19th Century History Sitemap - Page 1 2016-09-26

Newspapers and Journalists of the 1800s
The newspaper business grew throughout the 1800s, guided by pioneering editors and spurred by technological advances.

Henry J. Raymond
Henry J. Raymond founded the New York Times and brought about a new era of American journalism devoted to reliable reporting.

The 1893 Lynching By Fire of Henry Smith
The lynching of Henry Smith, who was burned alive before a large Texas crowd in 1893, shocked many but did nothing to end the scourge of lynching.

19th Century History: People and Events of the 1800s
Learn more about 19th century history with this About.com resource of factual articles about the most significant characters and events of the 1800s.

Society of United Irishmen
The Society of United Irishmen began as a political organization but transformed into a secret rebel army in the 1790s.

Theobald Wolfe Tone
Theobald Wolfe Tone was an Irish radical and founder of the United Irishmen who tried to spark a rebellion against British rule in 1798.

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
The impeachment of President Andrew Johnson was a political spectacle that transfixed the country in 1868.

Definition of Abolitionist
Definition of abolitionist. 19th Century History.

Definition of Clipper Ship
Clipper ships were built for long-distance travel at top speed, and in their day they represented the highest level of the shipbuilding.

Benjamin Day | Founder of the Penny Press
Benjamin Day started the era of the penny press in the 1830s when he launched The Sun, a New York City newspaper which sold for one cent.

Bare Knuckles Boxing
Bare knuckles were used in boxing matches before the rules changed late in the 19th century.

Kitchen Cabinet, Origin of the Term and Its Political Meaning
Andrew Jackson's informal circle of advisers was called his Kitchen Cabinet, and the term is still used today in political discussions.

Ireland's History in the 1800s
Links to info about the history of Ireland in the 1800s, marked by the Great Famine as well as by a series of rebellions against British rule.

Lord Edward Fitzgerald
Lord Edward Fitzgerald, an Irish aristocrat, sought to use his military training to revolt against the British until informers thwarted his plans.

Notable Authors of the 19th Century
The 19th century was known for literary figures. Read about authors of the 1800s, including Dickens, Whitman, Irving, Melville, Irving, and Poe.

Notable Authors of the 19th Century
The 19th century was known for literary figures. Read about authors of the 1800s, including Dickens, Whitman, Irving, Melville, Irving, and Poe.

The McCormick Reaper
The reaping machine invented by Cyrus McCormick changed farm life forever by making it possible for farmers to harvest more grain.

Routes to the American West in the 1800s
For settlers who wanted to head west, there were major routes to follow, which included a major canal, an early paved road, and trails fraught with danger.

South Pass
The South Pass through the Continental Divide became a highly significant landmark along the Oregon Trail beginning in the 1840s.

King Cotton, the Phrase That Defined the Economy of the South
The phrase King Cotton came to mean the reliance the American South had one its largest crop, and how that influenced major issues in American history.

The Prairie Schooner, America's Classic Covered Wagon
The prairie schooner was the classic covered wagon of the west, a substantially different vehicle than its eastern cousin, the Conestoga wagon.

Crimes and Disasters
The 19th century was marked by crimes which ranged from notorious murders to rampant political corruption, and disasters that included cataclysmic fires, floods, and volcanic eruptions.

19th Century Crimes
Notable crimes of the 19th century.

Fenian Movement: Late 19th Century Irish Rebels
Ireland's Fenian Movement of the late 19th century was known for dramatic failures, but it still inspired generations of Irish nationalists.

Nathaniel Hawthorne
Nathaniel Hawthorne became a prominent American novelist of the 19th century basing his fiction on dark themes running through American history.

Jonathan Letterman
Jonathan Letterman, a U.S. Army surgeon in the Civil War, revolutionized the way armies handled the care of those wounded in battle.

Tappan Brothers, Abolitionist Philanthropists
The Tappan brothers, Arthur and Lewis, were wealthy New York merchants who financed the efforts of the abolitionist movement.

Nat Turner's Rebellion
Nat Turner's Rebellion was a brief yet shockingly violent 1831 uprising by slaves in Virginia which both shocked and inspired and resonated for decades.

Pierre de Coubertin, Founder of the Modern Olympics
Concise biography of Pierre de Coubertin, founder of the modern Olympics, who organized the Olympic games in Athens in 1896.

American Presidents Who Owned Slaves
Eight of the first ten American presidents owned slaves, and a surprising number of their successors were slave owners in the decades before the Civil War.

1840s History Timeline
The decade of the 1840s was marked by the Mexican War, the discovery of gold in California, and the launch of the ill-fated Franklin Expedition.

Why Did the Lewis and Clark Expedition Cross North America?
The reasons Lewis and Clark traveled to the Pacific Ocean and back included an official reason given to Congress and other more practical reasons.

Significance of the Battle of Gettysburg
Five reasons why the Battle of Gettysburg mattered.

Five Points Neighborhood in New York City
Learn about the Five Points, a notorious neighborhood in New York City in the 1800s.

The Election of 1884 - Cleveland and Blaine
The election of 1884 was notable for mudslinging, scandals, and a last-minute gaffe that allowed Grover Cleveland to defeat the favorite, James G. Blaine.

Election of 1828 | Dirtiest Presidential Campaign Ever
The election of 1828 was perhaps the dirtiest in American history, as the Jackson and Adams campaigns threw scurrilous charges at each other.

Voyage of Charles Darwin Aboard H.M.S. Beagle
HMS Beagle carried Charles Darwin around the world for five years and influenced his later thinking about how life evolved.

Timelines of Historic Events of the 1800s
The 19th century was a time of tremendous change, and this comprehensive timeline will help you navigate through the decades of the 1800s.

U.S. Legislative Compromises Over Slavery, 1820-1854
Compromises over slavery delayed the Civil War: The Missouri Compromise of 1820, the Compromise of 1850, and 1854's Kansas-Nebraska Act

Slavery
Despite the great advances of the 19th century, the period will also be known for slavery. The slave trade was eventually eliminated, and in the United States the abolition movement became a great moral force. Conflict centered around slavery eventually led the United States into a tragic war between the states. On the other side of the world, in Russia, the serfs were liberated.

Atlantic Telegraph Cable Timeline
A timeline showing progress, and struggles, of laying the Atlantic telegraph cable between North America and Europe.

Founding of the Republican Party
The founding of the Republican Party occurred in the mid-1850s, sparked by anti-slavery activists responding to the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

Timeline from 1870 to 1880
The 1870s were marked by Custer meeting his end at the Little Bighorn, construction work on the Brooklyn Bridge, Queen Victoria taking an imperial title, and Bismarck provoking the Franco-Prussian War.

Hisorical Timeline from 1860 to 1870
A timeline of the 1860s, including the American Civil War, the greatest historical event of the decade, as well as other events around the world.

Timeline from 1820 to 1830
The 1820s were a decade of exciting changes. October 26, 1825: The entire length of the Erie Canal was officially opened across New York.

William Lloyd Garrison | Biography of the Abolitionist
William Lloyd Garrison, the abolitionist publisher of The Liberator, was an ardent crusader against slavery.

Timeline from 1800 to 1810
A timeline from 1800 to 1810 represents a period of expansion and exploration in the United States and a time of warfare and turmoil in Europe.

Washington Irving
Washington Irving popularized the terms Gotham and Knickerbocker as well as creating unforgettable characters like Rip Van Winkle.

Timeline from 1890 to 1900 - Significant Events
The 1890s: A decade of events ranging from the Lizzie Borden murder case, the First Modern Olympics, to the U.S.S. Maine mysteriously exploding.

1880 to 1890: Timeline of Significant Events
The timeline of the 1880s includes labor unrest, turmoil in Russia, warfare in Afghanistan, and celebrations for new landmarks in New York City.

The Institution of Slavery in America
Slavery in the United States had a long, complicated, and tragic history. As millions suffered in bondage, legislative compromises attempted to address what became the central political issue of America in the early 19th century.

Cornelius Vanderbilt
Cornelius Vanderbilt, known as The Commodore, amassed a huge fortune in 19th century America after starting out with one boat in New York Harbor.

Preston Brooks Beat Charles Sumner Over Anti-Slavery Speech
A southern congressman beat an anti-slavery senator from Massachusetts with a cane in the U.S. Capitol as tensions over slavery boiled over in May 1856.

American originals
As the United States rose to prominence throughout the 1800s, some of its citizens became the celebrities, wits, and fashion setters of the day. What would become known as the American character arrived on the scene, thanks to such luminaries as Mark Twain, Buffalo Bill Cody, and the great showman Phineas T. Barnum.

Abolitionist Pamphlet Campaign
Mailing anti-slavery pamphlets to slave states erupted into a national controversy in 1835, when mobs broke into southern post offices and burned the mails.

The Cholera Epidemic of 1832
The cholera epidemic of 1832 afflicted major cities of Europe as well as North America, killing thousands and creating widespread panic.

Famous Murders of the 19th Century
The 19th century had its share of famous murders, including the Lizzie Borden murder case, the Lincoln assassination, and the murder of Helen Jewett.

Abraham Lincoln's Visit to the Five Points
Abraham Lincoln, on a visit to New York City in early 1860, visited the Five Points, the country's most notorious slum.

John L. Sullivan | Biography of Early Boxing Champion
The boxer John L. Sullivan attained enormous fame in the late 1800s as one of the first great sports figures in America.

Historic Timeline From 1850 to 1860
The decade of the 1850s was marked by controversy over slavery in the United States, the Crimean War fought between Russian and European powers, and the rapid growth of steam-power travel on water and land.

Arthur Conan Doyle and Sherlock Holmes
Scottish-born author Arthur Conan Doyle created one of the world's most famous characters, Sherlock Holmes.

John C. Frémont - Biography of "The Pathfinder"
John C. Frémont was a controversial figure who explored the American West and was hailed as a living symbol of Manifest Destiny.

Great Triumvirate: Clay, Webster, and Calhoun
Three powerful senators, Clay, Webster, and Calhoun, each representing a particular region of the nation, defined American politics for decades in the 1800s.

Massacre of British Army in Afghanistan in 1842
A British Army was massacred in January 1842 while retreating from Kabul, Afghanistan and only one man survived to tell the horrifying story.

Daniel O'Connell - Biography of Irish Statesman
O'Connell exerted great influence on the relations between the Irish people and their English rulers in the 19th century, agitating for civil rights.

Definition of Nullification Crisis
The Nullification Crisis, an early battle over the idea of secession, arose when John C. Calhoun of South Carolina resisted federal power.

The Crimean War
The Crimean War of 1854-56 was waged by allies Britain and France against Russia, and was provoked over obscure reasons.

Baseball Stars of the 1800s
A look at baseball stars of the 19th century includes pioneers of the curveball and early practitioners of strategic hitting.

Legendary Pitcher Cy Young
Legendary pitcher Cy Young played baseball more than a century ago and still holds the record for most games won.

Willie Keeler, One of Baseball's Greatest Hitters
Wee Willie Keeler, a star of the 1890s, is remembered as one of the greatest hitters in baseball history.

Buck Ewing
The legendary catcher Buck Ewing was a star of 19th century baseball.

Inventor of the Curveball, Candy Cummings
Pitcher Candy Cummings was said to have invented the curveball in the late 1860s.

Cap Anson
Cap Anson was baseball superstar of the late 1800s whose exploits are overshadowed by his racist behavior.

Legendary Player and Manager John McGraw
John McGraw was a baseball superstar first as a player for the Baltimore Orioles and later as manager of the New York Giants.

King Kelly
King Kelly was a baseball superstar of the 1880s who became known as the Ten Thousand Dollar Beauty.

Billy Hamilton
Billy Hamilton, a baseball star of the late 1800s, set a number of offensive records and may have been the games greatest stealer of bases.

Definition of Mugwumps
The Mugwumps were a political faction which helped to swing the presidential election of 1884 but faded out and did not become a lasting force.

Jacob Riis Biography | Pioneering Photojournalist
Jacob Riis brought attention to the plight of slum dwellers through his pioneering work as a journalist in New York City.

Was Moby Dick a Real Whale?
When Herman Melville wrote his classic novel Moby Dick, he relied on the story of a notorious white whale often sighted in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of South America.

New York City in the 19th Century
New York City became America's greatest metropolis in the 19th century thanks to unforgettable characters from Washington Irving to Boss Tweed.

New York City in the 19th Century
New York City became America's greatest metropolis in the 19th century thanks to unforgettable characters from Washington Irving to Boss Tweed.

Statue of Liberty - Gift From France Rose Above New York Harbor - Historic Images of the Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States, rose above New York harbor in 1886 and became a welcoming symbol to immigrants arriving from around the world. Page 11.

Photograph of the Crowd at Lincoln's First Inaugural
A photographer captured the scene as a large crowd assembled for the inauguration of Abraham Lincoln on March 4, 1861. Page 8.

Andrew Jackson's Inauguration in 1829 Was an Immense and Unruly Celebration
When Andrew Jackson was inaugurated on March 4, 1829 exuberant crowds gathered at the Capitol. Later, at a reception at the White House, guest became so unruly that the celebration was moved outside onto the lawn. Page 2.

Ulysses S. Grant's Second Inauguration, March 4, 1873
A magazine illustration of the second inaugural for President Ulysses S. Grant depicted the procession from the Senate chamber to the east front of the Capitol. Grant is shown passing through the rotunda of the Capitol, surrounded by dignitaries and guests. Page 10.

Grover Cleveland's Inauguration in 1885 Drew a Massive Crowd
When Grover Cleveland was inaugurated in 1885 the Capitol was adorned with bunting. Page 12.

Musicians Parade for President Garfield's Inauguration in 1881
A color lithograph of President James Garfield's inauguration in 1881 depicts a troupe of musicians ascending the steps of the Capitol. Page 11.

Lincoln's Second Inaugural as Photographed by Alexander Gardner
When Abraham Lincoln took the oath of office for the second time, on March 4, 1865, the ceremony was photographed by Alexander Gardner, who had taken photographic portraits of the president on several occasions. Page 9.

Statue of Liberty - Gift From France Rose Above New York Harbor - Historic Images of the Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States, rose above New York harbor in 1886 and became a welcoming symbol to immigrants arriving from around the world. Page 8.

Statue of Liberty - Gift From France Rose Above New York Harbor - Historic Images of the Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States, rose above New York harbor in 1886 and became a welcoming symbol to immigrants arriving from around the world. Page 5.

Statue of Liberty - Gift From France Rose Above New York Harbor - Historic Images of the Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States, rose above New York harbor in 1886 and became a welcoming symbol to immigrants arriving from around the world. The location of the statue, Bedloe's Island, is in the middle of New York harbor. Page 2.

Statue of Liberty - Gift From France Rose Above New York Harbor - Historic Images of the Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States, rose above New York harbor in 1886 and became a welcoming symbol to immigrants arriving from around the world. Page 12.

Statue of Liberty - Gift From France Rose Above New York Harbor - Historic Images of the Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States, rose above New York harbor in 1886 and became a welcoming symbol to immigrants arriving from around the world. The French sculptor Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi designed and built it.

Statue of Liberty - Gift From France Rose Above New York Harbor - Historic Images of the Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States, rose above New York harbor in 1886 and became a welcoming symbol to immigrants arriving from around the world. Page 10.

Statue of Liberty - Gift From France Rose Above New York Harbor - Historic Images of the Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States, rose above New York harbor in 1886 and became a welcoming symbol to immigrants arriving from around the world. Page 7.

Statue of Liberty - Gift From France Rose Above New York Harbor - Historic Images of the Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States, rose above New York harbor in 1886 and became a welcoming symbol to immigrants arriving from around the world. Page 6.

Statue of Liberty - Gift From France Rose Above New York Harbor - Historic Images of the Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States, rose above New York harbor in 1886 and became a welcoming symbol to immigrants arriving from around the world. Page 9.

Statue of Liberty - Gift From France Rose Above New York Harbor - Historic Images of the Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States, rose above New York harbor in 1886 and became a welcoming symbol to immigrants arriving from around the world. Page 4.

Statue of Liberty - Gift From France Rose Above New York Harbor - Historic Images of the Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States, rose above New York harbor in 1886 and became a welcoming symbol to immigrants arriving from around the world. Page 3.

1886: The Statue of Liberty Rises above New York Harbor
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France to the United States, rose above New York harbor in 1886 and became a welcoming symbol to immigrants arriving from around the world.

Inauguration of William Henry Harrison, March 4, 1841
The inauguration of William Henry Harrison would have tragic consequences, as the new president caught a cold which turned into pneumonia and he died after merely one month in office. Page 3.

Inauguration of James Knox Polk in 1845
James Knox Polk would be overshadowed by most other presidents, and in this illustration of his inauguration he is overshadowed by the statue of Christopher Columbus that used to adorn the steps of the Capitol's east front. Page 4.

Abraham Lincoln Rode to His First Inaugural With President James Buchanan
Abraham Lincoln rode to his inauguration with the outgoing chief executive, President James Buchanan. Page 6.

Abraham Lincoln's 1861 Inauguration Occurred In Front of a Half-Finished Capitol Dome
Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated for the first time in 1861, and the ceremony took place on the east front of the Capitol, in front of the new cast iron dome, which was only half-finished. Page 7.

Inauguration of George Washington in New York City in 1789
George Washington was inaugurated at the first President of the United States on April 30, 1789. The ceremony was held on the front of Federal Hall in New York City.

Zachary Taylor's Inauguration in 1849
Zachary Taylor's inauguration as president took place on March 5, 1849. Page 5.

Inauguration Ceremonies Throughout the 19th Century
In the early 1800s, the President of the United States was inaugurated in the Senate chamber of the US Capitol. But the tradition changed for the inauguration of Andrew Jackson, when the ceremony was moved outdoors and became a public event. This gallery shows with vivid images some of the historic inaugurations of the 1800s.

The Battle of Baltimore | War of 1812
The Battle of Baltimore in September 1814 saved the city from falling into British hands during the War of 1812.

Great Swindles of the 19th Century
The 19th century was marked by a number of notorious swindles.

Classic Irish History Books Available Free on the Web
Classic books by 19th century Irish historians are available for free on the web by accessing these convenient links.

Cornelius Vanderbilt and the Robber Barons
Learn about the robber barons, who used ruthless business tactics to acquire great wealth in the late 19th century.

The Election of 1812 | Madison Defeated Clinton
DeWitt Clinton ran a peculiar campaign for president in 1812, but still nearly defeated the incumbent James Madison.

Charles Stewart Parnell | Ireland's Uncrowned King
Irish political leader Charles Stewart Parnell came from a wealthy Protestant Irish family yet became a hero to the oppressed Catholics.

Invention of the Telegraph - 19th Century Communication
In the 19th century the world was changed profoundly by the telegraph, which made transmission of news almost instantaneous. A transatlantic cable made communication possible between America and Europe, and by the end of the century nearly every corner of the world had been reached by the telegraph wire.

The Road to Civil War - 1820-1861
America's road to Civil War stretched for decades as regional conflict, centered on the issue of slavery, threatened to split the Union. Learn about America's long road to Civil War.

George Perkins Marsh | Early Advocate of Conservation
George Perkins Marsh was an early advocate for conservation and published his thoughts in the book Man and Nature.

Clara Barton | Civil War Nurse and Humanitarian
Clara Barton served as a Civil War nurse and founded the American Red Cross.

Exploring the American West in the 19th Century
Lewis and Clark explored the West in the first decade of the 19th century, but other important expeditions followed, making westward expansion possible.

Haiti's Slave Rebellion Prompted the Louisiana Purchase
A slave rebellion in Haiti led to the United States doubling in size, as it convinced the French to sell the Louisiana Purchase.

The Opium Wars - Definition
The Opium Wars were waged by Britain against China, ostensibly over the important of a notorious narcotic.

The Freedmen's Bureau - Agency to Assist Former Slaves
The Freedmen's Bureau, an agency designed to assist former slaves following the Civil War, was controversial yet essential.

Penny Press - One Cent Newspapers
Definition of Penny Press. 19th Century History.

Camels In the US Army
The importation of camels by the U.S. Army was a serious project in the 1850s, masterminded by future Confederate president Jefferson Davis.

Tammany Hall | Political Machine Ran NYC in the 1800s
Tammany Hall was political machine that ran New York City through a system of political patronage, and it was the epitome of corrupt politics in the 1800s.

Financial Panics of the 19th Century
A summary of the financial panics which periodically devastated the American economy throughout the 19th century.

Election of 1860: Lincoln Won at Time of National Crisis
Lincoln's political skills brought him to the White House in one of the most important elections in American history.

East India Company - History of Britain
The East India Company was a private company which, after a long series of wars and diplomatic efforts, came to rule India in the 19th century.

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Thomas Nast's Campaign Against Boss Tweed
The cartoonist Thomas Nast became a legend by drawing caricatures in Harper's Weekly that helped to bring down corrupt politician Boss Tweed.

Robber Baron Definition and History
The term robber baron and the men it described in the late 19th century.

19th Century Disasters
The 19th century was a time of great progress but was also marked by major disasters.

Stereograph of the Custer Monument
The battlefield at the Little Bighorn, where Custer and the 7th Cavalry made their famous Last Stand, is portrayed in a stereograph card, which would appear three dimensional when viewed with a popular optical device of the late 19th century. Page 12.

Custer on a Hunting Party
George Armstrong Custer took to life on the Great Plains, and often enjoyed elaborate hunting expeditions, such as the one portrayed in this vintage photograph. Page 2.

Custer's Became an Icon After His Death
Custer became an American icon after his death. Page 10.

Custer's Funeral at West Point was a Moment of National Mourning
19th Century History. Page 8.

Custer's Last Fight by Alfred Waud
The noted battlefield artist Alfred Waud, portrayed Custer facing death bravely in a drawing which was, of course, not drawn from experience. Page 5.

Custer's Last Fight
Custer was generally portrayed as facing death bravely, such as in this print from the 19th century. Page 3.

George Armstrong Custer at the Site of the Kidder Massacre, 1867
In 1867 Custer saw the result of an Indian attack on a small party of cavalryman.

Grave of Myles Keogh of the 7th Cavalry, Little Bighorn battlefield, Montana
The body of Col. Myles Keogh was buried on the battlefield at the Little Bighorn. Page 7.

Heroic Death of Custer
George Armstrong Custer's death at the Little Bighorn was generally portrayed in very glorious depictions by artists who were not, of course, witnesses to the actual scene. Page 4.

Custer's Last Stand on a Trading Card
Custer's Last Stand became a potent symbol in America, and even before it was immortalized in many western movies, it made its appearance on a cigarette trading card. Page 11.

Sitting Bull, Respected Leader of the Sioux
Sitting Bull was the leader of the Sioux at the time of Custer's encounter with the war parties at the Little Bighorn. Page 6.

Walt Whitman Wrote a Death Sonnet About Custer
The great American poet Walt Whitman was moved by Custer's death, and wrote a death sonnet about the fallen cavalry commander. Page 9.

George Armstrong Custer and His Last Stand - Images of Custer and the Battle of the Little Bighorn
Images of George Armstrong Custer's final battle at the Little Bighorn became iconic in the late 19th century and made Custer a mythic figure.

Frederick Law Olmsted
Frederick Law Olmsted, who pursued several careers before achieving fame as the designer of Central Park in New York City.

The Union Pacific Proceeds Westward
When the Union Pacific railroad reached the 100th meridian a special excursion train brought dignitaries out to the point on the prairie to make the occasion. Page 11.

Across the Continent by Currier & Ives
In the fanciful print by Currier & Ives the railroad heads westward. Page 10.

Danforth Cooke Locomotive Works, Paterson, New Jersey
The Danforth Cooke Locomotive works in Paterson, New Jersey, from a print made in the mid-1800s. Page 4.

The Locomotive General Haupt
The locomotive General Haupt, photographed at Alexandria, Virginia in 1863. Page 6.

The Golden Spike
The final spike for the transcontinental railroad was driven on May 10, 1869, at Promontory Point, Utah. Page 12.

John Bull Locomotive and Cars
This photograph of the John Bull locomotive and its cars was taken in the late 1800s, but this is how the train would have looked while in service decades earlier. Page 3.

The John Bull Locomotive
The John Bull was a locomotive built in England and brought to America in 1831 for service in New Jersey. The locomotive was amazingly durable, and while superseded by larger locomotives, it remained operable for decades. This photograph was taken in 1893. Page 2.

The Potomac Run Bridge
The Potomac Run Bridge railroad bridge in the Civil War, photographed in 1862. Page 5.

The President's Car
The private rail car designed for President Lincoln, which was used as his funeral car. Page 9.

The Cost of War
A locomotive in Richmond in 1865 shows the destruction wrought by the war. Page 7.

Peter Cooper's Tom Thumb Races a Horse
The locomotive Tom Thumb was being demonstrated in late August 1830 when Cooper was challenged to race his steam powered vehicle against a horse.

Locomotive with Lincoln's Car
The locomotive W.H. Whiton with the car of the President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, photographed in January 1865. Page 8.

19th Century Locomotives Photo Gallery
Photographic highlights of the development and importance of the steam locomotive in the 19th century.

History of Ship Christenings With Champagne
The tradition of christening news ships by breaking a bottle of champagne against the bow developed in the 19th century.

John Tyler's Presidency and the Tyler Precedent
The Tyler Precedent established in 1841 clarified who would become president when a president died in office.

What Products Were Made from Whales in the 1800s?
Whales were hunted in the 1800s because a wide array of products, from lamp oil to corsets, were manufactured from their flesh and bone.

Thomas Jefferson | Facts and Brief Biography
The basic facts one should know about Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States and author of the Declaration of Independence.

Late 19th Century Presidents
Articles about presidents following the Civil War.

Morrill Tariff the Real Cause of the Civil War?
The Morrill Tariff, a generally forgotten law, is said by some to be the real reason for the Civil War.

American Civil War
The American Civil War lasted for four eventful years and was a defining event of 19th century America.

Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italy's Revolutionary Hero
The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi became an international celebrity even before he succeeded in uniting Italy.

Causes of the Civil War
Articles about the causes of the Civil War explore how sectional issues centered on the primary issue of slavery split the nation and prompted a very bloody war.

President James Buchanan and the Secession Crisis
President James Buchanan faced a horrendous problem as his term came to an end: the southern states began to leave the Union.

Otto Von Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor
The great Prussian diplomat and political strategist Otto von Bismarck provoked several wars while engaging in his life's work of unifying Germany in the late 1800s.

The Homestead Act
The Homestead Act passed in 1862 made it possible for settlers to acquire land in the West by paying a filing fee and living on the land for five years.

The Spoils System Definition and Summary
The Spoils System of handing out government jobs took its name from a comment made by a Senator from New York during the Jackson administration.

Blondin | Circus Star Walked On a Tightrope Across Niagara Falls
Charles Blondin's tightrope stunts at Niagara Falls were so famous that political cartoons depicted Lincoln as Blondin. Page 10.

Blondin | Circus Star Walked On a Tightrope Across Niagara Falls
Charles Blondin, the tightrope walker conquered Niagara Falls before enormous crowds in 1859. Page 4.

Blondin | Circus Star Walked On a Tightrope Across Niagara Falls
Charles Blondin's feat of carrying a man on the tightrope amazed readers of illustrated magazines. Page 7.

Blondin | Circus Star Walked On a Tightrope Across Niagara Falls
Charles Blondin the tightrope walker attracted huge crowds when he walked across Niagara Falls. Page 5.

Blondin | Circus Star Walked On a Tightrope Across Niagara Falls
Charles Blondin walked across Niagara Falls on a tightrope, sometimes even in an ape costume. Page 8.

Blondin | Circus Star Walked On a Tightrope Across Niagara Falls
Charles Blondin crossed Niagara Falls on a tightrope and later performed in Europe. Page 11.

Blondin | Circus Star Walked On a Tightrope Across Niagara Falls
Charles Blondin crossed Niagara Falls on a tightrope, sometimes walking on stilts. Page 9.

Blondin | Circus Star Walked On a Tightrope Across Niagara Falls
Charles Blondin, the tightrope walker conquered Niagara Falls before enormous crowds in 1859.

Blondin | Circus Star Walked On a Tightrope Across Niagara Falls
Charles Blondin had several imitators who crossed the Niagara River on a tightrope. Page 12.

Blondin | Circus Star Walked On a Tightrope Across Niagara Falls
Charles Blondin, the tightrope walker as he crossed Niagara Falls in 1859. Page 3.

Blondin | Circus Star Walked On a Tightrope Across Niagara Falls
Charles Blondin, the tightrope walker crossed Niagara Falls after overcoming local objections. Page 2.

Blondin | Circus Star Walked On a Tightrope Across Niagara Falls
Charles Blondin's feat of walking Niagara Falls on a tightrope was documented by illustrated magazines. Page 6.

Blondin | Circus Star Walked On a Tightrope Across Niagara Falls
Charles Blondin walked a tightrope across Niagara Falls before enormous crowds in 1859.

The 1889 Johnstown Flood That Destroyed Pennsylvania
The Johnstown Flood of May 31, 1889 was the biggest news story to hit American since the Civil War and the death of 2,000 people shocked the nation.

Was Uncle Sam a Real Person?
The character of Uncle Sam was based on a real man, a merchant who supplied the U.S. Army in the War of 1812.

The Know-Nothing Party Opposed Immigration to America
The Know-Nothing Party campaigned against immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s.

Wreck of the Steamship Atlantic
The 1873 wreck of the steamship Atlantic when it slammed into rocks on the Canadian coast cost hundreds of lives.

Definition of Free Soil Party
The Free Soil Party was short-lived, but ran candidates for president and had a lasting impact on American political life.

Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa
Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa was an Irish revolutionary exiled in America who became a symbol of Irish freedom, even after his death.

Definition of Tariff of Abominations
The Tariff of Abominations in the late 1820s was so controversial it led to threats to split the United States decades before the Civil War.

Definition of Sharecropping
Sharecropping was the system of farming that doomed former slaves to a life of poverty in the years following the Civil War.

Why We Have Time Zones
Time zones, an innovation by American railroads in 1883, eventually spread worldwide.

Slaves Who Built the White House
It has long been known that slaves were part of the labor force that built the White House and the US Capitol. And today the US National Archives exhibited

Nellie Bly's Trip Around the World
Reporter Nellie Bly circled the globe in 72 days, leaving New York City in 1889 with her trip closely followed by readers of the New York World.

Frederic Tudor | New England's Ice King
Frederic Tudor created an industry by exporting ice from New England lakes to the Caribbean and, astoundingly, to India.

Lincoln's Younger Sons
Abraham Lincoln and his wife had four sons, and the three youngest boys all died young, including Willie, who died in the White House.

Clement Clarke Moore | Biography of the Author of The Night Before Christmas
Clement Clarke Moore wrote a classic children's poem known as The Night Before Christmas, though some contend he was not the real author.

The Eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815
The eruption of the volcano at Mount Tambora in 1815 was the largest volcanic eruption of the 19th century and contributed to 1816 being known as

Edwin M. Stanton: Lincoln's Forceful Secretary of War
Edwin Stanton, bitter opponent of Lincoln who became his devoted Secretary of War.

Mary Todd Lincoln | Biography of Abraham Lincoln's Wife
Brief biography of Abraham Lincoln's wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, who was controversial in her own time and remains a largely misunderstood figure today.

Was Mary Todd Lincoln Mentally Ill?
Abraham Lincoln's wife Mary Todd Lincoln is often remembered as being mentally ill, but is that perception of her accurate?

Elizabeth Keckley, Mary Lincoln's Dressmaker and Friend
Elizabeth Keckley, a former slave, was Mary Lincoln's dressmaker and became her friend while employed within the Lincoln White House.

Jim Fisk | Biography of Notorious Robber Baron
Jim Fisk was a partner of business man Jay Gould, and the pair defined unethical Wall Street practices in the late 1860s.

Andrew Carnegie | Biography of the Steel Magnate
Andrew Carnegie ruthlessly dominated the American steel industry for a quarter-century before devoting himself to philanthropy.

John D. Rockefeller |Biography of the Oil Magnate
John D. Rockefeller's ruthless business practices branded him as a notorious robber baron, yet he gave away hundreds of millions of dollars.

George Washington Plunkitt
George Washington Plunkitt used the term

Stephen Douglas
Senator Stephen Douglas, remembered as perennial opponent of Lincoln, was a highly influential political figure in the decade before the Civil War.

History of Christmas Traditions in the 19th Century
Our modern conception of Christmas celebrations really began in the 1800s, when Santa Claus, Christmas trees, and other traditions took hold.

Biography of Ralph Waldo Emerson
Concise biography of Ralph Waldo Emerson, one of the most influential American writers of the 19th century and a leading Transcendentalist.

Brooklyn Bridge Construction and History
The building of the Brooklyn Bridge, the greatest engineering of its era and one still used by thousands of commuters everyday.

History of Electric Christmas Lights
The history of electric Christmas lights began in the 1880s, when an employee of Thomas Edison created lights to hang on his family's Christmas tree.

The Great Irish Famine - An Overview
The Great Famine that ravaged the potato crop in Ireland in the 1840s caused widespread starvation, and prompted a wave of emigration to America.

Brooklyn Bridge Disaster
A disaster on the Brooklyn Bridge soon after its opening in 1883 killed a dozen New Yorkers and injured hundreds.

A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens
Why and how Charles Dickens wrote his classic story A Christmas Carol, the tale of Ebenezer Scrooge and his encounters with the Ghosts of Christmases Past, Present, and Yet to Come.

The Pullman Strike of 1894 - 19th Century History
The Pullman Strike of 1894 stopped trains across America and the strike was broken by the U.S. Army forces deployed in American cities.

William Cullen Bryant | Biography of the Poet and Editor
William Cullen Bryant is mainly remembered as a poet, but he was also a highly influential New York City newspaper editor.

Samuel Gompers
Samuel Gompers, an immigrant cigar maker, rose from New York's Lower East Side to become the most effective labor leader of the late 1800s.

The Haymarket Riot, 1886 Labor Incident
The Haymarket Riot was ignited by an anarchist bombing, and set back the American labor union for years.

Jenny Lind | Swedish Opera Singer Promoted By P.T. Barnum
When Jenny Lind,

Election of 1876: Tilden Seemed to Win But Hayes Became President
The presidential election of 1876 was widely believed to have been stolen when a special deal was struck to declare Rutherford B. Hayes the winner.

The First American Political Conventions
The first national political convention in America was held in 1831 by a long-forgotten group, the Anti-Masonic Party.

Extinct Political Parties of the 1800s
The 19th century gave birth to today's political parties, but it also saw the emergence and extinction of a number of other parties.

The First National Park: Yellowstone in 1872
The first National Park was Yellowstone, a magnificent wilderness set aside in 1872 to be preserved and protected.

History of Christmas Trees
The history of Christmas trees shows that decorated trees had appeared in America even before Prince Albert and Queen Victoria made them fashionable.

Phineas T. Barnum | Biography of the Prince of Humbug
Biography of Phineas T. Barnum, great American showman and the self-proclaimed Prince of Humbug.

Florence Nightingale - British Nurse Reformed Medical Care
The British nurse Florence Nightingale reformed medical care in the 19th century and became famous tending to soldiers during the Crimean War.

The Kansas-Nebraska Act
The highly controversial Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, intended as a compromise over slavery, actually inflamed tensions and hastened the Civil War.

Masterpieces of Slave Autobiography
A handful of accounts written by former slaves have been hailed as classics of American writing.

The Missouri Compromise
The Missouri Compromise, reached in 1820, was the first great compromise over slavery in the decades before the Civil War.

Krakatoa Volcano Eruption of 1883
Krakatoa's colossal eruption in 1883 became an early worldwide media event thanks to news traveling very quickly by telegraph.

The National Road | First Federal Highway
The National Road, an early forerunner of the federal highway system, was constructed from western Maryland to Ohio in the early decades of the 19th century.

The Great Chicago Fire of 1871 and Its Aftermath
The Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroyed a major American city, making it one of the great disasters of the 19th century.

History of the 19th Century Whaling Industry
The whaling industry flourished in New England from about 1820 to 1860, until the demand for oil for illumination was replaced by oil taken from the ground.

Solomon Northup, Author of Twelve Years a Slave
Solomon Northup, author of Twelve Years a Slave, wrote a harrowing account of being kidnapped into slavery in the 1840s.

California Gold Rush - Vivid Account of the Gold Discovered in California in 1848
A old miner described the first gold strike in California as the 50th anniversary of the California Gold Rush approached.

George Catlin - Biography of Painter of Native Americans
The American artist George Catlin became fascinated with American Indians in the early 1800s and traveled extensively to live among them and paint them.

Election of 1840 | Harrison Won Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign
The 1840 American presidential campaign was novel as it employed songs and slogans such as

The Controversial Election of Thomas Jefferson in 1800
The election of 1800 was significant and controversial, and was ultimately decided in the House of Representatives when Thomas Jefferson defeated Aaron Burr.

The Election of 1824 - the Corrupt Bargain
The deadlocked election of 1824 was decided in the House of Representatives with the outcome widely denounced as an act of high-level bribery.

Tecumseh | Native American Leader Opposed White Encroachment
The Indian chief Tecumseh led a confederation of Indian tribes against encroachment by whites.

Slave Autobiographies Found and Published
The astonishing emergence and publication of two slave narratives, as a book titled A Slave No More by David W. Blight, are a dramatic reminder of the power of the autobiographies of escaped or freed slaves.

The Compromise of 1850 Delayed the Civil War 10 years
The Compromise of 1850, a controversial set of laws passed by Congress, preserved the Union but was only a temporary solution to the issue of slavery in America.

John James Audubon - Biography of Painter and Naturalist
Audubon overcame obstacles to create a masterpiece of American art, a collection titled Birds of America, in four volumes between 1827 and 1838.

Henry Clay: Biography of the 19th Century Political Figure
Henry Clay was perhaps the most powerful American who never served as president, though he ran for the office several times.

Fort Astoria, John Jacob Astor's Western Experiment
John Jacob Astor, America's richest man, helped sparked western expansion when he financed a distant trading post on the Pacific Coast.

Aaron Burr - Biography and the Duel with Hamilton
Aaron Burr was constantly drawn to controversy, and his shooting of Alexander Hamilton in a duel is only part of his peculiar life story.

Artist George Catlin Proposed Creation of National Parks
The American artist George Catlin, who is known for his paintings of American Indians, proposed the creation of National Parks decades before they became a reality.

General Tom Thumb, P.T. Barnum's greatest attraction
General Tom Thumb was a tiny show business phenomenon who performed for Queen Victoria, Abraham Lincoln, and millions of ordinary fans.

Biography of Horace Greeley
Concise biography of legendary 19th century newspaper editor Horace Greeley.

John Brown and His Raid on Harpers Ferry
John Brown, a fanatical abolitionist, led a raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry and moved the U.S. closer to Civil War.

Major Events of the 1830 - Timeline
The 1830s was a decade marked by railroad building in America, Opium Wars in Asia, and the ascension to the British throne of the woman who whose name would come to define the century, Queen Victoria.

Harriet Tubman | Underground Railroad Heroine
Harriet Tubman escaped from slavery and repeatedly risked her life to help others travel northward on the Underground Railroad.

Detective Thomas Byrnes
Thomas Byrnes of the New York Police Department, a famous detective of the late 1800s, was both admired and criticized for his crime fighting.

Margaret Fuller | Writer, Editor, and Early Feminist
Margaret Fuller, an early feminist writer and editor, was an important member of the New England Transcendentalist circle.

Archbishop John Hughes | New York Irish Leader In Civil War Era
John Hughes, an Irish immigrant, became the politically powerful archbishop of New York in the Civil War era.

John Jacob Astor - Biography of Richest American
John Jacob Astor was the richest man in America in the early 19th century, having dominated the fur trade, then buying New York real estate.

PBS The War of 1812 - Review of PBS The War of 1812
The PBS documentary

How the Statue of Liberty Became a Symbol of Immigration
A poem by Emma Lazarus essentially changed the meaning of the Statue of Liberty, which had not been intended to be a symbol of immigration.

The New Colossus by Emma Lazarus (Text of Poem)
The poem

Definition of Barnburners and Hunkers
Definition of Barnburners and Hunkers

Definition of Yellow Journalism
Yellow Journalism was sensationalism practiced by competing newspapers that may have led to an actual war.

Era of Good Feelings - 19th Century History
Definition of Era of Good Feelings

Henry Clay's American System Economic Plan
The American System was an economic program advocated by powerful political Henry Clay in the early 1800s.

Definition of Bleeding Kansas
Bleeding Kansas was the term that described violent upheaval over slavery that was essentially a precursor to the Civil War.

The Compromise of 1877
Definition of Compromise of 1877

Definition of packet ship or packet liner
Definition of packet ship or packet liner

Definition of Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land.was a remote outpost in the southern hemisphere where Britain exiled political dissidents including Irish rebels.

Definition of Boycott
The word boycott entered the English language in the 1800s thanks to action taken by Irish rebels against a land agent named Boycott.

Definition of Fire-Eaters
Definition of Fire-Eaters. 19th Century History.

Emancipation Proclamation | History of Lincoln's Order
Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, its background and significance.

Definition of Pogrom
Pogroms were organized attacks on Jewish communities in Russian territory in the 1880s.

Civil War's Wet Plate Collodion Photography
Wet plate collodion photography of the Civil War era required considerable expertise yet in the right hands it could produce remarkable results.

Definition of Brokered Convention
Brokered political conventions of the 1800s could involve dozens of ballots and examples of epic deals made behind the scenes.

Radical Republicans: Powerful Faction After the Civil War
The Radical Republicans, a powerful Congressional faction following the Civil War, promoted Reconstruction Policies.

Purpose of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
Abraham Lincoln had specific goals in mind and took great care in crafting the Gettysburg Address.

Attack on Fort Sumter Began the Civil War in 1861
The attack on Fort Sumter in April 1861 began the American Civil War.

Was Abraham Lincoln Really a Wrestler?
President Abraham Lincoln was a very good wrestler as a youth and his wrestling exploits were used during his presidential campaign in 1860 and became part of the Lincoln legend.

Edmund Ruffin | Confederate Icon and Pro-Slavery Fanatic
Edmund Ruffin, fanatical pro-slavery advocate, become a symbol for the Confederacy.

Why Were Flags So Important in the Civil War?
Flags were enormously important in the American Civil War for both practical and symbolic reasons.

Why Are There No Combat Photographs From the Civil War?
Out of thousands of Civil War photographs there are none taken in combat. Why? It has to do with chemistry, believe it or not.

"Uncle Tom's Cabin" - Role in the Civil War
Did the novel Uncle Tom's Cabin help to start the Civil War? Did Harriet Beecher Stowe intend to influence public opinion by writing a novel? To what extent did she influence public opinion?

Why Were Amputations So Common in the Civil War?
Surgeons during the Civil War often amputated limbs. Why were amputations so common in the Civil War? What made Civil War wounds so destructive?

Battle of Ball's Bluff | Early Union Defeat In the Civil War
The Battle of Ball's Bluff in October 1861 was a disaster for the Union which led to Congressional oversight of the war effort.

Definition of American Lyceum Movement
The American Lyceum Movement was a thriving social movement to spread education through lectures and other programs.

Mathew Brady | Photographer of the Civil War
Concise biography of photographer Mathew Brady, who created an invaluable visual record of the Civil War.

Seven Facts About the Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Seven facts everyone should know about the legendary Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858.

William H. Seward | Lincoln's Rival Became Trusted Advisor
William H. Seward, political rival of Abraham Lincoln, became his secretary of state and skillfully guided U.S. foreign policy during the Civil War.

Abraham Lincoln and the Telegraph
Abraham Lincoln was very interested in technology, and his use of the telegraph during the Civil War was instrumental in how he commanded the military forces of the United States.

Abraham Lincoln's 1863 Thanksgiving Proclamation
A campaign by editor Sarah Josepha Hale to make Thanksgiving an official federal holiday succeeded in 1863 when President Lincoln issued a proclamation.

Text of Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
With the Civil War in its third year, Lincoln felt compelled to offer a moral justification for the war.

Abraham Lincoln's Cooper Union Address Made Him President
Abraham Lincoln's Cooper Union Address in early 1860 made him a contender for the election of 1860.

Abraham Lincoln's 1838 Springfield Lyceum Address
Abraham Lincoln, in his earliest published speech, warned of mob violence while speaking on America's future at the Young Men's Lyceum in Springfield, Illinois.

James Garfield | Facts and Brief Biography
The significant facts to know about James Garfield, 20th president of the United States, who died of an assassin's bullet during his first year in office.

Andrew Johnson | Facts and Brief Biography
Facts to know about Andrew Johnson, who became president when Abraham Lincoln was assassinated.

Ulysses S. Grant | Significant Facts and Brief Biography
The facts one needs to know about Ulysses S. Grant, who served two terms as president following his heroic service in the Civil War.

Jefferson Davis | Significant Facts and Brief Biography
The facts one needs to know about Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederate States of America.

John Adams | Facts and Brief Biography
Facts you should know about John Adams, America's second president and one of the greatest of the founding fathers.

Gardner Took Classic Portraits of Abraham Lincoln
Civil War photographer Alexander Gardner took more portraits of Abraham Lincoln than anyone else, and could be considered a pioneer of news photography.

Elmer Ellsworth Recruited New York Fire Zouaves
Elmer Ellsworth, a friend of Abraham Lincoln, recruited New York City firemen to fight in the Civil War in a regiment known as the Fire Zouaves.

Gardner Photographed Lincoln and McClellan at Antietam
Civil War photographer Alexander Gardner made history by documenting the battlefield carnage at Antietam in September 1862. He also took more portraits of Abraham Lincoln than anyone else, and could be considered a pioneer of news photography.

Antietam Photographs Were a Sensation at New York Exhibition
Civil War photographer Alexander Gardner made history by documenting the battlefield carnage at Antietam in September 1862.

Five Things to Know About Civil War Drummers
Civil War drummers were a critical part of the army. Here are five things you should know about them.

Novels of Charles Dickens established his reputation
The novels of Charles Dickens established his reputation as the greatest literary figure of the Victorian era.

The Astor Place Riot
The Astor Place Riot in 1849 revealed deep fracture in New York City, as an apparent dispute about actors led to soldiers shooting dozens of rioters.

Alexander Gardner | Civil War Photographer
Civil War photographer Alexander Gardner made history by documenting the battlefield carnage at Antietam in September 1862. He also took more portraits of Abraham Lincoln than anyone else, and could be considered a pioneer of news photography.

The Worldwide Fame of Charles Dickens Endures
The reputation of Victorian novelist Charles Dickens, which endures to this day.

Alexander Gardner | Shooting the Civil War
Civil War photographer Alexander Gardner made history by documenting the battlefield carnage at Antietam in September 1862. He also took more portraits of Abraham Lincoln than anyone else, and could be considered a pioneer of news photography.

Alexander Gardner Captured Shocking Scenes at Antietam
Civil War photographer Alexander Gardner made history by documenting the battlefield carnage at Antietam in September 1862. He also took more portraits of Abraham Lincoln than anyone else, and could be considered a pioneer of news photography.

Civil War Photography - Civil War Photographers and Notable Photographs of the Civil War
Photographs of the Civil War and Famous Civil War Photographers: Learn about how photography documented the Civil War and helped create lasting images of the great struggle.

Biography of Charles Dickens
Concise illustrated biography of Charles Dickens, the great Victorian novelist.

Andrew Jackson | Facts and Brief Biography
The facts one should know about Andrew Jackson, one of the most significant 19th century presidents.

Timeline From 1810-1820 (Waterloo, War of 1812)
The decade from 1810 to 1820 was marked by the Battle of Waterloo, the British burning the White House, Francis Scott Key writing the Star-Spangled Banner

The Five Best Inaugural Addresses of the 1800s
Some of the best inaugural addresses in American history were delivered in the 19th century, as new presidents endeavored to steer the nation in new directions. Read about the five best inaugural addresses of the 1800s, some of which were spoken by unlikely presidents.

Abraham Lincoln's First Inaugural Address - Description
One of five delivered in the 19th century considered to be among America's best, as new presidents endeavored to steer the nation in new directions.

Definition of Mountain Men
Definition of Mountain Men. 19th Century History.

Definition of Transportation as Punishment
Definition of transportation as punishment

Famous Duels of the 19th Century
In the 1800s arguments and personal slights often led to the characters involved picking up pistols and shooting them at each other in the ritual of a duel. Having a duel was almost always illegal, but going to the field of honor and settling disputes was judged to be something that gentlemen did.

Aaron Burr vs. Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr fought the most famous duel of the 1800s.

Naval Hero Stephen Decatur Was Fatally Wounded in a Duel with James Barron in 1820
American naval hero Stephen Decatur was mortally wounded in a duel in 1820.

Andrew Jackson's Inaugural Address Marked a New Era in Washington
Some of the best inaugural addresses in American history were delivered in the 19th century, as new presidents endeavored to steer the nation in new directions. Read about the five best inaugural addresses of the 1800s, some of which were spoken by unlikely presidents.

Thomas Jefferson's First Inaugural Was an Intelligent Opening to the Century
Some of the best inaugural addresses in American history were delivered in the 19th century, as new presidents endeavored to steer the nation in new directions. Read about the five best inaugural addresses of the 1800s, some of which were spoken by unlikely presidents.

Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address Was the Best of the 19th Century
Some of the best inaugural addresses in American history were delivered in the 19th century, as new presidents endeavored to steer the nation in new directions. Read about the five best inaugural addresses of the 1800s, some of which were spoken by unlikely presidents.

Irish Political Leader Daniel O'Connell Fought a Duel
The great Irish political leader Daniel O'Connell fought a duel in 1815, killed his opponent, and always felt remorse.

The Definition of Transcendentalist
Definition of Transcendentalist. 19th Century History.

William Henry Harrison Gave the Worst Inaugural Address
American presidents delivered brilliant inaugural addresses in the 1800s, but some presidents stand out for having delivered the worst. Herewith the five worst inaugural address of the 19th century.

The Five Worst Inaugural Address of the 1800s
American presidents delivered brilliant inaugural addresses in the 1800s, but some presidents stand out for having delivered the worst. Herewith the five worst inaugural address of the 19th century.

Definition of Treaty of Ghent
Definition of Treaty of Ghent. 19th Century History.

The Illinois Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates in 1858 took place in a Senate race in Illinois, yet they had national significance. Abraham Lincoln was known locally as a rising political star, and Senator Stephen A. Douglas already stood near the zenith of American politics. Their seven Lincoln-Douglas Debates across Illinois dealt with the critical issue of the day, and was a prelude to Lincoln's election as president and the outbreak of Civil War.

The Five Worst Inaugural Address of the 1800s
American presidents delivered brilliant inaugural addresses in the 1800s, but some presidents stand out for having delivered the worst. Herewith the five worst inaugural address of the 19th century.

Isambard Kingdom Brunel's Steamships
Steamships Great Western, Great Britain, and Great Eastern were the revolutionary vessels designed by the brilliant Victorian engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel.

The Great Britain, Brunel's Propeller-Driven Steamship
Isambard Kingdom Brunel's second great steamship, The Great Britain, was built of iron and pioneered the use of the propeller driven by a steam engine.

Abraham Lincoln Was the Target of an Assassination Plot in Baltimore in 1861
Abraham Lincoln was the target of an assassination plot in Baltimore, Maryland in 1861. Had the plan succeeded, Lincoln would have been killed while on his way to Washington, D.C. to take the oath of office.

American Civil War Year-By-Year Timeline
The American Civil War lasted four years, and evolved from what people thought would be a minor conflict into an very bloody ordeal. Learn about the chronology of the Civil War.

Timeline of Lincoln's Boyhood and Early Career
The timeline of the life of Abraham Lincoln's early life documents the 16th president's rise from his humble birth in a log cabin in Kentucky to his career as an Illinois lawyer and potential presidential candidate.

The Five Worst Inaugural Addresses of the 1800s
American presidents delivered brilliant inaugural addresses in the 1800s, but some presidents stand out for having delivered the worst. Herewith the five worst inaugural address of the 19th century.

The Great Eastern, Isambard Kingdom Brunel's Brilliant Failure of a Steamship
The massive Great Eastern was Isambard Kingdom Brunel's last great ship, and the stress of building it no doubt contributed to the great engineer's death.

Battle of Fredericksburg - December 1862 Civil War Battle at Fredericksburg, Virginia
The costly Battle of Fredericksburg, on December 13, 1862, made it obvious that the Civil War would not end quickly.

Andrew Jackson Survived an Assassination Attempt
Read about how President Andrew Jackson not only survived an assassination attempt but savagely attacked the man who tried to shoot him.

Zebulon Pike and His Expeditions to the West
Zebulon Pike led two expeditions in the 1800s that remain mysterious to this day. Was Pike a blundering explorer cursed with bad luck, or a skillful spy?

Famous Speeches and Writings by Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln's great speeches, which he carefully crafted, elevated him from obscurity to political greatness on the national stage.

George Armstrong Custer In the Civil War
Dramatic images of George Armstrong Custer during the Civil War, when he first became famous as a dashing cavalry commander.