Medieval History Sitemap - Page 3 2016-09-26

Who's Who in Medieval History - Special Index - English Monarchs
A dynastic table of English kings, from Egbert of Wessex to Elizabeth I.

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Avars
The Avars were an early medieval people from central Asia.

Medieval Food Preservation Methods
Keeping food edible for months and even years during the Middle Ages. Page one: drying foods, preserving foods with salt, and smoking meat and fish.

Medieval Food Preservation - Page Two
Keeping food edible for months and even years during the Middle Ages, page two: pickling, confits, fermenting, freezing and cooling. Page 2.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - W
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter W.

Charles Martel - Frankish Ruler
His victory at the Battle of Tours would prove a significant turning point in the advance of Muslim forces into Europe. But that wasn't the only battle in which Charles Martel emerged triumphant.

Saint Jerome - A Concise Biography
Saint Jerome translated the Bible into Latin in what would become the Vulgate edition. He was a hermit, a priest, and a teacher, and he wrote voluminously on many theological topics.

Primary Characters in Beowulf
Brief descriptions of the most significant figures of the Beowulf poem.

Medieval History
Medieval History. Page 3.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with D
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages.

Popes Through the (Middle) Ages
John Paul II was an extraordinary individual and an extraordinary pope. No medieval pope held the office as long or achieved quite so much. But then, medieval

Was Raphael Married?
He was a Renaissance celebrity, known not only for his superb artistic talent but for his personal charm. Very publicly engaged to Maria Bibbiena, the niece of

Symbolism of the Four Gospels
In the Middle Ages, symbols evolved to represent each of the four Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. Matthew's symbol was an angel, or winged man, because

Tall Medieval Men
There's a frequently-encountered assumption that the average height of humans has grown steadily taller as the centuries have progressed. However, studies have

Concise Biography of Vlad Dracula
A brief but informative overview of the life of Vlad Dracula, Prince of Wallachia.

Concise Biography of Vlad Dracula, Page Two
Medieval History. Page 2.

Concise Biography of Amerigo Vespucci
The life, expeditions, and further career of the man for whom two continents were named.

Byzantium - the Eastern Roman Empire
The Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, continued as a cohesive entity after the Western Roman Empire dissolved. Its influence on Europe was at times subtle; its preservation of ancient learning was undeniably significant.

The Truth of Arthur - Page One - A Legendary King
Was he a real historical figure or just a myth? Can we ever know? An introduction to the historicity of King Arthur.

The Truth of Arthur - Page Two - Fictional History
Was he a real historical figure or just a myth? Can we ever know? An introduction to the historicity of King Arthur, from your guide. Page 2.

The Truth of Arthur - Page Three - The Real King Arthur
Was he a real historical figure or just a myth? Can we ever know? An introduction to the historicity of King Arthur, from your guide. Page 3.

Saint Augustine of Hippo - A Concise Biography
One of the most influential Christian theologians in history, Saint Augustine enjoyed a greater stature among medieval scholars than any other writer or philosopher.

King Edward the Elder
Son of and successor to Alfred the Great, Edward succeeded in further expanding and unifying Anglo-Saxon England.

Philobiblon - A book about books by a 14th-century book lover
In the 14th century, a lover of books wrote a book about his love of books. Learn about Richard de Bury's Philobiblon, and read it online.

Marco Polo
For all that's been written about the travels of Marco Polo, the man himself remains an enigma.

Medieval British Monarchs
Megasites that offer biographies and background on collections of monarchs, and sites that focus on individual Kings and Queens of note.

Exciting Find in Medieval Underwear
A discovery in Austria shows that medieval women may have had more advanced undergarments than previously believed.

Medieval Clothing and Fabrics - Garments in the Middle Ages
Clothing styles and fabrics, shoes and accessories, manufacturing methods, embroidery, and the types of clothing worn by different classes.

Saint Anselm of Canterbury Quotes
Saint Anselm is considered the founder of the philosophy of Scholasticism. These quotations reveal his thoughts on God and reason.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - I
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter I.

Resources for Isidore of Seville
Websites that offer biographical information, examinations of Isidore's writing, and works written by Isidore of Seville.

Norman Conquest
Background on events leading to the invasion, the invasion itself, its aftermath, and the people involved.

Norman Conquest Background
Who the Normans were and how they came to England, as well as events in England before the invasion.

Medieval Hungarian History - Hungary in the Middle Ages
These sites explore various topics in medieval Hungarian history as well as offering general history of Hungary in the Middle Ages.

Quick Reference - Glossaries - Timelines and Tables - Maps - Reference Tools
These resources provide quick access to facts and figures about people, places, events and aspects of society in medieval times through glossaries, timelines, maps and online libraries.

Events that took place in April during the Middle Ages
Find out what happened on any given date in April during the Middle Ages.

Events that took place in December during the Middle Ages
Find out what happened on any given date in December during the Middle Ages.

Events that took place in February during the Middle Ages
Find out what happened on any given date in February during the Middle Ages.

Events that took place in July during the Middle Ages
Find out what happened on any given date in July during the Middle Ages.

Events that took place in June during the Middle Ages
Find out what happened on any given date in June during the Middle Ages.

Events that took place in March during the Middle Ages
Find out what happened on any given date in March during the Middle Ages.

Events that took place in November during the Middle Ages
Find out what happened on any given date in November during the Middle Ages.

Columbus Portrait - A Later Engraving of a Portrait of Columbus by Antonio Moro
This engraving is a replication of Antonio Moro's 16th-century portrait of Christopher Columbus. Page 3.

Early 20th-Century Portrait of Christopher Columbus
Portrait of Christopher Columbus from History of the World, published in 1902. Page 6.

Engraving of Christopher Columbus - the DeBry Portrait
One of the earliest surviving depictions of Christopher Columbus.

Statue of Christopher Columbus in Lima, Peru
Statue of Christopher Columbus in Lima, Peru. Page 7.

Currier & Ives Portrait of Christopher Columbus
A lithograph portrait of Christopher Columbus published by Currier & Ives. Page 5.

Photoprint of a painting of Columbus by Sebastiano del Piombo
Photoprint of a painting of Columbus by Sebastiano del Piombo. Page 2.

Girsch & Roehsler Print of a Portrait of Christopher Columbus
Girsch & Roehsler Print of a Portrait of Christopher Columbus. Page 4.

Christopher Columbus Image Gallery
A selection of portraits and other images of Christopher Columbus.

Saint Benedict Picture Gallery
The saintly and wise Benedict of Nursia, considered the father of western monasticism, has inspired artwork through the centuries.

Saint Benedict Picture Gallery
The saintly and wise Benedict of Nursia, considered the father of western monasticism, has inspired artwork through the centuries. Page 4.

Saint Benedict Picture Gallery
The saintly and wise Benedict of Nursia, considered the father of western monasticism, has inspired artwork through the centuries. Page 7.

Saint Benedict Picture Gallery
The saintly and wise Benedict of Nursia, considered the father of western monasticism, has inspired artwork through the centuries. Page 2.

Saint Benedict Picture Gallery
The saintly and wise Benedict of Nursia, considered the father of western monasticism, has inspired artwork through the centuries. Page 6.

Saint Benedict Picture Gallery
The saintly and wise Benedict of Nursia, considered the father of western monasticism, has inspired artwork through the centuries. Page 3.

Saint Benedict Picture Gallery
The saintly and wise Benedict of Nursia, considered the father of western monasticism, has inspired artwork through the centuries. Page 5.

Medieval History Quizzes
Quizzes about medieval topics.: writers quiz terminology quiz history quizzes castle terminology early middle ages

Old English Language - Anglo Saxon Language
Tutorials, grammar aids and an email discussion list focusing on the language used by the Anglo-Saxons in early England.

Medieval Games and Pastimes - Diversions of the Middle ages
Chess, hunting, hawking, piquet, and other diversions from medieval and Renaissance times.

Paracelsus Picture Gallery
Portraits, wood-cuts, book frontispieces and monuments of the significant physician and alchemist of the 16th century. Page 13.

Paracelsus Picture Gallery
Portraits, wood-cuts, book frontispieces and monuments of the significant physician and alchemist of the 16th century. Page 7.

Paracelsus Picture Gallery
Portraits, wood-cuts, book frontispieces and monuments of the significant physician and alchemist of the 16th century. Page 11.

Paracelsus Picture Gallery
Portraits, wood-cuts, book frontispieces and monuments of the significant physician and alchemist of the 16th century. Page 9.

Paracelsus Picture Gallery
Portraits, wood-cuts, book frontispieces and monuments of the significant physician and alchemist of the 16th century. Page 14.

Paracelsus Picture Gallery
Portraits, wood-cuts, book frontispieces and monuments of the significant physician and alchemist of the 16th century. Page 12.

Paracelsus Picture Gallery
Portraits, wood-cuts, book frontispieces and monuments of the significant physician and alchemist of the 16th century.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Index of Crusaders, Crusades Sponsors and Crusades Adversaries
Medieval historical figures who fought in the Crusades,[R]ruled Latin Crusader nations, witnessed the events of the crusades or had a hand in instigating them.

Nicholas of Cusa
A priest, teacher, philosopher, theologian, mathematician, scientist, writer and diplomat, Nicholas of Cusa served the church as a papal legate and cardinal, and wrote extensively on a variety of subjects.

Pope Innocent III
Resources for Pope Innocent III, one of the most powerful popes of medieval times.

Geoffrey of Monmouth Resources
Websites that offer biographical information about Geoffrey of Monmouth and critical examinations of his work.

Articles from the 1911 Encyclopedia beginning with the letter J
Articles from the 1911 Encyclopedia beginning with the letter J.

Medieval Europe - European Cities - Regions - Nations of Europe in the Middle Ages
Look here for information on various regions within Europe as well as continental European history. You'll also find information on people, cities, and events of significance.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - G
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter G.

Saint Benedict of Nursia and the Benedictine Rule
Considered the father of Western Monasticism, Saint Benedict of Nursia founded a dozen monasteries and wrote a rule for monastic living. These resources explore his life, his Rule, and the impact he had on monastic orders through the Middle Ages.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with G
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages.

Medieval History Glossary - Helpful Terms in Medieval Studies
Get definitions of unusual words and explanations of medieval terms, concepts and events in this glossary by your Guide.

What Is the Bailey in Medieval History?
The bailey was part of a castle. A definition from your Guide.

Table of Holy Roman Emperors
A list of Holy Roman Emperors and the dynasties to which they belong.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - N
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter N.

What Are the Clergy?
The Clergy are part of the Christian Church.

Medieval Sumptuary Laws
The origins and history of sumptuary laws and the motives for passing them in the Middle Ages.

Medieval Sumptuary Laws - Page Two
Economic and religious reasons for passing sumptuary laws and their efficacy. Page 2.

What Was the Council of Clermont?
An explanation of the Council of Clermont, from your Guide.

Charlemagne Words of Wisdom Quotes
Words of wisdom attributed to the great Frankish king.

Byzantine Places
Cities and monuments of the Eastern Roman Empire.

Wool - The Common Cloth of the Middle Ages
The sources of wool, types of wool, and uses of wool in medieval Europe.

Medieval Timelines - Chronologies - Dynastic Tables
Chronological representations of significant events, family trees and lists of rulers in medieval times.

Medieval Languages - Latin - Old English - Middle English - Languages Used in the Middle Ages
Word lists, grammar aids and other resources to help with Old English, Middle English, Renaissance-era English, Latin and other languages as they were used during the Middle Ages.

Dark-Age Britain
Examinations of Britain during late antiquity, from Sub-Roman cultures to the end of Anglo-Saxon England.

Early British Documents and Artifacts
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Bede's history of England, the Life of King Edward and other documents written in Britain's so-called Dark-Ages.

Life and Culture in Medieval Times
The details of how medieval people lived, worked, fought, and died; their art and literature, their religious beliefs, their technological development, and other aspects of medieval social history.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with H
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with W
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages.

Warland
Warland was a particular kind of land that had nothing to do with battle.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with I
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with E
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages.

Excubitors - Byzantine Palace Guard
Excubitors have a hazy origin and just as obscure a demise.

Table of Byzantine Emperors through the Middle Ages
A dynastic table of those who ruled Eastern Rome from the time it was partitioned in 395 to its fall to the Turks in 1453.

Medieval Clothing Styles by Region and Period
Medieval clothing varied according to the time frame as well as the region. Here are some societies (and segments of society) whose clothing styles are especially evocative of their cultures.

Places in Medieval France
Cities, regions, and other sites of historical interest in France.

The Treaty of Verdun
The division of the Carolingian Empire made under the terms of this treaty would foreshadow future nations of Europe.

Chaucer Works Online
Websites that provide Chaucer's works in electronic format, that you can either read online, download, or both.

The Roots of Medieval Civilization - A New Religion: The Consolidation of Christian Thought
The change in circumstance of the Christian religion after the accession of Constantine led to an evolution in Christian thought.

The Roots of Medieval Civilization - A New Religion: Divisions and Conflict in Early Christianity
The new religion of Christianity saw divisions within and conflicts from without from its earliest days.

The Roots of Medieval Civilization - A New Religion: The Spread and Survival of Early Christianity
Christianity managed to spread throughout the Roman Empire and survive at a time when many other religions appeared and swiftly disappeared.

The Best of 2013 - Most Popular Terms in the Medieval History Glossary
The medieval terms that drew the most visitors to the Medieval History Glossary in 2013.

The Best of 2013 - Most Popular Terms in the Medieval History Glossary
The medieval terms that drew the most visitors to the Medieval History Glossary in 2013.

The Best You're Not Seeing in 2013 - Worthwhile Features in Medieval History You May Have Missed
A selection of some of the less-well-known articles at the Medieval History Site that you may have missed, but are worth checking out.

The Most Interesting People You're Not Meeting - Who's Who in Medieval History in 2013
Our Who's Who resource has many significant figures that draw lots of visitors. Here are some lesser-known individuals you may have missed that are quite interesting.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with S
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with R
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages.

Right of Sanctuary
The right of sanctuary goes back to ancient times.

Medieval Clip Art - Castles
Castle graphics, icons, castle images, towers, walls,castle clip art

Medieval Clip Art
A collection of medieval-themed clip art, including shields, swords, knights and ladies, created by your Guide.

Medieval Clip Art
A collection of medieval-themed clip art, including shields, swords, knights and ladies, created by your Guide.

Nicholas of Cusa Quotations
Words of wisdom from cardinal, scientist and philosopher Nicholas of Cusa

Blaming the Crusades
Can the crusades be blamed on an individual? A reader's question elicits a response.

King Louis IX Quotes - Quotations from Saint Louis, King of France
Many of Louis' words have come down to us through his friend and biographer, Jean de Joinville.

Giotto Quotations
Thoughts of art and life attributed to the Father of the Renaissance.

Saint Dominic Quotations
Quotes attributed to the austere-living saint.

Saxons - A Germanic People
Who the Saxons were, when and where they thrived, and what happened to them.

Heptarchy - Seven Kingdoms in England
The term heptarchy should really refer to seven individual rulers of one country, but historically, it has another meaning.

Ostrogoths - Important Germanic Tribe
The Ostrogoths played a significant role in early Medieval Italy.

Runes - Early Germanic Script - Runic Alphabet
Though the exact origin of the runic alphabet is unknown, it was used through much of Europe, especially in the early Middle Ages.

Manuscript Page from the Treatise on Numerals - Al-Khwarizmi Image Gallery
Manuscript page from al-Khwarizmi's treatise on numerals. Page 5.

Astronomical Table - Al-Khwarizmi Image Gallery
A translation of one of al-Khwarizmi;s astronomical tables, c. 12th century. Page 4.

Manuscript Page from the Book on Algebra - Al-Khwarizmi Image Gallery
A colorful page from al-Khwarizmi's book on algebra. Page 3.

Carving at Khiva - Al-Khwarizmi Image Gallery
This carving is at the Khiva museum. Page 2.

Russian Postage Stamp - Al-Khwarizmi Image Gallery
A postage stamp from the Soviet Union celebrating al-Khwarizmi's birth.

Escutcheon - The Heraldic Field and Its Parts
The field on which a heraldic design is displayed has several parts, each with its own name.

Leyrwite - A Fine
Leyrwite was a fine in medieval England.

Relics and Reliquaries - A Definition from Your Guide
Relics were important objects of veneration in medieval Catholicism.

The Holy Roman Empire - Definition from Your Guide
The Holy Roman Empire played an important role in medieval Christendom.

The Holy Land
The onetime Roman province of Palestine would prove to be a holy land for Muslims, Christians, and Jews.

Frankpledge - A Definition from Your Guide
The frankpledge had to do with law enforcement in the Middle Ages. But they weren't exactly police.

Breastplate - A definition from your Guide
What exactly a breastplate was. Medieval History.

Escutcheon - A Heraldic Term
Escutcheon - A Heraldic Term. Medieval History.

Burh - A Definition from Your Guide
The term burh has two possible definitions.

Arianism - a Christian Heresy
Arianism would prove significant in fifth- and sixth-century Europe.

Simony - A Definition from Your Guide
The buying and selling of spiritual things is the essence of simony.

Merchet - A Definition from Your Guide
A definition of the term in our Medieval History Glossary.

Albertus Magnus Quotes - Quotations from the Writings of Albert the Great
Words of wisdom from one of the most learned and prolific scholars of the Middle Ages.

Northumbria - Early Medieval English Kingdom
Northumbria was one of the most important of the early English kingdoms of the Heptarchy.

The Origins and Early History of Heraldry
A look at the possible origins of this colorful art and the early history of heraldic usage.

Individuals of Note in Medieval Britain
Sites that focus on individuals who played prominent or interesting roles in medieval British history.

Medieval Reenactment Armor Resources
Sites that sell modern recreations of medieval armor or offer instructions for how to make your own.

Food and Drink Resources for Reenactors
Mead brewing, feast-planning, cooking from primary sources, and recipes for dishes originating in the Middle Ages.

Resources for Saint Brigit
Saint Brigit is, along with Saint Patrick, one of the patron saints of Ireland

Resources for Cardinal Thomas Wolsey - Advisor to King Henry VIII of England
Wolsey served Henry VIII loyally as his chancellor for many years, until his failure to secure an annulment from Henry's first wife led to his unmerited downfall.

Joan of Arc - the Maid of Orleans
Joan was a simple peasant girl who claimed to hear the voices of saints telling her she must help the Dauphin gain the throne of France.

Resources for King John of England
An unpopular king, John of England lost most of the English holdings in France and was forced by his barons to accept the Magna Carta.

Topics in Medieval Welsh History
Warfare, economics, literature, invasions and settlements, and other topics of interest.

Resources for Abu Bakr - Friend of Muhammad and First Muslim Caliph
Abu Bakr was the closest friend and companion of Muhammad and the first Muslim caliph. These resources offer biographies, quotations, primary sources and general info about this significant figure in Islamic history.

Resources for Anne Boleyn - Queen of Henry VIII
Anne Boleyn captivated King Henry VIII, whose desire to divorce his wife and marry her would lead to the English Reformation. Her failure to produce a male heir and her arrogant behavior at court led to her downfall.

Johann Muller Regiomontanus - Mathematician and Astronomer
Johann Muller Regiomontanus made important re-translations of ancient scientific texts and wrote the first modern work on trigonometry.

Richard the Lionheart - King of England
King Richard I of England was renowned for his courage and chivalry. These resources will help you find in-depth information on his life and reign.

Cathedral and Monastery Excavations - Archaeological Digs at Medieval Monasteries and Cathedrals
These resources offer information about excavations of cathedrals and monasteries from the medieval era.

Resources for Martin Luther
Luther's actions precipitated the Protestant Reformation, making him one of the most significant figures in Christian history.

Snorri Sturluson Resources
Websites and other resources about Icelandic chieftan and Scandinavian historian Snorri Sturluson.

Events in British History
Wars, revolts, invasions, fires, disasters, and other momentous and dreadful occasions in medieval British history.

Resources for Gildas the Wise
As the author of a treatise on The Ruin of Britain, Gildas may be considered the first British historian.

Pope Gregory I - Resources for Pope Saint Gregory the Great
Pope Gregory the Great was the foremost influence in shaping the early medieval papacy. Strongly involved with monasticism, he also reformed the mass, and was named a Doctor of the Church.

Professional Archaeology Resources
Archaeological trusts and journals for the professional archaeologist interested in the Middle Ages

Saint Germanus of Auxerre
Saint Germanus, or St. Germain, visited England to preach against the Pelagian Heresy and helped to consolidate the British church. Saint Germanus was also the first bishop of the Scots and, according to tradition, helped St. Patrick evangelize Ireland.

Saints Indices
Sites that offer catalogues of information on saints.

Women Saints and Sainthood in the Middle Ages
Some women hold a special place in the hearts of the devoted. These sites examine women saints and aspects of female sainthood in the Middle Ages.

Online Arthurian Texts
Sites that provide Arthurian literature online.

Topics in Arthurian Studies
Merlin, women, Arthurian sites, Geoffrey of Monmouth, and other topics connected to Arthuriana.

Places in Medieval Britain
Towns, cities, counties, castles, abbeys and other sites of historical interest in Britain.

Topics in British History
These resources examine various topics of interest in British history, including music, art, agriculture, and other fascinating subjects from Britain in the Middle Ages.

Reenactment Aids - Help for the Medieval Reenactor
Tips and instructions for creating or purchasing period armor and clothing and for cooking medieval recipes.

Living History Organizations - Reenactment Societies
Groups, organizations and societies involved with the recreation of medieval history and the Renaissance era.

Renaissance Faires - Events Reenacting the Past
Links to help you with every aspect of creating a Renaissance Faire and lists of event dates and locations.

Beowulf Bibliographies
Useful lists of print resources concerning Beowulf criticism and background.

Topics in Irish History
Knighthood, saints, Vikings, literature, and various events that took place in medieval Ireland.

Index for Abbeys Described in the Encyclopedia Article
These documents are portions of the Encyclopedia article on The Abbey.

Beguines - Religious Women Outside of Monasticism
The Beguines were women who led lives of religious devotion, usually in the same house or community, without joining a religious order.

Resources for Donatello - Master Sculptor
Donato di Niccolo di Betto Bardi, called Donatello, was one of the foremost sculptors of the Italian Renaissance. He was a master of both marble and bronze, and had an extensive knowledge of ancient sculpture. These resources offer biographies, galleries of his sculptures, and examinations of his work.

People of Medieval Scotland
Cultural groups, monarchs, and individuals of note in Scottish history.

Topics in Medieval Scottish History
Scottish dress, maps, book history, and other subjects of interest concerned with Scotland in the Middle Ages.

Archaeology
The resources here offer information about archaeological excavation sites, lost villages, artifacts, shipwrecks, and the information gleaned from their study.

Primary Sources in Inquisition and Heresy Studies
Sources concerning heretics, inquisitorial techniques and various councils involved with heresy, in original languages and modern English translation.

Heretics and Inquisitors
Individuals suspected or tried for heresy and the inquisitors who tried them.

Living History - Bringing the Middle Ages to Life - Reenactment - Museums
These resources lead you to organizations, reenactment aids, renaissance faires, and general projects involved with the recreation of medieval history.

The Middle Ages in Modern Entertainment - Medieval Movies and Books
Historical films, novels and games about the Middle Ages abound in today's modern world. Here are resources dealing with various aspects of popularizing this historical era.

Primary and Secondary Sources in Medieval Scottish History
Period sources and later histories of Scotland for the student, researcher or interested history buff.

The Inquisition in Spain
In the late fifteenth century the Catholic monarchs of Spain requested a special institution to seek out heretics and relapsed converts. These resources examine the Spanish Inquisition and the Inquisitors who helped make it so notorious.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - F
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter F.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - K
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter K.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - Q
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter Q.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - T
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter T.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - U
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter U.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - V
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter V.

Topics in Medieval Asian History
A variety of topics of interest to medieval Asian studies, including language, religion, architecture and Asian identity.

Medieval Dentistry - Dental Health, Tooth Extractions and Other Dental Matters in the Middle Ages
By no means was medieval dental care as advanced as today, but people did keep their teeth clean, and dentists (usually

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - X
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter X.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - Y
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter Y.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Alphabetical Index - Z
Individuals in the Who's Who resource whose names begin with the letter Z.

Byzantine Art and Architecture
Buildings, monuments, icons, mosaics, and other treasures of the Eastern Roman Empire.

Byzantine Military History
Byzantine warfare and significant battles in the history of the Eastern Roman Empire.

Byzantine Religious History
The development of Christianity in the Eastern Roman Empire, its interactions with other regions and faiths, and the people that influenced it.

Medieval Britain
Sites that focus on general British medieval history, people, places, events, documents, the Norman Conquest, the Wars of the Roses, and other aspects of Britain in the Middle Ages.

Medieval Ireland
Sites that explore the history and culture of Ireland in medieval times.

Medieval Scotland
Introductions and in-depth examinations of Scottish medieval history, castles, aspects of daily life, and the people who shaped events.

Medieval Wales
The history and culture of Wales and the Welsh people during the middle ages.

The Black Death - Horrific Plague of 14th-Century Europe
A collection of resources concerning the devastating plague of 14th-century Europe.

Further Engagements of the Norman Conquest
Invasions, resistance, and other engagements that took place in Britain after the Battle of Hastings.

Norman Britain
Sites that examine Britain in the years following the Battle of Hastings under the new Norman leadership.

Professional Resources in Byzantine Studies
Discussion lists, journals, organizations and societies that address issues and conduct research in Byzantine studies.

Battle of Hastings
Sites that examine the circumstances leading up to the decisive battle and focusing on the battle itself.

Topics in Crusades History
Crusader knights, crusader privileges, and various other topics of interest.

Early Europe
Sites that offer useful resources for the study of Europe in Late Antiquty, or shortly after the fall of Rome.

People of Medieval Europe
Medieval European peoples, monarchs, and individuals of note.

Evidence and Examinations of a Historical Arthur
These sites examine archaeological and documentary evidence and confront various issues the scholar needs to deal with in the search for a historical Arthur.

Historical Arthur Primary Sources and Guides
Primary sources from the

Theories for a Historical Arthur
Theories concerning which individual may have served as the basis for the legend of Arthur.

People of the Crusades
Knights and crusading orders, women, and individuals involved with the holy wars.

The First Crusade
Sites that focus on the first Crusade of the 11th century and examine events connected with it.

People of Medieval Germany
Individuals who lived in Germany in the Middle Ages.

People of Medieval Iberia
Cultural and religious groups, monarchs, and other individuals of note in medieval Iberia.

Later Crusades
Various battles, events and expeditions associated with later Crusades.

Pimbley's Dictionary of Heraldry - An Authoritative Guide to the Terminology of Heraldry
Pimbley's Dictionary of Heraldry: An Authoritative Guide to the Terminology of Heraldry was first published in 1908 and remains a useful and accurate reference for heraldic terms. It is in the public domain, and you may copy, download, print and distribute this work as you see fit. This version is interlinked to let you jump to related terms.

Places in Medieval Italy
The cities, regions, castles and villas of Italy in the Middle Ages.

Italian Renaissance
Sites that focus on the political, industrial and economic aspects of Italy during the Renaissance, as well as on the artistic movement and cultural milieu.

Topics in Medieval Italian History
Tax data, Norman incursions, royal dynasties and the presence of Byzantines.

Castles of the World
These websites offer information about castles all over the world.

Castles in Asia - Medieval Asian Castles
Sites focusing on palaces and fortresses in Japan and other parts of the world east of Europe.

Castles in Europe
German, Slovene and other castles and palaces throughout Europe.

Castles in Ireland
Sites that explore Irish castles through photos and virtual tours.

Medieval Japanese Art and Architecture
Manifestations of art and architecture in medieval Japan.

People of Medieval Japan
The Japanese identity, Samurai, and individuals of note from the Middle Ages.

Topics in Mongol History
Spirituality, military strength, incursions into Europe and other topics of interest concerning Mongolian history.

Topics in Medieval Russian History
The Church in Russia, contact with the Mongols, origins of the empire and other topics of interest concerning Russia in the Middle Ages.

Siege Engines and Trebuchets
Sites that explore the use, construction and development of trebuchets, catapults and other siege engines during the Middle Ages.

Viking Sagas and Mythology
Sagas, poetic eddas, and explanations of Norse mythology.

Viking Primary and Secondary Sources
Primary documents and secondary sources concerning medieval Scandinavian history.

Medieval Composers
Biographical information, background history and discographies for early composers.

Gregorian Chant
Historical background, tutorials, associations and newsletters dealing with this significant medieval music of the church.

Medieval and Renaissance Musical Instruments
Sites that focus on the musical instruments used in the middle ages and Renaissance, and the medieval origins of modern instruments.

Medieval Music Archives and Databases
Collections and indices of chant, theory, scores, images, texts and more concerning music of the Middle Ages.

Medieval Music Sound Files and Samples
Sites that offer audio samples of medieval and Renaissance music, primarily in MIDI format.

Professional Resources in Reformation Studies
Societies and organizations that offer forums and resources for students interested in Reformation Studies.

Topics in Reformation History
Sites that examine various facets of the Reformation, including its ties to revolutionary movements and the issue of corruption in the Catholic Church.

Women and Religion in the Middle Ages
Explorations of female religious communities, women saints, and the role of woman in medieval religious society.

Women and the Arts in Medieval Times
Female artists, musicians, composers, and the role of women in the arts.

Biographies of Women in the Middle Ages
Sites that focus on the works, lives and times of individual women of note.

D Entries - Articles from the 1911 Encyclopedia beginning with the letter D
Entries from the 1911 Encyclopedia beginning with the letter D.

H Entries - Articles from the 1911 Encyclopedia beginning with the letter H
Entries from the 1911 Encyclopedia beginning with the letter H.

L Entries - Articles from the 1911 Encyclopedia beginning with the letter L
Entries from the 1911 Encyclopedia beginning with the letter L.

P Entries - Articles from the 1911 Encyclopedia beginning with the letter P
Entries from the 1911 Encyclopedia beginning with the letter P.

Primary and Secondary Sources in Reformation Studies
Primary and secondary documents concerning the Reformation movement and the reformers involved.

Medieval Latin - Resources for the Study of Latin as it was Used in the Middle Ages
Latin was used extensively in documents and chronicles throughout medieval Europe and Britain. These websites offer lessons, vocabulary lists, and introductory material to help you deal with Latin as it was used in the Middle Ages.

Middle English and Renaissance English - the Languages Spoken in Medieval England
Resources for understanding English as it became after centuries of Norman influence but before it quite evolved into the familiar modern tongue.

Renaissance Journals
Electronic and print magazines and periodicals dealing with various aspects of Renaissance studies.

Renaissance Primary and Secondary Sources
Primary documents concerning the Renaissance movements and significant works on the topic from later sources.

W Entries - Articles from the 1911 Encyclopedia beginning with the letter W
Entries from the 1911 Encyclopedia beginning with the letter W.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with J
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with K
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages.

Glossaries and Medieval Word Lists
Even modern English contains numerous obscure terms pertaining to medieval studies. These glossaries offer definitions of common and uncommon words frequently used in the study of the Middle Ages.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with Q
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with V
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages.

Arthurian Studies
Sites and megasites that offer general overviews and introductions to Arthurian literary studies.

Medieval Military History Timelines
Chronological representations of significant events and developments in military history and technology.

Renaissance Music
Sound files, essays, and examinations of music and musical instruments used during the Italian Renaissance and beyond.

Medieval and Renaissance Writers and Poets
General resources concerning medieval and Renaissance authors and dramatists, as well as pages focusing on individual writers.

September - Events that took place in September during the Middle Ages
Find out what happened on any given date in September during the Middle Ages.

Timelines of Peoples - Places - Cultural Groups
Tables of significant events for cultural groups and geographical areas.

Hagiography
Indices, primary sources, and general sites focusing on the study of Saints' lives.

Heresy and Inquisition
Any theological belief that did not conform to offical doctrine was considered heresy, and the Catholic Church viewed heretics as enemies of society. To combat the danger of heresy the Church created Inquisition, a judicial tool used to investigate heretics and bring them back to the fold. There are many misconceptions about Inquisition. Get the facts in the sources provided in these directories.

October - Events that took place in October during the Middle Ages
Find out what happened on any given date in October during the Middle Ages.

Medieval Philosophers
Biographies, online works, and examinations of theories by philosophers from the early Middle Ages to the early Modern Age.

General Art Collections
General guides to medieval art through the ages.

Book and Manuscript Art
Sites that focus on manuscript illuminations, printed art, bookplates, covers and bindings.

Resources for Books of Hours
A book of hours was a prayer book containing appropriate prayers for specific hours of the day, days of the week, months, and seasons.

Illumination
Sites that offer background info and images of medieval manuscript illuminations.

Medieval Monastic Architecture
Abbeys and monastic communities and their significance to medieval culture.

Regional and Cultural Aspects of Medieval Christianity
The impact of Christianity on various regions and cultures in Europe and Asia in the Middle Ages.

Feudalism and Its Problems
The term feudalism, which has fallen out of favor, was once considered the prevailing social system of medieval Europe. These resources will explain the old view and how it is no longer considered valid.

Medieval French History - France in the Middle Ages
These directories will help you find biographies of notable medieval French historical figures, French documents and artifacts of interest, and background on regions within France as well as general French history.

Medieval Germany - Northern Central Europe in the Middle Ages
Sites that focus on the portions of northern central Europe that would later be unified as Germany.

Gothic Architecture
Websites offering images, terms, and background on the most recognizable medieval architectural style.

The Historical King Arthur
The Arthur of legend may have his origins in an Arthur of historical fact. As yet, historians have no conclusive proof of who that man may have been or when or where he lived -- but scholarship is progressing. The directories and resources below will help you embark on your own search for the

Medieval Islam - Muslims in the Middle Ages
Sites covering the origins and development of Islam through the Middle Ages.

Various Aspects of Medieval Life
Various topics concerning Daily Life in the Middle Ages, including horses, jesters, life in a castle, the manor, exemplia, and more.

Primary Sources in Medieval Military History
Primary documents in translation concerning military events and issues of the Middle Ages.

Medieval Warfare - Strategy - Tactics - Theory of War in the Middle Ages
The strategy, tactics, theory and implementation of seiges, castles and fortifications, and other aspects of medieval warfare.

The High Middle Ages - Central Middle Ages
The High Medieval Era is the central portion of the Middle Ages, and the time period that seems to typify the medieval era best.

Medieval Iberia - Spain and Portugal in the Middle Ages
The borders between territory controlled by Spain and Portugal fluctuated through the Middle Ages. These sites explore various aspects of the cultures that flourished on the Iberian Peninsula in medieval times.

Medieval Italian History - Italy in the Middle Ages
The Italian Peninsula had a dynamic history through the Middle Ages. These sites offer information on Italy's medieval past.

Judaism and Jewish History
Jewish society and culture and the treatment of Jews by Christians in medieval times.

The Late Middle Ages - The End of the Medieval Era
The end of the Middle Ages can be characterized as a transformation from the medieval world to the early modern one. It is often considered to begin in 1300, though some scholars look at the mid- to late-fifteenth century as the beginning of the end.

The Renaissance Movements of the Late Middle Ages - Renaissance History
Resources for the study of the Renaissance movements, examples of the art, architecture, literature, poetry, drama and music of the times, the political and economic circumstances that allowed the Renaissance movements to flourish, and the events surrounding artistic growth.

Alchemy in the Middle Ages
The complex medieval mixture of science, philosophy and magic of the Middle Ages.

Medieval Battles, Wars and Conflicts - Various Wars in the Middle Ages
Individual battles, wars, and other conflicts that took place in the Middle Ages.

Inventions and Devices of the Middle Ages
Devices that were invented or evolved during the Middle Ages.

Medieval Japanese History - Japan in the Middle Ages
Japanese feudal society lasted longer than feudalism in Europe. These directories lead to sites examining Japan's feudal history and other aspects of life there in the Middle Ages.

Medieval Health and Medicine
Medieval and Renaissance medical knowledge and general health during the middle ages.

Medieval Drama - Early Theater - Mumming - Miracle and Mystery Plays
Sites that examine early theater, mumming, miracle and mystery plays, their context in medieval society, and the people that wrote and performed them.

Religion in Medieval Japan
Shinto and Buddhism were the most common religions in Japan during the Middle Ages. These sites take a look at the origins, development and impact of Shinto and Buddhism on Medieval Japan.

The Reformation - Resources for the Study of the Permanent Fracturing of the Catholic Church
Causes and results of the permanent fracturing of the Catholic Church and the individuals and movements that brought it about.

Medieval Architecuture
Sites concerning architectural styles and terms, technological developments, monastic architecture, churches and cathedrals, and cities and towns.

Medieval Art and Artists
Sites on medieval and Renaissance artwork and the artists that produced it.

Medieval Canon Law - Ecclesiastical Law of the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages
Canon Law is the body of laws made within churches; in the European Middle Ages, within the Catholic Church. These sites examine the history and development of Canon Law.

Early Explorations
Seafaring monks and other hardy travelers who ventured through unknown parts of Europe, Asia, and possibly the Americas.

Medieval Jurists and Lawmakers
The individuals who made laws, changed laws, and participated significantly in the medieval legal process.

Medieval Mathematics and Astronomy
The study, survival, and growth of astronomical study and the science of mathematics in the Middle Ages.

The Mongols in the Middle Ages - Medieval Mongolian History
This nomadic people once ruled much of Asia, and even conquered China in the thirteenth century. They collected tribute from Russia and threatened European stability. Encounter the Mongols at the sites in these directories.

Medieval Russian History - Russia in the Middle Ages
Russia's history through the Middle Ages involves contact with both European and Asian cultures, making Russia uniquely its own.

The Silk Road
The trading route that served as the primary conduit for contact between East and West through the Middle Ages.

Encyclopedias - Specific and Generic Collections of Information for the Medieval Student
For information about anything and everything, turn to an encyclopedia to get the basics and then some. Some of these encyclopedias offer information on all topics; others focus on a specific subject. For quick reference, there's no better starting point than an encyclopedia.

Heraldry
Sites detailing the origin and history of the rules governing the use of coats of arms as well as heraldic clip art and software.

Knightly Orders
Chivalric orders and knightly organizations throughout history.

Medieval Maps and Geography in the Middle Ages
Collections of maps and cartographic images, both period and modern, depicting various places during the middle ages.

Plague and Disease in the Middle Ages
Leprosy, various plagues, and the infamous Black Death of the 14th century.

Medieval Scandinavian History - Vikings in the Middle Ages
Though notorious for their fearsome Viking raids, Scandinavians were also farmers and craftsmen. Find out more about this complex society that began in Norway, Sweden and Denmark and spread to Iceland, Greenland, Russia, much of Europe and even the Americas.

Women of the Middle Ages - Daily Life for Women and Gender Issues
The life, work and vocation of medieval women.v

Resources for Medieval Magic and Witchcraft
Resources for the study of how magic and witchcraft were viewed in the Middle Ages.

Armor and Weaponry
Armor, archery, swords, siege engines and other weapons used in the Middle Ages

Medieval Blogs and Blogs Related to the Middle Ages
Weblogs that focus primarily on medieval history.

Medieval Castles - Palaces - Fortresses in Medieval Times
The Castle was the ultimate status symbol for medieval lords. It was a home, a fortress, an outpost, and a safe place for everyone to take refuge in times of danger. It was an integral part of a knight's life and one of the most enduring symbols of medieval culture. Explore these romantic and mysterious structures at the websites provided here.

Knighthood and Chivalry
General introductions to the history of knighthood and the concept of chivalry in medieval times.

Myths and Misconceptions About the Middle Ages
Misinformation about the medieval era abounds. These features debunk some of these myths with facts, references, and common sense.

Online Libraries and Text Collections for Medieval Studies - Primary Sources
Sites offering collections of online medieval texts and modern historical works in medieval studies.

Scientists, Physicians, and Mathematicians
Doctors, healers, astronomers, and others who explored the truth of our physical world and the people in it.

Medieval African History - Africa in the Middle Ages
Recent research has given us a greater understanding of Africa's medieval past. At various times, some African societies equalled or surpassed European nations in culture, education and wealth.

Medieval Asian History - Asia in the Middle Ages
The sites in this directory focus on all aspects of Asian history, from general studies of the continent and various societies within Asia to topics of interest in Asia during the Middle Ages.

Medieval Austria - The Duchy of Austria in the Middle Ages
Through much of the Middle Ages, Austria was a duchy controlled by the Habsburgs. These resources provide basic information about the history of the region and the people who lived there.

Great Britain - England - Ireland - Scotland - Wales in the Middle Ages
Here you'll find information on Medieval England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

Medieval Children - Daily Life for Children in the Middle Ages
What life was like for children in the Middle Ages.

Metahistory - Historiography - Tools of Historical Investigation - Learning and Teaching History
Metahistory is a collection of subjects related to the study of history, including historiography (the writing of history and the history of historical study), the tools of historical investigation, approaches to history and the uses of history. Whether you want to learn history, teach it, investigate it in depth, write about it or simply have fun with it, look here for insight and resources.

Medieval Philosophy and Theology - Philosophy and Philosophers in the Middle Ages
Examinations of philosophical and theological theories and the individuals who contributed them, from the early Middle Ages to the early Modern Age.

Carolingian Empire
Charlemagne, his predecessors and successors, and the empire they built.

Castles - Knights - Armor and Weaponry - Heraldry - Chivalry
Knights, the castles they lived in and the armor they wore exemplify the Middle Ages as no other icons. These directories offer sites with extensive information about these fascinating and picturesque aspects of medieval times, many with photos.

Major Events and Eras of the Middle Ages - Medieval Events and Sub-Eras
The Middle Ages cover well over a thousand years, and it can help the student to break it down into smaller eras. Here are directories to help you find websites that focus on specific sub-areas of medieval times and events of particular significance.

Medieval Religion - Theology and Philosophy in the Middle Ages
Religion was an integral part of medieval society. The Catholic Church had a strong influence on both politics and daily life in Christendom, and the interaction among Christians, Jews and Muslims would shape European history through the Middle Ages. Find out more about the evolution of religion in medieval times with these directories.

Medieval Science -Technology - Mathematics - Medicine in the Middle Ages
These directories lead to information on medieval astronomy, alchemy, mathematics, natural sciences, medical knowledge, disease, and the development of science and technology through the Middle Ages.

Medieval Arts - Architecture - Drama - Literature - Music - Poetry
The arts that survive from the Middle Ages offer an intriguing window into medieval life and times. Use these directories to find information about painting, architecture, epic poems, medieval drama, music and chant, literature, heraldry, and many other artistic expressions of medieval society.

Crusades, Wars and Warfare in the Middle Ages
Crusades and other wars shaped the evolution of medieval society. These directories will help you find information on battles, strategy and tactics, weapons, armor, castles and other fortifications, and many different topics related to medieval military matters.

Exploration and Expansion in the Middle Ages - The Ages of Discovery
The Age of Discovery marks the end of the Middle Ages for some scholars, but there was also significant explorations and adventures made earlier by such explorers as Marco Polo and Leif Ericsson. These directories will help you find more information about Viking expansion, the silk road, early seafaring monks and more.

Medieval Legal History - Law in the Middle Ages
Medieval society inherited laws and legal customs from the Roman empire and from Barbarian societies, and during the Middle Ages some significant legal advances were made. These resources examine these aspects of medieval law.

Abelard and Heloise Picture Gallery
Portraits, romantic representations, manuscript images and places associated with the famous 12th-century lovers, Peter Abelard and his student, Heloise. Page 7.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with B
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages, from B.C. to the Byzantine Empire.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with U
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages.

Topics in Byzantine History
Coins, militaria, medicine, clothing, music, and various other topics and events in Byzantine history.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with F
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages.

Medieval History Glossary Terms Beginning with Y
Medieval words and terms related to the Middle Ages.

Resources for Alexander Nevsky - Prince of Novgorod and Kiev, Grand Prince of Vladimir
Prince of Novgorod and Kiev and Grand Prince of Vladimir, Alexander Nevsky is best known for stopping the advance of the Swedes and the Teutonic Knights into Russia.

Historia Calamitatum - The Story of My Misfortunes by Peter Abelard
The complete text of the Historia Calamitatum, or, The Story of My Misfortunes by Peter Abelard, translated into modern English by Henry Adams Bellows. A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site.

Love Blossoms - The Origins of the Courtly Love Movement
How Eleanor of Aquitaine and Marie de Champagne sponsored and encouraged the Courtly Love literary movement.

Why Bother with Beowulf - How medieval literature provides a gateway to our past
Medieval literature provides a gateway to our past.

November 15 - This Date in Medieval History - 15 November
Events that took place on November 15th through the Middle Ages.

The Value of Fiction - The uses of fiction in bringing history to life
Historical fiction isn't history, but it has its uses.

The Diabolical Black Death Quiz
put-description-here.: quiz test black death fourteenth century test your knowledge plague

The Chaucer Quiz
Shell for testing HTML code and text.: geoffrey chaucer quiz script quick quiz script src text javascript

Beowulf Quiz
poem beowulf, quiz code, stephen chapman, history quizzes, medieval history, nbsp

Who's Who in Medieval History - Joan of Arc
Basic information and useful websites about Joan of Arc.

King Henry II of England - Henry Plantagenet
Henry made important changes in English law and achieved some expansion of his territories throughout his reign.

Who's Who in Medieval History - Pope Gregory VII
Basic information and useful websites about Pope Saint Gregory VII.

Saint Francis of Assisi - Patron Saint of Italy
Saint Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscan Order of friars and set forth the Franciscan Rule.

Sandro Botticelli - Renaissance Artist
One of the finest painters of the Italian Renaissance, Botticelli produced works of extraordinary harmony and beauty.

The Venerable Bede - Monk - Scholar - Historian
The Venerable Bede was the first English historian. His work had a significant influence on English and European scholarship.

Saint Thomas Aquinas - Scholastic Philosopher
Saint Thomas Aquinas was the foremost medieval Scholasticist and created a synthesis of the general western philosophies of his time.

John Wyclif or Wycliffe - Reformer - Philosopher - Theologian
John Wycliffe is sometimes considered a forerunner of the Reformers of the 16th-century Reformation.

Who's Who in Medieval History - William Shakespeare
Basic information and useful websites about the Bard, William Shakespeare.

Roger Bacon - Philosopher - Scientist - Teacher
Roger Bacon devoted his life to the pursuit of knowledge and was known as Doctor Mirabilis, or Wonderful Teacher.

Odoacer - Germanic Warrior - King of Italy
Odoacer defeated Orestes and officially put an end to the Western Roman Empire.

The Slandered King
History is often written by those in power. A few facts about your[R]guide's favorite medieval monarch.

The Dark Age Quiz
A relatively easy quiz about the Early Middle Ages.

The Medieval History Starter Quiz
A quick and easy quiz for newcomers to the Middle Ages.

Albania - The Barbarian Invasions and the Middle Ages
Online text of the History of Albania; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Three: The Barbarian Invasions and the Middle Ages

Albania - Albanians under Ottoman Rule
Online text of the History of Albania; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Six: Albanians under Ottoman Rule.

History of Florence - Book VIII - Chapter II
Book Eight, Chapter Two of Machiavelli's History of Florence online.

Ethiopia - Historical Setting - The Zagwe Dynasty
Online text of the History of Ethiopia; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Five: The Zagwe Dynasty.

Ethiopia - Historical Setting - Oromo Migrations and Their Impact
Online text of the History of Ethiopia; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Nine: Oromo Migrations and Their Impact.

Finland - The Era of Swedish Rule - Library of Congress Country Study
Online text of the History of Finland; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Three: The Era of Swedish Rule

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle - Annals from A.D. 851 to A.D. 880


Austria - The Thirty Years' War, 1618-48
Online text of the History of Austria; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Ten: The Thirty Years' War, 1618-48,

Austria - The Habsburg Dynasty in the Late Medieval Era
Online text of the History of Austria; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Five: The Habsburg Dynasty in the Late Medieval Era,

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle - Annals from A.D. 1011 to A.D. 1020


Spain - Historical Setting - The Golden Age - Ferdinand and Isabella
Online text of the History of Spain; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Six: The Golden Age - Ferdinand and Isabella

Spain - Historical Setting - The Golden Age - Charles V and Philip II
Online text of the History of Spain; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Seven: The Golden Age - Charles V and Philip II

Portugal - Historical Setting - Sea Route to India
Online text of the History of Portugal; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Twenty-one: Sea Route to India.

Renaissance Poetry: William Shakespeare
A poem from the Renaissance era by William Shakespeare, from your Mining Co. Guide

India - Historical Setting - The Mughal Era - The Marathas
Online text of the History of India; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Twelve: The Mughal Era - The Marathas.

India - Historical Setting - The Mughal Era - The Coming of the Europeans
Online text of the History of India; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Fourteen: The Mughal Era - The Coming of the Europeans.

India - Historical Setting - Antecedents - The Mauryan Empire
Online text of the History of India; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Five: Antecedents - The Mauryan Empire.

Germany - The Protestant Reformation - Martin Luther
Online text of the History of Germany; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Ten: The Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther.

Germany - The Protestant Reformation - The Peace of Augsburg
Online text of the History of Germany; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Twelve: The Protestant Reformation: The Peace of Augsburg.

Germany - The Thirty Years' War - The Peace of Westphalia
Online text of the History of Germany; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Sixteen: The Thirty Years' War: The Peace of Westphalia.

Germany - Early History
Online text of the History of Germany; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Two: Early History

Germany - Medieval Germany - The Empire under the Early Habsburgs
Online text of the History of Germany; public domain document that you may copy, download, print and distribute as you see fit. Page Eight: Medieval Germany: The Empire under the Early Habsburgs.

Medieval Concentration
Test your memory with this medieval-themed matching memory game from your Guide.

Find a Date in Medieval History
Find a date in Medieval History, from your About.com Guide

Medieval Atlas - Political Map of Europe in 1346
A map of Europe depicting the political boundaries of Europe in 1346, just before the Black Death reached the continent, by your guide.

Medieval Atlas - Map of Europe at the Death of Charles the Great - 814
A map of the political divisions of Europe in the year 814.

Medieval Atlas - The[R] Germanic Kingdoms and the East Roman Empire in 486
A map of Europe depicting the[R] distribution of the Germanic tribes and the extent of the Eastern[R] Roman empire in 486.

Medieval Atlas - Maps by Place Name - Alphabetical List
An alphabetical index of medieval places depicted on available maps.

Medieval Atlas - Maps of Britain - Medieval British History in Maps
An index of maps that depict all or portions of the British Isles during the Middle Ages.

Medieval Atlas - Maps of Constantinople - Byzantine Capital City in Maps
A selection of maps depicting Constantinople in Medieval times.

Medieval Atlas - Maps of Iberia - Medieval Spain and Portugal in Maps
An index of maps that depict all or portions of Spain, Portugal, or the entire Iberian peninsula through the Middle Ages.

Top Picks in Medieval Gifts - Beyond Books
Every history lover enjoys books, but something different can make a very welcome gift. Here are your Guide's choices for the best gifts besides books for the medieval history buff.

Portrait of Vlad Dracula - Vlad Dracula Image Gallery
Black and white portrait of Vlad Dracula. Page 2.

Miniature of Vladislaus Dracula - Vlad Dracula Image Gallery
A German miniature painted around 1600. Page 4.

Woodcut from a German Pamphlet - Vlad Dracula Image Gallery
Medieval History. Page 5.

Detail of a monument to Constantine the Great
Image of a bronze copy of a monument commemorating Constantine for the Edict of Milan. Page 3.

The Donation of Constantine - Fresco in Rome
Image of a fresco in Rome depicting Constantine the Great giving territory in Italy to Pope Sylvester I. Page 5.

Constantine at the Battle of Milvian Bridge
A depiction of the significant battle by Raphael and his assistants. Page 2.