Medieval History Sitemap - Page 2 2016-09-26

Pope Clement VII - Pope during the Reformation - Giulio de' Medici
The illegitimate son of Giuliano de'Medici rose to the highest power in the Church, but Pope Clement VII's vacillation caused trouble among the warring nations of Europe.

Constantine the Great - Profile of the Roman Emperor
What is a fourth-century Roman emperor doing at a Medieval History site? See the important actions he took that would have effects reaching far into the Middle Ages.

The Bad Old Days - Lead Cups
Medieval people did not drink from lead cups. They did, however, drink alcohol from pewter, horn, ceramic, gold, silver and even wood drinking vessels.

The Bad Old Days - Porridge
Medieval peasant pottage and the peas porridge rhyme. Part of our refutation of the infamous Bad Old Days net hoax.

The Bad Old Days - Thatched Roofs
Neither cats nor dogs could live inside a thatched roof. Part of our refutation of the infamous Bad Old Days email hoax.

The Bad Old Days - Tomatoes
Why tomatoes were sometimes considered poisonous in the late Middle Ages. Part of our refutation of the infamous Bad Old Days email hoax.

The Bad Old Days - Weddings & Hygiene
Whether or not brides bathed more than once a year, and why they carried flowers at their weddings. Part of our refutation of the infamous Bad Old Days email hoax.

A Medieval Christmas - Celebrating the holiday in the Middle Ages
In the Middle Ages, yuletide celebrations were somewhat different than today -- yet modern Christians will recognize aspects of a Medieval Christmas.

Medieval Christmas Traditions
Many of the Christmas traditions we're familiar with today began during the Middle Ages or evolved through medieval times.

Saint Boniface - Apostle of Germany
In his zeal for missionary work, Boniface passed up a cushy post as an abbot in order to evangelize the Germans.

Giovanni Boccaccio - Poet, Scholar and Diplomat
The writings of Giovanni Boccaccio in the Italian language helped raise vernacular literature to the respectability of classical texts.

What Made Charles So Great - Charlemagne
An introduction to the life of Charlemagne and his impact on European history.

What Made Charles So Great - Page Two
Medieval History. Page 2.

Charlemagne in Print
Biographies of Charlemagne and books offering historical background concerning the reign of Charlemagne

The Bad Old Days - Baths
Medieval man liked to bathe, and babies were never thrown out with the bathwater. Part of your Guide's refutation of the infamous Bad Old Days net hoax.

The Bad Old Days - Canopy Beds
The real development of canopy beds in medieval Europe. Part of your Guide's refutation of the infamous Bad Old Days net hoax.

The Bad Old Days - The Dead
Measures against getting buried alive that were never taken. Part of your Guide's refutation of the infamous Bad Old Days net hoax

The Bad Old Days - Floors
A look at dirt floors, the use of straw, and the origin of the word

Pope Benedict I
Benedict guided the Church through troubled times while Italy was suffering from Lombard invasions.

Pope Benedict II
Benedict was known for his singing as well as his mastery of Scripture.

Pope Benedict III
Benedict had some difficulty with his election, and even spent time in jail.

Pope Benedict IV
Benedict IV was known to be generous and appears to have striven to see to the public good.

Pope Benedict V
Benedict V is sometimes considered an antipope.

Overview of Beowulf
A description of the events that transpire in the Old English Epic poem, Beowulf.

The Beowulf Story, Page Two
A description of the events that transpire in the Old English Epic poem, Beowulf. Page 2.

The Beowulf Story, Page Three
A description of the events that transpire in the Old English Epic poem, Beowulf. Page 3.

Concise Biography of General Belisarius
A straightforward narrative of the life and career of General Belisarius, foremost Byzantine general.

Saint Benedict of Nursia - Father of Western Monasticism
Saint Benedict of Nursia founded a dozen monasteries and established the Benedictine Rule for monastic living

Saint Brigit of Ireland - Saint Brigid - Patron Saint of Ireland
Saint Brigit is, along with Saint Patrick, one of the patron saints of Ireland.

Beowulf - Epic Old English Poem
The epic of Beowulf, the most precious relic of Old English,and, indeed, of all early Germanic literature, has come down to us in asingle MS.

Beowulf - Page Two
It is probable thatthere are few readers of Beowulf who have not felt that the generalimpression produced by it is that of a bewildering chaos. Page 2.

Beowulf - Page Three
It is possible that what the poemtells of Hygelac's near relatives, and of the events of his reign andthat of his successor, is based on historic fact. Page 3.

Beowulf - Page Four
That they have been attributed to Beowulf inparticular might seem to be adequately accounted for by the generaltendency to connect mythical achievements with the name of any famoushero. Page 4.

Beowulf - Page Five
It ispossible that the English epic, which unquestionably derived itshistorical elements from Scandinavian song, may be indebted to the samesource for its general plan, including the blending of history and myth. Page 5.

Concise Biography of Pope Benedict IX
Benedict IX is known for selling the papacy.

Athelstan - First King of All England
His father was a powerful king. His aunt was a formidable woman. And his grandfather was

Saint Augustine of Canterbury - Apostle of the English
Saint Augustine founded the Christian Church in southern England and became the first archbishop of Canterbury.

Alcuin of York - Historian - Teacher - Theologian - Alcuin
He was the foremost scholar of the Carolingian Renaissance, making important reforms in the Catholic liturgy, bringing Anglo-Saxon traditions of humanism into Europe, writing histories and poetry, and serving as the head of Charlemagne's Palace School at Aachen

Adhémar of Monteil - Papal Legate of the First Crusade - Bishop Adhémar of Puy
Adhémar of Monteil was appointed Papal Legate of the First Crusade by Pope Urban II.

Baldwin II - Count of Edessa and King of Jerusalem
Baldwin II. had much ofthe churchmanship of Godfrey and Baldwin I.; but he appears mostdecidedly as an incessant warrior.

Saint Augustine of Hippo - Bishop, Theologian, and Doctor of the Church
The importance of Augustine in the development of medieval Christian thought cannot be overestimated

Aryabhata I - Aryabhata the Elder - Important early mathematician of India
Aryabhata the Elder wrote an important early work on astronomy and mathematics.

Fra Angelico - Artist - Monk
This early Renaissance artist is known for his serenely religious works. His style was influenced by classical art, and his paintings in turn influenced and inspired other artists of his time.

Pope Agapetus I
Agapetus I was known for his unsuccessful attempt to keep Justinian from reconquering Italy.

Mali - Splendor in Medieval Africa
A brief introduction to the medieval kingdom of Mali and the splendid African society that flourished there.

Albertus Magnus - A Concise Biography
Philosopher, cleric and writer, Albertus Magnus was one of the most influential scientists of the Middle Ages.

Concise Biography of Alexander Nevsky
He kept both the Swedes and the Teutonic Knights from advancing into Russia, but Grand Prince Alexander Nevsky may be best known for his victory in the Battle on the Ice.

Concise Biography of Leon Battista Alberti
Humanist philosopher, Renaissance architect and artistic theorist, Leon Battista Alberti was a prolific writer on many subjects. Find out more about him in this straightforward biography.

Peter Abelard - Philosopher and Teacher
Peter Abelard, philosopher, teacher and writer, was a significant contributor to Scholastic philosophy, but may be best known for his infamous affair.

Alaric I - King of the Visigoths - Alaric the Visigoth
Alaric I led the Visigoths in a sack of the city of Rome

Leon Battista Alberti - Renaissance Man
Philosopher, writer, artist and architect, Leon Battista Alberti is considered by many scholars to be the quintessential Renaissance universal man of learning. He could also, from a standing position, with his feet together, jump over a man's head.

Alfred the Great - King of Wessex and All England
Alfred (also spelled Aelfred) was the King of Wessex who resisted Danish incursion and united much of the individual English kingdoms under one rule in the process. For his military skill, his administrative acumen, his promotion of learning and his achievement in uniting virtually all of England, Alfred is the only English king to be tagged

Anna Comnena - Historian and Byzantine Princess
Byzantine Princess Anna Comnena wrote about her father and the first Crusade, for which work she is considered the world's first female historian.

Concise Biography of Alfred the Great
Alfred resisted the Danes and united much of the individual English kingdoms under one rule. For his military skill, his administrative acumen, his promotion of learning and his achievement in uniting virtually all of England, Alfred is the only English king to be called Great.

Raphael Sanzio - Extraordinary Renaissance Artist
Raphael Sanzio was one of the most important and talented artists of the Italian Renaissance.

The History of Algebra
Get a rundown about the origins of Algebra from this article that originally appeared in a 1911 encyclopedia.

The History of Algebra - Page Two
It was formerly the custom to assign the invention of algebra to the Greeks, but the decipherment of the Rhind papyrus carries the invention of algebra back to about 1700 B.C. Page 2.

The History of Algebra - Page Three
The treatise of Aryabhatta extended to determinate quadratic equations, indeterminate equations of the first degree, and probably of the second. Page 3.

The History of Algebra - Page Four
Great advances were made in the study of indeterminate equations by the Hindus. Page 4.

Alchemy - Origins and Chemistry of the Middle Ages
In the narrow sense of the word, alchemy is the pretended art of making gold and silver, but in its wider and truer significance it stands for the chemistry of the middle ages.

Alchemy - Page Two
Medieval History. Page 2.

Alchemy - Page Three
Medieval History. Page 3.

Alchemy - Page Four
Medieval History. Page 4.

Alchemy - Page Five
Medieval History. Page 5.

The History of Algebra - Page Five
The Arabian mathematicians neglected the subtleties of the conic sections and Diophantine analysis, and applied themselves more particularly to perfect the system of numerals. Page 5.

King Richard I of England - Richard the Lionheart
King Richard I of England was known as Lionheart for his courage and prowess on the battlefield. He was extremely popular during his lifetime, and for centuries after his death he remained one of the most well-regarded kings in English history.

Count Raymond of Toulouse - Crusader
Raymond, Count of Toulouse, was the eldest and toughest leader of the First Crusade.

Reccared - Visigothic King
His father, Leovigild, expanded and consolidated the Visigothic kingdom on the Iberian peninsula. Reccared would make a different kind of mark, though no less significant.

King Richard III of England
Usurper and murderer or misunderstood leader of conscience? Richard III is probably the most controversial British monarch of the Middle Ages.

Leo IX - Pope and Saint
Leo initiated sweeping Church reforms and transformed the papacy from a local power in Rome to a major influence in Europe.

Irene of Athens - Byzantine Empress Irene of Athens
The first woman to rule the Byzantine Empire in her own name, Irene of Athens, was a strong-willed leader devoted to the Church, but a terrible mother.

King Louis I of France - Louis the Pious
As the son of Charlemagne, Louis became king of Aquitaine when he was only three years old. He was the only designated heir to survive his father, and he showed some of the old king's verve and tenacity.

Leif Ericsson - Scandinavian Explorer
Leif the Lucky displayed the Viking spirit of adventure when he sailed off to explore what lay west of Greenland about a thousand years ago, undoubtedly making it to North America.

King Louis IX of France - Saint Louis
The popular King Louis IX was the only French king ever to be made a saint.

Peter Lombard - Writer and Theologian
Peter Lombard wrote the

Pope Innocent III - Powerful Medieval Pontiff
Pope Innocent III was one of the most powerful and influential popes of the Middle Ages.

Martin Luther, Reformer
One of the most important figures in the history of Christianity, Martin Luther's probing questions about Catholic Church policy and practices led to the Protestant Reformation -- an event that is often viewed as the end of the Middle Ages. Get the basic facts and dates about Luther in this profile, and click on to the biography for a more in-depth treatment.

Medieval - Origin and Definition of the Term
An explanation of the origin and history of the term medieval.

Childbirth in the Middle Ages
The third in a series of articles exploring the status and daily life of children in the Middle Ages, Part 3 examines life for the infant and a child's chances of survival.

Medieval Childhood: Surviving Infancy - Child Mortality
The dangers of medieval childhood, estimated death rates, and the attitudes of medieval parents towards the loss of a child. Page 2.

The Medieval Child, Part 3 - Surviving Infancy, Page Three - Infanticide
Some background on infanticide in the Middle Ages and the social attitudes towards the act in medieval society. Page 3.

The Medieval Child, Part 5 - the Learning Years
The fifth in a series of articles exploring the status and daily life of children in the Middle Ages, Part 5 examines education during adolescence.

The Medieval Child, Part 5 - The Learning Years, Page Two - University
Life at University for the medieval teenager. Page 2.

Medieval Childhood and Teen Years: Apprenticeship
Learning a trade and the life of apprentices in medieval times. Page 3.

Medieval Childhood - Introduction
The first in a series of articles exploring the status and daily life of children in the Middle Ages, Part I examines the concept of childhood, the importance of children, and the question of affection in the medieval family.

The Medieval Child, Part 1 - Introduction, Page Two - The Importance of Children and A Question of Affection
Were children held in any value in medieval society? Was there any affection in the medieval household? A brief introduction from your Guide. Page 2.

Post-Roman Britain - An Introduction
The 200 years following the official withdrawal of Roman troops from Britain are the least well-documented in the recorded history of the British Isles.

Post-Roman Britain - An Introduction, Page Two
If there had been any remnants of centralized government in the wake of the Roman withdrawal, it rapidly dissolved into rival factions. Then, in about 425, one leader achieved enough control to declare himself High King of Britain. Page 2.

Post-Roman Britain - An Introduction, Page Three
Most scholars who have investigated the possibility of a historical King Arthur believe that if he existed, he probably lived in the late fifth and early sixth century. Page 3.

Medieval History - Welcome to the Middle Ages
An introduction to Medieval History and the marvelous subjects it includes.

Medieval Daily Life - Social History in the Middle Ages
Details about how people lived at various times and places in the Middle Ages can vary greatly and are not always available for a given society and time frame. These directories will help you find available resources.

Food and Famine in the Middle Ages - Medieval Cooking
Foods consumed during the middle ages, typical dinners and recipes, laws and guilds, and the results of deleterious shortage.

The Knights Templar: Warrior Monks
A concise introduction to the origins, expansion, organization and downfall of the Templars, the warrior monks who defended pilgrims in the Holy Land.

The Dark Ages on The History Channel
The History Channel will air The Dark Ages Sunday, March 4, at 9 p.m. Eastern Time. Photo:

Saint Patrick - Patron Saint of Ireland
One of the patron saints of Ireland, Saint Patrick is credited with bringing Christianity to the Emerald Isle.

Medieval Clothing and Fabrics - What People Wore in the Middle Ages
What did people wear in the Middle Ages? Find out in this introduction.

Medieval Clothing - Sumptuary Laws
More about medieval clothing, including sumptuary laws and the evidence available for understanding fashions in the Middle Ages. Page 2.

Chateau Gaillard - Normandy, France
The extraordinary fortress of Chateau Gaillard was constructed by Richard the Lionheart.

Christine de Pizan Quotes
Words of wisdom from the first woman known to make a living from her writing, Christine de Pizan.

'The 13th Warrior' (1999) - Film Review
A review of the violent adventure film 'The 13th Warrior,' set in 10th-century Scandinavia.

Resources for Saint Dominic
Websites that offer biographical information about Saint Dominic, founder of the Friars Preachers.

Topics in Dark-Age British History
Invasion, the establishment of Christianity, daily life, and other topics in the history of early medieval England.

Ibn Khaldun on the Web
Resources for Abu Zayd 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Khaldun, the greatest Arab historian.

Resources for Saladin
Websites that offer biographical information and primary sources concerning Saladin, the greatest Muslim hero.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - S
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter M.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - B
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter B.

Medieval Economics - Coins - Monetary Systems - Trade and Commerce
Sites that offer information on coins, monetary systems, trade and commerce in medieval times.

The Bad Old Days - Trench Mouth
What trenchers were in the Middle Ages, what trench mouth is today, and how the two have no historical connection.

The Feast of Fools: Liturgical and Secular Celebrations
Both liturgical and secular festivals celebrated Fools on or about January 1st in the Middle Ages.

Castel Sant'Angelo - Rome, Italy
The castle of Sant'Angelo in Rome, Italy, was built in the second century C.E. and would play an interesting role in the Middle Ages.

Castel Sant'Angelo - Rome, Italy
The castle of Sant'Angelo in Rome, Italy, was built in the second century C.E. and would play an interesting role in the Middle Ages.

Medieval Gift Ideas
Add a medieval touch to your holiday.

Review of Timeline by Michael Crichton
A review of Michael Crichton's medieval time travel adventure into our medieval past.

Emperor Justin II - A Concise Biography
Justin's military endeavors failed miserably, and he lost a great deal of the territory his predecessor, Justinian, had acquired.

The Sixth-Century Plague - A Brief Introduction
Centuries before the horrific Black Death, a virulent epidemic of plague struck Byzantium, Persia, and parts of southern Europe, shaking the empire and affecting it for decades.

How Did People Dress in Late Antiquity?
Fabrics and styles of clothing worn in early Europe.

Clothing of Late Antiquity, Page Two - Outfits
Some the more well-known ensembles worn in Late Antique Rome and Northern Europe. Page 2.

Clothing of Late Antiquity, Page Three - Garments
Medieval History. Page 3.

Clothing of Late Antiquity, Page Four - Sources and Suggested Reading
Books and websites that offer more in-depth information about Late Antique clothing. Page 4.

Alexandria During the Ancient and Medieval Period
Founded by Alexander the Great, Alexandria was a Greek center in Egypt. In the early Middle Ages, Alexandria was a center of Arian heresy and underwent invasions by Arabs.

History of Alexandria - Ancient and Medieval Period, Page Two
Medieval History. Page 2.

Manufacturing Cloth from Wool - Sources and Suggested Reading
Medieval History. Page 4.

Manufacturing Cloth from Wool - Page Three
How a wide variety of wool cloth was manufactured in the Middle Ages, from sorting the wool to the finishing stages. Page 3.

Manufacturing Cloth from Wool - Page Two
How a wide variety of wool cloth was manufactured in the Middle Ages, from sorting the wool to the finishing stages. Page 2.

Medieval Methods for Making Fabric from Wool
How a wide variety of wool cloth was manufactured in the Middle Ages, from sorting the wool to the finishing stages.

The Carmina Burana: Medieval Collection of Songs and Plays
The rousing music heard in John Boorman's Excalibur and many other shows and commercials was inspired by a collection of plays and songs found in a medieval German manuscript.

Top Picks in General Crusades History Books
Books that focus on the Crusades in general, and are not limited to a single Crusade.

Top Picks in Realistic Medieval Films
Your Guide's choice of ten films that effectively blend realism and good storytelling in a medieval setting.

Introductory General Histories of the Middle Ages
A general reference of the Middle Ages is a must-have for medieval history buffs and students alike. Each of these introductory works provides a sound starting point for what you need to know about this much-misunderstood time.

Beowulf Editions - Modern English Translations of the Old English Epic, Beowulf
A selection of modern English translations of the Old English Epic, Beowulf, including verse and prose versions.

Top Picks in Books about Castles
These books offer background history of castle evolution, architectural explorations, info about life in castles, how they were built and used for defense, and much more.

Top Picks - Books about Daily Life in Medieval Times
While the details of day-to-day existence varied substantially from place to place and century to century, a general understanding of the basic facts of medieval life can be gleaned from these useful and enjoyable books.

Top 8 Books About the History of the Kights Templar
Your Guide's choices for the best books that offer factual historical information about the Templar Knights, the warrior monks of the Crusades.

The Salic Law - Early Germanic Law Code and Law of Royal Succession
The Salic Law had ancient origins, but would be incorrectly applied in French laws of royal succession.

The Donation of Pippin
The Donation of Pippin was a very important promise.

Medieval Atlas - Fourteenth Century Maps - Chronological Map Index
Maps of political boundaries as they stood in the fourteenth century.

Medieval Atlas - Sixteenth Century Maps - Chronological Map Index
Maps of political boundaries as they stood in the sixteenth century.

Medieval Atlas - Ninth Century Maps - Chronological Map Index
Maps of political boundaries as they stood in the ninth century.

This Date in Medieval History - Interesting and Important Events of the Middle Ages
Find out what happened on any given day of the year during the Middle Ages.

September 25 - This Date in Medieval History - 25 September
Events that took place on September 25th throughout medieval history.

September 20 - This Date in Medieval History - 20 September
Events that took place on September 20th throughout medieval history.

Julian of Norwich Resources
Juilian of Norwich was a Christian mystic whose writings on her visions are considered among the most moving representations of the medieval religious experience. These resources explore her work and what little scholars know about her life.

The Papacy in the Middle Ages
Information regarding the popes and the political entity of the Papal States, their impact on medieval culture, and the schisms they endured and overcame.

Petrarch - Founder of Renaissance Humanism - Francesco Petrarca
One of the most influential poets of the Middle Ages, Petrarch is generally considered the founder of Renaissance Humanism.

Medieval Atlas - World Maps - Medieval Maps of the World
Historical and antique maps of the world as it was perceived in the Middle Ages.

Albania - The Ottoman Conquest of Albania
Online text of the History of Albania; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Five: The Ottoman Conquest of Albania

Germany - Medieval Germany - The Salian Dynasty
Online text of the History of Germany; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Six: Medieval Germany: The Salian Dynasty.

Poland - The Polish Renaissance - The Eastern Regions of the Realm
Online text of the History of Poland; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Seven: The Polish Renaissance' The Eastern Regions of the Realm.

Portugal - Historical Setting - Maritime Expansion
Online text of the History of Portugal; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Nineteen: Maritime Expansion.

Portugal - Historical Setting - Iberian Union
Online text of the History of Portugal; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Twenty-seven: Iberian Union.

India - Historical Setting - Antecedents - Vedic Aryans
Online text of the History of India; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Three: Antecedents - Vedic Aryans.

Spain - Historical Setting - Al Andalus
Online text of the History of Spain; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Four: Al Andalus

Spain - Historical Setting - Hispania
Online text of the History of Spain; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Three: Hispania

Germany - Medieval Germany - The Hohenstaufen Dynasty
Online text of the History of Germany; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Seven: Medieval Germany: The Hohenstaufen Dynasty.

A Concise Biography of Justinian I
One of the most important emperors in Byzantine history, Justinian would reign for nearly 40 years, sponsoring an important law code, surviving a plague and the Nika Revolt, acquiring considerable territory and initiating an extensive building program.

The Crusades, Christianity and Islam by Jonathan Riley-Smith
If you know anything about the Middle Ages, you know that a vast amount of misinformation exists about the complicated and controversial subject of the Crusades. How did all these misconceptions come about? Jonathan Riley-Smith can tell you in his excellent book.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - M
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter M.

Resources for Michelangelo Buonarotti
Sculptor of the David, painter of the Sistine Chapel ceiling, Michelangelo Buonarroti has been considered one of the greatest artists who ever lived since he was producing masterful art in the early 16th century. These resources offer biographical information and studies of his artwork.

Abbasids
Abbasid is the name generally given to the caliphs of Bagdad, the second of the two great dynasties of the Mahommedan empire. An article from the 1911 Encyclopedia.

Vandals - Early People of Europe and Africa
The Vandals were so destructive, their name came to be associated with mayhem and devastation.

Muhammad - A Biography, Page Four
Medieval History. Page 4.

Muhammad - A Biography, Page Three
Medieval History. Page 3.

Muhammad - A Biography
The life, leadership and prophethood of Muhammad, founder of Islam.

Muhammad - A Biography, Page Two
Medieval History. Page 2.

Medieval Literature and Poetry - Old English Epic Poems - Middle English Romances
Resources for the study of King Arthur, Beowulf, Old English literature, Middle English literature, epic poems, romances, and the writers and poets who created them.

Online Editions of Beowulf
Modern English translations and original Old English versions of the epic poem online.

Beowulf - Old English Epic Poem
Bibliographies, online editions, and various intriguing sites concerned with the Old English masterwork.

Medieval Christianity - The Christian Religion in the Middle Ages
Hagiography, Heresy and the Inquisition, Monasticism, the Papacy, and general history of the Christian Church through the Middle Ages

Topics in Medieval Christianity
Miscellaneous topics related to Christian studies in the Middle Ages, including mysticism, pilgrims, church corruption, relationships to secular powers, and general evolution of the church.

Selective Byzantine Timeline
A selective timeline of Byzantine History, from your About.com Guide

Medieval Atlas - Maps of Byzantium - The Eastern Roman Empire in Maps
An index of maps that depict all or portions of the Eastern Roman Empire during the Middle Ages.

Timeline of Major Medieval Events: Seventh Century
A chronological presentation of events in the seventh century that are significant in medieval history.

Timeline of Major Medieval Events: Seventh Century
A chronological presentation of events in the seventh century that are significant in medieval history.

Timeline of Major Medieval Events: Seventh Century
A chronological presentation of events in the seventh century that are significant in medieval history.

King Edward II of England - Edward of Caernarvon
King Edward II of England was a highly unsuccessful king.

King Henry III of England
King Henry III of England was the first English monarch to be crowned while still a child.

Otto the Great - Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor Otto the Great consolidated the German Reich and made significant advances for secular influence in papal politics.

King Edward I of England - Longshanks
Basic information and useful websites about King Edward I of England.

Joan of Arc on the Web: Primary Sources
Useful websites about this historical figure of the Middle Ages, from your About.com Guide

Medieval Atlas - Maps of England - Medieval English History in Maps
An index of maps that depict England throughout the Middle Ages.

Medieval Atlas - Maps of All of Europe - Medieval European History in Maps
An index of continental maps of Europe and maps that depict portions of Europe during the Middle Ages.

Medieval Atlas - Maps of the Holy Roman Empire - Medieval Germany in Maps
An index of maps that depict all or portions of the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages.

Medieval Atlas - Maps of Italy - Medieval Italian History in Maps
An index of maps that depict all or portions of the Italian peninsula and the isle of Sicily during the Middle Ages.

Medieval Atlas - Maps of London - Medieval London in Maps
An index of maps depicting London throughout the Middle Ages.

Kublai Khan
Basic information, significant dates, and useful books and websites about Kublai Khan

Who's Who in Medieval History - Pope Leo IX
Basic information and useful websites about Pope Leo IX.

Theodoric the Great - King of the Ostrogoths
Theodoric tried to reconcile his Ostrogoths with the Italians and initiated civic works that improved living conditions and fostered agricultural growth.

Medieval Atlas - Fifth Century Maps - Chronological Map Index
Maps of political boundaries as they stood in the fifth century.

Medieval Atlas - Tenth Century Maps - Chronological Map Index
Maps of political boundaries as they stood in the tenth century.

Medieval Atlas - Twelfth Century Maps - Chronological Map Index
Maps of political boundaries as they stood in the twelfth century.

Medieval Atlas - Fifteenth Century Maps - Chronological Map Index
Maps of political boundaries as they stood in the fifteenth century.

Medieval Atlas - Cities and Towns - Medieval Town and CityMaps
An index of maps that focus on individual cities and towns in the Middle Ages.

Medieval Atlas - Maps of France - Medieval French History in Maps
An index of maps depicting all or portions of France during the Middle Ages.

Medieval Atlas - Maps of Scandinavia - Medieval Scandinavian History in Maps
An index of maps that depict all or portions of Scandinavia, including Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Iceland during the Middle Ages.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - R
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter R.

Medieval Atlas - Europe - A Directory to Medieval European Maps on the Web
An index of maps that depict Europe and the nations within it during the Middle Ages.

http://historymedren.about.com/od/


Pope Felix III - Gallery of Medieval Popes
Pope Felix III. Medieval History. Page 2.

Pope St. Simplicius - Gallery of Medieval Popes
Pope St. Simplicius was pope when the western Roman Empire officially came to an end.

Pope Anastasius II - Gallery of Medieval Popes
Image of Pope Anastasius II, adapted by your Guide from an unknown source. Page 4.

Pope Boniface II - Gallery of Medieval Popes
Image of Pope Boniface II taken from The Lives and Times of the Popes by Artaud de Montor. Page 9.

Hormisdas - Gallery of Medieval Popes
Image of Pope Hormisdas adapted by your Guide from an unknown source. Page 6.

Pope Saint John I - Gallery of Medieval Popes
Image of Pope Saint John I taken from The Lives and Times of the Popes by Artaud de Montor. Page 7.

Symmachus - Gallery of Medieval Popes
Image of Pope Symmachus from The Lives and Times of the Popes by Artaud de Montor. Page 5.

Resources for Amerigo Vespucci
Useful websites for learning more about Amerigo Vespucci, the explorer and navigator for whom two continents were named.

Political Map of Europe in 476 C.E.
This map displaying the general distribution of peoples and early kingdoms in Europe in 476 C.E. was created by your Guide.

The True Cross - Important Relic of the Middle Ages
The True Cross was reputed to be wood from the cross on which Jesus had been crucified.

"Thunderstones" deliberately placed in Viking graves
From August 11, 2010. Medieval History.

The Secret of Kells
The Secret of Kells is an Oscar-nominated animated film.

Anglo-Saxon hoard of gold and silver the biggest ever discovered . . .
News from September 26, 2009. Medieval History.

Michelangelo Quotations
Remarks about life and art from the poems and letters of one of the greatest artists of all time.

Michelangelo Quotations - Attributed Quotes
Medieval History. Page 2.

Overview of the People's Crusade
The People's Crusade was a popular movement of crusaders who did not wait for the official leaders of the expedition but took off for the Holy Land early, unprepared and inexperienced.

Ceiling of the Hall of the Abencerrages
Ceiling of the Hall of the Abencerrages. Page 19.

Sala de los Abencerrages Exterior
Sala de los Abencerrages Exterior. Page 18.

Throne Room Alcove
Throne Room Alcove. Medieval History. Page 15.

Arched Door
Arched Door. Medieval History. Page 17.

Detail of Wall Carving
Detail of Wall Carving. Medieval History. Page 11.

View of Granada
View of Granada. Medieval History. Page 12.

Fountain Through the Trees
Fountain Through the Trees. Medieval History. Page 14.

Generalife Interior
Generalife Interior. Medieval History. Page 9.

Long Water Garden
Long Water Garden. Medieval History. Page 13.

The Generalife
Generalife. Medieval History. Page 8.

Garden of the Sultana
Garden of the Sultana in the Generalife. Page 10.

Courtyard of the Lions
Courtyard of the Lions. Medieval History. Page 5.

Panoramic View of a Courtyard
Panoramic xiew of the courtyard of the palace built by Charles V. Page 7.

The Partal
partal. Medieval History. Page 4.

Alhambra Buildings
From the outside, the Alhambra looks like a random collection of dusty red buildings.

View Through Windows
A look at Granada through the arched windows of the Alhambra. Page 16.

Alhambra Tower
This simple tower overlooks one of many pools on the grounds. Page 2.

Wall Detail
wall detail. Medieval History. Page 3.

The Alhambra
The Alhambra is a fabulous fortress in Granada, Spain, built between 1248 and 1354. The name Alhambra is Arabic for

The Alhambra
The Alhambra is a fabulous fortress in Granada, Spain, built between 1248 and 1354. The name Alhambra is Arabic for

Alcazaba Tower
This tower is part of the Alcazaba, or citadel, the oldest part of the Alhambra. Page 6.

Medieval (Middle Ages) Silk Production and Trade
The use of silk in the Middle Ages.

Breviary of Alaric - Early Law Code
The Breviary of Alaric was an important law code of the early sixth century.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with A
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages, from A.D. to Avignon.

A Entries - Articles from the 1911 Encyclopedia beginning with the letter A
Entries from the 1911 Encyclopedia beginning with the letter A.

People of Medieval Britain
Monarchs, saints, and other interesting individuals of medieval Britain.

Queens of England through the Ages Named Catherine
Kate Middleton won't be the first Queen of England named Catherine.

General Histories
Resources that offer general overviews of the entire medieval era or parts of the Middle Ages.

Medieval History Basics - Introductions to the Middle Ages - Medieval History Starting Points
Sites that offer introductions or general overviews of the medieval era, recommended reading, and other resources to get you started in learning about medieval times.

Tools of the Trade
The search for truth in Medieval and Renaissance History.

Wessex - An Early English Kingdom
Wessex would become the most powerful of the early English kingdoms.

Procopius of Caesarea and His Writings
Little is known of the personal life of Procopius, but his public career can be traced, and his writings still stand as valuable primary sources.

Who's Who in Medieval History: Index of Writers, Dramatists and Poets
Medieval historical figures who wrote poetry, drama, literature, contemporary chronicles, scientific treatises, technical manuals, philosophical or theological works or observations of art and life.

http://historymedren.about.com/library/who/blwwscidex.htm
Medieval scientists, physicians, engineers, mathematicians, astronomers, and others who engaged in scientific study and experimentation.

The Theodosian Code - A Significant Body of Laws through the Middle Ages
The Theodosian Code is an important indicator of the continuity of Roman law from the ancient era into the Middle Ages.

Timeline of Major Medieval Events - First through Fifth Centuries
A chronological presentation of events that are significant in medieval history, from the first century through the fifth.

Timeline of Major Medieval Events - First through Fifth Centuries
A chronological presentation of events that are significant in medieval history, from the first century through the fifth.

Timeline of Major Medieval Events - First through Fifth Centuries
A chronological presentation of events that are significant in medieval history, from the first century through the fifth.

Timeline of Major Medieval Events - First through Fifth Centuries
A chronological presentation of events that are significant in medieval history, from the first century through the fifth.

Visigoths - Who were the Visigothic People
The Visigoths were a Germanic people whose activities during the waning years of the Western Roman Empire and the following few centuries would help form medieval Europe.

The Hagia Sophia - Magnificent Cathedral
A cathedral was only one of the incarnations of the Hagia Sophia.

Byzantine Emperor Justin I - Champion of Orthodoxy
Justin rose from humble beginnings and as Emperor was a champion of Orthodoxy.

The Reburial of Richard III
On Thursday, March 26, the remains of what is believed to be King Richard III of England were interred at Leicester Cathedral.

People of Early Medieval Britain
Kings, evangelists, war leaders and writers who played important roles in Britain's early medieval history and preserved knowledge of events for future historians.

Byzantine People, Individuals, and Identities
Sites that focus on the identity of the Byzantine, as well as emperors, individuals and cultures of interest.

Events that took place in May during the Middle Ages
Find out what happened on any given date in May during the Middle Ages.

Picture Galleries - Photos of Historic Locations and Portraits of Medieval People
The galleries here offer photos of historic locations and portraits of medieval people.

Michelangelo as Nicodemus
Sculpture of Michelangelo as Nicodemus or Joseph of Arimathea. Page 6.

Detail from the School of Athens
Depiction of Michelangelo as the philosopher Heraclitus in Raphael's School of Athens. Page 2.

Portraits and Other Depictions of Michelangelo Buonarroti
Portraits, sketches, sculptures and other depictions of the famous Renaissance artist Michelangelo Buonarroti.

Michelangelo Represented in The Last Judgment
Michelangelo Represented in The Last Judgment. Page 3.

Michelangelo's Death Mask
An image by Daniele da Volterra , created from Michelangelo's death mask/. Page 8.

Statue of Michelangelo outside the Uffizi Gallery
Statue of Michelangelo outside the Uffizi Gallery. Page 5.

Portrait of Michelangelo from The Hundred Greatest Men
Portrait of Michelangelo from The Hundred Greatest Men. Page 7.

Portrait of Michelangelo by Daniele da Volterra
Portraits, sketches, sculptures and other depictions of the famous Renaissance artist Michelangelo Buonarroti.

Resources for William the Conqueror
Websites that offer biographies, primary sources and more about King William I of England.

How To Avoid the Plague
Traveling back in time to the 14th century? Make sure you know how to avoid the deadly plague.

Popes Who Resigned - Pontiffs that Abdicated
A chronological list of popes who stepped down voluntarily from the papal chair, and some who may or may not have given up their post.

Crusades
The religious wars, the people who fought them, the ideologies that drove them and their cultural impact on Europe, on the Holy Land and on international relations.

Canon Table from the Book of Kells
Public-domain image of a Canon Table from the Book of Kells, free for your use, here at the Medieval History site.

Decorated Initial from the Book of Kells
Public-domain image of a Decorated Initial from the Book of Kells, free for your use, here at the Medieval History site. Page 3.

Incipit to Mark
Public-domain image of the Incipit to Mark from the Book of Kells, free for your use, here at the Medieval History site. Page 8.

Madonna and Child from the Book of Kells
Public-domain images from the Book of Kells, free for your use, here at the Medieval History site. Page 6.

Portrait of Matthew
A richly-textured depiction of the evangelist in a particularly well-preserved portrait. Page 9.

Christ Enthroned from the Book of Kells
Public-domain image of Christ Enthroned from the Book of Kells, free for your use, here at the Medieval History site. Page 2.

Four Evangelist Symbols from the Book of Kells
Public-domain images of the Four Evangelist Symbols from the Book of Kells, free for your use, here at the Medieval History site. Page 7.

Incipit to the Gospel of Matthew from the Book of Kells
Public-domain images of the Incipit to the Gospel of Matthew from the Book of Kells, free for your use, here at the Medieval History site. Page 4.

Portrait of John from the Book of Kells
Public-domain image of the Portrait of John from the Book of Kells, free for your use, here at the Medieval History site. Page 5.

Images from the Book of Kells
Public-domain images from the Book of Kells, free for your use, here at the Medieval History site.

Music of the Middle Ages and Renaissance
Early music, archives and databases, sound files and samples, composers, musical instruments, and Gregorian Chant.

King Edward IV of England - Earl of March
Basic information and useful websites about King Edward IV of England.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - O
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter O.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - D
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter D.

Johann Müller Regiomontanus - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Regiomontanus. Medieval History. Page 33.

Leon Battista Alberti Statue - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Leon Battista Alberti Statue. Medieval History. Page 4.

Snorri Sturluson - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
An illustration of Snorri Sturluson by Christian Krogh, for the 1899 edition of the Heimskringla. Page 35.

Alexander Nevsky - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
A portrait of Grand Prince Alexander Nevsky taken from Cyclopaedia of Univeral History, published in 1884. Page 31.

Count Raymond IV of Toulouse - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Count Raymond IV of Toulouse. Medieval History. Page 32.

Godfrey of Bouillon - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Detail of Godfrey of Bouillon from a work by Giacomo Jaquerio. Page 28.

Adhémar of Monteil
Adhémar of Monteil. Medieval History. Page 2.

Pope Felix III
Pope Felix III. Medieval History. Page 26.

Painting of Giotto by Paolo Uccello - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Image of Giotto by Paolo Uccello, adapted from Uccello's painting of Five Famous Men, aka Five Men's Heads, currently in the Louvre, Paris. Page 27.

Amerigo Vespucci - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Image of Amerigo Vespucci, from the book by Frederick A. Ober, Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1907. Page 36.

Saint Dominic - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
A depiction of Saint Dominic from the Side Panel of the Perugia Altarpiece by Fra Angelico. Page 21.

Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Painting of the Earl of Warrick by an unknown artist of the 17th century. Page 37.

Illustration of St. Jerome - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
An illustration of St. Jerome from the Worms Bible, 1148. Page 29.

Lothair I - Frankish Emperor
Lothair I, from an 8th-century Gospel, currently in the Bibliotheque nationale de France. Page 30.

Eleanor of Aquitaine - - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Portrait of Eleanor of Aquitaine from Queens of England. Page 25.

Albertus Magnus - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Detail of a fresco by Tommaso da Modena, Treviso, Italy, 1352. Page 5.

Charlemagne - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Medieval History. Page 13.

Christine de Pizan - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
An image of Christine de Pizan hard at work from a 15th-century manuscript. Page 15.

Christopher Columbus - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Photoprint of Sebastiano del Piombo's Portrait of a Man, believed to be Christopher Columbus. Page 17.

Bust of Constantine the Great - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
The head from a colossal statue of Constantine, c. 307. Page 18.

Saint Benedict - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Detail of a fresco of Saint Benedict painted by Fra Angelico. Page 10.

Augustine of Hippo - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
A 19th-century portrait of St. Augustine of Hippo, possibly inspired by a 16th-century depiction. Page 8.

Abelard and Heloise - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
A 14th-century manuscript illumination of Abelard and Heloise in the Monastic Life.

Pope St. Simplicius
Pope St. Simplicius. Medieval History. Page 34.

King Edward III of England - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
A portrait of King Edward III of England from Cassell's History of England - Century Edition. Page 24.

El Cid - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Portrait of El Cid, from The Historians' History of the World, 1904. Page 16.

Portrait of Alcuin of York
A portrait of Alcuin of York based on a medallion from the 9th-century Bamberg Bible. Page 6.

Nicolau Copernicus - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Image of Copernicus from The Hundred Greatest Men, published by D. Appleton & Company, 1885. Page 19.

The Burial of Alaric - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
A depiction of Alaric's burial from a 19th-century book. Page 3.

Anne Boleyn - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
A 19th-century representation of Anne Boleyn. Page 11.

Geoffrey Chaucer - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Medieval History. Page 14.

John Calvin - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Medieval History. Page 12.

The Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Images of Individuals from Medieval and Renaissance History, including period illustrations, statues, manuscript images, and portraits that were created centuries after the end of the Middle Ages.

The Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Images of Individuals from Medieval and Renaissance History, including period illustrations, statues, manuscript images, and portraits that were created centuries after the end of the Middle Ages.

Dante Alighieri - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
A portrait of Dante Alighieri from The Hundred Greatest Men. Page 20.

King Edward I of England - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
A portrait of King Edward I of England from Cassell's History of England - Century Edition. Page 22.

King Edward II of England - Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
A portrait of King Edward II of England from Cassell's History of England - Century Edition. Page 23.

The Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Images of Individuals from Medieval and Renaissance History, including period illustrations, statues, manuscript images, and portraits that were created centuries after the end of the Middle Ages.

The Medieval and Renaissance History Portrait Gallery
Images of Individuals from Medieval and Renaissance History, including period illustrations, statues, manuscript images, and portraits that were created centuries after the end of the Middle Ages.

Hastings Castle - Hastings, East Sussex, England
Hastings Castle was one of the first castles built in England after the Norman Conquest. This photochrom print, published between 1890 and 1900, depicts a gorgeous view of the ruins.

Justinian Quotes - Page Two
Quotations that have been attributed to Justinian. Page 2.

Justinian Quotes - Quotations from Emperor Justinian I
Excerpts from the Code of Justinian and quotations that have been attributed to the Byzantine emperor.

Statue of Charlemagne in Aachen
Statue of Charlemagne in Aachen. Medieval History. Page 15.

Charlemagne Statue in Paris
Charlemagne Statue in Paris. Medieval History. Page 13.

Charlemagne and Pippin the Hunchback
Tenth-century depiction of Charlemagne and his illegitimate son, Pippin the Hunchback. Page 10.

Charlemagne's Signature
Charlemagne's Signature. Medieval History. Page 19.

The Coronation of Charlemagne by Raphael
This lush painting was created in 1516 or 1517. Page 9.

Charlemagne in Stained Glass
An image of the king in stained glass in a French cathedral. Page 3.

Pope Adrian Asks for Charlemagne's Help
Pope Adrian Asks for Charlemagne's Help against the Lombards. Page 6.

Charles le Grand
Post-medieval portrait from Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Page 2.

Portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer
A richly-textured painting by a 16th-century artist

Charlemagne Crowned by Pope Leo - A Medieval Depiction
A Medieval Depiction from an unknown manuscript. Page 7.

Statue of Charlemagne at Liege - A Closer View
Statue of Charlemagne at Liege - A Closer View. Page 17.

Equestrian Statue in Paris
Equestrian Statue in Paris. Medieval History. Page 12.

Equestrian Statue at Liege
Equestrian Statue at Liege. Medieval History. Page 16.

Carlo Magno - Charles the Great
Nineteenth-century illustration. Medieval History. Page 5.

Sacre de Charlemagne - Jean Fouquet
An illumination of the coronation of Charles in 800 C.E. by Jean Fouquet. Page 8.

The King with the Grizzly Beard
A reproduction of a 16th-century engraving of the Charlemagne, described in The Song of Roland as The King with the Grizzly Beard. Page 4.

Statue of Charlemagne in Frankfurt - Karl der Groß
Statue of Charlemagne in Frankfurt. Page 14.

Charlemagne depicted with Popes Gelasius I and Gregory I
No contemporary illustrations of Charlemagne exist, but a description provided by his friend and biographer Einhard has inspired numerous portraits and statues. Page 11.

Charlemagne in Zurich
Charlemagne in Zurich. Medieval History. Page 18.

Charlemagne Picture Gallery
No contemporary illustrations of Charlemagne exist, but a description provided by his friend and biographer Einhard has inspired numerous portraits and statues.

Charlemagne Picture Gallery
No contemporary illustrations of Charlemagne exist, but a description provided by his friend and biographer Einhard has inspired numerous portraits and statues.

Splendor in Medieval Africa - Sources and Suggested Reading
Medieval History. Page 2.

The Baptism of Saint Augustine - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The influential early Christian philosopher receives his first sacrament. Page 31.

The Building of the Jerusalem Temple - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
David gazes at God. Medieval History. Page 30.

Christ in Glory - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
and the downfall of all worshippers of idols. Page 29.

David Imagines Christ Elevated above All Other Beings - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
This accompaniment to Psalm VIII depicts Jesus shrouded in clouds and crowned with a nimbus. Page 23.

David Foresees the Coming of Christ - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry is generally considered the finest Book of Hours ever produced. Page 22.

David Foresees the Mystic Marriage of Christ and the Church - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
A fair young woman represents the Church betrothed to Jesus. Page 26.

Saint John on Patmos - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The page for the Gospel of Saint John of Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Page 14.

The Annunciation - Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
An angel appears to the Virgin Mary to tell her of her future as the mother of Jesus. Page 21.

The Ark of God Carried into the Temple - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The Ark of God is carried into the Temple by four men. Page 25.

The Garden of Eden - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
An unusual image for a book of hours. Page 20.

The Last Judgment - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Jesus seated on the clouds. Medieval History. Page 28.

The Sons of Core Thank God for Their Salvation - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Three brothers lifted to safety. Page 27.

The Visitation - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The Visitation from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Page 32.

The Virgin, the Sybil, and the Emperor Augustus - Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Three interdependent miniatures illustrate a prayer to the Virgin. Page 19.

David Foresees the Preaching of the Apostles - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Black and White Together Hear the Good News. Page 24.

Anatomical Man - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Folio 14v of Les Très Riches Heures is entitled Anatomical Man, an inset page depicting the influence of astrological forces on the human body. Page 13.

Saint Luke - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
This detail of Saint Luke from the Très Riches Heures may have been intended to depict Saint Matthew. Page 17.

Saint Matthew - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
This detail of Saint Matthew from the Très Riches Heures may have been intended to depict Saint Luke. Page 16.

July - Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The calendar page for July of Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Page 7.

Matthew and Luke - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Matthew and Luke - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Page 15.

The Martyrdom of Saint Mark - Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Folio 19v depicts Saint Mark's martyrdom in Alexandria in great detail. Page 18.

January - Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The calendar page for January of Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry.

June - Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The calendar page for June of Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Page 6.

March - Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The calendar page for March of Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Page 3.

May - Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The calendar page for May of Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Page 5.

November - Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The calendar page for November of Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Page 11.

October - Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The calendar page for October of Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Page 10.

September - Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The calendar page for September of Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Page 9.

April - Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The calendar page for April of Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Page 4.

Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry - 15th-Century Book of Hours
The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry is generally considered the finest Book of Hours ever produced.

Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry - 15th-Century Book of Hours
The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry is generally considered the finest Book of Hours ever produced.

Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry - 15th-Century Book of Hours
The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry is generally considered the finest Book of Hours ever produced.

August - Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The calendar page for August of Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Page 8.

December - Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The calendar page for December of Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Page 12.

February - Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Folio 2v: the calendar page for February of Les Trés Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Page 2.

The Nika Revolt - Violent Uprising in Early Medieval Byzantium - Page Two
Medieval History. Page 2.

The Nika Revolt: Violent Uprising in Medieval Byzantium
The Nika Revolt was a devastating riot that took place in early medieval Constantinople, in the Eastern Roman Empire.

Book, Manuscript and Printing History
Sites that explore the history of the book in all its forms.

Selective Byzantine Timeline
Highlights from the turbulent history of the Eastern Roman Empire

Selective Byzantine Timeline
Highlights from the turbulent history of the Eastern Roman Empire

The Book of Kells
Links to images and background information on Ireland's most precious and beautiful medieval manuscript.

Online Books and Images
Sites that offer scanned images of manuscript and printed pages, illuminations and texts.

Britain's Timeline - Part Four - Sources and Suggested Reading
Print resources for those interested in reading the Anglo-Saxon chronicle or learning more about it and about the world of the Anglo-Saxons. Page 4.

Frequently Asked Medieval History Questions
Frequently asked questions about medieval history, from your About.com Guide

Who's Who in Medieval History - Queen Elizabeth I of England
Basic information and useful websites about Queen Elizabeth I, the last Tudor monarch of England.

Elizabeth I in Print - Primary Sources
Books providing primary sources, original documents and writings of Queen Elizabeth I of England.

August - Events that took place in August during the Middle Ages
Find out what happened on any given date in August during the Middle Ages.

Events that took place in January during the Middle Ages
Find out what happened on any given date in January during the Middle Ages.

Medieval Dynastic Tables
Family trees and chronological lists of rulers, popes, and dynastic houses.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Index of Military Leaders
Medieval historical figures who led armies into battle and organized campaigns.