19th Century History Sitemap - Page 3 2016-09-26

Noah Webster | Biography of the Lexicographer
Noah Webster devoted himself to standardizing American language, and his 1828 dictionary was highly influential achievement of the 19th century.

William H. Webb
William H. Webb was one of the foremost shipbuilders of New York City in the mid-1850s, and built prominent clippers and steamers.

The Gilded Age
The Gilded Age was a time of stark economic inequality and contrasts between very rich and very poor.

August Belmont: Influential Banker in 19th Century New York
Banker and Gilded Age socialite August Belmont influenced American political life for decades in the 1800s.

Martin Van Buren | Facts and Brief Biography
The significant facts one needs to know about Martin Van Buren, America's eighth president and in many ways the founder of the nation's system of political parties.

Images of the Ironclads USS Monitor and CSS Virginia
Images of the warships USS Monitor and CSS Virginia, such as this photograph of an officer on the deck of the Monitor, illustrate how the age of ironclads dawned during the American Civil War. Page 7.

Images of the Ironclads USS Monitor and CSS Virginia
Images of the warships USS Monitor and CSS Virginia, such as this depiction of desperate fighting between them, illustrate how the age of ironclads dawned during the American Civil War. Page 5.

Images of the Ironclads USS Monitor and CSS Virginia
Images of the warship USS Monitor, including this plan for the ship, illustrate how the age of ironclads dawned during the American Civil War. Page 2.

Images of the Ironclads USS Monitor and CSS Virginia
Images of the warships USS Monitor and CSS Virginia, such as this photograph of the Monitor's crew, illustrate how the age of ironclads dawned during the American Civil War. Page 8.

Images of the Ironclads USS Monitor and CSS Virginia
Images of the warships USS Monitor and CSS Virginia, such as this print showing the Virginia's destruction, illustrate how the age of ironclads dawned during the American Civil War. Page 6.

Images of the Ironclads USS Monitor and CSS Virginia
Images of the warships USS Monitor and CSS Virginia as well as other ironclads illustrate how the age of ironclads dawned during the American Civil War. Page 10.

Images of the Ironclads USS Monitor and CSS Virginia
Images of the warships USS Monitor, invented by John Ericsson, and CSS Virginia illustrate how the age of ironclads dawned during the American Civil War.

Images of the Ironclads USS Monitor and CSS Virginia
Images of the warships USS Monitor and CSS Virginia illustrate how the age of ironclads dawned during the American Civil War. Page 3.

Images of the Ironclads USS Monitor and CSS Virginia
Images of the warships USS Monitor and CSS Virginia, including this lithograph of their legendary duel, illustrate how the age of ironclads dawned during the American Civil War. Page 4.

Images of the Ironclads USS Monitor and CSS Virginia
Images of the warships USS Monitor and CSS Virginia, such as this print of the sinking of the Monitor, illustrate how the age of ironclads dawned during the American Civil War. Page 9.

Images of the Ironclads USS Monitor and CSS Virginia
Images of the warships USS Monitor and CSS Virginia, such as this photograph of the raising of the Monitor's turret, illustrate how the age of ironclads dawned during the American Civil War. Page 12.

Images of the Ironclads USS Monitor and CSS Virginia
Images of the warships USS Monitor and CSS Virginia, and this later model, the Onondaga, illustrate how the age of ironclads dawned during the American Civil War. Page 11.

Civil War Patriotic Envelopes
A gallery of envelopes with patriotic images used during the Civil War.

Antietam Photographs | Photographer Alexander Gardner's Images of Antietam
America was shocked in 1862 by Alexander Gardner's photographs taken on the battlefield at Antietam.

Civil War Patriotic Envelopes
Envelopes with patriotic images, such as this portrait of Col. Elmer Ellsworth, were widely used during the Civil War.

Civil War Patriotic Envelopes
Envelopes with patriotic images, such as the seal of Maryland, were widely used during the Civil War. Page 7.

Civil War Patriotic Envelopes
Envelopes with patriotic images, such as the American eagle attacking a Confederate snake, were widely used during the Civil War. Page 9.

Civil War Patriotic Envelopes
Envelopes with patriotic images, such as this depiction of a Zouave holding a flag, were widely used during the Civil War. Page 4.

Civil War Patriotic Envelopes
Envelopes with patriotic images, including even this violent depiction, were widely used during the Civil War. Page 2.

Civil War Patriotic Envelopes
Envelopes with patriotic images, such as a soldier leaving home, were widely used during the Civil War. Page 12.

Civil War Patriotic Envelopes
Envelopes with patriotic images, such as this portrait of Lincoln, were widely used during the Civil War. Page 8.

Civil War Patriotic Envelopes
Envelopes with patriotic images, including the seal of Massachusetts, were widely used during the Civil War. Page 6.

Civil War Patriotic Envelopes
Envelopes with patriotic images, such as a sailor defending the flag, were widely used during the Civil War. Page 11.

Civil War Patriotic Envelopes
Envelopes with patriotic images, such as this depiction of lighting striking the Confederate flag, were widely used during the Civil War. Page 10.

Civil War Patriotic Envelopes
Envelopes with patriotic images, such as Columbia and the White House, were widely used during the Civil War. Page 5.

Civil War Patriotic Envelopes
Envelopes with patriotic images, such as this image of a Zouave, were widely used during the Civil War. Page 3.

USS Monitor Funeral
Navy Honor Guard carrying the coffin of a sailor from USS Monitor at Dulles Airport, the day before the funeral at Arlington National Cemetery. Page 4.

USS Monitor Funeral
A Navy Honor Guard placed the coffins of sailors from USS Monitor on horse-drawn caissons for the procession to the grave site at Arlington National Cemetery. Page 8.

USS Monitor Funeral
Navy Honor Guard carrying coffins of USS Monitor sailors at Arlington National Cemetery on March 8, 2013. Page 5.

USS Monitor Funeral | Arrival at Dulles Airport
Photo gallery of March 2013 funeral for two unidentified sailors from USS Monitor; the bodies arrived at Dulles Airport from a military morgue in Hawaii. Page 3.

USS Monitor Funeral
Flag-draped coffin at March 2013 service for sailors who died about USS Monitor. Page 6.

USS Monitor Funeral
Navy Honor Guard at the graves of sailors from USS Monitor buried at Arlington National Cemetery on March 8, 2013. Page 10.

USS Monitor Funeral
The Secretary of the Navy speaking at the March 2013 memorial service for sailors who died aboard USS Monitor in 1862. Page 7.

USS Monitor Funeral
Spectators in period clothing attended the funeral for sailors from USS Monitor at Arlington National Cemetery, March 8, 2013. Page 12.

USS Monitor Funeral
Navy Honor Guard marched behind the caissons carrying the remains of sailors from USS Monitor. Page 9.

USS Monitor Funeral
A Civil War reenactor saluted during the 2013 funeral at Arlington National Cemetery for two sailors who died aboard USS Monitor in 1862. Page 11.

USS Monitor Funeral
The U.S. Navy, using advanced forensic techniques, attempted to identify two sailors who died when the USS Monitor sank in 1862. Page 2.

Images of the Ironclads USS Monitor and CSS Virginia
Images of the warships USS Monitor and CSS Virginia illustrate how the age of ironclads dawned during the American Civil War.

Antietam Photographs | Photographer Alexander Gardner's Images of Antietam
Alexander Gardner's Antietam photographs, including this image of a burial two days after the battle, stunned Americans in 1862. Page 8.

Antietam Photographs | Photographer Alexander Gardner's Images of Antietam
Photographs taken by Alexander Gardner at Antietam fascinated the public, which was curious to see such landmarks as the Burnside Bridge. Page 10.

Antietam Photographs | Photographer Alexander Gardner's Images of Antietam
The Antietam photographs of Alexander Gardner, such as this group of dead Confederates, shocked the American public in late 1862. Page 3.

Antietam Photographs | Photographer Alexander Gardner's Images of Antietam
America was shocked by Alexander Gardner's Antietam photograph, including this dramatic shot of a dead Confederate gun crew by the Dunker Church.

Antietam Photographs | Photographer Alexander Gardner's Images of Antietam
Alexander Gardner's dramatic Antietam photographs shocked and saddened the American public when displayed in late 1862. Page 9.

Antietam Photographs | Photographer Alexander Gardner's Images of Antietam
Alexander Gardner's photos of the dead at Antietam, including this image of fallen Confederates, shocked the American public in late 1862. Page 2.

Antietam Photographs | Photographer Alexander Gardner's Images of Antietam
Alexander Gardner returned to the area of Antietam weeks after the battle to photograph President Lincoln's visit with the troops. Page 11.

Antietam Photographs | Photographer Alexander Gardner's Images of Antietam
The famed Sunken Road, or Bloody Lane, at Antietam was photographed by Alexander Gardner soon after the epic battle. Page 4.

USS Monitor Funeral
Officers photographed on deck of USS Monitor in 1862.

USS Monitor Funeral
Photo gallery of March 2013 funeral for two unidentified sailors from USS Monitor, the legendary Civil War ironclad, at Arlington National Cemetery.

Antietam Photographs | Photographer Alexander Gardner's Images of Antietam
Alexander Gardner returned to Antietam in early October 1862 and photographed a meeting between President Abraham Lincoln and General George McClellan. Page 12.

Antietam Photographs | Photographer Alexander Gardner's Images of Antietam
Photographs of bodies of soldiers killed in combat at Antietam shocked Americans when they were displayed in late 1862. Page 6.

Antietam Photographs | Photographer Alexander Gardner's Images of Antietam
America was shocked by Alexander Gardner's photographs taken on the battlefield at Antietam. Page 5.

Antietam Photographs | Photographer Alexander Gardner's Images of Antietam
Alexander Gardner's Antietam photographs, such as this shot of a dead Confederate next to the grave of a Union solider, shocked Americans in 1862. Page 7.

Notable Clipper Ships
Notable clipper ships of the 19th century, including Flying Cloud, Great Republic, and Cutty Sark.

The Year Without A Summer | 1816 Weather Disaster
A widespread weather disaster caused by a volcanic eruption made 1816 known as the Year Without a Summer.

A Timeline of India in the 1800s (British Raj)
The Raj, as British India was known, was the jewel of the British Empire in the 1800s.

Definition of Loco-foco
Definition of Loco-foco. 19th Century History.

Definition of Stump Speech
Definition of Stump Speech: History of the term and its lively 19th century frontier origins.

Definition of Gerrymander
The origin of the term gerrymander dates back to Massachusetts in the early 1800s, and involves the state's governor, a famous American painter, and a newspaper editor.

John Marshall, biography of the Great Chief Justice
John Marshall, serving as Chief Justice in the early 1800s, made the Supreme Court a powerful and co-equal branch of the federal government.

Anna Elizabeth Dickinson, Civil War Era Orator
Anna Elizabeth Dickinson gained fame as a forceful female orator during the Civil War.

General Winfield Scott
Winfield Scott was an influential figure in the American military for decades, from the War of 1812 to the Civil War.

When Was the Bugle Call Taps Composed and First Played?
The story of how a general and a private composed the bugle call Taps.

Civil War Plot to Burn New York City
Confederate agents plotted to burn New York City in late 1864, and the plot failed though a number of hotels and theaters were set on fire in one hectic night.

Abraham Lincoln
Perhaps no American has been written about more than Abraham Lincoln. His rise from obscurity to become one of the great leaders in history is a unique story, and one that continues to fascinate.

Horace Greeley Prodded Lincoln in 1862
Legendary editor Horace Greeley sharply criticized President Abraham Lincoln over the issue of slavery.

Daniel Webster | Facts and Brief Biography
Facts one should know about Daniel Webster, one of the most powerful and eloquent American political figures.

John C. Calhoun | Facts and Brief Biography
John C. Calhoun, father of nullification and member of the Great Triumvirate of senators, was a political force and advocate for the South.

Rutherford B. Hayes | Facts and Brief Biography
The facts one should know about Rutherford B. Hayes, who became president in one of the most disputed elections in American history.

Murder of Helen Jewett | Media Sensation in 1836
The 1836 murder of Helen Jewett, a beautiful young New York prostitute, became a famous murder case and one of the first media sensations.

Lizzie Borden Was Accused of Notorious Ax Murders
Lizzie Borden was arrested for the ax murders of family members and her trial was a media sensation in the early 1890s.

The Grimké Sisters, Abolitionists From South Carolina
The Grimké Sisters became abolitionist heroines in the 1830s, as the women from a slave-owning family in the South toured New England speaking out against the evils of slavery.

Underground Railroad: Facts About the Secret Network
Concise history of the Underground Railroad, the secret network that helped fugitive slaves.

The Election of 1864
The election of 1864 looked like a looming disaster for Abraham Lincoln, but he managed to turn it around and win.

John Tyler | Facts and Brief Biography
The facts you need to know about John Tyler, the first vice president to become chief executive when a president died in office.

Zachary Taylor: Significant Facts and Brief Biography
The important facts to know about Zachary Taylor, hero of the Mexican War who served a brief term as 12th President of the United States

Franklin Pierce | Significant Facts and Brief Biography
The significant facts one needs to know about Franklin Pierce, 14th president of the United States, who served one troubled term in the 1850s.

Robert Todd Lincoln
Robert Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln's only son to live to adulthood, was a reluctant political heir.

Notable Characters of the Civil War
Overlooked characters who were quite famous during the Civil War and played noteworthy roles in the conflict.

Major Civil War Battles and Their Consequences
Significant Civil War battles and why they were important.

The War of 1812
The War of 1812, sometimes called the Second American War of Independence, helped establish the young United States on the world stage.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 Presidential Campaign
Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 presidential campaign including a lithograph of him returning to his home in Springfield, Illinois. Page 12.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 Presidential Campaign
Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 presidential campaign, including an engraving based on an iconic Mathew Brady photograph.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 Presidential Campaign
Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 presidential campaign, including a campaign flag featuring Lincoln's portrait. Page 3.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 Presidential Campaign
Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 presidential campaign, including his likeness on a campaign button. Page 7.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 Presidential Campaign
Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 presidential campaign, including a print showing a huge campaign rally in New York City. Page 6.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 Presidential Campaign
Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 presidential campaign, including a political cartoon depicting Lincoln driving a locomotive. Page 9.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 Presidential Campaign
Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 presidential campaign, including a political cartoon depicting Lincoln consuming his opponents. Page 8.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 Presidential Campaign
Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 presidential campaign, including a Lincoln-Hamlin campaign banner. Page 11.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 Presidential Campaign
Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 presidential campaign, including a campaign banner with his portrait. Page 5.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 Presidential Campaign
See images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 presidential campaign, including a photograph of Lincoln taken in June 1860. Page 4.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 Presidential Campaign
Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 presidential campaign, including a political cartoon depicting Lincoln and his opponents as baseball players. Page 10.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 Presidential Campaign
See images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 presidential campaign, including a print depicting the site of the Republican Party convention. Page 2.

Images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 Presidential Campaign
See images of Abraham Lincoln's 1860 presidential campaign: photographs, lithographs, banners, and political cartoons.

First Battle of Bull Run
The First Battle of Bull Run (or First Manassas) was considered a defeat for the Union, and it destroyed any hope that the war would be short and easy.

The Battle of Shiloh | American Civil War Battle
The first great costly battle of the Civil War, the Battle of Shiloh in 1862 shocked Americans in the North and South. The carnage at Shiloh indicated that the Civil War would probably be a long and very bloody conflict.

The Confederate Surprise Attack at the Battle of Shiloh
The Battle of Shiloh began with a withering surprise attack by the Confederate Army.

The Battle of Shiloh's Second Day Was Decisive
The second day of the Battle of Shiloh was marked by a counterattack by Gen. Ulysses S. Grant.

New York Draft Riots - Images of 1863 Riots in New York City
The streets of New York erupted in shocking violence for several days in July 1863 in what became known as the New York City Draft Riots. The federal government instituting conscription for the army during the Civil War was the root cause, though other factors, such as racial and ethnic strife, certainly played a part. This gallery of images documents the horrors of the Draft Riots, in which buildings were burned and hundreds of people were killed or wounded.

Benjamin Harrison | Facts and Brief Biography
The basic facts one should know about Benjamin Harrison, 23rd president of the United States.

Grover Cleveland | Facts and Brief Biography
The facts one should know about Grover Cleveland, 22nd president of the United States.

Early Vice Presidents
The early vice presidents of the United States included great statesmen, rogues, and some men who had almost no interest in the job.

Presidents Who Were Secretary of State
Six early presidents had previously served as secretary of state, but that tradition ended with James Buchanan.

President Grant's Funeral
The massive New York City funeral for Ulysses S. Grant marked the passing of an era.

Civil War Veteran Presidents
Learn about 19th century presidents who got their start in politics by serving in the Civil War.

Presidents Following the Civil War
After Abraham Lincoln's presidency, members of the Republican Party controlled the White House for decades.

U.S. Presidents, 1841 to 1861
In the two decades preceding the Civil War the U.S. had seven presidents, most of whom had very difficult terms in the White House.

Early American Presidents | Facts and Brief Biographies
The basic facts about America's earliest presidents, from 1789 to 1840.

Route of Lincoln's Funeral Train
The itinerary of Abraham Lincoln's funeral train, which visited cities for nearly two weeks.

John Quincy Adams | Facts and Brief Biography
The significant facts one needs to know about John Quincy Adams, American diplomat, president, and congressman.

James Monroe | Facts and Brief Biography
The facts one should know about James Monroe, America's fifth president, who is best remembered for the Monroe Doctrine and the Era of Good Feelings.

George Washington | Facts and Brief Biography
The basic facts one should know about George Washington, military hero and first president of the United States.

William Henry Harrison | Facts and Brief Biography
Facts you should know about William Henry Harrison, who served the shortest term of any American president.

Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison was the personification of the inventive spirit of the 19th century. As a boy he was fascinated by machinery and learned Morse Code so he could work for the telegraph company. His drive to create new technology led him to invent the electric light, the phonograph, and moving pictures. Edison accomplished the astonishing feat of changing everyday life in profound ways.

Lincoln's Cabinet and Associates
Abraham Lincoln's cabinet and other associates played a major role in his administration.

Fort McHenry Photographs | Images of Site of War of 1812 Battle
Lithograph of Baltimore's Battle Monument, which honored those who defended the city in 1814. Page 10.

Fort McHenry Photographs | Images of Site of War of 1812 Battle
The British bombardment of Fort McHenry in 1814, as depicted in a lithograph from the period.

Fort McHenry Photographs | Images of Site of War of 1812 Battle
Early depiction of the enormous flag flying over Fort McHenry during the British attack. Page 9.

Fort McHenry Photographs | Images of Site of War of 1812 Battle
The 15-star American flag is raised above Fort McHenry every morning. Page 6.

Fort McHenry Photographs | Images of Site of War of 1812 Battle
The first known photograph of the Fort McHenry flag referred to in

Fort McHenry Photographs | Images of Site of War of 1812 Battle
Photograph of the restored Fort McHenry flag on display at the Smithsonian. Page 12.

Fort McHenry Photographs | Images of Site of War of 1812 Battle
Photographs of Fort McHenry, including this aerial view, show the site of the critical Battle of Baltimore in 1814. Page 2.

Fort McHenry Photographs | Images of Site of War of 1812 Battle
A photograph demonstrates how Fort McHenry's position provided defense for the city of Baltimore. Page 3.

Fort McHenry Photographs | Images of Site of War of 1812 Battle
The story of the bombardment of Fort McHenry is told by a reenactor playing the part of Dr. Beanes. Page 7.

Fort McHenry Photographs | Images of Site of War of 1812 Battle
Photograph of Baltimore's Flag House Museum, dedicated to the Battle of Baltimore in 1814. Page 4.

Fort McHenry Photographs | Images of Site of War of 1812 Battle
A full-size replica of the Fort McHenry garrison flag unfolded by schoolchildren. Page 8.

Fort McHenry Photographs | Images of Site of War of 1812 Battle
At Baltimore's Flag House Museum a reenactor tells the story of the Fort McHenry Flag. Page 5.

Fort McHenry Photographs | Images of Site of War of 1812 Battle
Photographs of Fort McHenry show the site of the critical Battle of Baltimore in 1814.

Abraham Lincoln's Family
Articles related to the family of Abraham Lincoln, including his wife and sons.

Abe Lincoln and His Ax: Reality Behind the Legend
The real story of how Abe Lincoln's use of an ax became a political legend.

The War of 1812 | Major Events In America's Second War of Independence
Major events in the War of 1812, conflict sometimes known as America's Second War of Independence

The Surrender of Fort Detroit, 1812
The surrender of Fort Detroit in the War of 1812 was a military disaster and a scandal. It derailed the U.S. plan to invade and seize Canada.

The British Attack on Fort McHenry (Spar-Spangled Banner)
The attack on Fort McHenry in Baltimore's harbor was a pivotal moment in the War of 1812 - and led to the U.S. National Anthem.

The Star-Spangled Banner As Published In an 1814 Baltimore Newspaper


Definition of Congreve Rocket
Definition of Congreve Rocket, British Weapon Referred to in the

The Chase of the USS Constitution in the War of 1812
The chase of USS Constitution and its escape from a British squadron boosted American morale early in the War of 1812.

USS Constitution Defeated HMS Guerriere in the War of 1812
The USS Constitution defeated HMS Guerriere early in the War of 1812, providing a much-needed boost for American morale.

Thaddeus Lowe | Created Civil War Balloon Corps
Balloon pioneer Thaddeus Lowe offered his scientific expertise to Abraham Lincoln and became the creator of the U.S. Army's Balloon Corps during the Civil War.

The Irish Brigade | New York City Irish Immigrants In the Union Army
The Civil War Irish Brigade was a legendary fighting unit of Irish immigrants from New York and Massachusetts.

John Burns | Civilian Hero of the Battle of Gettysburg
John Burns was the elderly hero of Gettysburg, a civilian who was wounded while fighting Confederates on July 1, 1863.

Battle of Antietam | Civil War's Bloodiest Day
The Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest day of the Civil War.

The Cornfield at Antietam
The Battle of Antietam began with an attack by General Joseph Hooker across a cornfield, where the slaughter became legendary.

The Battle of Antietam: Charge Toward The Sunken Road
Page 2 of 5 about The Battle of Antietam during the Civil War: The Union's Irish Brigade charged Confederate soldiers in a sunken road .

The Burnside Bridge at Antietam
The final phase of the Battle of Antietam was an attack by the forces of Union General Ambrose Burnside across a narrow stone bridge over the Antietam Creek.

The Battle of Antietam Had Profound Consequences
The incredibly violent 1862 Battle of Antietam ended a Confederate invasion of the North and had vast political implications.

William Howard Russell, First War Correspondent
William Howard Russell, the first war correspondent, covered the Crimean War and his reporting inspired the poem

James Gordon Bennett | Legendary Editor of the New York Herald
James Gorden Bennett, innovative editor of the New York Herald in the mid-1800s, set the standard for much of American journalism.

William Randolph Hearst
William Randolph Hearst started an intense newspaper war in New York City while helping to provoke a real war in Cuba.

Nellie Bly | Trailblazing Female Reporter of the 1800s
Nellie Bly, an adventurous newspaper reporter, startled readers with reporting stunts that included traveling around the world in 72 days.

Joseph Pulitzer | Biography of the Great Newspaper Publisher
Joseph Pulitzer, publisher of the New York World, revived American journalism in the late 1800s.

Benjamin Disraeli | Biography of the British Statesman
A perennial outsider who became a great British statesman, serving as prime minister while also enjoying a reputation as a novelist and wit.

New York City's Election Day Murder
Accused of an election day murder, Tammany Hall fixer Richard Croker beat the rap and went on to effectively run New York City.

DeWitt Clinton
DeWitt Clinton, a major supporter of the Erie Canal, served as mayor of New York City, governor of New York, and was nearly elected president.

The Supernatural 19th Century - Spooky 1800s
The 19th century featured a strong presence of the supernatural, despite being a period obsessed with science and technology.

The Bell Witch Terrorized a Family in Tennessee
The Bell Witch was a ghastly force that terrorized the Bell family in Tennessee and was even said to have poisoned John Bell, the head of the family.

The Fox Sisters Heard Rappings, Started Fad of Spiritualism
The Fox Sisters, two girls in the village of Hydesville, New York, began a craze for spiritualism in the 19th century.

Abraham Lincoln Saw a Spooky Vision in a Mirror in 1860
The morning after he was elected president Abraham Lincoln saw a weird and scary vision of himself in a mirror.

Mary Todd Lincoln Saw Ghosts in the White House
Abraham Lincoln's wife was obsessed with spiritualism and held a seance in the White House in an effort to contact the spirit of their dead son.

The Maco Lights - A Lantern Was Carried by the Ghost of a Railroad Conductor
The Maco Lights was a frightening legend in the 1800s about a lantern that would appear late at night on a railroad track.

19th Century Railroad Timeline
Timeline Showing How the Railroads Grew Throughout the 19th Century

19th Century Steamships
Milestones in the development of steamships in the 19th century.

Queen Victoria - Biography of the British Monarch
She ruled Great Britain for six decades, and her life in some ways defined the 1800s.

Abner Doubleday Baseball Myth
How the story was concocted that Abner Doubleday invented baseball.

Charge of the Light Brigade
Seven things to know about the Charge of the Light Brigade.

American Federation of Labor
The American Federation of Labor, led by Samuel Gompers, became the most important American labor organization of the late 1800s.

Credit Mobilier Scandal
The Crédit Mobilier scandal was a financial scam by transcontinental railroad builders covered up with apparent bribes to Congressmen.

Carpetbaggers
Carpetbagger was a highly derogatory term applied to northerners who relocated into the South following the Civil War during Reconstruction.

Did Mrs. O'Leary's Cow Start the Great Chicago Fire?
The rumor that Mrs. O'Leary's cow started the great Chicago Fire in 1871 has persisted. But is it true?

Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe lived a deeply troubled life but is now recognized as a highly influential American author.

Thomas Nast | 19th Century Political Cartoonist
Thomas Nast was the most influential political cartoonist of the 19th century and helped bring down Boss Tweed.

Vinnie Ream | Controversial Young Artist Sculpted Lincoln
Vinnie Ream's statue of Abraham Lincoln for the U.S. Capitol created enormous controversy and rumors of scandal in the late 1860s.

Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee | 60th Anniversary of Reign
Lavish celebrations and pageantry marked Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee in 1897.

Jay Gould | Biography of the Robber Baron
Jay Gould, a notorious robber baron, became famous for manipulating railroad stocks and trying to corner the market on gold.

Black Friday | Jay Gould's Scheme to Corner the Gold Market
Unscrupulous financier Jay Gould tried to corner the market on gold, and caused the Black Friday panic of September 24, 1869.

Elisha Kent Kane | Biography of the Explorer and Author
Elisha Kent Kane became a widely admired American hero in the 1850s for participating in two expeditions in search of the Franklin Expedition.

The Franklin Expedition
The Franklin Expedition sailed from England to the Arctic and disappeared, creating one of the enduring mysteries of human exploration.

The Great Exhibition of 1851 at Hyde Park, London
Learn about the spectacular exhibition--a technology milestone--organized by Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's scientifically minded husband.

The Great Exhibition of 1851 Displayed Spectacular Machinery and Inventions
Britain's Great Exhibition of 1851 displayed major new inventions, including steam engines, locomotives, and cotton-manufacturing machinery.

The Great Exhibition of 1851 Was Formally Opened by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert
Britain's Great Exhibition of 1851 was formally opened by Prince Albert and Queen Victoria. Learn about the grand ceremony on May 1, 1851.

The Great Exhibition of 1851 Attracted Millions of Visitors
Britain's Great Exhibition of 1851 was enormously popular, as millions flocked to the Crystal Palace during the six months the exhibit was open.

The Great Exhibition of 1851 Displayed Wonders From Around the World
Britain's Great Exhibition of 1851 displayed wonders from around the world and products from industrial nations, including the United States.

Joice Heth, One of Phineas T. Barnum's Earliest Humbugs
Joice Heth was one of Phineas T. Barnum's earliest humbugs, an elderly woman passed off as 161 years old and the former nurse of the infant George Washington.

Herman Melville | Author of Moby Dick
Herman Melville, author of Moby Dick, was frustrated by the public reaction to his masterpiece and withdrew from literary life into self-imposed obscurity.

Charles Darwin | Author of On the Origin of Species
Charles Darwin lived a fairly quiet and studious life, yet became one of the most controversial figures of the 19th century.

Biography of Frederick Douglass
Concise biography of Frederick Douglass, whose life was emblematic of the struggle of slaves and former slaves in 19th century America.

Steve Brodie and the Brooklyn Bridge
Steve Brodie's famous 1886 leap from the Brooklyn Bridge may never have happened, but that really didn't matter.

John Morrissey, Boxer and Politician
John

Sinking of the S.S. Arctic | 1854 Steamship Disaster
The sinking of the steamship Arctic, one of the grandest liners afloat, was a disaster that stunned the world in September 1854.

Indian Mutiny Brought Changes to India
The Indian mutiny of 1857 brought changes, including the end of the East India Company.

Sepoy Mutiny | Indian Revolt of 1857
The Sepoy Mutiny, also known as the Indian Revolt of 1857, shook British rule in India.

The Sepoy Mutiny & the Indian Revolt of 1857
A sepoy named Mangal Pandey fired the first shot of the mutiny in 1857.

Joshua Barney
Commodore Joshua Barney, an early American naval hero, distinguished himself with bravery on land while trying to stop the 1814 British attack on Washington.

Dolley Madison
Dolley Madison saved valuables from destruction before the British burned the White House.

The Five Worst Inaugural Address of the 1800s
American presidents delivered brilliant inaugural addresses in the 1800s, but some presidents stand out for having delivered the worst. Herewith the five worst inaugural address of the 19th century.

Jim Crow Laws
Jim Crow Laws were statutes that ordered segregation between white and blacks in public spaces beginning in the 1880s.

Frederick Douglass and the Fourth of July
An eloquent 1852 speech by Frederick Douglass asked what the meaning of July 4th could be for the American slave.

Pickett's Charge | Confederate Assault at Battle of Gettysburg
Pickett's Charge was an infantry attack that became the climax of the Battle of Gettysburg.

Decoration Day, 1868 - 1960s
Decoration Day was the precursor of the holiday Memorial Day, and was first observed in 1868, following the carnage of the Civil War.

Little Round Top | Significance of Its Defense at Gettysburg
The fight for Little Round Top, a strategic hill at Gettysburg, was one of the most significant and dramatic actions of the entire Civil War.

The Second Anglo-Afghan War (Late 1870s)
Britain's second war in Afghanistan, fought in the late 1870s, was marked by miscalculations and heroics, and ultimately succeeded in protecting the prize possession of the British Empire, India.

The Bank War Waged by President Andrew Jackson
Definition of The Bank War Waged By President Andrew Jackson

Isambard Kingdom Brunel - Biography of British Engineer
A flamboyant and brilliant British engineer who has often been credited for helping to create the modern world.

Ireland's Big Wind, 1839
A freak wind storm struck Ireland in January 1839, and became the test decades later; if a person was old enough to remember it, he would get a pension.

Slavery in 19th Century America - Overview
Links to the people and events that figure prominently in U.S. slavery, which was legal under the U.S. Constitution until the Civil War.

Results of The Mexican War (1846-48) - Territory and Leaders
The Mexican War, fought between the United States and Mexico in the mid-1840s, was a triumph for the US and greatly increased American territory. It was wildly popular in its day though some critics denounced it at the time, and its origins remain a topic of debate to this day. Military leaders of the American Civil War, including Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant, received valuable experience in Mexican battles.

The Life of Abraham Lincoln - Overview
Major events in Abraham Lincoln's life, with links to articles about his political debates, speeches, election, time in the White House, and assassination.

William Henry Jackson and the Yellowstone Expedition
See how William Henry Jackson's photographs helped create the National Parks.

With Malice Toward None by Stephen B. Oates (Book Review)
Review of With Malice Toward None, a classic biography of Abraham Lincoln by Stephen B. Oates.

History of the Conservation Movement
The early conservation movement in America grew until it led to the creation of the National Parks.

Presidential Elections of the 19th Century
The presidential campaigns of the 1800s could be raucous affairs, with iconic personalities battling it out at times of national crisis.

Washington Roebling | Chief Engineer of the Brooklyn Bridge
Washington Roebling, chief engineer of the Brooklyn Bridge, became a mysterious recluse during the years of the bridge's construction.

John August Roebling Designed the Brooklyn Bridge
19th Century History.

Roger Fenton, the First War Photographer
Rogert Fenton became the first war photographer when he traveled to the Crimea with a wagon of photographic gear in 1855.

Six Facts to Know About Queen Victoria
These six facts about Queen Victoria may change the way you think about the woman whose name defined the 19th Century.

Five Facts to Know About the Crimean War
Five surprising facts about the Crimean War will help you remember its place in history.

John Sutter and the California Gold Rush
John Sutter owned the land that kicked off the California Gold Rush in 1848, but did not share in any of its riches.

Newspaper Coverage of 19th Century Events
Newspaper Sunday: A collection of 19th century newspaper coverage of historic events.

Newspaper Coverage of 19th Century Events
Newspaper Sunday: A collection of 19th century newspaper coverage of historic events.

Newspaper Coverage of 19th Century Events
Newspaper Sunday: A collection of 19th century newspaper coverage of historic events.

Newspaper Coverage of 19th Century Events
Newspaper Sunday: A collection of 19th century newspaper coverage of historic events.

Newspaper Coverage of 19th Century Events
Newspaper Sunday: A collection of 19th century newspaper coverage of historic events.

Cornelius Vanderbilt's Great Steamboat Race
Cornelius Vanderbilt put his competitive streak on public display in a famous race of paddle wheel steamboats on the Hudson River.

Who Paid for the Statue of Liberty?
The Statue of Liberty was a gift from France to the United States, but the question of who actually paid for the statue has some surprising answers.

Strollers on the Brooklyn Bridge
People in the late 1800s strolled across the Brooklyn Bridge. Page 11.

Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee
Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee celebrations in 1887 were momentous celebrations to mark the 50th anniversary of her reign.

Images of British India
Gallery of vintage images of British India in the 19th century, including a print showing British pickets in the Indian Mutiny of 1857. Page 9.

Images of British India
Gallery of vintage images of British India in the 19th century, including images of fighting during the 1857 uprising against British rule. Page 11.

Images of British India
Gallery of vintage images of British India in the 19th century, including this print of musicians with a dancing snake. Page 4.

Images of British India
Gallery of vintage images of British India in the 19th century, including a lithograph of an Englishmen smoking a hookah. Page 5.

Images of British India
Gallery of vintage images of British India in the 19th century, including this print of an Indian woman dancing for a British family. Page 6.

Images of British India
Gallery of vintage images of British India in the 19th century, including an 1862 map of Hindostan.

Images of British India
Gallery of vintage images of British India in the 19th century, including scenes of the 1857 uprising against British rule. Page 10.

Images of Queen Victoria's Jubilee Celebrations
Queen Victoria, during the Diamond Jubilee procession in 1897, as she was viewed by millions as her carriage moved through the streets of London. Page 11.

Images of Queen Victoria's Jubilee Celebrations
Images of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, such as this color lantern slide of the procession, were popular items. Page 7.

Images of Queen Victoria's Jubilee Celebrations
Australian troops at Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee created a sensation by bringing their mascot, a young kangaroo. Page 6.

Images of Queen Victoria's Jubilee Celebrations
Images of the elaborate pageantry at Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, such as this hand-colored photograph of the crowd, were popular items. Page 9.

Queen Victoria's Jubilee Celebrations | Vintage Images
Portraits created for Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee in 1887, a popular souvenir of the celebrations held throughout Britain.

Queen Victoria's Jubilee Celebrations | Vintage Images
Photograph of Queen Victoria's carriage being drawn through the streets of London during her Golden Jubilee celebration, June 22, 1887. Page 3.

Queen Victoria's Jubilee Celebrations | Vintage Images
A photograph from Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee, when she rode in a procession through the streets of London. Page 2.

Definition of Northwest Passage
Definition of Northwest Passage, the long-sought ocean route across the top of North America.

Definition of Doughface
Definition of Doughface. 19th Century History.

Definition of Treaty of Kanagawa
Definition of Treaty of Kanagawa

Definition of Wilmot Proviso
Definition of Wilmot Proviso. 19th Century History.

Definition of Luddites
Definition of Luddites. 19th Century History.

Definition of Impressment of Sailors
Definition of Impressment of Sailors

Definition of American Colonization Society
Definition of the American Colonization Society

Wendell Phillips Biography
Biography of Wendell Phillips, leading abolitionist orator.

The Dred Scott Decision
The 1857 Dred Scott decision on slavery and citizenship, one of the most important Supreme Court cases in American history.

Cavalry Fight at the Battle of Gettysburg
The large cavalry clash at Gettysburg was one of the most dramatic components of the massive battle.

Images of 19th Century Ireland
Images of Ireland in the 19th century, including scenes of emigration during the Great Famine. Page 8.

Images of 19th Century Ireland
Images of Ireland in the 19th century, including this scene of the Great Famine. Page 6.

Images of 19th Century Ireland
Images of Ireland in the 19th century, including scenes of death in the Great Famine. Page 5.

Images of 19th Century Ireland
Images of Ireland in the 19th century, including this scene from the time of the Great Famine. Page 4.

Images of 19th Century Ireland
Images of Ireland in the 19th century, including Daniel O'Connell addressing a crowd. Page 3.

Images of 19th Century Ireland
Images of Ireland in the 19th century, including scenes of the hungry during the Great Famine. Page 7.

Images of 19th Century Ireland
Images of Ireland in the 19th century, including the Great Famine and political unrest.

Politics
Politics. 19th Century History.

Queen Victoria's Jubilee Celebrations | Vintage Images
Photograph of Queen Victoria at St. Paul's Cathedral during the Diamond Jubilee celebration of June 22, 1897. Page 8.

Images of 19th Century Ireland
Images of Ireland in the 19th century, including this 1797 map of the island.

Images of 19th Century Ireland
Images of Ireland in the 19th century, including scenes of emigration to America. Page 9.

Images of 19th Century Ireland
Images of Ireland in the 19th century, including a scene of eviction during the Land War. Page 10.

Images of 19th Century Ireland
Images of Ireland in the 19th century, including peasants farming potatoes. Page 2.

Images of 19th Century Ireland
Images of Ireland in the 19th century, including scenes of Land League agitation. Page 12.

Images of 19th Century Ireland
Images of Ireland in the 19th century, including scenes from the Land War. Page 11.

Images of British India
Gallery of vintage images of British India in the 19th century, including a look inside an Indian tent. Page 7.

Images of British India
Gallery of vintage images of British India in the 19th century, including this lithograph depicting the Madras Army. Page 2.

Images of British India
Gallery of vintage images of British India in the 19th century, including a print of the Nabob of Cambay. Page 3.

Images of British India
Gallery of vintage images of British India in the 19th century, including a battle scene from the 1857 Indian Mutiny. Page 8.

Images of British India
Gallery of vintage images of British India in the 19th century, including a photograph of Queen Victoria with Indian servants. Page 12.

Queen Victoria's Jubilee Celebrations | Vintage Images
Photographic portrait of Queen Victoria in 1897, the year her Diamond Jubilee marked her 60 years on the British throne. Page 12.

Queen Victoria's Jubilee Celebrations | Vintage Images
Engraving of Royal Navy sailors marking Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee celebrations at Spithead in 1887. Page 4.

Queen Victoria's Jubilee Celebrations | Vintage Images
A photograph of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee procession shows troops from Hong Kong marching through London. Page 5.

Queen Victoria's Jubilee Celebrations | Vintage Images
A painting showing Queen Victoria's arrival at St. Paul's Cathedral during the Diamond Jubilee celebration of June 22, 1897. Page 10.

Images of Queen Victoria's Jubilee Celebrations
Images of Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee in 1887 and Diamond Jubilee in 1897, events that were among the most spectacular and lavish celebrations ever held.

Images of British India
Gallery of vintage images of British India in the 19th century.

Definition of the Pendleton Act - 19th Century History
Definition of the Pendleton Act, which reformed the Civil Service in the 1880s

19th Century Washington, D.C.
Historic events associated with the city of Washington, which was transformed from near wilderness to a thriving city in the 19th century.

Transportation Milestones of the 19th Century
Milestones of 19th century transportation, including advances in canals, bridges, steamships, and railroads.

19th Century Holidays
Many of our traditions associated with holidays began in the 19th century.

Crimean War articles
A collection of articles on aspects of the Crimean War.

Colonialism in Africa and Asia
The 19th century was witness to a scramble by the European powers to colonize much of Asia and Africa. Britain, France, Italy, Germany, and Belgium succeeded in controlling much of the African continent, while in Asia the Dutch, British, French and others competed for territory and resources. In Central Asia,

Ellis Island
In the last decade of the 19th Century, Ellis Island, in New York Harbor, was designated as the main arrival port for immigrants. The facility stayed in service until the 1950s, and 12 million immigrants passed through its entrance halls. Ellis Island was not the only port where immigrants entered the United States, but in the popular mind it has become synonymous with immigration to America.

Settling Australia
At the beginning of the 19th century, Australia was a distant penal colony to which Great Britain sent convicts from England and Ireland. Over time settlement to free parts of Australia became attractive, and many thousands of immigrants chose to cross vast oceans to create a new life

The Great Famine
The Great Famine ravaged the Irish potato crop in the 1840s, forcing mass starvation and disease. At least a million Irish fled their homeland and made a perilous crossing of the Atlantic, often in vessels described as

Exploration of Africa
Africa was still largely a mystery to Europeans at the dawn of the 19th century, but that soon changed as explorers ventured into the continent's interior. The Scottish missionary David Livingstone became the first white man to see Victoria Falls, and of course he would later be joined by the explorer Henry Stanley. The exploration of Africa became one of the great adventures of the age.

Mapping the World
The 19th century was a glorious time for the making of maps. The cartographers of Britain's Ordnance Survey mapped much of England and Ireland, and even mapped India. The world's highest peak, Everest, is named for a British mapmaker. During the 1800s maps were produced showing parts of the world previously unknown, as the science and adventure of cartography reached new heights.

Rise of Libraries and Museums
In the 1800s, as more people learned to read, the need for libraries was evident. Across the civilized world subscription libraries had been operating, and in New York the John Jacob Astor estate opened a library that was free for all to use. The concept of the public library was born. Soon libraries were performing an invaluable service by helping to educate a public hungry for knowledge.

Spread of Literacy
The rate of literacy increased astoundingly during the 19th century. In America, millions of children learned with the McGuffey Reader, classic textbooks published throughout the 1800s. In other countries, public schools increased literacy. And innovations in printing technology meant that newspapers, magazines, and books were widely available for the first time in history.

Thinkers and Philosophers
Machines and electrical devices were changing the way the world worked in the 19th century, but big minds were rocking the way it thought. The world of ideas was reshaped by such figures as Marx, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Emerson, Thoreau, Nietzche, and Darwin.

Business Leaders
Business leaders of the 19th century, including the notorious robber barons.

Serfdom in Russia
Serfdom and slavery had history going back centuries in Russia, but the 1800s finally saw the emergence of major reforms. The serfs were freed in 1861, with an Emancipation Manifesto issued by the Tsar in hopes of heading off an eventual revolution.

The Jim Crow South
The Jim Crow Laws, which took their name from an old minstrel song, were passed in the American south to oppress the black population. The laws varied from state to state, but in general they supported segregation of the races and created obstacles to keep blacks from voting. The U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the doctrine of

Irish Rebellions of the 1800s
Ireland was marked by a series of rebellions throughout the 1800s as the Irish fought against British rule.

Philip Hone And His Diary of New York Life
Philip Hone, a New Yorker with many social connections, kept a diary in the early 1800s that provides great insight into life in the growing metropolis.

Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show
Buffalo Bill's Wild West showed entertained millions while presenting an exaggerated version of life on American's western frontier.

Advances in Printing in the 19th Century
Printing technology made enormous leaps forward during the 19th century.

The Secret Six | Men Who Financed John Brown's Raid
Definition of The Secret Six. 19th Century History.

Ned Buntline biography
Ned Buntline was the pen name of Edward Z.C. Judson, whose adventure stories about the West transformed American popular culture.

Battle of Antietam
The Battle of Antietam, fought near Sharpsburg in western Maryland on September 17, 1862, was the bloodiest single day in American history. Antietam's horrific cost shocked the nation and the battle changed the course of American history.

Albert Gallatin Inspired the Age of Canals in America
Albert Gallatin, Thomas Jefferson's treasury secretary, issued a report in 1808 that inspired the age of canal building in America.

Definition of Copperhead
Definition of Copperhead. 19th Century History.

Definition of Santa Fe Trail
Definition of Santa Fe Trail. 19th Century History.

Definition of Whig Party
Definition of Whig Party. 19th Century History.

Definition of Conestoga Wagon
Definition of Conestoga wagon. 19th Century History.

Definition of Scotland Yard
Definition of Scotland Yard. 19th Century History.

William Henry Jackson - A Camp in the Yellowstone Photographed by William Henry Jackson
The stunning photographs William Henry Jackson took in the American west in the early 1870s helped to inspire the movement to create National Parks, and energized people living in the east to become interested in conserving the great spaces of the west. Page 5.

William Henry Jackson - Photographer William Henry Jackson Documented the West, Helped Inspire Creation of Yellowstone National Park
Photographer William Henry Jackson carried his camera along on official government surveys in the west, and his stunning photography of the Yellowstone area in Wyoming helped inspire the movement to create National Parks. Page 10.

William Henry Jackson - Photographer William Henry Jackson Documented the West, Helped Inspire Creation of Yellowstone National Park
Photographer William Henry Jackson carried his camera along on official government surveys in the west, and his stunning photography of the Yellowstone area in Wyoming helped inspire the movement to create National Parks. Page 8.

William Henry Jackson - Photographer William Henry Jackson Documented the West, Helped Inspire Creation of Yellowstone National Park
Photographer William Henry Jackson carried his camera along on official government surveys in the west, and his stunning photography of the Yellowstone area in Wyoming helped inspire the movement to create National Parks. Page 3.

William Henry Jackson - Photographer William Henry Jackson Documented the West, Helped Inspire Creation of Yellowstone National Park
Photographer William Henry Jackson carried his camera along on official government surveys in the west, and his stunning photography of the Yellowstone area in Wyoming helped inspire the movement to create National Parks. Page 7.

William Henry Jackson - Photographer William Henry Jackson Documented the West, Helped Inspire Creation of Yellowstone National Park
Photographer William Henry Jackson carried his camera along on official government surveys in the west, and his stunning photography of the Yellowstone area in Wyoming helped inspire the movement to create National Parks. Page 6.

William Henry Jackson - Photographer William Henry Jackson Documented the West, Helped Inspire Creation of Yellowstone National Park
Photographer William Henry Jackson carried his camera along on official government surveys in the west, and his stunning photography of the Yellowstone area in Wyoming helped inspire the movement to create National Parks. Page 11.

William Henry Jackson - Photographer William Henry Jackson Documented the West, Helped Inspire Creation of Yellowstone National Park
Photographer William Henry Jackson carried his camera along on official government surveys in the west, and his stunning photography of the Yellowstone area in Wyoming helped inspire the movement to create National Parks. Page 12.

William Henry Jackson - Photographer William Henry Jackson Documented the West, Helped Inspire Creation of Yellowstone National Park
Photographer William Henry Jackson carried his camera along on official government surveys in the west, and his stunning photography of the Yellowstone area in Wyoming helped inspire the movement to create National Parks. Page 9.

William Henry Jackson - Photographer William Henry Jackson Documented the West, Helped Inspire Creation of Yellowstone National Park
Photographer William Henry Jackson carried his camera along on official government surveys in the west, and his stunning photography of the Yellowstone area in Wyoming helped inspire the movement to create National Parks. Page 2.

William Henry Jackson - Photographer William Henry Jackson Documented the West, Helped Inspire Creation of Yellowstone National Park
Photographer William Henry Jackson carried his camera along on official government surveys in the west, and his stunning photography of the Yellowstone area in Wyoming helped inspire the movement to create National Parks. Page 4.

The Brooklyn Bridge Was Popular in 19th Century Advertising
This advertisement indicates how businesses wanted to associate themselves with the Brooklyn Bridge, which was considered the greatest engineering achievement of its time. Page 12.

Color Print of the Great East River Bridge
This color lithograph of the newly opened Brooklyn Bridge is titled

Wrapping the Steel Cables on the Brooklyn Bridge
The work of suspending the cables on the Brooklyn Bridge had to be precise and it was complicated by being done high up on the bridge, in all kinds of weather. Page 8.

The Opening of the Brooklyn Bridge Was a Momentous Occasion
This illustration from an illustrated newspaper shows how the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge was a cause of great celebration.. Page 9.

Men Labored in Caissons Under the Brooklyn Bridge
Much of the early work on the Brooklyn Bridge was invisible to the public, as it occurred underwater, in caissons, huge bottomless boxes sunk on the river bottom. Page 3.

The Brooklyn Bridge's Footbridge Fascinated the Public
Images such as this, of the Brooklyn Bridge's temporary footbridge, fascinated the public in the 1870s. Page 5.

The Brooklyn Bridge as Contemplated by Roebling
Drawings of the Brooklyn Bridge were first produced by John A. Roebling as early as the 1850s. This print, which dates to the mid-1860s, shows the Brooklyn Bridge

Anchorage of the Brooklyn Bridge
This image of the Brooklyn anchorage of the Brooklyn Bridge illustrate what actually made the bridge work: enormous cables anchored at either end would carry the weight of the roadway. Page 7.

First Step Onto the Temporary Wooden Footbridge of the Brooklyn Bridge
Stepping onto this temporary wooden walkway connecting the towers of the Brooklyn Bridge required nerves of steel. Page 6.

The Bridge Under Construction Was a Popular Sight
This stereograph card shows the towers of the Brooklyn Bridge before the four massive suspension cables were strung between them. Page 4.

The 69th Regiment Leaves New York for the Civil War, April 1861
The streets of New York erupted in shocking violence for several days in July 1863 in what became known as the New York City Draft Riots. The federal government instituting conscription for the army during the Civil War was the root cause, though other factors, such as racial and ethnic strife, certainly played a part. This gallery of images documents the horrors of the Draft Riots, in which buildings were burned and hundreds of people were killed or wounded. Page 3.

Racism Played a Role in the 1863 New York Draft Riots
The streets of New York erupted in shocking violence for several days in July 1863 in what became known as the New York City Draft Riots. The federal government instituting conscription for the army during the Civil War was the root cause, though other factors, such as racial and ethnic strife, certainly played a part. This gallery of images documents the horrors of the Draft Riots, in which buildings were burned and hundreds of people were killed or wounded. Page 8.

Racial Tensions Fueled the 1863 New York City Draft Riots
The streets of New York erupted in shocking violence for several days in July 1863 in what became known as the New York City Draft Riots. The federal government instituting conscription for the army during the Civil War was the root cause, though other factors, such as racial and ethnic strife, certainly played a part. This gallery of images documents the horrors of the Draft Riots, in which buildings were burned and hundreds of people were killed or wounded. Page 7.

New York Draft Riots in July 1863 Were Bloody and Violent
The streets of New York erupted in shocking violence for several days in July 1863 in what became known as the New York City Draft Riots. The federal government instituting conscription for the army during the Civil War was the root cause, though other factors, such as racial and ethnic strife, certainly played a part. This gallery of images documents the horrors of the Draft Riots, in which buildings were burned and hundreds of people were killed or wounded. Page 6.

After the New York Draft Riots, Lincoln Continued the Conscription of Troops
The streets of New York erupted in shocking violence for several days in July 1863 in what became known as the New York City Draft Riots. The federal government instituting conscription for the army during the Civil War was the root cause, though other factors, such as racial and ethnic strife, certainly played a part. This gallery of images documents the horrors of the Draft Riots, in which buildings were burned and hundreds of people were killed or wounded. Page 11.

New York City Draft Riots Erupted and Mobs Burned Federal Buildings
The streets of New York erupted in shocking violence for several days in July 1863 in what became known as the New York City Draft Riots. The federal government instituting conscription for the army during the Civil War was the root cause, though other factors, such as racial and ethnic strife, certainly played a part. This gallery of images documents the horrors of the Draft Riots, in which buildings were burned and hundreds of people were killed or wounded. Page 4.

New York Tribune was Attacked in the 1863 Draft Riots
The streets of New York erupted in shocking violence for several days in July 1863 in what became known as the New York City Draft Riots. The federal government instituting conscription for the army during the Civil War was the root cause, though other factors, such as racial and ethnic strife, certainly played a part. This gallery of images documents the horrors of the Draft Riots, in which buildings were burned and hundreds of people were killed or wounded. Page 9.

New York Draft Riots in July 1863 Featured Battles in the Streets
The streets of New York erupted in shocking violence for several days in July 1863 in what became known as the New York City Draft Riots. The federal government instituting conscription for the army during the Civil War was the root cause, though other factors, such as racial and ethnic strife, certainly played a part. This gallery of images documents the horrors of the Draft Riots, in which buildings were burned and hundreds of people were killed or wounded. Page 5.