Medieval History Sitemap - Page 1 2016-09-26

Ibn Khaldun - Philosopher and Historian
Ibn Khaldun developed one of the earliest nonreligious philosophies of history and is generally considered the greatest Arab historian.

Hengist and Horsa - Legendary Founders of Kent
Probably Jutes, Hengist and Horsa were supposedly summoned to England by Vortigern to help fend off the Scots and Picts.

Resources for Canute the Great
Websites that offer biographical information, background, and primary documents associated with Canute the Great of England, Norway and Denmark

Otto the Great - Holy Roman Emperor Otto I
Otto consolidated the German Reich and made significant advances for secular influence in papal politics. His reign is generally considered to be the true beginning of the Holy Roman Empire.

Saint Columban - Celtic Evangelist in France
Saint Columban helped revive a spirit of Christian devotion in Europe.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - A
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter A.

Resources for Albertus Magnus - Philosopher and Teacher
Albertus Magnus was a philosopher, a bishop, a prolific writer, and one of the most influential scientists of the Middle Ages. He was the only scholar of his era to have earned the appellation Great -- a title that was used during his lifetime.

Resources for Alfred the Great - King Alfred the Great of Wessex and All England
Alfred (also spelled Aelfred) was the King of Wessex who resisted Danish incursion and united much of the individual English kingdoms under one rule in the process. For his military skill, his administrative acumen, his promotion of learning and his achievement in uniting virtually all of England, Alfred is the only English king to be tagged

Anna Comnena - Resources for Byzantine Princess Anna Comnena
A selection of biographies and primary sources concerning the world's first woman historian, Byzantine Princess Anna Comnena.

Medieval Barbarians - Barbarian Tribes - Barbarian Kingdoms
Sites that focus on early medieval Barbarian Kingdoms and leaders as well as Vikings, Magyars, Mongols and other aggressive cultures that made inroads into Christendom during the Middle Ages.

Leon Battista Alberti - Renaissance Man
Humanist philosopher, writer, Renaissance artist and architect, Leon Battista Alberti is considered by many scholars to be the quintessential Renaissance universal man of learning. These resources offer information on his life and works.

Peter Abelard - Scholastic Philosopher and Teacher
Though known chiefly for his torrid affair with his student, Heloise, Abelard was a significant contributor to Scholastic philosophy, a brilliant teacher and a writer of no small talent.

The Lombards - A Germanic Tribe in Northern Italy
The Lombards established a kingdom in Northern Italy.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - L
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter L.

Resources for Scandinavian Explorer Leif Ericsson
Leif Ericsson was the Scandinavian explorer who visited North America around the year 1000. Leif also governed Greenland and was a devout convert to Christianity.

King Louis IX of France - Resources for Saint Louis
King Louis IX was the only French king ever to be made a saint. Known for his kindness, fair dealings, and piety, he was a very popular monarch who went on two Crusades.

Martin Luther - Reformer
One of the most significant figures in Christian history, Martin Luther questioned Catholic Church practices and precipitated the Protestant Reformation.

Saint Jerome - Scholar - Translator of the Bible
Though best known for his translation of the Bible into Latin, Jerome was an important scholar of the early Christian Church and wrote on many theological matters.

Lothair I - A Concise Biography
He was the son and grandson of an emperor, but even though he was the first-born, he had to fight to take the title himself. Just how successful he was depends on your definition of

Snorri Sturluson - Historian, Poet, and author of the Heimskringla Snorri Sturluson
An Icelandic chieftan and author of poetry and history, Snorri Sturluson's Heimskringla (History of the Kings of Norway) remains one of the most important sources of Scandinavian history scholars have today.

Vortigern - Early British Leader
In the uncertain decades following the withdrawal of Roman forces from Britain in 410 C.E., one man emerged as a strong enough leader to declare himself High King. But he is not remembered as heroic or noble.

Saint Ambrose of Milan - Father of the Church
He was a bishop, a teacher, a writer, and a profoundly influential Christian philosopher. His ideas about church-state relation would become the prevalent medieval Christian viewpoint on the matter. He also composed beautiful hymns.

General Belisarius - Byzantine Military Hero
General Belisarius served his emperor with unstinting loyalty, but he was not so honorably repaid.

Henry IV - King Henry IV of England
When his cousin Richard II was on the throne, Henry led a conspiracy against him, and years later, he usurped the throne from him. Why would he do such a thing? He had his reasons...

King William II of England - William Rufus
The son of William the Conqueror, William succeeded his father as the king of England -- but not without strife.

Abu Bakr - The First Muslim Caliph
Abu Bakr was the closest friend and companion of Muhammad and the first Muslim caliph. He was one of the first men to convert to Islam, and was chosen by the prophet as his companion on the hijrah to Medina.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - P
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter P.

Resources for Marco Polo
Marco Polo set forth on a trading expedition with his father and uncle, and traveled as far as China, where he met and worked for Kublai Khan.

Paracelsus - Physician and Alchemist
Paracelsus was a physician and alchemist who made significant strides in the field of medicine.

Pippin II of Herstal - Mayor of the Palace - Pippin the Younger
Pippin made his role as

Rollo the Walker - Scandinavian Founder of Normandy
He founded the duchy of Normandy in France, and was known as known as Rollo the Walker because he was too tall to ride a horse.

What Medieval People Wore under Their Clothes
What did men and women wear under their clothing in the Middle Ages? Maybe they wore underpants... or maybe not.

The Codpiece - A Bold Fashion Statement
What started as a necessary covering became a bold fashion statement.

Medieval Underpants - Braies and the Mystery of Women's Underwear
Baggy drawers were common underpants for men.

Medieval Stockings - Leg Coverings - Hose or Hosen
Both men and women covered their legs with hose or stockings.

Undertunics - Scherts, Chemises, and Other Undershirts
Both men and women were known to wear some kind of undershirt over their underpants, if they wore any underpants.

Beowulf - What You Need to Know About the Epic Poem
The oldest surviving epic poem in the English language, Beowulf is also the earliest surviving piece of vernacular European literature.

Death Defined: Black Death Causes and Symptoms
A graphic description of the symptoms and causes of Plague, the horrific disease believed to have caused the Black Death of the fourteenth century.

Alexius Comnenus - Byzantine Emperor Alexios Komnenos
Alexius founded a Byzantine dynasty and strengthened the empire considerably. Then he asked the pope for help driving the Turks from his territory...

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - C
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter C.

Resources for Catherine of Aragon - First Wife of Henry VIII and Queen of England
Catherine was the daugher of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, and the first wife of Henry VIII of England. Her refusal to go quietly when Henry sought to annul their marriage and the political connections that bolstered her position played a significant role in Henry's break with the Catholic Church.

Charlemagne
Biographies, primary sources and other web sites about Charlemagne, the Frankish ruler who consolidated a large portion of Europe under his rule.

Christine de Pizan - Resources for Notable Woman Writer Christine de Pisan
Christine de Pizan was the first woman in western literature known to make a living from her writing. She wrote both prose and poetry, biographies and lais, and she championed women in her works.

Resources for Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus made a historic voyage in 1492, searching for a westward route to the treasures of the east and instead encountering a new world. While not the first European to make it to the Americas, Columbus was the first to sail directly across the uncharted sea, and the impact of his voyage would radically change the future of Europe and the Americas alike.

Resources for Constantine the Great
Constantine was the first Roman emperor to profess Christianity. His sponsorship of the religion would radically alter its fortunes and shape the character of the Church for centuries to come.

Resources for El Cid - Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar
A notable military leader and the national hero of Spain, el Cid is the subject of many legends, stories, and poems. These resources will help you learn more about the historical figure.

Resources for Geoffrey Chaucer
Author of The Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer is considered the quintessential medieval English poet. He was also in service to royalty and acted as a diplomat to Italy, France and Spain.

Guy de Chauliac - Influential 14th-Century Physician
Considered one of the most influential physicians of the Middle Ages, Guy de Chauliac wrote a highly significant work on surgery that would serve as the standard text for more than 300 years.

Nicolau Copernicus - Founder of Modern Astronomy
Though he wasn't the first scientist to theorize that the Earth revolved around the sun, Copernicus boldly proposed the idea in the early 16th century -- an act that would have far-reaching effects.

Bulgars, Bulgaria and Bulgarians
The early Eastern European people known as the Bulgars established an empire in the Balkans that would face off against Byzantium.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - J
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter J.

Resources for Emperor Justinian I
Arguably the most important ruler of the Byzantine Empire, Justinian made long-lasting impacts on Roman/Byzantine law and Greek architecture. His relationship with his wife, Theodora, would prove highly influential on his reign.

The Code of Justinian - Codex Justinianus
The Code of Justinian was an important law code issued under the sponsorship of Emperor Justinian I.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - H
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter H.

Heloise - Scholar - Abbess of the Paraclete
Though Heloise is best known for her relationship with Peter Abelard, she was a brilliant scholar in her own right and had a reputation for intelligence and insight before she ever met Pierre.

Resources for King Henry IV of England
King Henry IV of England, also known as Henry Bolingbroke, usurped the English crown from Richard II, beginning the Lancastrian dynasty and planting the seeds of the Wars of the Roses.

King Henry VII - Resources for the First Tudor King of England
Henry Tudor became King Henry VII of England after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, basically putting an end to the Wars of the Roses and establishing the Tudor Dynasty. These resources offer biographical information about Henry and historical background about his reign.

Resources for King Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII's political maneuverings resulted in a break with the Catholic Church and the launch of the English Reformation, all motivated by his pursuit of a male heir. These resources offer biographies and examinations of his role in the English Reformation as well as general historical background of his reign.

Abbess Hildegard of Bingen - Resources for the Sybil of the Rhine
Also known as the Sybil of the Rhine, Hildegard was a German mystic and abbess. She also wrote about the lives of saints, treatises on natural history and medicine, poetry and music, the last of which enjoys popularity today.

Emperor Charles III - Charles the Fat
Known as Charles the Fat, Emperor Charles III was the last of the Carolingian line of emperors.

Meister Eckhart Quotes - Quotations Attributed to Meister Johannes Eckhart
Medieval History. Page 2.

Quotations by Meister Johannes Eckhart
A selection of quotations written by or attributed to important German mystic Meister Johannes Eckhart.

About Medieval History: The Middle Ages and Renaissance
Travel back to medieval times to explore the history, people, culture, events, science, and more of the Middle Ages and Renaissance.

People and Places of the Middle Ages - Medieval People and Places
Look here to find biographical information about notable individuals, historical background on cultural groups, and the history of various geographical areas throughout the Middle Ages.

Who's Who in Medieval History and the Renaissance
Find information about significant individuals from the Middle Ages and Renaissance, when available, on the web and in print. Each page offers a brief explanation of who the individual was and why he or she is important or interesting in medieval and Renaissance studies.

Resources for King Edward III of England
Edward III was noted for laying claim to the French throne, thus setting off the Hundred Years' War. He was fond of Chivalry and created Britain's highest knightly order, the Order of the Garter. These resources include biographies and examinations of his long and successful reign.

Resources for King Edward the Confessor of England
The third Anglo-Saxon king by the name of Edward was an unfortunately ineffectual king. Known for his piety, he let the powerful Godwin family dominate his reign.

King Egbert of Wessex - Resources for the First King of All England
Egbert helped make Wessex such a powerful kingdom that England was eventually unified around it. For this, Egbert has been called the First King of All England.

Eleanor of Aquitaine - Resources for the Extraordinary Queen Eleanor
Eleanor of Aquitaine was Coutness of Poitou, Queen of France and, later, Queen of England. She went on Crusade with her first husband, had a hand in sponsoring the Courtly Love literary movement, and was quite possibly the most powerful woman of High Medieval Europe.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - E
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter E.

Resources for Einhard, Writer and Historian
Einhard was a close friend and advisor to Charlemagne who is best known for writing an admiring yet fairly balanced biography of the emperor.

Edward, the Black Prince
The eldest son of King Edward III of England, Prince Edward would score significant victories in the Hundred Years' War, but he would not live to become king.

Queen Elizabeth I
Elizabeth was the formidable queen who held England together in the last half of the 16th century. So powerful was her personality and so long was her reign that the decades in which she ruled are known as the Elizabethan Era. For some historians, Elizabeth's reign marks the end of the Middle Ages.

Meister Johannes Eckhart - Theologian, Writer, Mystic
Author of influential treatises on the nature of man's relationship with God, Meister Eckhart espoused some unorthodox ideas.

Pope Clement VI
Clement sponsored a naval crusading expedition, bought land for the papacy in Avignon, patronized arts and learning, and defended the Jews when pogroms flared up during the Black Death.

Pope Leo III - Charlemagne's Pope - Pope Saint Leo III
They wanted to blind him and cut out his tongue, and so they attacked him in the streets of Rome. But Pope Leo III had Charlemagne on his side.

What Peasants and Laborers Wore in the Middle Ages
Undergarments, overgarments, accessories and everyday clothes for members of the medieval working class.

European Peasant Dress - Page Two
Medieval History. Page 2.

English Court of Star Chamber - Brief History
The Court of Star Chamber evolved from the medieval English king's council, but though it served swift justice, it was subject to abuses.

Saint Dominic - Founder of the Order or Friars Preachers
St. Dominic traveled extensively, preaching, and founded the Order of the Friars Preachers, known as the Dominicans.

Charlemagne Study Guide - Important Facts
Important facts about Charlemagne's birth and family, conquests and campaigns, administration, cultural impact and legacy.

The Papal States
In the Middle Ages, the papacy directly governed specific areas of present-day Italy in a temporal, secular sense.

The Problem With Feudalism - the F-Word
Feudalism was once considered the prevailing social system of medieval Europe. But some medievalists have serious problems with the term.

The F-Word - Page Three - The Model is Constructed
How the term Feudalism evolved over the course of several centuries. Page 3.

The F-Word, Page Five - The Emperor Has No Clothes
Eventually, one scholar pointed out the most basic, fundamental problems with feudalism, and other medievalists took note. Page 5.

The F-Word, Page Two - Where's the Fief?
The origins of the term and the original concept of Feudalism. Page 2.

The F-Word, Page Four - Medieval History Comes of Age
The discipline of history in general, and medieval history in particular, became more refined toward the end of the 19th century. Scholars recognized that feudalism was a construct, but they did not reject it. Page 4.

Quotes from the Middle Ages - Medieval Quotes - Quotations from Medieval People
Medieval quotes are a great way to draw closer to the people of the time period, evoking a sense of medieval culture and thought. And voices from the Middle Ages can have just as profound an impact as words from today. Here is a directory to quote collections from individuals of medieval times.

Quotations by Saint Jerome
From the prolific writings of Saint Jerome come insights into spirituality and everyday life.

Chains - Slavery in the Middle Ages
When ancient society evolved into medieval society, slavery didn't disappear. A look at the persistence of slavery in the Middle Ages.

Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The most renowned book of hours ever produced, Les Très Riches Heures is often referred to as the king of illuminated manuscripts.

The Keepers of Knowledge
They began as

The Keepers of Knowledge - Page 2
How knowledge and learning survived in the Middle Ages - Page 2.

Second View of the Gate to the Palace - Medieval Rhodes
Another view of the gate to the Grand Master's Palace. Page 17.

The Street of Knights - Medieval Rhodes
The Street of Knights is the most important street in the Old Town. Page 16.

Town Wall - Medieval Rhodes
The long-standing town enclosure. Page 13.

Wall Enclosing the Old Town - Medieval Rhodes
A longer view of the long-standing fortification. Page 14.

St. John's Gate - Medieval Rhodes
St. John's Gate is one of many gates to the Old Town of Rhodes. Page 10.

Back View of the Sea Gate - Medieval Rhodes
View of the sea gate from within the old town. Page 5.

Sea View of the Palace - Medieval Rhodes
A shot of the Grand Master's residence from the sea. Page 6.

Fortifications - Medieval Rhodes
Another view of the medieval fortifications at Rhodes. Page 15.

Interior of the Palace
In this interior shot you can make out the columns and the muted opulence of the Grand Master's residence. Page 9.

Interior Square of the Palace - Medieval Rhodes
View of a courtyard inside the Grand Master's Palace. Page 8.

Gate to the Old Town - Medieval Rhodes
Another of the many gates to the Old Town. Page 11.

Seagate to the Old Town at Rhodes
A view of the gate to the old walled city on Rhodes from the harbor. Page 4.

Medieval Fortifications of the Old Town at Rhodes
These bulwarks were built by the Knights of St. John more than 500 years ago. Page 12.

View of Rhodes Harbor
This photograph shows Rhodes Harbor from land. Page 3.

Rhodes Harbor from the Sea - A Closer View - Medieval Rhodes
This closer view of the harbor focuses on the round towers of the fortifications built by the Knights Hospitaller. Page 2.

Gate of the Grand Master's Palace - Medieval Rhodes
Here are the massive towers flanking the gate to the Grand Master's palace. Page 7.

Medieval Rhodes - Greece
The Greek island of Rhodes was home to the Knights of St. John, also known as the Hospitallers, for centuries. Here are some photos of medieval Rhodes, including the medieval fortifications and the palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of St. John.

Medieval Rhodes - Greece
The Greek island of Rhodes was home to the Knights of St. John, also known as the Hospitallers, for centuries. Here are some photos of medieval Rhodes, including the medieval fortifications and the palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of St. John.

Rhodes Harbor from the Sea
This view of the harbor of Rhodes from the sea includes an expansive view of the fortifications built by the Knights of St. John.

Pope Gregory VI - The Pope Who Bought the Papacy
Although Gregory did pay his predecessor to abdicate, he had good reason.

Edward the Elder
Edward was the first-born son of Alfred the Great, and achieved further successes when he followed his father to the throne.

The Bad Old Days - The Hoax
The hoax in question, with associated links leading to specific information refuting the bogus assertions.

Alfred the Great Quotes - Quotations by King Alfred the Great
Quotations Written by or Attributed to King Alfred the Great of England

Types of Fish and Seafood - Fish Consumed in the Middle Ages
The water creatures that were caught, preserved, traded and eaten in medieval times.

Types of Fish, Page Two
The water creatures that were caught, preserved, traded and eaten in medieval times. Page 2.

Types of Meat Consumed in the Middle Ages
The types of animals that provided meat to cooks in the Middle Ages, including cows, goats, sheep, pigs and rabbits.

Types of Meat, Page Two
The types of animals that provided meat to cooks in the Middle Ages, including deer and wild boar -- but not horse. Page 2.

Hildegard of Bingen: Quotes - Medieval History
Quotations written by German abbess, composer and mystic Hildegard of Bingen.

The Medieval Child - Childbirth, Childhood and Adolescence in the Middle Ages - Table of Contents
An index to our series of articles about childhood in the Middle Ages.

The Medieval Child, Part 4 - The Playful Years, Page Four - Leaving Home
The circumstances under which a child would live away from his parents in the Middle Ages. Page 4.

The Medieval Child, Part 4 - The Playful Years, Page Three - Discipline
Corporal punishment as used to discipline children, and what happened when beatings got out of hand. Page 3.

The Medieval Child, Part 4 - The Playful Years, Page Two - Training and Socialization
Manners, hygiene, social skills, and the behavior taught and expected of children in the Middle Ages. Page 2.

The Medieval Child, Part 4 - The Playful Years - Play
The fourth in a series of articles exploring the status and daily life of children in the Middle Ages, Part 4 examines play, chores, socialization, and discipline for youngsters of ages four to twelve.

Concise Biography of King Louis IX of France - Saint Louis
A straightforward narrative of the life and reign King Louis IX, also Saint Louis.

Historia Calamitatum - Appendix - Page Four
Page four of the Appendix to the Historia Calamitatum, or, The Story of My Misfortunes by Peter Abelard, translated into modern English by Henry Adams Bellows. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site. Page 4.

Historia Calamitatum - Appendix - Page Five
Page five of the Appendix to the Historia Calamitatum, or, The Story of My Misfortunes by Peter Abelard, translated into modern English by Henry Adams Bellows. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site. Page 5.

Historia Calamitatum - The Story of My Misfortunes - Appendix
The Appendix to the Historia Calamitatum, or, The Story of My Misfortunes by Peter Abelard, translated into modern English by Henry Adams Bellows. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site.

Historia Calamitatum - Appendix - Page Three
Page three of the Appendix to the Historia Calamitatum, or, The Story of My Misfortunes by Peter Abelard, translated into modern English by Henry Adams Bellows. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site. Page 3.

Historia Calamitatum - Appendix - Page Two
Page two of the Appendix to the Historia Calamitatum, or, The Story of My Misfortunes by Peter Abelard, translated into modern English by Henry Adams Bellows. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site. Page 2.

Dark Legacy - the Origin of the First Crusade
How centuries of war in the name of Christianity began with one man's ambition.

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Religion in Daily Life
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt, Part Six, Chapter Three: Religion in Daily Life. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site.

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Religion in Daily Life - Page Two
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt, Part Six, Chapter Three: Religion in Daily Life, Page Two. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site. Page 2.

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Religion in Daily Life - Page Three
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt, Part Six, Chapter Three: Religion in Daily Life, Page Three. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site. Page 3.

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Religion in Daily Life - Page Four
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt, Part Six, Chapter Three: Religion in Daily Life, Page Four. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site. Page 4.

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Religion in Daily Life - Page Five
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt, Part Six, Chapter Three: Religion in Daily Life, Page Five. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site. Page 5.

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Equality of Classes
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt, Part Five, Chapter One: Equality of Classes. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site.

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Equality of Classes - Page Two
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt, Part Five, Chapter One: Equality of Classes, Page Two. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site. Page 2.

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Equality of Classes - Page Three
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt, Part Five, Chapter One: Equality of Classes, Page Three. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site. Page 3.

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Equality of Classes - Page Four
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt, Part Five, Chapter One: Equality of Classes, Page Four. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site. Page 4.

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Language and Society
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt, Part Five, Chapter Three: Language and Society. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site.

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Domestic Life
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt, Part Five, Chapter Eight: Domestic Life. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site.

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Domestic Life - Page Two
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt, Part Five, Chapter Eight: Domestic Life, Page Two. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site. Page 2.

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Language and Society - Page Three
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt, Part Five, Chapter Three: Language and Society, Page Four. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site. Page 3.

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Language and Society - Page Two
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt, Part Five, Chapter Three: Language and Society, Page Three. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site. Page 2.

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt
The complete text of the Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site.

John Ball - Rebel and Priest
John Ball was an English priest who took a prominent part in the peasant revolt.

Baldwin IV - Leper King of Jerusalem
The problems of the reign of BaldwinIV. may be said to have been two - his sister Sibylla and the fieryRaynald of Chatillon.

Pope Alexander VI - Article From the 1911 Encyclopedia
Pope Alexander VI - Rodrigo Borgia - is the most famously corrupt pope in history.

Pope Alexander VI - Page Two
Pope Alexander VI - Rodrigo Borgia - is the most famously corrupt pope in history. Page 2.

Pope Alexander VI - Page Five
Pope Alexander VI - Rodrigo Borgia - is the most famously corrupt pope in history. Page 5.

Pope Alexander VI - Page Three
Pope Alexander VI - Rodrigo Borgia - is the most famously corrupt pope in history. Page 3.

Pope Alexander VI - Page Four
Pope Alexander VI - Rodrigo Borgia - is the most famously corrupt pope in history. Page 4.

Dom Francisco de Almeida
Dom Francisco de Almeida was the first viceroy of Portuguese India.

The Alhambra - Page Three
A description of some of the rooms and courtyards of the fabulous Moorish fortress. Page Three of an article from the 1911 Encyclopedia. Page 3.

The Alhambra - Fabulous Moorish Fortress in Spain
The Alhambra is an ancient palace and fortress of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, in southern Spain, occupying a hilly terrace on the south-eastern border of the city of Granada.

The Alhambra - Page Two
The Moorish portion of the Alhambra resembles many medieval Christian strongholds in its threefold arrangement as a castle, a palace and a residential annexe for subordinates. Page Two of an article from the 1911 Encyclopedia. Page 2.

The Alhambra - Page Four
Of the outlying buildings in connexion with the Alhambra, the foremost in interest is the Palacio de Generalife. Page Four of an article from the 1911 Encyclopedia. Page 4.

Alexandrine Verse - Leading Measure in French Poetry
Alexandrine verse is the heroic French verse, used in epic narrative, in tragedy and in the higher comedy. The origins of Alexandrine verse are uncertain, but the term may havederived from 12th-century romances in which Alexander of Macedon was the hero.

What Is a Villein? - Medieval History Definition
Villeins were usually free peasants, but they owed service to their lord and suffered many restrictions.

Thegn - Anglo-Saxon Thegn or Thane
A thegn was a lesser noble in Anglo-Saxon England

Sheriff - Officer of a shire
The Sheriff was the chief administrative and judicial officer of a shire.

Reeve - Definition of Reeve
The position of reeve was usually filled by one of the villeins of the manor.

Manor Definition and Significance in the Middle Ages
The medieval manor was an agricultural estate, and more.

Hide - Unit of land
The hide was a unit of land in Anglo-Saxon England and in England after the Norman Conquest.

Demesne - The lord's demesne in a manor
Part of every manor was the lord's demesne.

Danegeld - Who paid the Danegeld, and why
The Danegeld refers to both the tax and the payment it was levied to make.

Chantry - Definition of Chantry
The Chantry was a chapel with a specific purpose.

Albion - Ancient Name of the British Isles
The name Albion was taken by medieval writers from Pliny and Ptolemy.

Chancellor - Officer of the court
The chancellor was one of the four main officers of the court

Chamberlain - an officer of the court
The chamberlain played an important role in the royal household.

Definition and Origins of "CE", or Common Era
The initials C.E. stand for Common Era, a relatively new nomenclature for our current, most common dating system. A definition from your Guide.

Burgess - Definition of the term Burgess
A definition of the term Burgess from your Guide.

Boon-work - Definition of Boon-work
Boon-work usually referred to an obligation.

History of English Agriculture - Page Three
The combined or common-field system of husbandry practised by the village community or township may be taken as the starting-point of English agriculture. Page 3.

History of English Agriculture - Page Four
The combined or common-field system of husbandry practised by the village community or township may be taken as the starting-point of English agriculture. Page 4.

History of English Agriculture - Page Five
The combined or common-field system of husbandry practised by the village community or township may be taken as the starting-point of English agriculture. Page 5.

History of English Agriculture - Page Two
The combined or common-field system of husbandry practised by the village community or township may be taken as the starting-point of English agriculture. Page 2.

History of English Agriculture
The combined or common-field system of husbandry practised by the village community or township may be taken as the starting-point of English agriculture.

Africa - History - Page Two
In the 7th century, an Arab host conquered Africa from the Red Sea to the Atlantic. Page 2.

Africa - History - Page Four
If ancient Egypt and Ethiopia be excluded, the story of Africa is largely a record of the doings of its Asiatic and European conquerors and colonizers, Abyssinia being the only state which throughout historic times has maintained its independence. Page 4.

Africa - History - Page Three
If ancient Egypt and Ethiopia be excluded, the story of Africa is largely a record of the doings of its Asiatic and European conquerors and colonizers, Abyssinia being the only state which throughout historic times has maintained its independence. Page 3.

Africa - History
If ancient Egypt and Ethiopia be excluded, the story of Africa is largely a record of the doings of its Asiatic and European conquerors and colonizers, Abyssinia being the only state which throughout historic times has maintained its independence.

Barrow - Definition of a Barrow
Barrows were more common in the Iron Age than later, but a few date to the early Middle Ages.

Aix-la-Chapelle - Aachen - German City - Page Two
Aachen, or Aix-la-Chapelle, was the site of Charlemagne's favorite palace. Page 2.

Aix-la-Chapelle - Aachen - German City - Page Three
Aachen, or Aix-la-Chapelle, was the site of Charlemagne's favorite palace. Page 3.

Aix-la-Chapelle - Aachen - German City
Aachen, or Aix-la-Chapelle, was the site of Charlemagne's favorite palace.

Baron - Definition and Origin
In the Middle Ages, there was no specific rank associated with the term Baron.

King Penda of Mercia
Penda is the earliest king of Mercia about whom scholars have any real information.

The Different Types of Bailiff & Their Responsibilities
There are several different uses of the term Bailiff in the Middle Ages.

Anglo-Saxons - Who the Anglo-Saxons Were
Who the Anglo-Saxon people were, where they lived, and where they came from.

Christopher Columbus - Explorer and Navigator
Christopher Columbus made a historic voyage in 1492, searching for a westward route to the treasures of the east and instead encountering a new world.

Almoner - What an Almoner did
The Almoner had a special duty to the poor.

Cardinal Wolsey - Advisor to King Henry VIII Cardinal Thomas Wolsey
The extremely influential Archbishop of York, Wolsey served Henry VIII as an advisor faithfully for nearly two decades before falling from grace, primarily for his failure to secure a divorce for the king.

Queen Elizabeth on Video
Both fiction and documentary films and television shows about one of the most fascinating figures in history.

Definition and Origins of AD, or Anno Domini
The initials A.D. stand for Anno Domini, which was part of the dating system used in the Middle Ages. A definition from your Guide.

Abbot - Who and what an Abbot was in the Middle Ages
An explanation of an Abbot's role and the origin of the term.

Renaissance King Francis I of France
King Francis I of France is considered France's first Renaissance King.

Sculpture and Architecture
As Michelangelo continued to reveal his remarkable skill as a sculptor, he also began working on architectural designs.

What an Abbey Was in the Middle Ages
An explanation of the term and the role of an abbey in medieval life.

The Medici Chapel
The Medici Chapel, designed by Michelangelo, includes an extraordinary collection of some of the artist's most powerful sculptures.

Additional Early Works
While working on the Pietà and the David, Michelangelo produced several other pieces of art.

The Death of Michelangelo
Medieval History.

Michelangelo's Childhood and Education
Becoming an artist was not a social advancement for the Buonarroti family, but Michelangelo was determined to learn.

Michelangelo's Early Works
Even the earliest known works by Michelangelo show stunning mastery of his craft.

The Pietà
The Pietà that Michelangelo finished in 1500 may be the most perfect embodiment of that devotional image.

Aborted Projects
Michelangelo began some ambitious projects that never came to fruition.

Introducing Knight Life
Introducing a semi-regular feature about the medieval knight.

A Biography of Michelangelo - Introduction
Michelangelo is generally considered to be the greatest sculptor of all time. This illustrated biography covers his childhood and education, his early sculptures, his paintings, his remarkable Pietà and David, his awe-inspiring work in the Sistine Chapel, and his later years with images of many of his best-known works.

Back in Rome
Although he always hoped to return to Florence, Michelangelo spent the last thirty years of his life in Rome.

Working for Julius
The young artist's reputation was so great that the pope insisted he work for him.

Michelangelo's Later Years
As Michelangelo aged he focused less on his sculpture and more on architecture, painting and poetry.

Michelangelo's David
Michelangelo will be forever known for his remarkable depiction of David, a statue that has been hailed as the highest expression of Renaissance art.

The Sistine Chapel Ceiling
The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel is one of the most remarkable works of art ever painted.

Top Picks in Books about Medieval Knights
An accurate picture of the medieval knight is not easy to draw. Here are books that succeed in separating fact from fantasy and in providing a fairly clear look at the historical knight of the Middle Ages.

Forge a Sword
a simple how-to on pattern-welding a sword in the early middle ages

Top Picks - Fun Medieval Films
Even the most serious medieval scholar can make fun of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. For an enjoyable trip into the pseudo-past, try some of these films. They're not all particularly

Kingdom of Heaven Film Review
Your Guide's review of Ridley Scott's Crusades epic. Page 2.

Byzantine Civilization of the Middle Ages
After Rome fell, Byzantium lasted another thousand years. A brief look at a forgotten empire.

Kingdom of Heaven Film Review
Your Guide's review of Ridley Scott's Crusades epic.

Beguines - Lay Sisterhood of Spiritual Women
Beguines were women who led lives of religious devotion, usually in the same house or community, without joining a religious order.

Defining the Knight
Definition of Medieval knights, their armor, roles, and duties

Oscar® in the Middle Ages - Award-winning films about the medieval era
A selection of Academy Award®-winning and nominated films set in or near the Middle Ages.

Who's Who in Medieval History and the Renaissance
A resource to help you find information on the web and off about significant individuals from the Middle Ages and Renaissance.

Who's Who in Medieval History - About the Project
A resource to help you find information on the web and off about significant individuals from the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Page 2.

Theodulf of Orleans - Carolingian Theologian
Theodulf was a poet and the foremost theologian in Charlemagne's court.

Queen Elizabeth I in Print
Biographies, primary sources, and books on virtually every aspect of the life and reign of Queen Elizabeth I.

Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick - Warwick the Kingmaker
Known as the Kingmaker for his role in helping put not one, but two kings on the throne of England, Richard Neville was a powerful English nobleman.

Gaiseric - King Gaiseric of the Vandals
The Vandal King Gaiseric exercised control over a large portion of the Mediterranean and at one point even sacked Rome.

Rudolf I of Habsburg - King of Germany
The first German king of the Habsburg dynasty, Rudolf was elected by the German Electors because they thought they could push him around. But Rudolf was made of sterner stuff.

Theodahad - Ostrogothic King of Italy
There's no getting around it: Theodahad was a pretty bad guy, and his crimes would ultimately lead to an invasion of Italy by the Byzantines. How did that come about? Read this Who's Who Profile and see.

Martin Luther in Print
Books on the life and work of Martin Luther, the man who precipitated the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century.

Books on the Life and Work of Martin Luther
Books on the life and work of Martin Luther, the man who precipitated the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century.

Medieval & Renaissance Monarchs of England
This table of the kings and queens of England, from the house of Wessex in the ninth century to the Tudors in the sixteenth, links to profile pages in Who's Who in Medieval History.

Arthur Tudor - Prince of Wales
Arthur's marriage to young Catherine of Aragon would end with his early death, but it would have far-reaching consequences that would play a crucial role in both the English monarchy and its break with the Catholic Church.

Michelangelo and the Pope's Ceiling by Ross King
Your guide's review of Ross King's book.

Christopher Columbus in Print
Biographies of Christopher Columbus, historical background, primary and secondary sources, and books for younger readers.

Council of Chalcedon - Important Ecumenical Council
The fourth ecumenical council of the Christian Church was held at the city of Chalcedon.

Fresh Meat and Fish in the Middle Ages
The availability and use of fresh meat, poultry and fish in the Middle Ages

Fresh Meat and Fish in the Middle Ages, Page Two
The availability and use of fresh meat, poultry and fish in Towns and Cities. Page 2.

Types of Fowl - Poultry Consumed in the Middle Ages
The birds that were cooked and consumed by people in the Middle Ages.

Concise Biography of Geoffrey Chaucer
A short yet informative biography of the quintessential medieval English poet.

The Myth of Rotten Meat - Myths and Misconceptions about Medieval Times
Did medieval people regularly use spices to disguise the taste of rotten meat? A medieval myth exploded by your Guide.

Review of 'The Daughter of Time' by Josephine Tey
A review of the classic story 'The Daughter of Time' by Josephine Tey -- a detective story that changed the way I think about historical investigation.

The Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad founded Islam and saw the religion spread through much of Arabia during his lifetime.

Abu Jafar al Mansur - Caliph of the Abbasid Dynasty
He founded Baghdad, and called it the City of Peace. After overthrowing another dynasty, eliminating his enemies (and some allies), handling revolts with extreme measures and murder, Abu Ja'far al Mansur certainly needed some peace.

Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II launched the Crusade Movement with his call to arms at the Council of Clermont.

Michelangelo Buonarroti - Sculptor - Renaissance Artist
He is considered by many to be the greatest sculptor who ever lived, and was certainly one of the greatest artists of all time. His extraordinary work has deeply moved people throughout the world for more than half a millennium with its breathtaking beauty. Get the basic facts about Michelangelo in this Who's Who Profile.

AH - Definition and Origins of AH, or Anno Hegirae
The initials A.H. stand for Anno Hegirae, part of the Muslim dating system. A definition from your Guide.

Albigenses & Cathari - Medieval Heretics
The Cathari, or Cathars, followed a dualist heretical theology, and the Albigenses were Cathar heretics in the south of France.

BC - Definition of BC, or Before Christ
The initials B.C. stand for Before Christ, the counterpart to A.D. and part of the dating system used in the Middle Ages.

The history of Bishops in the medieval Christian Church
Bishops performed priestly and administrative duties, and they played an important role in the development of the medieval Christian Church.

Bogomil - Who and what the Bogomils were
A Bogomil was a member of a heretical sect that originated in Bulgaria in the tenth century.

Review of Knights Templar Encyclopedia by Karen Ralls
What you can and can't find in this handy reference work covering the Templar Knights.

Avignon Papacy - When the Popes Resided in France
The Avignon Papacy was the period in the 14th century when the popes lived in and operated out of Avignon, France, instead of their traditional home in Rome

Caliphate - Political and religious entity of Islam
The caliphate was both a political and a religious entity.

Chronological List of Medieval Popes
A chronological table of popes from the late fifth century into the seventeenth, hyperlinked to entries in our Who's Who resource, where available.

Amerigo Vespucci - Explorer and Navigator
Navigator and explorer Amerigo Vespucci scientifically determined that Columbus had not reached India but a previously unknown continent.

Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester
He led a baronial revolt and ruled England for almost a year. He also called what is considered the first parliament in English history.

Pope Silverius - Saint
Pope Silverius got on the wrong side of an empress, and it cost him his life.

The Acacian Schism - First Significant Break between the Eastern and Western Churches
The Acacian Schism was the first significant break between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Western Catholic Church.

The Ruthwell Cross - Early Medieval Stone Carving
The Ruthwell Cross is a powerful religious symbol, a marvelous work of Anglo-Saxon art, and a significant source of literary and historical evidence.

Alexander Nevsky - Prince of Novgorod and Kiev
Prince of Novgorod and Kiev and Grand Prince of Vladimir, Alexander Nevsky is best known for stopping the advance of the Swedes and the Teutonic Knights into Russia.

Pope Nicholas V - The Humanist Pope
Born Tommaso Parentucelli, Pope Nicholas V worked to promote learning and rebuild Rome, and became known as the Humanist Pope.

Saladin - Muslim Hero - Salah Ad-din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub
Saladin was the most famous Muslim hero of the Middle Ages and a consummate military tactician, whose capture of Jerusalem set off the Third Crusade.

Nicholas of Cusa
A cardinal and staunch supporter of the pope, Nicholas was also a prolific writer of philosophy and a scientist ahead of his time.

Nithard - Writer & Historian
Charlemagne's illegitimate grandson, Nithard was a writer whose account of contemporary events still holds value for historians today.

Pope Julius II
Though best known for sponsoring some of the greatest artwork of the Italian Renaissance, Julius was a powerful ruler who was enormously successful in keeping Italy together politically and militarily.

Byzantine Emperor Justin I - Champion of Orthodoxy
Justin is best known for sponsoring his nephew, Justinian, but he was a capable leader in his own right.

Harun Al-Rashid - Abbasid Caliph Profile
The fifth Abbasid caliph, Harun al-Rashid and his fabulous court at Baghdad are immortalized in The Thousand and One Nights.

King Henry I of Germany - Henry the Fowler - Duke of Saxony
King Henry I managed to unite the various duchies of Germany in a confederation, founding the Saxon dynasty, and defended his kingdom against invading Magyars. Why he was called

Harold II - Last Anglo-Saxon King of England
Harold's defeat by the Norman invader William the Conqueror, who started a new dynasty, made him the last Anglo-Saxon king of England.

King John of England
During his lifetime and for long after, King John of England was considered a bad monarch.

Harald Bluetooth - King of Denmark and Norway
Harald is credited with unifying Denmark under one rule. He also allowed the spread of Christianity through much of his territory, and at one point had control of Norway.

Emperor Heraclius
Although he fought hard and brilliantly for decades, Emperor Heraclius ultimately lost considerable Byzantine territory.

Justinian I - Byzantine Emperor
Arguably the most important Byzantine emperor in history, Justinian would reorganize the imperial administration, sponsor an influential code of law, initiate a massive building program and acquire considerable territory in what had once been the old Roman Empire.

Julian of Norwich - Christian Mystic
A mystic who lived most of her life as an anchoress, Julian wrote of her visions, exploring the profound mysteries of the Christian faith in what are considered among the most beautiful expressions of mysticism of the Middle Ages. Find out more about her in this Who's Who Profile.

Giotto di Bondone - Father of the Renaissance
The earliest artist to paint more realistic figures than in the medieval and Byzantine styles, Giotto is known as the

Pope Gregory I - Pope Saint Gregory the Great
Gregory's influence was paramount in shaping the early medieval papacy. A monk, theologian, and Doctor of the Church, he has even been credited with originating Gregorian Chant.

Henry VIII - King Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII's political maneuverings resulted in a break with the Catholic Church and the launch of the English Reformation.

The Knights Hospitaller of St. John of Jerusalem
The Hospitallers were a monastic brotherhood of knights who both tended to ill and injured pilgrims and took up arms to protect them on their way to the Holy Land.

King Henry VII of England
Henry Tudor became King Henry VII of England after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was frugal, cautious and, when it came to threats to the throne, ruthless.

Hildegard of Bingen - Sybil of the Rhine
Known as Sibyl of the Rhine for her musical compositions and poetry, Hildegard of Bingen was a visionary mystic and abbess of the Benedictine cloister of Disibodenberg

King Edward IV of England
Edward IV won his crown through several long and bloody battles in the Wars of the Roses.

Geoffrey of Monmouth - Writer, Historian, and Author of Arthurian History
Geoffrey of Monmouth was a historian and writer whose seminal work, a history of the kings of Britain, would historicize the King Arthur of legend and inspire numerous authors over the centuries.

Godfrey of Bouillon - Crusader
Though he'd never shown any particular devotion to the Church, Godfrey of Bouillon answered the call to Crusade and became one of the First Crusade's most powerful leaders. He was also tall, blond and handsome.

Einhard - Writer, Architect, Historian, Friend and Advisor to Charlemagne
Einhard was a friend and advisor to Charlemagne, and wrote a famous biography of the Frankish king. He also wrote extensively on other subjects and served as a diplomat.

Edward the Confessor - King of England
The third Anglo-Saxon king by the name of Edward was an unfortunately ineffectual king. Known for his piety, he let the powerful Godwin family dominate his reign.

Eleanor of Aquitaine - Queen of France and Queen of England
Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of France and later England, was arguably the most powerful woman of High Medieval Europe.

Profile of the Explorer Erik the Red
Erik's exile from Iceland was only the beginning of his greatest adventure.

King Egbert of Wessex
King Egbert helped make Wessex such a powerful kingdom that England was eventually unified around it. This is just one reason he's been called

Enrico Dandolo - Doge of Venice
As Doge of Venice, Enrico Dandolo achieved great things for his city; but he is best known for his role in the fourth Crusade.

Saint David - Patron Saint of Wales - St. David or Dewi Sant
A great deal of legend has grown up around St. David, but very little is known about the actual historical figure.

Dionysius Exiguus - Creator of the Christian Calendar
Dionysius Exiguus is credited with inventing the Christian calendar.

King Ethelbert I of Kent
Ethelbert issued the earliest Anglo-Saxon law code that is still extant, and allowed Augustine of Canterbury to evangelize Anglo-Saxon England. His marriage to the daughter of a Merovingian king had a lot to do with that latter development.

Edward, the Black Prince - Renowned Military Commander
Edward, the Black Prince was a renowned military commander during the Hundred Years' War.

Profile of Queen Elizabeth I of England
The Virgin Queen. Good Queen Bess. Gloriana. The indomitable Elizabeth I of England ruled for 44 years and left an indelible impression on the history of Britain.

King Edward II of England
After the dynamic reign of his bold, warlike father, perhaps anything Edward II did would look weak by comparison. Or maybe he was just an ineffectual ruler, too self-involved to lead his people.

Dante Alighieri - Poet - Philosopher - Political Thinker
Dante is often considered the finest poet of the Middle Ages. He also wrote philosophy and political works, served his beloved Florence as a diplomat and fought as a cavalryman.

Alchemy in the Middle Ages - A Medieval Proto-Science
A mixture of science, philosophy and mysticism, medieval alchemy was a precursor to chemistry, and medieval alchemists accomplished some important scientific advances.

The Book of Kells - Splendid Illuminated Manuscript
The Book of Kells is a stunningly beautiful manuscript from the early Middle Ages containing the Four Gospels. This introduction provides information about the origins and history of the book as well as its construction, and offers suggested reading.

Book of Hours - Illuminated Prayer Book for the Wealthy
A book of hours was a prayer book containing appropriate prayers for specific hours of the day, days of the week, months, and seasons. Books of hours were usually beautifully illuminated, and some of the more notable ones are among the finest works of medieval art in existence.

Charlemagne Study Guide - Biography - Overview
This study guide offers general information to help you learn about Charlemagne. This overview is an introductory biography of the important Frankish king.

Charlemagne Study Guide - People
This study guide offers general information to help you learn about Charlemagne. Here is a list of people who played significant roles in Charlemagne's life.

A Charlemagne Study Guide - Timeline
This study guide offers general information to help you learn about Charlemagne. The timeline of Charlemagne's life provides a chronological listing of significant events in the Frankish king's life and reign.

What You Need to Know About the Crusades
What constituted a

Donatello - Master of Renaissance Sculpture
Donatello was one of the foremost sculptors of the Italian Renaissance. A master of both marble and bronze, he also had an extensive knowledge of ancient sculpture.

The Black Death - A Personal History by John Hatcher
Your Guide's review of The Black Death - A Personal History, John Hatcher's social history of the devastating plague in 14th century England.

What You Need to Know About the Black Death
What the horrific disease known as the Black Death actually was, where it started, how it spread, how many people died, the impact on medieval Europe and more.

Philip IV of France
Well known for his troubles with the papacy, Philip could be cruel, but he was considered by some to be the sponsor of a golden age of peace and prosperity in France.

King Philip VI of France
The first French king of the Valois dynasty, Philip VI of France saw the beginning of the Hundred Years' War and the arrival of the Black Death.

Quotations by Leon Battista Alberti - Leo Battista Alberti Quotes
Quotations written by philosopher, writer, Renaissance architect and artistic theorist, Leon Battista Alberti.

Quotations From Physician and Alchemist Paracelsus
Paracelsus was a physician and alchemist who made groundbreaking advances in the field of medicine.

Biography of Richard the Lionheart
A biography of King Richard I of England, known as Richard the Lionheart.

Biography of Richard the Lionheart - Page Two
King Richard I of England, Called. Page 2.

Biography of Richard the Lionheart - Page Three
Medieval History. Page 3.

Biography of Richard the Lionheart - Page Four
Medieval History. Page 4.

The Spread of the Black Death Through Europe
A series of maps by your guide depicting how the dreaded 14th-century plague spread through Europe

The Great Mortality - Part 1
What was the Black Death, and why should we study it?

The Great Mortality - Part 1 - Page Two
Statistics concerning the death tolls of the Black Death of 14th-century Europe. Page 2.

Procopius of Caesarea - Byzantine Historian
This important chronicler of Byzantine history also wrote a scandalous expose of his emperor and empress.

Peter the Hermit
Also known as known as Cucu Peter, Little Peter or Peter of Amiens, Peter the Hermit preached Crusade in the wake of Urban's speech at Clermont.

Couples From Medieval & Renaissance History & Fiction
A survey of some of the most famous -- and not-so-famous -- couples in Medieval and Renaissance history and fiction.

Famous Medieval Couples - Page Two
Medieval History. Page 2.

Famous Medieval Couples - Page Three
Medieval History. Page 3.

A Medieval Love Story
Peter Abelard and his student, Heloise, engaged in a true-life romance in the 12th-century.

A Medieval Love Story - Page Two
Medieval History. Page 2.

A Medieval Love Story - Page Three
Medieval History. Page 3.

A Medieval Love Story - Page Four
Medieval History. Page 4.

Quotes by Teacher and Philosopher Peter Abelard
He was a teacher, writer, and philosopher, and these Peter Abelard quotes reveal his Scholastic viewpoint as well as details of his personal life.

Concise Biography of Pope Gregory I
Saint Gregory was the foremost influence in shaping the early medieval papacy. Strongly involved with monasticism, Pope Gregory the Great also reformed the mass, and was named a Doctor of the Church.

Concise Biography of Margaret Paston
A simple narrative of Margaret Paston's life in 15th-century England.

Saint Patrick in Print - Biographies, Primary Sources and Fiction about Ireland's Patron Saint
Biographies, Primary Sources and Fiction about Ireland's Patron Saint, St. Patrick.

Margaret Paston - English Matriarch
An ordinary individual of medieval England whose surviving letters display resilience, ingenuity and fortitude.

Paracelsus - Alchemist and Physician
Paracelsus was a physician and alchemist who made significant strides in the field of medicine

King Philip V of France
Philip was instrumental in getting the Salic Law of the Franks set as a precedent in the inheritance of titles, excluding women from taking the throne.

Pippin III
Pippin III was the first Carolingian ruler of the Franks to be anointed as King.

The Notorious King John of England - A Concise Biography
A look at the life and reign of King John of England, whose reputation was bad during his lifetime and, in spite of efforts to rehabilitate it, remains bad to this day.

A Concise Biography of Ibn Khaldun
A straightforward biography of Ibn Khaldun.

A Medieval Atlas
Find the map you need or explore some fascinating pieces of the past.

The Medieval Child, Part 2 - Entry into the World
The second in a series of articles exploring the status and daily life of children in the Middle Ages, Part 2 examines childbirth and baptism.

The Medieval Child, Part 2 - Entry into the Medieval World, Page Two - Baptism


Work and Adolescence in the Middle Ages
The sixth in a series of articles exploring the status and daily life of children in the Middle Ages, Part 6 examines the work options of adolescents and recreational activities.

The Medieval Child, Part 6 - Teens at Work and Play, Page Two - Service
The circumstances of medieval youths who worked as servants or laborers throughout their adolescence. Page 2.

Childbirth, Childhood and Adolescence in the Middle Ages
Games, pastimes and entertainment pursued by teenagers in the Middle Ages. Page 3.

Abu Bakr Quotes - Quotations by the Friend and Follower of Muhammad
Quotations attributed to Abu Bakr, or El Siddik or Al-Siddiq, friend and follower of Muhammad.

The Bayeux Tapestry - Artifact of the Norman Conquest
This priceless artifact of the Norman Conquest details events leading up to the Battle of Hastings and the battle itself.

Al-Khwarizmi - Astronomer and Mathematician
Al-Khwarizmi wrote significant works on astronomy and mathematics that introduced Hindu-Arabic numerals and the idea of algebra to European scholars.

Charles VII of France
King Charles VII of France owed Joan of Arc a great debt for her aid in breaking the siege of Orleans and getting a signifcantly symbolic coronation.

Britain's Timeline - The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is Born
One of the most comprehensive timelines of the English Middle Ages was written during the English Middle Ages. Take a look at the origin, development and survival of The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in this feature by your Guide.

Britain's Timeline - Part Two - The Evolution of a History
How the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle evolved over the centuries from its inception until the last entry in 1154. Page 2.

Britain's Timeline - Part Three - The Manuscripts
A description of the surviving manuscripts containing the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Page 3.

Concise Biography of El Cid - National Hero of Spain
The subject of many legends, stories and poems, El Cid was nevertheless a real historical individual. He has been painted both as a chivalrous knight and a freebooter, depending on who's doing the painting. But whatever else he was, El Cid was a remarkable military leader whose achievements still command respect.

El Cid in Print - Books about the Life of the Cid and Editions of the Epic Poem
Biographies of El Cid and editions of the epic poem.

A Selection of Love Poems From the English Renaissance
English love poems of the Renaissance era by six poets.

Chansons de Geste - Old French Epic Poems
An introduction to the Chansons de Geste, or Songs of Deeds, epic poems of medieval France.

The Dream of the Rood - Earliest English Dream Poem
The Old English lyric The Dream of the Rood is the earliest English dream poem to be found in written form. The Dream of the Rood was first discovered on the Ruthwell Cross.

Defining the Middle Ages - Introduction
When did the Middle Ages start and end? A look at some of the many different ways this much-misunderstood era is defined.

Defining the Middle Ages - Stuck in the Middle
The origin of the terms Middle Ages and Medieval. Page 2.

Defining the Middle Ages - Empires
The use of significant dates in imperial history as turning points in the Middle Ages. Page 3.

Defining the Middle Ages - Christendom
Medieval History. Page 4.

Defining the Middle Ages - Europe
Medieval History can be associated with the evolution of Europe as a geopolitical entity. Page 5.

The Early and High Middle Ages - Medieval History
The Middle Ages are often broken into three sub-eras: Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

Defining the Middle Ages - Make Your Choice
Choose your own unique approach to studying the medieval era. Page 2.

Charles Martel
Best known for halting the Muslim advance into Europe at the Battle of Tours, Charles Martel exercised true power over Francia while the king reigned in name only.

Clotilda - Queen of the Franks
She was a saintly woman who is known chiefly for convincing her husband, Clovis, to convert to Catholicism. But she also encouraged her sons to take vengeance on the murderer of her father.

King Canute the Great of England, Denmark and Norway
Canute conquered large parts of England, taking the crown in Denmark and Norway, and built a formidable -- if short-lived -- empire.

Saint Columba - Irish Evangelist to the Scots
Saint Columba evangelized Scotland and is one of the patron saints of Ireland.

Clovis - Founder of the Merovingian Dynasty
Clovis was the founder of the Merovingian dynasty of Frankish kings, and became a Catholic instead of an Arian Christian.

Charles II - King and Emperor - Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald was king of the West Frankish kingdom and, later, Western Emperor.

Charlemagne - King of the Franks and Lombards
Charlemagne consolidated a large portion of Europe under his rule, promoted learning, and instituted innovative administrative concepts. This profile of the emperor offers quick facts about the emperor and a concise biography. Part of the Who's Who in Medieval History resource.

El Cid - National Hero of Spain - Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar
The national hero of Spain, El Cid displayed remarkable military ability in his conquest of Valencia, and after his death he became the subject of many legends, stories, and poems.