19th Century History Sitemap - Page 2 2016-09-26

People and Politics
Articles about significant characters of the 19th century, including major political players.

American Presidents
Articles about men who held America's highest office.

American Wars
During the 1800s the British invaded the United States, the U.S. Army invaded Mexico, the north fought the south, the white men fought the Indians, and the United States fought the Spanish. A century of conflict changed the American nation forever.

Entertainment and Sport of the 19th Century
In some ways the 1800s were defined by public entertainments such as traveling circuses, minstrel shows, and extravaganzas based on the thrills of the wild west.

Expansion & Colonialism
The 19th Century was an age of expansion and colonialism. In the 1800s, as Americans explored the west and settled across the North American continent, Victorian Britain stood astride much of the world, and other great powers consolidated colonial holdings in Africa and Asia.

Arts and Sciences of the 19th Century
Articles about the arts and sciences of the 19th century and how they changed society in profound ways.

The Gilded Age
Mark Twain coined the term

Abraham Lincoln
Articles about Abraham Lincoln explore his life and his importance to America in the 19th century.

Lincoln Associates
Articles about associates and friends of Abraham Lincoln who served important roles and had a major influence on his life and career.

Early Presidents
Articles about America's earliest presidents, from George Washington through John Quincy Adams.

Jackson and Van Buren
Articles about Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, who served three presidential terms and changed the presidency forever.

The Seven Presidents Leading Up to the Civil War
Articles about the seven American presidents who tended to struggle in office in the two decades leading up to the Civil War.

19th Century Politics
Articles about politics in the 19th century.

American Politicians
Notable figures in 19th century American politics

Holidays In the 19th Century
Articles about holidays in the 19th century, especially Christmas and how its observance changed profoundly.

Civil War: The People
Articles about characters who fought, observed, wrote about, or tended the wounded in the Civil War.

Authors
The 19th century saw the invention of the novel and the introduction of free verse, two innovations that would utterly transform literature. And with writers like Dickens in Britain, Tolstoy in Russia, and Whitman and Twain in America, it was a century unrivaled in the history of literature.

American Civil War
The American Civil War, fought from 1861 to 1865, was one of the true defining events in the nation's history. By the war's end, hundreds of thousands had been killed and wounded, slavery had been ended, and the very notion of the United States had been changed forever.

Industry and Invention
Modern industry emerged in the 19th Century thanks to such innovations as steam power, steel production, textile mills, and mass production based on the principles of inventor Eli Whitney. The whaling industry boomed for a time, and pumping oil from the ground became a colossal new business. People rushed to mine gold and copper, and banking powerhouses rose to prominence.

Leaders
The 1800s saw an amazing collection of leaders stride across the world stage. And the spread of news by telegraph and the advent of photography made national leaders known to their citizens as never before.

The British Empire
The British Empire had been a dominant player on the world stage for centuries, and in the 1800s it reached its zenith. During the reign of Queen Victoria, it was often said that the

Robber Barons
Robber barons were businessman who attained great wealth and were accused of doing so at the expense of working people and society.

19th Century Political Glossary
Articles about political terms of the 19th century, some of which remain current today.

Civil War Photographs
The Civil War was extensively photographed and images taken by pioneering photographers defined the look of the war.

The War of 1812
Articles about the War of 1812, which can be considered America's second War of Independence.

Lincoln's Family
Articles about Abraham Lincoln's wife, sons, and other relatives who played a major role in his life.

Civil War Battles
Articles about the major battles of the American Civil War.

Photographs of Lincoln
Photo galleries of Abraham Lincoln illustrate his life and political campaigns as well as the profound grief that accompanied his funeral.

Presidential Elections
Articles about presidential campaigns of the 19th century.

Exploration and Adventure in the 19th Century
The 19th Century was a remarkable time for exploration and adventure.

Immigration
Populations were on the move in the 1800s, and the population of the New World increased dramatically as millions of immigrants arrived. Starting with the Irish during the Famine, successive waves of immigrants arrived in the United States, and American cities swelled with their numbers. Immigration also populated Australia, which had been a distant penal colony.

Transportation
Innovations in transportation in the 19th Century included sleek and speedy sailing ships known as clippers and steamships that eliminated a sailor's dependence on the wind. Steam locomotives made fast overland travel possible. Other milestones in transportation included the building of railroads, canals, steel bridges, and astonishing wonders of the age, enormous suspension bridges.

Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi was one of the renowned heroes of the mid-19th century, and was widely respected as the man who liberated Italy and unified the country. His travels and stays in exile, which included a stay on Staten Island, in New York City, made him an international figure.

Ireland's History in the 1800s Century of Rebellions
The 1800s dawned in Ireland right after the bloody uprising of 1798 was brutally suppressed by the British. The century was roiled by a series of rebellions, and was also marked by the single greatest watershed in Irish history, the Great Famine of the 1840s.

Popular Entertainment
Minstrel shows, circuses, and museums filled with oddities were just some of the major attractions amusing audiences in the 19th century. The legendary showman Phineas T. Barnum kept America gazing in wonder for decades, and Stephen Foster, despite his own tragic life, would keep America singing. In Britain, playwrights like Oscar Wilde kept audiences laughing and thinking.

Sports
The 19th century was a time when the games people played became organized, had their rules codified, and in some cases became big business. Baseball caught on about the time of the Civil War, and the rules of football became standardized in both the European and American variety. And an entirely new sport, basketball, arrived on the scene.

Civil War Sesquicentennial - Resources and Information on the Civil War Sesquicentennial
The 150th anniversary of events associated with the American Civil War will be commemorated from 2011 to 2015. The various states will mark anniversaries of battles and other critical events, and these guides will help you locate specific events.

American Presidents
Biographies and facts about presidents of the United States during the 19th century.

Abolition Movement
The abolition movement sought to end slavery and the international slave trade. In Great Britain reformers managed to ban the trade in slaves in 1807, but it would take decades before slavery was finally ended in America.

Bridge Building
The 19th century saw the introduction of elaborate bridges made of iron, which were soon surpassed by bridges made of steel. The development of the suspension bridge, most notably by John Roebling and his son Washington, proved that great rivers could be bridged. The masterpiece of the Roeblings, the Brooklyn Bridge, was hailed as one of the greatest achievements in human history.

Canals
Emerging industry needed to move goods, and the solution in the 19th century was to dig canals. New York's Erie Canal changed American business, and new canals were also dug in Great Britain. And on a grand scale, the Suez Canal made passage to India much shorter and inspired people to start thinking about creating a canal to cross Panama.

Dime Novels and Magazines
As reading became widespread throughout the 1800s, there arose a need for popular literature. In America the answer was the Dime Novel, cheap precursors to the modern paperback. The books generally featured adventure stories of interest to boys and young men, and untold numbers of Americans honed their reading skills by devouring them.

Innovators
Great minds changed the world as never before throughout the 1800s. In the fields of science and philosophy new ideas changed the way the world thought, and great inventors changed how life itself would be lived.

Oil
As machinery began to change the world there was a desperate need for oil. People had long gathered oil, but a method of extracting it from the ground was established in 1859 when Edwin Drake drilled his first oil well in Titusville, Pennsylvania. A thriving industry soon emerged, and enormous fortunes were made by men such as John D. Rockefeller.

Railroad Building
The steam locomotive revolutionized transportation in the 19th century, and by the 1850s train tracks seemed to be going everywhere. Railroads were established throughout Europe, and the United States was also being crossed by train tracks. By the end of the 1860s both coasts of North America had been linked by rail, and there was soon talk of putting railroads under American cities.

Sailing & Clipper Ships
For much of the 19th century ships under sail were the dominant form of transportation on the world's oceans. And while sailing ships would eventually be eclipsed by the arrival of steamships, sleek and speedy clippers would have an impressive run before the wind.

Steam Locomotives
In the early 19th century steam locomotives were laughed at, and in one famous demonstration, Peter Cooper's locomotive, the Tom Thumb, lost a race to a horse. As the decades passed the technology improved, and Europe, North America, and other places across the globe were crossed by railroad tracks. Steam power turned wheels and changed the world.

Steamships
When Robert Fulton succeeded in powering a boat with a steam engine, it was only a matter of time until powered ships would rule the waves. At first Fulton's steamboats only navigated rivers, but by the middle of the 19th century the Great Eastern, a massive British steamship that crossed the Atlantic, heralded a new nautical age.

The Rise of American Cities
As people from around the world began to emigrate to America in vast numbers during the 19th century, the cities of the east coast grew nearly beyond belief. In New York City what had been rolling farmlands was eventually covered by a grid of streets, and before long the same phenomenon was being played out in all corners of the growing nation.

Immigration to the New World
Immigrants had been coming from Europe to the New World since the early 1600s, but the 19th century saw the trickle of newcomers turn into a mighty flood. To paraphrase the famous poem written for the Statue of Liberty, the huddled masses were yearning to breathe free. And American gave a new home to millions.

America Moves Westward
At the dawn of the 19th century the United States was a new and fairly small nation along the east coast of North America. The country's territory was doubled in one stroke when Thomas Jefferson acquired the Louisiana Purchase. And later westward expansion followed the concept of

Artists
The 19th century would be rocked artistically by the Impressionist movement, which marked a radical departure from the realism of the past. In America, Winslow Homer worked as a magazine illustrator covering the Civil War before creating brilliant paintings. And in the new world of commercial art, Currier & Ives labored to produce images ordinary people could hang on their walls.

Conservation Movement - The Conservation Movement in the 19th Century Led to the Creation of National Parks
The Conservation Movement in the 19th Century was inspired by writers and artists such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, George Catlin, and John Muir, and led to the creation of the National Parks.

Industrialists
The 19th century was in some ways defined by the men who created its great industries. Men like Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller made business hum, and historians will forever debate their contributions to the world. One thing is certain, the more you learn about them, the more interesting they become.

Inventions of the 19th Century
The 19th Century was remarkable for the amazing array of inventions that appeared and changed the way people lived. Photography, the telegraph, the telephone, steam locomotives and even motion pictures first appeared in the 1800s. As a result, life in 1900 was enormously different than life in 1800.

Manufacturing
Modern manufacturing techniques developed in the 1800s changed industry forever. Foremost was the concept of mass production based on the idea of inventor Eli Whitney. Innovations such as the production of steel and the harnessing of steam power made industry boom.

The Search for the Northwest Passage
The search for the Northwest Passage, a northern sea route to Asia, inspired ambitious expeditions, most notably the doomed effort by Sir John Franklin, who led ships to the arctic and never returned. The search for the passage continued for decades, and it wouldn't be until the early years of the 20th century that Roald Amundsen finally sailed through the ice and into the Pacific.

Organized Labor
As industry grew, workers began to organize for better working conditions and fair wages. The history of the labor movement, which encompassed the entire industrialized world, is one of the most fascinating aspects of 19th century life. Workers and their unions would shake the foundations of industry, topple governments, and their struggles would define the emerging modern world.

Presidential Campaigns of the 1800s
The presidential campaigns of the 1800s were anything but the staid and quaint affairs commentators in the modern age imagine them to be. Some were marked by dirty tactics, charges of corruption, and the crafting of images that were often quite a stretch from reality.

Urban Conditions
The conditions of the urban poor were often a focus of attention in the 1800s. Various reform groups tried, with very mixed results, to clean up slums in London, New York, and other great cities. By the end of the century

Whaling
The whaling industry boomed in the early 1800s, though it would later fade when whale oil was no longer needed for lamps. Despite its decline, the whaling industry left a fascinating legacy of journals, illustrations, literature, and even art. One young whaler in particular, Herman Melville, became a titan of American literature.

Glossary of the 1800s
A glossary of terms common to the 19th century which have faded into history, but are very useful to someone interested in the period.

Colonial Wars
As the European powers built empires across the world, wars were fought to establish influence. The British Army saw action in India, Afghanistan and Africa, and other nations dispatched military might to subdue indigenous populations.

European Wars
The great powers of Europe clashed during the Napoleonic Wars, and decades later they battled in the Crimea. In the later years of the 19th Century the Franco-Prussian War rewrote the map of Europe. The 1800s will always bring to mind Trafalgar, Waterloo, and the legendary Charge of the Light Brigade.

Lewis and Clark
Resources about the Lewis and Clark Expedition, the legendary exploratory journey that crossed the West from 1804 to 1806.

Timelines of the 1800s
The 19th century was a time of tremendous change, and these timelines will help you locate and learn about events in the decades of the 1800s.

Phineas Barnum's American Museum Becomes a New York City Landmark
These vintage images depict highlights from the career of the great showman Phineas T. Barnum, an influential and beloved figure in 19th century America. His museums, shows, and circuses entertained millions of people, and the 1800s would have been a much drearier time without his creative flair and enthusiasm. Page 3.

Phineas Barnum and Commodore Nutt, One of His Star Performers
These vintage images depict highlights from the career of the great showman Phineas T. Barnum, an influential and beloved figure in 19th century America. His museums, shows, and circuses entertained millions of people, and the 1800s would have been a much drearier time without his creative flair and enthusiasm. Page 10.

Phineas Barnum Managed His Business and Sometimes Dabbled in Politics
These vintage images depict highlights from the career of the great showman Phineas T. Barnum, an influential and beloved figure in 19th century America. His museums, shows, and circuses entertained millions of people, and the 1800s would have been a much drearier time without his creative flair and enthusiasm. Page 9.

Phineas Barnum's American Museum, a Great Attraction in New York
These vintage images depict highlights from the career of the great showman Phineas T. Barnum, an influential and beloved figure in 19th century America. His museums, shows, and circuses entertained millions of people, and the 1800s would have been a much drearier time without his creative flair and enthusiasm. Page 2.

Barnum's American Museum Destroyed in a Massive Fire in July 1865
These vintage images depict highlights from the career of the great showman Phineas T. Barnum, an influential and beloved figure in 19th century America. His museums, shows, and circuses entertained millions of people, and the 1800s would have been a much drearier time without his creative flair and enthusiasm. Page 8.

The Exhibition Saloon at Barnum's American Museum
These vintage images depict highlights from the career of the great showman Phineas T. Barnum, an influential and beloved figure in 19th century America. His museums, shows, and circuses entertained millions of people, and the 1800s would have been a much drearier time without his creative flair and enthusiasm. Page 5.

Phineas Barnum's Final Museum
These vintage images depict highlights from the career of the great showman Phineas T. Barnum, an influential and beloved figure in 19th century America. His museums, shows, and circuses entertained millions of people, and the 1800s would have been a much drearier time without his creative flair and enthusiasm. Page 13.

Barnum's Tiger Escaped During a Fire at the New American Museum
These vintage images depict highlights from the career of the great showman Phineas T. Barnum, an influential and beloved figure in 19th century America. His museums, shows, and circuses entertained millions of people, and the 1800s would have been a much drearier time without his creative flair and enthusiasm. Page 12.

Jenny Lind, Barnum's Great Concert Act
These vintage images depict highlights from the career of the great showman Phineas T. Barnum, an influential and beloved figure in 19th century America. His museums, shows, and circuses entertained millions of people, and the 1800s would have been a much drearier time without his creative flair and enthusiasm. Page 6.

Phineas Barnum
These vintage images depict highlights from the career of the great showman Phineas T. Barnum, an influential and beloved figure in 19th century America. His museums, shows, and circuses entertained millions of people, and the 1800s would have been a much drearier time without his creative flair and enthusiasm.

A Studio Photograph of Phineas T. Barnum, the 19th Century's Greatest Showman
These vintage images depict highlights from the career of the great showman Phineas T. Barnum, an influential and beloved figure in 19th century America. His museums, shows, and circuses entertained millions of people, and the 1800s would have been a much drearier time without his creative flair and enthusiasm. Page 15.

Sleighing in New York, a Street Scene at Barnum's American Museum
These vintage images depict highlights from the career of the great showman Phineas T. Barnum, an influential and beloved figure in 19th century America. His museums, shows, and circuses entertained millions of people, and the 1800s would have been a much drearier time without his creative flair and enthusiasm. Page 7.

Phineas T. Barnum Statue in Brideport, Connecticut
These vintage images depict highlights from the career of the great showman Phineas T. Barnum, an influential and beloved figure in 19th century America. His museums, shows, and circuses entertained millions of people, and the 1800s would have been a much drearier time without his creative flair and enthusiasm. Page 16.

Jumbo, the great elephant displayed by Phineas T. Barnum
These vintage images depict highlights from the career of the great showman Phineas T. Barnum, an influential and beloved figure in 19th century America. His museums, shows, and circuses entertained millions of people, and the 1800s would have been a much drearier time without his creative flair and enthusiasm. Page 14.

The Grand Hall of Barnum's American Museum in New York City
These vintage images depict highlights from the career of the great showman Phineas T. Barnum, an influential and beloved figure in 19th century America. His museums, shows, and circuses entertained millions of people, and the 1800s would have been a much drearier time without his creative flair and enthusiasm. Page 4.

Barnum's New American Museum
These vintage images depict highlights from the career of the great showman Phineas T. Barnum, an influential and beloved figure in 19th century America. His museums, shows, and circuses entertained millions of people, and the 1800s would have been a much drearier time without his creative flair and enthusiasm. Page 11.

Phineas T. Barnum | The Prince of Humbug in Vintage Images
Phineas T. Barnum's amazing career depicted in vintage images.

Phineas T. Barnum | The Prince of Humbug in Vintage Images
Phineas T. Barnum's amazing career depicted in vintage images.

First Oil Well Was Drilled by Edwin Drake
The first oil well was drilled in Pennsylvania in 1859 by Edwin Drake, who started the modern oil industry though he would only drill three oil wells in his brief career.

Dark Horse Candidate Definition
Dark horse candidates have their roots in raucous political conventions of the mid-1800s.

Daniel Webster's Seventh of March Speech
Daniel Webster's Seventh of March Speech was extremely controversial when delivered in 1850 during Capitol Hill debates about slavery.

James K. Polk | Facts and Brief Biography
What you should know about James K. Polk, one of the most successful American presidents in the period before the Civil War.

Definition of The Great Game
Definition of The Great Game. 19th Century History.

The Anaconda Plan of 1861: Early Civil War Strategy
The Anaconda Plan was an early strategy to economically strangle the Confederacy, similar to how an anaconda snake would constrict its victims.

Technological Innovations In the Civil War
Innovations during the Civil War, and links to technology that influenced the fighting as well as how the war was reported.

The Lowell Mill Girls
Francis Cabot Lowell's innovative 19th century Lowell Girls textile factory work program changed how Americans thought of employment.

Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's Stylish German Husband
Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria of Britain, was a German prince who came to wield great influence on British society.

- By Category
An index of categories in the

History of St. Valentine's Day in the 1800s
The Valentine Card became a longstanding American tradition in the mid-1800s, and also flourished in Victorian Britain.

Christiana Riot: 1851 Resistance By Fugitive Slaves
Fugitive slaves in Pennsylvania resisted an attempt to capture them and the violent incident created a national uproar in 1851.

James Buchanan | Facts and Brief Biography
Important facts to know about James Buchanan, the president who failed to hold the nation together just before the Civil War.

Embargo Act of 1807 - Thomas Jefferson
The Embargo Act of 1807 was Thomas Jefferson's misguided plan to punish Britain for interfering with American trade.

Why is America's Election Day On a Tuesday In November?
The tradition of holding America's presidential election on a Tuesday in November began in the early 1800s, and was established in law in the 1840s.

Indian Removal and the Trail of Tears
America's policy of Indian removal led to the Trail of Tears, a brutal and shameful episode in American history.

Henry David Thoreau | Biography of Transcendentalist Author
Henry David Thoreau challenged popular thinking about life and society in works such as his book Walden and essay Civil Disobedience.

Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 was one of the most controversial laws in American history and increased tensions between slave and free states.

Thomas Edison's Most Important Inventions
Five important inventions by Thomas Edison, who received more than 1,000 patents during his astoundingly productive career.

Forty Acres and a Mule
Forty Acres and a Mule was a promise made, but never kept, to freed slaves at the end of the Civil War.

Andrew Jackson's Big Block of Cheese
The true story of Andrew Jackson's big block of cheese.

Ida B. Wells and Her Anti-Lynching Campaign
Ida B. Wells, a crusading African-American journalist, waged a valiant campaign against lynching in the 1890s.

The California Gold Rush
The California Gold Rush, which kicked off in 1848, quickly changed a remote and sparsely populated territory into a thriving state.

Manifest Destiny's meaning to American expansion
The concept of manifest destiny: what it meant, how the term was coined, and what its implications were in 19th century America.

Louisiana Purchase
The Louisiana Purchase instantly doubled the size of United States territory when Thomas Jefferson bought it from France in 1803.

William Ewart Gladstone | British Statesman
William Ewart Gladstone, four-time prime minister, was the classic Victorian politician as well as a fascinating eccentric.

Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger, legendary mountain man, became famous as a frontier character and was renowned as a walking atlas of the American West.

William Henry Ashley
William Henry Ashley's foresight organizing the fur trade in the 1820s greatly influenced how Americans would move westward in later decades.

The Dead Rabbits Riot
The Dead Rabbits riot of July 1857 was named for a notorious New York City gang, but the wild street fighting was never adequately explained.

Significance of the Battle of Antietam
The Battle of Antietam was bloody, violent, and very significant; here are five ways it changed history.

New York City's Great Fire of 1835
New York City's Great Fire of 1835 destroyed much of lower Manhattan and wiped out the financial center of America in one freezing night.

Definition of Chinese Exclusion Act
Definition of Chinese Exclusion Act

Thirteenth Amendment
The Thirteenth Amendment, which ended slavery in 1865, was viewed as necessary but its passage was marked by controversy.

Definition of Greenbacks
Greenbacks were the original paper money issued by the United States during the Civil War, given the distinctive name for the ink used in printing.

Brook Farm
Brook Farm was an experimental community of the transcendentalist movement which attracted prominent American writers.

Definition of Lecompton Constitution
The Lecompton Constitution of Kansas was a hotly contest issue in the years leading up to the Civil War.

Presidential Election of 1852
The presidential election of 1852 was significant, not because of who was elected but for changes it brought in political parties.

Definition of Secession
Secession was the process by which the slave states, in late 1860 and early 1861, left the Union and triggered the Civil War.

History of Labor in the 19th Century
History of labor struggles in the 19th century, from the Luddites to the rise of American labor unions.

Currier and Ives
Lithographers Currier and Ives captured 19th century life in vivid illustrations which proved extremely popular with the public.

The Erie Railroad War
The Erie Railroad War was an 1868 battle of robber barons pitting Cornelius Vanderbilt against Jay Gould and Jim Fisk.

Theodore Dwight Weld
Theodore Dwight Weld was a highly influential force in the abolitionist movement whose own modesty let him be overshadowed in history.

Elijah Lovejoy
Newspaper editor Elijah Lovejoy was murdered by a pro-slavery mob in Illinois in 1837 and his death would inspire the abolitionist cause.

Annie Oakley: 19th Century Sharpshooting Superstar
Annie Oakley's remarkable skill with a rifle made her a 19th century show business phenomenon.

The Marquis de Lafayette's Triumphant Tour of America
The visit to America by the Marquis de Lafayette in 1824 was a chance for America to show progress made since the American Revolution.

Lafayette Was Welcomed In Cities and Villages
The Marquis de Lafayette, visiting America on a celebratory tour in 1824-25 was welcomed in cities and villages.

Lafayette Travels Took Him From New Orleans to Maine in 1825
Touring America in 1825, the Marquis de Lafayette's travels took him from New Orleans to Maine and countless spots in between.

Daniel Boone
Daniel Boone, legendary frontiersman, led settlers westward to Kentucky and became a legendary figure in American folklore.

Definition of War Hawks of the Early 19th Century
The term War Hawks referred to a faction in Congress which advocated for the War of 1812.

Definition of Fort Laramie
Fort Laramie, a remote U.S. Army outpost, became a vital hub of activity along the Oregon Trail in the 1840s.

Definition of Adams-Onis Treaty
The Adams-Onis Treaty brought Florida into the United States, following negotiations by John Quincy Adams.

Definition of Privateers
Privateers, as designated by the U.S. Constitution, played a valuable role in America's strategy in the War of 1812.

Wire Services
The Associated Press began in the 1840s when a group of New York City newspapers pooled resources to share news traveling over the telegraph.

Humbug definition
Definition of the word humbug, which became noteworthy thanks to Phineas T. Barnum and Charles Dickens.

Definition of U.S. Sanitary Commission
The U.S. Sanitary Commission struggled to assist the many wounded Union soldiers of the Civil War.

Theodore Roosevelt and the New York Police Department
Future President Theodore Roosevelt spent two controversial years at the top of the New York Police Department in the mid-1890s.

Abraham Lincoln | Facts and Brief Biography
The basic facts everyone should know about Abraham Lincoln, one of the great American presidents.

19th Century Newspapers
Five things about 19th century newspapers you never knew.

Millerites
Definition of Millerites, a 19th century religious sect whose members believed the world would end in the early 1840s.

Kit Carson
Kit Carson became a famous scout and frontiersman and a living symbol of the American West in the mid-1800s.

Alexander Turney Stewart
A.T. Stewart created the American department store when he opened his

Ottmar Mergenthaler
Ottmar Mergenthaler changed newspapers in the 1880s by inventing the linotype machine, a brilliant advance in typesetting.

Winslow Homer and the Civil War
Painter Winslow Homer first achieved widespread recognition as a battlefield artist for Harper's Weekly during the Civil War.

Franklin's Ships, HMS Terror and HMS Erebus
The two ships of the Franklin Expedition went missing for a century and a half until one was found in 2014.

Sir John Franklin
Sir John Franklin led an expedition aboard two ships into the Arctic in the 1840s and mysteriously disappeared.

The Mystery of Franklin's Fate
The men who sailed to the Arctic with Sir John Franklin all perished.

The Mystery of the Franklin Expedition
The disappearance of the Franklin Expedition in the Arctic in the 1840s fascinated the Victorian public, and the truth is still emerging from frozen terrain.

John Philip Sousa
John Philip Sousa, known as the

President Arthur Proven American
When Chester A. Arthur was accused of having been born outside the United States, newspapers dispatched reporters to discover the truth.

Chester Alan Arthur | Facts and Brief Biography
Chester Alan Arthur was believed to be unqualified and unsuited for the presidency when he took office upon the death of President James Garfield.

Irish Author William Carleton Chronicled Peasant Life
William Carleton wrote fiction that accurately captured Irish peasant life in the early 19th century.

Financier Russell Sage Attacked in 1891 Office Bombing
One of America's richest men, Russell Sage, was nearly blown to bits in 1891 when a

Dorothea Dix
Dorothea Dix was a humanitarian and social activist whose crusade to improve the treatment of the mentally ill changed society in the 1800s.

Abraham Lincoln and Colonization
Abraham Lincoln's announcement of a plan to resettle African Americans in Central America was quickly condemned in 1862.

Hurricane Devastated New York City in 1821 and Marked Beginning of Hurricane Science
A massive hurricane hammered New York City in 1821 and led to a theory that explained how hurricanes formed and traveled.

Did the Lewis and Clark Expedition Include a Slave?
One member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition was a slave, York, who served as a valuable member of the Corps of Discovery.

Definition of Victorian
Victorian is a term loaded with many meanings, all of them relating to the six-decade reign of Queen Victoria.

Definition of Reconstruction
The era of Reconstruction following the Civil War was highly controversial at the time and remains so to the present day.

Definition of Gadsden Purchase
The Gadsden Purchase, a strip of land purchased from Mexico in 1853, completed the mainland United States.

The Fourteenth Amendment
The Fourteenth Amendment, intended to solve immediate problems, has become an enduring and vital part of the Constitution.

A Pirate Was Hanged Before a New York Crowd in 1860
Hicks the Pirate was hanged before a massive gathering of boats and spectators on the future site of the Statue of Liberty in 1860.

Definition of Dime Novel
Dime novels, cheap books often featuring detectives or western heroes, became extremely popular in the late 1800s.

Peter Cooper
Industrialist Peter Cooper succeeded in many endeavors and was beloved for his generosity to his fellow New Yorkers.

Henry Morton Stanley - Explorer Said Dr. Livingstone I Presume
Henry Morton Stanley, who uttered the famous phrase

Definition of Border States
The border states, which remained loyal to the Union while having legal slavery, presented difficult political problems for Abraham Lincoln.

New York Times Tricked Its Rival Over 1854's Big Story
In October 1854 the scrappy upstart New York Times hacked the New York Herald to get a big story about the SS Arctic disaster.

Sheridan's Ride
The ride into battle by General Philip Sheridan became a legendary event in the Civil War and helped Lincoln win the election of 1864.

Charles Carroll of Carrollton
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, last living signer of the Declaration of Independence, was a revered symbol of an earlier era in 19th century America.

General Sheridan's Funeral
The 1888 funeral for General Philip Sheridan at Arlington National Cemetery helped establish the cemetery's significance in the public mind.

William McKinley | Facts and Brief Biography
The facts one should know about William McKinley, 25th president of the United States.

19th Century Steamboats: Five Things to Know
Steamboats changed the world in the 1800s, and here are five things you should know about them.

Wild Bill Hickok
Wild Bill Hickok, lawman, gunfighter, and gambler, became a symbol of the Wild West and an enduring American character.

Robert Fulton
Robert Fulton, an artist turned inventor, revolutionized transportation in 1807 by sailing his steam-powered boat, the Clermont, on the Hudson River.

Technology Milestones
Technology milestones helped define the 1800s, from steamboats to the telegraph to suspension bridges.

Building the Erie Canal - 19th Century History
It was a dream, and many people scoffed. But when the Erie Canal opened in 1825, it was the marvel of its age. And it was soon a huge economic success.

The Burning of Washington in 1814 - British Invasion
The burning of Washington in 1814 by British troops was a humiliating episode in American history.

Lincoln Second Inaugural
Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address, one of his greatest speeches, looked ahead to the peace after the imminent end of the Civil War.

Walt Whitman and Civil War
The poet Walt Whitman, who volunteered as a Civil War nurse, was profoundly affected by the suffering he witnessed.

The Cardiff Giant | Famous 19th Century Hoax
The Cardiff Giant, said to be a petrified ancient man, was one of the famous and popular hoaxes of the 19th Century.

Great Railroad Strike of 1877
The Great Strike of railroad workers in 1877 led to violent clashes between federal troops and workers and had a permanent effects on American society.

Civil War Battlefield Artists
Artists at the battle front working for illustrated magazines drew Civil War scenes that captivated the American public.

Cyrus Field | Promoter of the Atlantic Telegraph Cable
Businessman Cyrus Field created a revolution in communication by connecting Europe and America by an undersea telegraph cable.

Davy Crockett
Separating fiction from fact, five things to know about the real Davy Crockett, frontiersman, politician, and American folk hero.

Mining
The 19th century was marked by the growth of the mining industry, which was often spurred on by spectacular events like the California Gold Rush of 1849 and the discovery of Nevada's Comstock Lode silver deposits a decade later. Coal, copper, and other materials needed for industry were in great demand, and the mining business would remake some parts of the world.

Election of 1872
In the election of 1872 legendary newspaper editor Horace Greeley lost badly to President Grant, then suffered a breakdown and died weeks later.

Election of 1868
The election of 1868 brought political novice and war hero Ulysses S. Grant to the White House after a peculiar election summer.

James Russell Lowell
James Russell Lowell became known for literary political satire in the years before the Civil War and was later respected as an American man of letters.

Election of 1844
The presidential election of 1844 turned out to be very close, and the deciding issue was whether the United States should annex Texas.

John Burroughs
John Burroughs, author and naturalist, inspired millions of readers to appreciate nature in the late 19th century.

Michael Davitt
Michael Davitt founded the Irish National Land League and played a major role in Irish agitation against British rule in the late 1800s.

Trains Crossed Hundreds of Feet Above the River
The Niagara Suspension Bridge could carry railroad trains hundreds of feet in the air, a remarkable achievement in the mid-1800s.

The Niagara Suspension Bridge Was Widely Advertised
The Niagara Suspension Bridge was an attraction in the 1800s which we can no longer appreciate, as it was replaced by the 1890s.

Niagara Suspension Bridge
The Niagara Suspension Bridge designed by John A. Roebling was a remarkably graceful structure that preceded his masterpiece, the Brooklyn Bridge.

Transatlantic Cable
Facts to know about the Transatlantic Cable, the 19th century wonder that made fast communication possible between America and Europe.

Millard Fillmore | Facts and Brief Biography
Facts to know about Millard Fillmore, 13th president of the United States, who struggled and compromised to hold the Union together a decade before the Civil War.

Act of Union of 1800 Linked Ireland to Britain
The Act of Union was legislation passed by Britain in 1800 which brought Ireland and Britain together and prevented Irish self-government.

Knights of Labor
The Knights of Labor was the first nationwide labor organization, and played a critical role in American labor history.

Denmark Vesey's Slave Rebellion
Denmark Vesey plotted a slave rebellion in 1822 in Charleston which was brutally thwarted, resulting in the hanging of 35 men.

International Slave Trade Outlawed In America in 1807
An 1807 law banned the importation of slaves to America, but did nothing to slow the slave economy.

Slave Rebellions in 19th Century America
Five things you should know about 19th Century American slave rebellions.

Ireland's Repeal Movement
Ireland's Repeal Movement of the 1840s failed to bring about self-government but inspired the Irish people with its patriotic message.

Death of Elmer Ellsworth
Col. Elmer Ellsworth, the first Union officer killed in the Civil War, organized the Fire Zouaves, a regiment of New York City firemen, and was a personal friend of Abraham Lincoln. The national reaction to Ellsworth's death, which included a funeral in the East Room of the White House, tells us a lot about America at the beginning of the Civil War.

Col. Elmer Ellsworth Was Killed Early in the Civil War
Col. Elmer Ellsworth of the New York Fire Zouaves was killed in Alexandria Virginia in the early days of the Civil War and became a martyr for the Union.

Col. Elmer Ellsworth's Body Was Taken to the White House
Col. Elmer Ellsworth became a martyr for the Union cause when he was killed, at the age of 24, in the early days of the Civil War. A friend of President Lincoln, he was honored with a funeral in the East Room of the White House.

The Cry to Avenge Ellsworth Became a Rallying Cry
Though not widely remembered today, the killing of Col. Ellsworth was a monumental event in the early days of the Civil War. And the cry to

Opposition to the War of 1812 From Americans
Considerable opposition to the War of 1812, much of it quite bitter, came from Americans who opposed the declaration of war signed by President Madison.

Terence Vincent Powderly
Terence Vincent Powderly became the prominent leader of the Knights of Labor in the late 1800s.

War of 1812 Causes
When President James Madison declared war against Britain in 1812 he was encouraged by a number of strategic and political considerations.

Battle of Waterloo
The Battle of Waterloo ended Napoleon's career and changed the face of Europe 200 years ago.

The Duke of Wellington
What you should know about the Duke of Wellington, the man who defeated Napoleon at Waterloo.

Corps of Discovery
The Corps of Discovery was carefully chosen group of 33 people that explored the West with Lewis and Clark.

Lincoln Assassination Conspirators
The four accomplices who were hanged for conspiring with John Wilkes Booth to murder Abraham Lincoln.

Senator Thomas Hart Benton
Senator Thomas Hart Benton represented Missouri for three decades in the early 1800s and was a leading proponent of westward expansion.

Whig Party
The Whig Party arose from opposition to Andrew Jackson, became a political force for a time, and then disintegrated in the 1850s.

Election of 1836
The election of 1836 featured an inventive strategy by the Whigs which seems bizarre today, yet it nearly succeeded.

Candidates Nearly President
Five men who ran for president in the 1800s and nearly made it.

19th Century Influential Men Who Began as Printers
In the 19th century notable writers and wielders of political influence sometimes got their start in life by mastering the art of printing.

Montgomery Meigs
General Montgomery Meigs, soldier and engineer, is the person most responsible for the creation of Arlington National Cemetery.

Davy Crockett's Writing
Davy Crockett only wrote one book, but his storytelling made him a figure in American frontier literature.

Images of Charles Dickens
Images of Charles Dickens, the great Victorian novelist.

Images of Charles Dickens
Images of Charles Dickens, the great Victorian novelist. Page 3.

Images of Charles Dickens
Images of Charles Dickens, the great Victorian novelist. Page 4.

Images of Charles Dickens
Images related to Charles Dickens, including a photo of family members observing the 200th anniversary of the great novelist's birth. Page 12.

Images of Charles Dickens
Images related to Charles Dickens, including his 200th birthday commemoration at Westminster Abbey. Page 10.

Images of Charles Dickens
Images related to Charles Dickens, including photos of his 200th birthday commemoration. Page 9.

Images of Charles Dickens
Images related to Charles Dickens, including Prince Charles commemorating the novelist's 200th birthday at Westminster Abbey. Page 11.

Images of Charles Dickens
Images of Charles Dickens, the great Victorian novelist. Page 8.

Images of Charles Dickens
Images of Charles Dickens, the great Victorian novelist. Page 5.

Images of Charles Dickens
Images of Charles Dickens, the great Victorian novelist. Page 6.

Images of Charles Dickens
Images of Charles Dickens, the great Victorian novelist. Page 7.

Images of Charles Dickens
Images of Charles Dickens, the great Victorian novelist. Page 2.

Images of Charles Dickens
Images of Charles Dickens, the great Victorian novelist.

Plessy v. Ferguson | 1896 Supreme Court Decision on Jim Crow Laws
The landmark Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision legitimized Jim Crow laws and racial segregation.

History of Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery was founded during the Civil War, on the site of Robert E. Lee's former home.

John Muir Biography - Father of the National Parks
Scottish-born John Muir was a strong advocate for the US National Parks in the 19th century.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's Funeral
America's grief was portrayed in images of Abraham Lincoln's funeral. Page 6.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's Funeral
The hearse from Abraham Lincoln's funeral procession in Philadelphia. Page 5.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's Funeral
America's grief was portrayed in images of Abraham Lincoln's funeral.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's Funeral
Lincoln's funeral procession moving up Broadway in New York City. Page 9.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's Funeral
Lincoln's funeral procession in New York City went from City Hall up Broadway. Page 8.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's Funeral
Lithograph of Lincoln's funeral at Union Square in New York City. Page 10.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's Funeral
Engraving of Lincoln's funeral in Springfield, Illinois. Page 12.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's Funeral
A decorated locomotive which pulled Lincoln's funeral train. Page 3.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's Funeral
The railroad car used to transport Lincoln's body back to Illinois. Page 4.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's Funeral
Lithograph of Abraham Lincoln's funeral in Columbus, Ohio. Page 11.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's Funeral
Lincoln's body lay in state in New York's City Hall. Page 7.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's Funeral
America's grief was portrayed in images of Abraham Lincoln's funeral. Page 2.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's Funeral, Which Visited Cities By Rail
America's grief was portrayed in images of Abraham Lincoln's funeral.

Assassination of Lincoln - Overview and Images
News of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theatre on April 14, 1865 shocked the United States at the end of the Civil War.

Coxey's Army: 1894 March of Unemployed Workers
Coxey's Army was a protest consisting of hundreds of unemployed workers who marched to Washington in 1894.

Coxey's Army - Populist Leader Jacob S. Coxey Organized 1894 March on Washington
Coxey's Army was an early protest march consisting of hundreds of unemployed workers who marched from Ohio to the U.S. Capitol in 1894. Learn about their leader, Jacob S. Coxey and their cause.

Coxey's Army - 1894 March to Washington By Hundreds of Unemployed Workers
Coxey's Army was an early protest march consisting of hundreds of unemployed workers who marched from Ohio to the U.S. Capitol in 1894. Learn about their leader, Jacob S. Coxey and their cause.

Monroe Doctrine | Definition and Background
Definition of the Monroe Doctrine, an American foreign policy statement from 1823 which had enduring consequences.

Visiting New York City's Tenement Museum
A review of the Irish Outsiders tour at New York City's Tenement Museum, which takes visitors into the restored 1860s apartment of an immigrant family.

The Colorful History of the St. Patrick's Day Parade
Learn how the earliest American parades to honor St. Patrick began in the mid-1700s and became major urban events by the mid-1800s.

James Madison | Facts and Brief Biography
The facts one should know about James Madison, America's fourth president and the man considered The Father of the Constitution.

Sacagawea | Native American Woman Accompanied Lewis and Clark
Sacagawea, a young Native American woman, traveled with the Lewis and Clark Expedition and served as a valuable translator and guide.

The Murder of Bill Poole
The killing of boxer and butcher Bill Poole in 1855 was followed by a colossal public funeral in New York City.

Deadly Duel Between Members of Congress
A fatal duel between two members of Congress in 1838 may have exerted significant influence on the course of American history.

John Wilkes Booth
John Wilkes Booth, the actor whose pro-southern sympathies prompted him to assassinate President Abraham Lincoln.

William Marcy Tweed | Biography of Boss Tweed
Biography of Boss Tweed, legendary corrupt political boss of New York City in the era following the Civil War.

Walt Whitman's Journalism Career
Walt Whitman spent years as a working journalist and it influenced his poetry and even the publication of Leaves of Grass.

Walt Whitman | Biography of the Great American Poet
Walt Whitman was one of the most important writers of the 19th century and was arguably the greatest American poet.

Donald McKay
Donald McKay designed and built some of the great clipper ships of the 19th century, including Flying Cloud and Great Republic.

Abraham Lincoln Quotes Everyone Should Know
Ten quotes by Abraham Lincoln everyone should know, with verified sources and notes on why the quotes matter.

Horace Mann
Education reformer Horace Mann profoundly changed the way education was regarded and made available to children in 19th century America.

Abraham Lincoln Photographs | Classic Portraits of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln posed for some classic portraits, including this Daguerreotype believed to be the first photograph of Lincoln.

Abraham Lincoln Photographs | Classic Portraits of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln seemed to enjoy posing for some portraits, such as this image of him with his son Tad. Page 9.

Abraham Lincoln Photographs | Classic Portraits of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln photographs such as this famous portrait eventually used for the penny became iconic American images. Page 11.

Abraham Lincoln Photographs | Classic Portraits of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln posed for classic photographs, including this iconic image which was eventually used on the five dollar bill. Page 10.

Abraham Lincoln Photographs | Classic Portraits of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln seemed to show the strain of the Civil War in this iconic portrait by Alexander Gardner. Page 12.

Abraham Lincoln Photographs | Classic Portraits of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln posed for this classic Alexander Gardner portrait in November 1863, less than two weeks before delivering the Gettysburg Address. Page 8.

Abraham Lincoln Photographs | Classic Portraits of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln posed for photographer Alexander Hesler in the summer of 1860, while running for president. Page 4.

Abraham Lincoln Photographs | Classic Portraits of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was friendly with photographer Alexander Gardner and visited his new Washington studio as a favor in August 1863. Page 7.

Abraham Lincoln Photographs | Classic Portraits of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln posed for a portrait just before he left Illinois to travel to Washington for his inauguration. Page 6.

Abraham Lincoln Photographs | Classic Portraits of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was captured in classic portraits by Alexander Hesler, a Chicago photographer. Page 3.

Abraham Lincoln Photographs | Classic Portraits of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln posed for classic portraits even before he was president, such as this 1860 image by Preston Butler. Page 5.

Abraham Lincoln Photographs | Classic Portraits of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln posed for this photograph during his unsuccessful 1858 U.S. Senate campaign. Page 2.

Abraham Lincoln Photographs | Classic Portraits of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln understood the importance of photographs, and posed for some classic portraits.

Abolitionists | The Abolitionist Movement in America
The abolitionists were considered a fringe element in American life, yet they persisted in the struggle to end slavery.

Jules Verne
French novelist Jules Verne combined adventure stories with scientific research to create a new genre of fiction, which he called novels of science.

Failed Assassinations of 19th Century Presidents
Several presidents were targets of unsuccessful, and often overlooked, assassination attempts in the 19th century.

President James Buchanan May Have Been Poisoned at His Own Inauguration
President James Buchanan became very ill at his own inauguration, and it was widely suspected that he had been poisoned.

Meriwether Lewis | Explorer Led Lewis and Clark Expedition
Meriwether Lewis was chosen by Thomas Jefferson to lead a voyage of discovery that became the famed Lewis and Clark Expedition.

William Clark | Explored the West with Meriwether Lewis
William Clark partnered with Meriwether Lewis on the famed Lewis and Clark Expedition that explored the West in the early 1800s.

Roscoe Conkling
Roscoe Conkling of New York was one of the most powerful political figures in the years after the Civil War.

The Great Blizzard of 1888
The Great Blizzard of 1888 hammered the Northeast, killing hundreds, isolating entire cities, and disabling telegraph lines and railroads.

Wilderness Road
The Wilderness Road, established by frontiersman Daniel Boone in 1775, became a major route westward, through the Cumberland Gap.

State of the Union Addresses of the 19th Century
Five things to know about the State of the Union Addresses of the 19th century, which were very different than the speeches given today.

Lewis and Clark Timeline
A timeline of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, from the voyage's planning in 1803 until its conclusion in 1806.

Biography of Horatio Alger | Author advocated hard work
The writer Horatio Alger advocated hard work and perseverance, yet he lived a troubled life marred by a major scandal.

Steamship Lexington Disaster
The burning and sinking of the steamship Lexington in Long Island Sound was a shocking disaster in January 1840.

The Hartford Convention
Opposition to the War of 1812 became so intense that New England delegates gathered to propose changes to the Constitution.

Battle of New Orleans
Five things to know about the Battle of New Orleans in early 1815.

Jean Lafitte
Jean Lafitte, pirate and outlaw, became a hero at the Battle of New Orleans.

Presidential Handshakes on New Year's Day
For well over a century, New Year's Day was marked by a public reception at the White House.

War and Diplomacy of the 19th Century
Warfare, often on a colossal scale, marked the 1800s.

Christmas Celebration During the Crimean War
A lithograph showing British officers celebrating Christmas far from home during the Crimean War. Page 5.

Christmas Out of Doors by Winslow Homer
An illustration by Winslow Homer depicting Christmas revelers on a city street in the late 1850s. Page 7.

Christmas Eve 1862 by Thomas Nast
An illustration by Thomas Nast depicting Christmas Eve during the Civil War features a soldier at the front and his wife back at home. Page 8.

Santa Claus and His Presents by Winslow Homer
An 1858 illustration by Winslow Homer showing parents placing presents for a child, who will believe Santa Claus brought them. Page 6.

Santa Claus in Camp by Thomas Nast
An illustration by Thomas Nast depicted Santa Claus, in a star-spangled costume, giving gifts to soldiers at a Union Army camp. Page 9.

Santa Claus in the 1880s
An illustration from the 1880s depicting Santa Claus piloting his toy-laden sleigh which is pulled by flying reindeer. Page 12.

The Union Christmas Dinner by Thomas Nast
An illustration by Thomas Nast at the end of 1864 depicted an elaborate Christmas dinner from which the rebellious states were still absent. Page 10.

Christmas Tree of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert
Illustrations of the Christmas tree of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert set a trend, and made Christmas trees a popular custom, even in America. Page 4.

Illustration of Marley's Ghost
An illustration by John Leech from the original edition of A Christmas Carol showing Scrooge meeting Marley's ghost.

Illustration of Mr. Fezziwig's Ball
Mr. Fezziwig's Ball, as illustrated by John Leech for the first edition of A Christmas Carol. Page 2.

Santa Claus by Thomas Nast
An illustration by Thomas Nast of Santa Claus that helped Nast's depiction of the mythical figure become traditional. Page 11.

Scrooge's Third Visitor
Scrooge's Third Visitor, as depicted by illustrator John Leech for the first edition of A Christmas Carol. Page 3.

Christmas In the 19th Century
Visual depictions of Christmas evolved over the course of the 19th century, as shown in this gallery of images.

The Little Fireman
Lithograph by Currier and Ives depicting a child dressed as a fireman. Page 12.

1883 Fire at the New York World Building
Color print showing the 1883 fire at the New York World building in lower Manhattan. Page 11.

The Fireman in 19th Century Images
Lithographs of firemen were popular in the 19th century, and this gallery of images shows some of the most popular examples.

The Night Alarm
Currier and Ives lithograph titled Life of a Fireman: The Night Alarm. Page 7.

The New Era
Currier and Ives lithograph titled Life of a Fireman: The New Era, Steam and Muscle. Page 6.

The Metropolitan System
Currier and Ives lithograph titled Life of a Fireman: The Metropolitan System. Page 5.

F.S. Chanfrau as Mose the Fireboy
Illustration of actor F.S. Chanfrau playing his character Mose the Fireboy. Page 2.

American Fireman Rushing to the Conflict
Illustration by Currier and Ives titled American Fireman: Rushing to the Conflict. Page 3.

American Fireman Prompt to the Rescue
Lithograph by Currier and Ives titled American Fireman: Prompt to the Rescue. Page 10.

American Fireman Facing the Enemy
Lithograph by Currier and Ives titled American Fireman: Facing the Enemy. Page 9.

American Fireman Always Ready
Currier and Ives lithograph titled The American Fireman: Always Ready. Page 4.

1835 Great New York Fire
Illustration of the Great New York City Fire of December 16, 1835.

The Ruins
Lithograph by Currier and Ives titled Life of a Fireman: The Ruins. Page 8.

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Stereographic Photography
Stereographic photography, which appeared three-dimensional, was very popular in the 19th century.

Definition of Molly Maguires
Definition of Molly Maguires. 19th Century History.

Thaddeus Stevens | Biography of the Congressman
Thaddeus Stevens, eccentric congressman and fierce opponent of slavery, was a dominant figure on Capitol Hill in the Civil War era.

Cigar Makers by Jacob Riis
Photograph by Jacob Riis of a family of cigar makers working in their tenement apartment in New York City in the late 19th century. Page 11.

Saluting the Flag by Jacob Riis
Photograph by Jacob Riis of immigrant children saluting the American flag in a school in New York City in the late 19th century. Page 12.

Sewing Neckties
Photograph by Jacob Riis of workers sewing neckties in a tenement building on New York City's Lower East Side in the late 19th century. Page 10.

Jewish Cobbler
Photograph by Jacob Riis of a poor Jewish cobbler preparing to observe the sabbath in a crude living space in lower Manhattan in the late 19th century. Page 9.

Immigrant Poverty
Photograph by Jacob Riis of poor immigrants living in shacks in a vacant lot in lower Manhattan in the late 19th century. Page 8.

Home Under a Dump by Jacob Riis
Photograph by Jacob Riis of a poor Italian worker who lived in a shack in a New York City dump in the late 19th century. Page 7.

Portrait of Poverty
Photograph by Jacob Riis of a young girl holding a younger child in a slum neighborhood of New York City in the late 19th century. Page 6.

Rag Picker's Home
A photograph by Jacob Riis taken in the home of a rag picker in a slum neighborhood of New York City in the late 19th century. Page 5.

Five Cents a Spot
A photograph by Jacob Riis of tenement dwellers who paid five cents a night to sleep in a cramped room in a slum neighborhood of lower Manhattan. Page 4.

Sleeping in Alleys
A photograph by Jacob Riis of children huddled for warmth near a vent in a slum neighborhood of lower Manhattan in the late 19th century. Page 3.

Bandits' Roost
A photograph by Jacob Riis of the Bandit's Roost, an alleyway off Mulberry Street in lower Manhattan in the late 19th century. Page 2.

Jacob Riis Photograph Gallery
A photograph of by Jacob Riis of Mulberry Bend, a notorious crime-ridden area of New York City in the late 19th century.

Jacob Riis Photograph Gallery
Photographs taken by photographer Jacob Riis recorded the poverty of lower Manhattan slums in the late 1800s.

Charles Darwin's "On the Origin of Species" - Legacy
The British naturalist Charles Darwin published his book On the Origin of Species on November 24, 1859 and profoundly changed the way people considered biology and science in general.

The Homestead Steel Strike of 1892
A strike at a Pennsylvania steel mill turned shockingly violent as townspeople battled a small army of Pinkertons in 1892.

Lewis and Clark Timeline for 1806
The Lewis and Clark Expedition concluded in 1806, when the Corps of Discovery traveled from its winter fort on the Pacific Coast back to St. Louis, Missouri.

Lewis and Clark Timeline for 1805
In 1805 the Lewis and Clark Expedition was far from civilization, heading westward across the plains and into the Rocky Mountains.

Barbary Pirates Battled By US Navy 200 Years Ago
President Thomas Jefferson refused to pay tribute and dispatched the young U.S. Navy to battle the Barbary Pirates.