic - definition and examples
A polemic is a mode of writing or speaking that uses vigorous and combative language to defend or oppose someone or something.

Joyce Carol Oates on Writing - Don't Give Up
Even for an author who's as prolific and accomplished as Joyce Carol Oates, writing does not always come easily.

Monty Python's "Announcement for People Who Like Figures of Speech" - Definitions and Examples
Monty Python's

The Editor of the Breakfast Table - Charles J. Shields on the Gift of Editing
In this article, biographer Charles J. Shields thanks his father for a gift that long went unappreciated--the gift of editing.

What Are the Characteristics of a Good Editor?
Try evaluating your editor (or teacher, colleague, or mom) according to the qualities identified by these ten professionals.

A Rhetorical Analysis of Claude McKay's "Africa"
In this short critical essay, student Heather Glover offers a concise rhetorical analysis of a sonnet by Claude McKay.

Icon, Iconic, and Other Overworked Words
Find out why poet M.E. Tuthill has grown fed up with the abuse and overuse of the words

humanities - definitions and examples
The humanities are the academic disciplines and branches of knowledge concerned with the creative expressions and experiences of humans.

bloviation - definition and examples of bloviating
Bloviation is speech or writing that is wordy, pompous, and generally empty of meaning.

Written English - Definition and Examples
Written English is the transmission of the English language through a conventional system of graphic symbols.

Baroque Style in English Prose and Poetry
In literary studies and rhetoric, baroque is a style of writing that is extravagant, heavily ornamented, and/or bizarre.

Predicator - Definition and Examples
In clauses and sentences, the predicator is the head of a verb phrase. The predicator is sometimes called the main verb.

Tom Swifty: Definition and Examples (Word Play)
A Tom Swifty is a type of word play in which there is a punning relationship between an adverb and the statement it refers to.

occultatio - definition and examples of occultatio or occupatio in rhetoric
Occultatio is the rhetorical strategy of calling attention to something by passing over it quickly and refusing to elaborate on its significance.

What Are Weasel Words? - Origins and Examples
The expression

lemon squeezer - definition and examples of rhetorical analysis
Lemon squeezer is rhetorician Richard A. Lanham's term for

Of Discourse, by Francis Bacon - Classic British Essays
In the essay titled

Of Revenge, by Francis Bacon - Classic British Essays
Bacon argues in his essay

The Man Who Interrupts, by Bill Nye - Classic American Essays
In this highly metaphorical essay, Bill Nye condemns the type of person who habitually violates the social conventions of conversation

deadline - definition and examples of writing deadlines in composition
In composition, the latest time by which a writing project may be submitted to an editor or instructor for review or publication.

discontinuity (grammar) - definition and examples of discontinuous constructions in English grammar
In grammar, the breaking up of a construction by the insertion of another word, phrase, or clause.

spellchecker - definition and examples
A spellchecker is a computer application that identifies possible misspellings in a text by referring to the accepted spellings in a database.

tweet - definition, examples, and discussion of Twitter and tweets in language studies
A tweet is a short text (up to 140 characters) posted on Twitter, an online social-networking service.

Samuel Johnson on Reading and Writing - Writers on Writing
This collection of Samuel Johnson's observations on reading and writing draws on Boswell's biography as well as many of Johnson's own writings.

Genius and Individuality, by John Stuart Mill - Classic British Essays
The short essay

Thoughts on the Subject of Early Marriages, by Benjamin Franklin - Classic American Essays
In this letter, Benjamin Franklin refutes conventional wisdom and argues that couples who marry at a young age

Dew, Do, and Due - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words dew, do, and due: definitions, examples, idiom alerts, and practice exercises.

broken-record response - definition and examples of broken-record responses in English
The broken-record response is the conversational strategy of forestalling further discussion by repeating the same phrase or sentence over and over.

On Laziness by Christopher Morley - Classic Essay
As you read Morley's short essay (originally published in 1920), consider whether your definition of laziness is the same as the author's.

The Autumn and the Fall of Leaves, by Hilaire Belloc
Although the body of Belloc's essay is primarily descriptive, notice how the theme introduced in the opening paragraph is woven throughout the text.

How to Explore and Focus a Topic: 50 Questions
One of the most productive ways to narrow your topic for an essay, speech, or research paper is to ask a series of questions--such as these.

A Sentimental Essay on Death, by James Boswell - Classic British Essays
In Boswell's time, unlike our own, the word

Shakespeare Explained: Carrying on the System of Footnotes to a Silly Extreme - A Classic Comic Essay by Robert Benchley
In this essay, Benchley parodies a certain kind of academic writing--one in which an excess of footnotes distracts the reader from the main text.

Business Letters by Robert Benchley - Classic British and American Essays
In this comic essay, a brief model of business writing inspires Robert Benchley to compose a fanciful narrative.

Of Spring, by Samuel Johnson - Classic British Essays
Johnson encourages his younger readers

Of Spring, by Samuel Johnson (page two) - Classic British Essays
After describing the discontent of those who lose themselves in dreams of

For, Fore, and Four - Glossary of Usage
The three little words

For, Fore, and Four - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words for, fore, and four: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

subject pronoun - definition and examples in English
In English grammar, a subject pronoun is a pronoun used as the subject of a clause or as a subject complement.

object pronoun - definitions and examples
An object pronoun is a pronoun that is used in a sentence as a direct object, an indirect object, or the object of a preposition.

free modifier - definition and examples of free modifiers in English
Generally, a free modifier is a phrase or clause that modifies either the main clause or another free modifier.

Enargia - Definition and Examples in Rhetoric
Enargia is a rhetorical term for a visually powerful description that recreates something or someone in words.

Displacement in Language - Definition and Examples
Displacement is a characteristic of language that allows users to talk about things and events other than those occurring in the here and now.

hypozeuxis - definition and examples
Although hypozeuxis may sound like a sneeze, it's actually a rhetorical term for a sentence in which each clause has its own subject and verb.

Definition and Examples of Phronesis
In classical rhetoric, phronesis is prudence or practical wisdom.

doxa - definition and examples of doxa
In classical rhetoric, doxa is the domain of opinion, belief, or probable knowledge--in contrast to episteme, the domain of certainty.

Bail and Bale - Commonly Confused Words
Differences between the commonly confused words bail and bale: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Bail and Bale - Glossary of Usage
Differences between the commonly confused words bail and bale: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Peak, Peek and Pique - Commonly Confused Words
Definitions and examples of three commonly confused words: peak, peek, and pique.

Peak, Peek, and Pique - Answers to Practice Exercises
Definitions and examples of three commonly confused words: peak, peek, and pique. Page 2.

Declamations in Classical Rhetoric
A declamation is a formal speech, one of the traditional rhetorical exercises practiced in the schools of ancient Greece and Rome.

false possessive - definition and examples of false possessives in English grammar
False possessive is a term in prescriptive grammar for the inappropriate use of an apostrophe at the end of a word.

Angel and Angle - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words angel and angle: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Angel and Angle - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words angel and angle: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

12 Maxims for Writers - Advice From Writers on Writing
Take a minute to consider these 12 nuggets of writerly advice.

gadzookery - definition and examples of gadzookery
Gadzookery refers to the use or overuse of archaic words or expressions.

Notes on "Do" - Ten Things You Can Do With the Verb "Do"
As an auxiliary verb,

Of Loquacity and Tediousness in Discourse, by Owen Felltham - Classic British Essays
In this classic essay, Owen Felltham blends forceful figures of speech with uncommon directness.

emphatic 'do' - definition and examples in English grammar
Emphatic 'do' refers to the use of a form of the verb 'do' to add emphasis to an affirmative sentence. Here are some examples.

Edited American English - Definition and Examples of Edited American English
Edited American English is the variety of Standard American English used in most forms of academic writing.

Of Travel, by Owen Felltham - Classic British Essays
After considering the benefits of travel, Felltham cautions that

Chafe and Chaff - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words chafe and chaff: definitions, examples, and practice exercises.

Chafe and Chaff - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words chafe and chaff: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Ascribe and Subscribe - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Ascribe and Subscribe - Glossary of Usage
The commonly confused words ascribe and subscribe: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Assumption and Presumption - Commonly Confused Words
The commonly confused words assumption and presumption: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Assumption and Presumption: Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words

Attain and Obtain - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words attain and obtain: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Attain and Obtain
The commonly confused words attain and obtain: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Dr. Mardy Grothe's Mountain of Metaphors
Dr. Mardy Grothe has assembled the largest and most authoritative collection of metaphors, similes, and analogies on the Web.

On Happiness, by Mark Rutherford (William Hale White)
Happiness, says Mark Rutherford, is the one thing worth having, and low or high, if it does no mischief, is better than the most spiritual misery.

Loan and Lone - Commonly Confused Words
Learn the difference between the commonly confused words loan and lone: definitions, examples, usage notes, and practice exercises.

Loan and Lone - Answers to Practice Exercises
The commonly confused words loan and lone: answers to practice exercises. Page 2.

Solitude, by Alice Meynell - Classic British Essays
In this classic essay, Meynell makes clear that she greatly values a certain kind of solitude (as opposed to loneliness).

assemblage errors - definition and examples in English
An assemblage error is an unintentional rearrangement of sounds, letters, syllables, or words in speech or writing.

The Invisible Mark of Punctuation: The Paragraph Break - The Functions of Paragraph Breaks in English Prose
American author and literary agent Noah Lukeman discusses an important yet frequently overlooked mark of punctuation--the paragraph break.

The Apostrophe Quiz
This quiz will give you practice in applying the Guidelines for Using Apostrophes Correctly.

Answers to the Apostrophe Quiz
Here are the answers to the Apostrophe Quiz on page one. Page 2.

Ekphrasis - Definition and Examples in Rhetoric
Ekphrasis is a rhetorical and poetic figure in which a visual object (usually a work of art) is vividly described in words.

Evaluating a Claim Letter - Exercise in Analyzing and Evaluating a Letter of Complaint
This exercise will help you identify the characteristics of an effective letter of complaint. Analyze the claim letter from a subscriber to Qwickster, and then respond to the questions that follow.

Practice in Identifying Coordinating Conjunctions - The Dr. Seuss Edition
A coordinating conjunction (also called a coordinator) is a word that joins two or more items in a sentence. In this exercise, you'll practice identifying coordinating conjunctions in sentences written by famous children's book author Dr. Seuss.

Practice in Identifying Coordinating Conjunctions - Answers to the Identification Exercise
On this page you'll find the answers to the exercise Practice in Identifying Coordinating Conjunctions. Page 2.

presence - definition and examples of rhetorical presence
In rhetoric and argumentation, the choice to emphasize certain facts and ideas over others in order to secure the attention of an audience.

writing system - definition and examples of writing systems
A writing system is a symbolic method for visually recording language.

tagmemics - definition and examples of tagmemics
A system of linguistic analysis that attempts to integrate grammatical, phonological, semantic and pragmatic information.

preface - definition, discussion, and examples of prefaces in English
A statement at the beginning of an article, speech, or book that typically explains the purpose, scope, and/or background of the text that follows.

enantiosis - definition and examples of enantiosis in rhetoric
In rhetoric, a figure of speech that expresses an idea by way of a word (or of words) opposite in meaning.

negative polarity - definition and examples of negative polarity in English
Words and phrases that typically occur only in negative contexts.

colloquialization - definition and examples of colloquialization in English
The process of incorporating informal, speech-like features into written English.

Definition and Examples of Cue Phrases in English
A cue word or phrase is a connective expression that links spans of discourse and signals semantic relations in a text.

Colligation Definition and Examples in Language
in language, read the definition and examples of colligation here.

commiseratio - definition and examples of commiseratio in rhetoric
A rhetorical term for the appeal to pity: that is, a speaker's evocation of sympathy or pity for his or her case.

computational linguistics - definition and examples of computational linguistics
A multidisciplinary field concerned with the processing of language by computers.