Latin American History Sitemap - Page 1 2016-09-26

Ten Facts About Pirate Bartholomew "Black Bart" Roberts
Bartholomew

The History of San Juan, Puerto Rico
San Juan, Puerto Rico, has been one of the most important ports in the Caribbean for centuries. It has a long history, from conquistadors to pirate attacks.

Latin American History: Brazil
Brazil is unique in many ways. Latin America's largest nation is also the only one to speak Portuguese as its official language. The fact that it was the Portuguese, and not the Spanish, who colonized Brazil had a profound effect on its history.

Famous Mexican Revolutionaries
As the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) burned across Mexico, these Famous Mexican revolutionaries made a name for themselves fighting for independence.

Famous Latin Americans in History
Latin America has had its share of leaders, but these ten famous Latin Americans have made a difference not only in their home country, but in the world.

The Battle of Gonzales - Texas War of Independence
On October 2, 1835, the first shots of the Texas Revolution were fired in the unassuming town of Gonzales. Learn about the Battle of Gonzales.

The Cuban Revolution: Famous People from Cuba
Cuban Revolutionaries fighting under Fidel Castro wanted to shake up Cuba and get rid of dictator Batista. Here are famous people from the Cuban Revolution.

The History of Tikal Ruins- Mayan Ruins of Guatemala
Tikal was one of the mightiest cities in the ancient Maya world, dominating its region and lesser city-states. Learn about the Tikal ruins in Guatemala.

Colonial Latin America History
Of all the different time periods in the History of Latin America, the Colonial Era was the most important in shaping the modern character of the region.

Emperor Maximilian of Mexico
From 1864 to 1867, Mexico was ruled not by a president, but by an Emperor: from a noble Austrian family, no less. Learn about Emperor Maximilian.

The Pastry War (French Mexican War, 1838-1839)
The Pastry War, or French Mexican War, was fought over certain debts and reparations owed by Mexico to France, and took place from 1838-1839.

Cinco de Mayo for Kids - All About
Cinco de Mayo for kids! Everyone has heard of it, but what's it all about? Here younger readers will find everything they need to know about Cinco de Mayo.

Mexican Independence from Spain 1810-1821
Mexico's Independence from Spain kicked off on September 16, 1810, when Father Miguel Hidalgo issued the famous

Ten Facts about Simon Bolivar of Venezuela
When a man becomes a legend - and if any man has, it's Simon Bolivar - facts tend to get distorted. Here are Simon Bolivar facts that reveal the truth.

Mexican Independence Day - September 16
Mexican Independence Day is September 16 with parades, festivals, feasts, parties and more. Mexican flags are everywhere but what's the history behind it?

5 Successful Pirates of the "Golden Age of Pirates"
From 1695 to 1725, many men tried their hand at piracy and most died nameless on a desert island. These are the pirates of the

Biography of Pablo Escobar - Colombian Drug Lord
Pablo Escobar was the greatest Colombian drug lord, whose Medellin cartel once controlled 80% of the cocaine shipped illegally into the United States.

The Unsung Ally: Mexican in World War Two
In May of 1942 Mexico formally declared war on Germany and Japan, although it had been assisting the Allies for some time. Learn about Mexico in WW2.

The Unsung Ally: Mexican Involvement in World War Two
In May of 1942 Mexico formally declared war on Germany and Japan, although it had been silently assisting the Allies for some time already. Page 2.

The Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)
The Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) was a long, bloody class struggle and civil war which devastated the nation for decades to come. Legendary warlords like Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata fought for ten years over the future of Mexico.

The Third Voyage of Christopher Columbus
In 1498 Christopher Columbus returned for a third voyage to the so-called New World, still searching for a passage to the markets of the orient.

Latin American History: Discovery and Conquest (1492-1572)
The age of discovery and conquest is one of the most fascinating periods in all of the history of Latin America. The discovery and subsequent conquest of the Americas was the single most important cultural encounter in history, a sequence of events that rocked the Old World as well as the New.

The Mexican Revolution History
The Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) began with a contested election in 1910 and ended a decade later with hundreds of thousands dead, the country in tatters.

The Mexican Revolution - History 2
The Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) began with a contested election in 1910 and ended a decade later with hundreds of thousands dead, the country in tatters. Page 2.

The Mexican Revolution - Its Importance
The Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) began with a contested election in 1910 and ended a decade later with hundreds of thousands dead, the country in tatters. Page 3.

Father Miguel Hidalgo Y Costilla Biography
Mexico's movement for independence from Spain was kicked off by an unlikely figure: Father Miguel Hidalgo, a parish priest and theologian.

10 Facts About Spanish Conquistador Francisco Pizarro
In 1532, Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro began his bloody conquest of the mighty Inca Empire. Learn ten facts about Francisco Pizarro.

This Spanish Conquistador Conquered the Incas and Facts
This Spanish conquistador conquered the Incas, this myth fueled the conquest, and the Incas were storing this. Learn more facts about the Incan Empire.

Christopher Columbus' Four Voyages to the New World
Christopher Columbus’ most famous voyage took place in 1492, when he discovered previously unknown lands to the west of Europe: the Americas. After that, he returned to Spain, and was commissioned to return with a larger fleet. All in all, he made four journeys to the New World, each of which is important and interesting in its own way.

The Search for El Dorado
Thousands of men spent centuries searching for the elusive El Dorado, the lost city of gold.

Where Is Christopher Columbus Buried?
Where is Christopher Columbus buried? The city of Seville, Spain, has a set of bones they claim belong to Christopher Columbus, but so does Santo Domingo.

Ancient Mayan Architecture - Temples and Palaces
The Ancient Maya were talented builders whose temples and palaces are still standing thousands of years later. Learn about Mayan architecture.

Colombian Independence Day: July 20, 1810
On July 20, 1810, Bogota started a riot which eventually led to the city declaring independence from Spain. Learn about Colombian independence day.

Chile's Independence Day: September 18, 1810
On September 18, 1810, Chile declared its independence from Spain. Today, Chileans celebrate Independence Day as one of the most important holidays.

Cinco De Mayo/ The Battle of Puebla
Cinco de Mayo is a Mexican holiday which celebrates the victory over French forces on May 5, 1862 at the Battle of Puebla. Learn more about the history.

Cinco de Mayo/The Battle of Puebla
The famous

The Ancient Maya - Warriors and Warfare
Early researchers believed the ancient Maya to be a peaceful civilization, but recent discoveries prove there were Mayan warriors. Learn about Mayan war.

Heroes of the Texas Revolution
The Texas Revolution was carried out by military leaders such as Sam Houston and frontiersmen like Jim Bowie. Here are the heroes of the Texas revolution.

The Ancient Maya and Human Sacrifice
The Ancient Maya practiced human sacrifice for a variety of political and religious reasons. Learn about the contentious history behind the practice.

Ten Mayan Civilization Facts to Learn
The Ancient Maya are among the mysterious of all the lost civilizations. What do we know for certain about these enigmatic people? Here are Mayan facts.

Ten Facts About Pirates - What Do Pirates Do
What do pirates do? Pirates are more popular than ever, appearing in movies, books, songs and more. Here are facts about the pirates of the

Mexican History Timeline - Significant Dates
A timeline of some of the most important dates in Mexico. The Mexican history timeline includes the Battle of Celaya and the Mexican Revolution.

Mexican History Timeline - Significant Dates
A timeline of some of the most important dates in Mexico. The Mexican history timeline includes the Battle of Celaya and the Mexican Revolution.

Ancient Mayan Economy and Trade
The ancient Mayan economy included an extensive trading network for commerce in basic goods as well as prestige items such as gold and jade.

Famous Mexican People in History
The history of Mexico is populated by many colorful and fascinating figures. Famous Mexican people include Hernan Cortes and Frida Kahlo.

Ten Facts About the Battle of the Alamo
When events turn into legends, facts occasionally get lost. What really happened on March 6, 1836 at the famous Battle of the Alamo? Learn the facts.

Where Is Central America? The Countries of the Region
Where is Central America? Central America, the stretch of land between Mexico and South America, has a long history of war, crime, and dictatorship.

The Cuban Revolution: What You Should Know
In the final days of 1958, rebel commander Fidel Castro tightened the noose on Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. Learn more about the Cuban Revolution.

Nazis who went to South America
After World War Two, thousands of Nazis, war criminals and collaborators fled Europe for the safety of South America.

Why Were Nazis in Argentina After WWII?
After World War Two, thousands of Nazis and wartime collaborators fled to South America, mostly Argentina. Why were Nazis in Argentina post WWII?

Causes of the Latin American Revolution
In 1810, Spain's New World Empire stretched from the American Northwest to Tierra del Fuego. These are the causes of the Latin American revolution.

Causes of Latin America's Independence From Spain
In 1810, Spain's New World Empire stretched from the American Northwest to Tierra del Fuego. By 1825, it retained only a handful of islands. What happened? How and why did Spain lose so much, so quickly? Page 2.

What Happened to the Mayans?
What happened to the Mayans? It's one of history's greatest mysteries: an advanced civilization in the rainforests of Central America suddenly declined.

Ten Christopher Columbus Facts
When it comes to Christopher Columbus, explorer of the Age of Discovery, it's hard to separate truth from myth. Here are ten Christopher Columbus facts.

Latin American History: People and Leaders
The History of Latin America is full of fascinating people: dictators, madmen, rebels, statesmen, conquistadors, emperors, writers, poets and more. Who made a difference in the first 500 years or so in Latin America?

Latin American History: The 20th Century
The 20th century saw the modernization of much of Latin America, but not without significant growing pains. Industrialization, modern transportation and infrastructure all came to the region, but brought with them poverty, disease, social inequality, foreign intervention, corruption and, in some cases, war.

The History of Colombia
The History of Colombia is a fascinating journey through intrigue, wars, conflicts and unforgettable people. Colombia is much, much more than Pablo Escobar, Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Shakira, so come learn more about the most enigmatic nation in northern South America.

Blog


Ancient Latin America
Latin America had a long, rich history for centuries before they were

El Tajin
El Tajin was one of the greatest cities in ancient Mexico. It dominated the Gulf Coast during the Epiclassic period (800-1200 A.D.).

The Galapagos Affair: The Unsolved Murder Mystery
In 1934, the

The Galapagos Affair - Mystery of the Galapagos Affair
In 1934, the

El Tajin: the Arroyo Group
The Arroyo Group, the oldest district of the ancient city of El Tajin, served as a ceremoinal center and marketplace.

Biography of Venustiano Carranza Garza
Venustiano Carranza was one of the major players in the Mexican Revolution. A former governor of Coahuila, Carranza eventually became president.

Olmec Religion - the First Mesoamerican Civilization
The Olmec civilization had disappeared by 400 B.C., but their religion and culture were hugely influential in later cultures such as the Maya.

Biography of Porfirio Diaz of Mexico
Porfirio Diaz ruled Mexico for thirty-five years (1876-1911). During this time, he made Mexico an important player in the global economy.

The Goliad Massacre - Texas Revolution
On March 27, 1836, hundreds of Texan prisoners were slaughtered on orders of Mexican General Santa Anna.

Ancient Maya Civilization Classic Era
The Maya civilization peaked during the Classic Era (300 A.D. - 800 A.D.). City-states such as Palenque and Tikal were centers of Maya culture.

The History of Port Royal in Jamaica
Port Royal is a town on the southern coast of Jamaica. It was once a key port and haven for pirates and buccaneers including Captain Henry Morgan.

Cinco de Mayo - Facts and History
Cinco de Mayo is a day for celebrating Mexican heritage, enjoying great food, and remembering a most unlikely win in an important battle!

Latin American History from About.com
From Columbus to Chavez, the history of Latin America is fascinating, as conquistadors, revolutions, and more shaped Mexico, Argentina, and everywhere in between.

Biographical Profile of Jose Maria Morelos
Jose Maria Morelos (1765-1815) was an important leader during Mexico's struggle for independence from Spain.

Foreign Intervention in Latin America
Latin America has been dealing with foreign intervention in its affairs since the days of Columbus. How has it changed over the years?

Real-Life Pirates of the Caribbean - Latin American History
Do you know your

The Olmec
The Olmec civilization, the first great Mesoamerican culture, flourished along Mexico's gulf coast from approximately 1200 - 400 B.C.

Independence from Spain
In Latin America, independence from Spain came between 1806 and 1825. Each region took a different path to independence, with different leaders.

Ponce de Leon and the Fountain of Youth
Ponce de Leon has always been associated with Florida and the quest for the Fountain of Youth. Was he questing after myths or looking for a new home?

Dom Pedro I, First Emperor of Brazil
Pedro I declared Brazil independent from Portugal and served as its first ruler from 1822 to 1831. He even served briefly as King of Portugal.

Influence of the Olmec Civilization on Mesoamerica
The Olmec civilization is considered the parent culture of Mesoamerica and was hugely influential on later societies like the Aztec and Maya.

Latin American History: the Late 19th Century
The late 19th century was a time for the young Latin American democracies to flourish. As economies grew, the republics stabilized and began to develop their own national identities. There was also strife, however, as some of Latin America's most brutal wars, such as the War of the Pacific and the War of the Triple Alliance, took their toll on the new nations.

Presidents of Central America
The Presidents of Central America are a fascinating bunch, and range from visionaries such as Francisco Morazan to crooks such as Nicaragua's Anastasio Somoza. The nations of Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama have not always picked the best man for the job, but their selections are always interesting.

Dictators in Latin American History
The history of Latin America is full of men who seized power and held it in an iron grip. Dictators and strongmen are as much a part of Latin American history as the revolutionaries who fought against them. Some brought stability, others horror and repression.

Presidents of Central America
Central America is home to seven nations with a long, complicated, and often tragic history. Here you'll find links to biographies of some of the more important presidents that have led these nations over the years.

Biography of José Santos Zelaya
José Santos Zelaya was president of Nicaragua from 1893 to 1909. He left behind a very mixed legacy: although the country prospered, he was a harsh dictator and his enemies enjoyed little in the way of rights.

Alberto Fujimori: Peruvian Visionary or Corrupt Politician?
Biography of Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000). He stabilized Peru's economy, ended terrorism and was one of Latin America's most corrupt politicians. Page 2.

Biography of Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori
Biography of Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000). He stabilized Peru's economy, ended terrorism and was one of Latin America's most corrupt politicians. Page 3.

Biography of Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori
Biography of Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000). He stabilized Peru's economy, ended terrorism and was one of Latin America's most corrupt politicians.

Viracocha and the Legendary Origins of the Inca
The Inca culture of South America had a complex creation myth centered around their Creator God, Viracocha.

Ten Facts About the Independence of Texas
The story of the Independence of Texas from Mexico is one that has taken on the air of legend. What really happened in 1835-1836?

The Art of El Tajin
The ancient city of El Tajin had some very skilled artists and many of their best sculptures still survive to this day.

The Art of El Tajin
The ancient city of El Tajin had some very skilled artists and many of their best sculptures still survive to this day. Page 2.

History of the Treasure of the Inca
When it was discovered by Spanish conquistadors in 1532, the Inca Empire was the wealthiest culture in the Americas. Where did the treasure go?

Juan Ponce De Leon - Biography & Legacy
Juan Ponce de Leon was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who was the first to discover and explore Florida. He was also an important early pioneer of Puerto Rico. According to legend, he was seeking the legendary Fountain of Youth in Florida.

El Tajin: the South Ballcourt
Seventeen ballcourts have been found at the ancient city of El Tajin. The greatest of them is the

Juan Diego and the Visions of the Virgin of Guadalupe
According to millions of Catholics, Juan Diego saw a vision of the Virgin Mary in 1531 and she gave him a miraculous image of herself. Is the story true?

The Ancient Toltec Trade and Economy
The ancient Toltec civilization, although dominant in Mesoamerica for two centuries from 950 to 1150 A.D., had a relatively limited trade network.

Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl, or

The San Juan de Ulua Fortress
For centuries, the fortress of San Juan De Ulua stood guard over Veracruz Harbor. Now it is a fascinating museum and historical site.

Biography of Herberts Cukurs
Herberts Cukurs was a Latvian airman and member of the Arajs Kommando, a fascist paramilitary force similar to the Nazi Gestapo. Wanted for war crimes, he hid out in Brazil after the war, where he was located and assassinated by Israeli agents.

Biography of Carlos Fuldner
Carlos Fuldner was an Argentine-German spy and smuggler who helped fugitive Nazis escape to Argentina after World War Two.

Biography of Franz Stangl
Franz Stangl was an Austrian Nazi war criminal who oversaw the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Jews at the Treblinka death camp. After World War Two, he hid out in Brazil until his arrest in 1967. He was sent to Germany, tried and sentenced to life in prison.

Biography of Klaus Barbie
Klaus Barbie (1913-1991) was a German Nazi and Gestapo officer nicknamed

The Yumbo Culture
The Yumbo Culture thrived in the South American Equatorial cloud forest from the time of the Inca Empire well into the Spanish colonial era.

Biography of Charles Lesca
Charles Lesca was a French Collaborator and Anti-Semitic writer who successfully escaped to Argentina after World War Two.

Biography of Nicolas Maduro
Nicolas Maduro is the political heir of Hugo Chavez and the current President of Venezuela.

Ante Pavelic, Croatian War Criminal
Ante Pavelic was the leader of the Croatian Republic, a Nazi puppet state during World War Two. After the war, he fled to Argentina. He died in Spain in 1959.

Josef Mengele in South America
Josef Mengele, the Auschwitz

Biography of Fulgencio Batista, Cuban President
Fulgencio Batista was a Cuban army sergeant who took command of the military before being elected president for the term from 1940-1944. He returned to power in 1952 and is today best known as the man who was President when Fidel Castro's Cuban Revolution took place.

Biography of Fulgencio Batista - Fulgencio Batista Profile
Fulgencio Batista was a Cuban army sergeant who took command of the military before being elected president for the term from 1940-1944. He returned to power in 1952 and is today best known as the man who was President when Fidel Castro's Cuban Revolution took place. Page 2.

The Saint Patrick's Battalion (Los San Patricios)
As the Mexican-American war raged from 1846 to 1848, a handful of deserters - primarily Irish Catholics - switched sides and joined the Mexican army. These men formed the core of the St. Patrick's Battalion, Mexico's most elite unit.

The Saint Patrick’s Battalion – los San Patricios
The St. Patrick's Battalion was an elite unit in the Mexican Army during the Mexican-American war. Learn more about the Battle of Churubusco, the battalion's final battle. Page 2.

Mexican Independence: The Cry of Dolores
On September 16, 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla exhorted his congregation to join him in taking up arms to drive the Spanish out of Mexico.

Biography of Francisco Morazan - Francisco Morazan Profile
Francisco Morazan (1792-1842) was a Central American general, patriot and political leader. He served as President of the Republic of Central America in the 1830's and did his best to keep the nation united, although his efforts were doomed to failure.

Biography of Ferdinand Magellan - Early Life & History
Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese navigator and captain who led the first expedition that successfully circled the globe.

Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas (1484-1566) - Biography
Father Bartolome de Las Casas was one of the few people who spoke out about the horrors of the Spanish colonial system.

The Colonization of Guatemala
The region of present-day Guatemala was conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the sixteenth century.

The Maya: Conquest of the K’iche by Pedro de Alvarado
In 1523, ruthless conquistador Pedro de Alvarado set forth from Mexico with a force of 160 men and several thousand native allies. Following tales of rich kingdoms to the south, they found themselves faced by 10,000 Mayan K'iche warriors. Alvarado emerged victorious from the ensuing bloodbath and the Conquest of the Maya began.

Fray Bartolome de Las Casas (1484-1566) Part Two: Later Years
Later in life, Bartolome de las Casas worked tirelessly on behalf of the New World natives and their rights.

Panfilo de Narvez Biography
Pánfilo de Narváez was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who participated in early conquests of the Caribbean. Later, he was permitted to explore and conquer the area of present-day Florida. The expedition was a disaster: of the 300 men who accompanied Narvaez, only four survived.

Cuban Revolution: Assault on the Moncada Barracks
In 1953, Fidel Castro kicked off the Cuban Revolution by leading an armed assault on the federal garrison at Moncada.

Cuban Revolution: Assault on the Moncada Barracks
In 1953, Fidel Castro kicked off the Cuban Revolution by leading an armed assault on the federal garrison at Moncada, hoping to gain weapons and recruits for an all-out war against dictator Fulgencio Batista. Although the assault was a failure, it helped lay the groundwork for the eventual success of the Cuban Revolution. Page 2.

Ten Fugitive Nazi War Criminals who went to South America
After World War Two, many war criminals, including former Nazis and collaborators, found new homes in South America.

Latin American History: Civil Wars and Revolutions
Even since most of Latin America gained independence from Spain in the period from 1810-1825, the region has suffered from numerous disastrous civil wars and revolutions. They range from the all-out assault on authority of the Cuban Revolution to the bickering of Colombia's Thousand Day War, but they all reflect the passion and idealism of the people of Latin America.

Ten Notable Presidents of Mexico - Biographies
From Emperor Iturbide to Enrique Peña Nieto, Mexico has been ruled by a series of men: some visionary, some violent, some autocratic and some insane. Here you'll find biographies of some of the most important ones to sit in Mexico's troubled Presidential Chair.

Historic Cities of Latin America
As the first part of the New World to be discovered, conquered and settled by Europeans, Latin America is home to many wonderful cities rich in history and culture. How many of these colonial treasures have you visited?

Weapons Used by Pirates
Back in the days of Blackbeard, pirates had a variety of weapons that they used for their thievery, including cannons, pistols, sabers and more!

Biography of Santiago Mariño
Santiago Mariño was one of the great heroes of Venezuela's Independence. Later in life, he was briefly President of Venezuela.

The Legend of the Headless Girlfriend
According to the locals, the former American Air Force base in the Galapagos Islands is home to a wandering spirit who targets men late at night.

Biography of Juan Bautista Alberdi
Juan Bautista Alberdi was a writer, diplomat and intellectual who was critical during the formation of the modern Republic of Argentina.

Chac Mool - the Chac Mool Statues of Mexico
The distinctive Chac Mool statues of ancient Mesoamerica still present many mysteries to modern researchers.

Mexican Revolution: The Battle of Celaya
Warlords Pancho Villa and Alvaro Obregon met in battle at the town of Celaya on April 6-15, 1915, in a contest that would resonate all over Mexico.

Mexican Revolution: The Second Battle of Celaya
Warlords Pancho Villa and Alvaro Obregon met in battle at the town of Celaya on April 6-15, 1915, in a contest that would resonate all over Mexico. Page 2.

Latin American History: the Caribbean
Pirates and plunder! The history of the Caribbean is a fascinating one, full of extraordinary characters and events. Outposts on Cuba and Hispaniola were crucial to the early Spanish exploration of the New World. Later, the area became a crossroads of sorts, where the Spanish, English, French and other European powers all fought for control of the New World and the wealth that came with it.

The Conquest of the Americas
Once Europe realized that the New World was not, in fact, the far east, the conquest began. Hundreds of Spanish and Portuguese adventurers went to conquer native kingdoms in the New World. Some did it to bring Christianity to the New World, most did it for the gold.

The Conquest of Mexico
When the Europeans arrived, the Aztec Empire of central Mexico was the mightiest of the New World kingdoms, with millions of soldiers and civilians. Yet Hernán Cortés and his force of 600 conquistadors managed to bring the Empire down in one of the most audacious expeditions in history.

Latin American History: Mexico
From Montezuma to the Zapatistas, the History of Mexico is long and rich. It is full of unforgettable characters, such as the statesman Benito Juarez and the mad general Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. It is also where you will find some very important events, such as the conquest of the Aztec Empire and the Mexican Revolution.

Latin American History: South America
From the Darien Gap to Patagonia, South America has a long and fascinating history of booms and busts, madmen and heroes, great wealth and great poverty.

The History of Latin America: the Independence Era (1806-1825)
The Independence movement in Latin America, which had been simmering since the United States broke away from Great Britain in 1776, came to a boil around 1810. Spain's Empire in the New World crumbled, and by 1825 all that remained were a few islands in the Caribbean. This passionate, violent era in the history of Latin America is particularly fascinating.

Presidents and Dictators in Latin America
The many nations of Latin America have often been led by men of vision, although that vision is as often dark and twisted as it is bright and optimistic. The history of Latin America if full of presidents, statesmen, dictators and strongmen.

The Conquistadors
The conquistadors were a special breed of men: ruthless adventurers who would stop at nothing to get rich and carve out an empire for Spain.

The Conquest of Peru and the Inca Empire
With the mighty Aztec Empire in ruins and the Maya decimated in Central America, only one formidable native kingdom remains in the New World: the gold-rich Inca, high in the frigid mountains of Peru. Francisco Pizarro, an illiterate conquistador in the ruthless mold of Hernán Cortés sets out with 200 men to defeat the last great New World Empire.

The Conquest of the Maya
With the mighty Aztec Empire in ruins, conquistador Hernán Cortés sends his top lieutenant, Pedro de Alvarado, to the south to search for more wealthy kingdoms. Alvarado finds the remnants of the Maya Empire, in decline for centuries, but still formidable. Using Cortés conquest of the Aztecs as a blueprint, Alvarado divides and conquers the small Maya city-states.

Independence from Spain in Venezuela
The hero of Venezuelan independence is clearly Venezuelan native Simon Bolivar, but others such as Francisco de Miranda and Manuel Piar also played important roles. In 1810, Venezuela was part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada, but in April of that year leading creoles declared independence, starting a war that would last years and claim the lives of hundreds of thousands.

The Mexican War of Independence
On September 16, 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo kicked off the War of Independence with his famous

Presidents of Mexico
The Presidents of Mexico are a diverse bunch, ranging from madmen like Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to crooked tyrants like Porfirio Diaz. From Agustin de Iturbide to Felipe Calderon, these men have left their mark on Mexico.

Presidents of Mexico
Contains links to biographies of some of Mexico's more famous presidents.

Presidents of Caribbean Nations
The island nations of the Caribbean, such as Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti, are relatively small compared to the rest of Latin America. That being said, these countries have played disproportionately large roles in the history of the region and the presidents of the Caribbean nations have had much to do with it.

Pirates, Buccaneers and Privateers
From the clever ruses of Captain Morgan to the fearsome ruthlessness of Blackbeard, pirates have always held a special place in popular culture. Sail with the men and women who terrorized merchants and sailors during the

Famous Pirates
Shiver me timbers! Here ye'll find the scurviest sea-dogs, scallywags and wenches of history, including Blackbeard, Anne Bonny,

The Golden Age of Piracy (1700-1725)
Pirates ruled the Caribbean during the

Texas Independence
In 1835, rebellious Texans began fighting against Mexico, formally declaring independence in 1836. After a brief but bloody war, these rebels won their independence and for several years Texas was an independent country before joining the USA as a state.

Mexican-American War
In 1846, Mexico and the United States went to war. Mexico hoped to avenge the loss of Texas ten years before and the USA hoped to gain Mexico's western territories, including California and New Mexico. The USA invaded from the north and got as far as Saltillo: a second invasion landed near Veracruz and eventually captured Mexico City. Mexico was defeated and forced to sign away nearly half of its national territory.

Conquistadors of Mexico
Hernan Cortes and his men ruthlessly destroyed the Aztec Empire in 1521.

The Maya
The Maya were an advanced Pre-Colombian culture inhabiting present-day southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize and northern Honduras. The culture reached its apex around 800 A.D. before going into steep decline. The region is still home to many people descended from the Maya who retain dress, language and other cultural traditions of long ago.

The Inca
The Inca Empire flourished in the highlands of the Andes Mountains in western South America for centuries before conquistador Francisco Pizarro and his men conquered it for Spain in 1533.

The Toltec Civilization
After the fall of Teotihuacan, the Toltec Civilization dominated Central Mexico from about 900 to 1150 A.D.

The Aztecs
The Aztec Empire dominated central Mexico for two hundred years, until the arrival of the Spanish in 1519.

Historic Cities of the Caribbean
Not long after the Spanish first arrived in the New World, they began putting down roots. The longest continually inhabited city in the New World is Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic, but the Caribbean is home to many more historic cities, such as Havana, San Juan and more.

Latin American History: The Colonial Era (1521-1810)
The Colonial Era in Latin America should be considered the region's formative years: the norms, laws, conflicts and movements of the time were profoundly influential in determining the character of the area today. The Spanish are only the most famous of the European powers that fought over territories and colonies, but the Portuguese, British, Dutch, French and others were also involved.

The History of Central America
The narrow stretch of land that links Mexico to South America has a long, complicated and often tragic history. The original nations of Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica originally formed the ill-fated Republic of Central America before setting off on their separate paths, and they have since been joined by Panama and Belize.

Latin American History: the Republican Era (1825-1870)
Spain's former colonies, newly liberated but penniless, began to form into nations and pick up the pieces after the devastating wars of liberation. The first years of these new republics are marked by optimism for the future, but also by brutal dictatorships, such as the ones of Dr. Francia (Paraguay 1814-1849) and Juan Manuel de Rosas (Argentina 1829-1852).

The History of Cuba
Cuba is relatively small, geography-wise, in comparison to other nations in Latin America. Nevertheless, it has a super-sized history, full of everything from native pre-contact cultures to pirate attacks to Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution!

Precolombian Books and Codices
Only a handful of precolombian books from Mesoamerican civilizations survive today, but they have taught us much about their cultures.

The Search for El Dorado
For centuries, Europeans scoured the rivers, peaks and jungles of South America, searching for the lost city of El Dorado. Did they ever find it?

Conquistadors who Searched for El Dorado
After the fall of the mighty Inca and Aztec Empires, thousands of conquistadors searched for the legendary city of El Dorado. Who were the men who scoured the plains, mountains and jungles of South American in search of a golden dream?

Independence from Spain in Argentina
Argentina's independence movement began in May of 1810 when leading citizens of Buenos Aires declared independence. The Spanish fought to retain control of the lucrative colony, but General Jose de San Martin liberated the country and forged a new nation.

Colombia's Independence from Spain
The struggles for the independence from Spain of Colombia and Venezuela are linked, as both formed the Spanish Viceroyalty of New Granada. Colombians fought hard for independence under generals such as Simon Bolivar. In 1819 the decisive Battle of Boyaca secured the independence of New Granada.

Presidents of South America
The Presidents of South America have traditionally enjoyed great power. Fairly elected or not, these chief executives have left their mark on their nations and their world.

The History of Ecuador
Ecuador has been an important part of South American since long before the arrival of the Spanish. Quito was an important city in the Inca Empire, and several cultures flourished in the highlands, coast and jungle. It played an important part in independence, and continues to be known for stability and tolerance today.

Artists and Writers of Latin America
In many ways, the writers and artists of Latin America have led the way for social change. Important movements such as Magical Realism and Muralism were started or perfected in Latin America, and writers such as Domingo Faustino Sarmiento and Mario Vargas Llosa are also important political figures.

The History of Venezuela
From Simon Bolivar to Hugo Chavez, Venezuela has always produced more than it's share of history. Read about the men, women, wars and battles that forged this great nation!

Latin American History: The Modern Era
As Latin America enters the information age, there are still many questions about the future of this fascinating part of the world. What will become of Cuba after Castro? When will Brazil claim its place as a world economic power? Will the people of the Americas put political corruption behind them and move forward?

The History of Argentina
The History of Argentina goes back to the colonial days, when hardy settlers made their homes in the vast pampas grasslands. The history of this great land is populated with characters such as Evita Perón and José de San Martín, features such places as Buenos Aires and the Falkland Islands, and unforgettable events such as the Dirty War and the War of the Triple Alliance.

The History of Chile
Isolated, rigged and beautiful, Chile has a long and fascinating history to match its geography. From the Mapuche natives to the Pinochet dictatorship, there has always been something historic happening in this great land.

The US Occupation of the Dominican Republic, 1916-1924
From 1916 to 1924, the USA occupied the Dominican Republic; the main reason for doing so was to protect American economic interests.

The Burned Palace of Tula
The Burned Palace structure at the Tula archaeological site is one of the most important historical sites for understanding the ancient Toltec civilization.

Biography of Enrique Pena Nieto - President of Mexico
Enrique Peña Nieto (1966-) is the current President of Mexico. A centrist, he ran as the candidate of the Institutional Revolutionary Party.

The History of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires, Argentina, has a long and fascinating history of wars, economic booms and busts, and art. Full of characters like Evita Perón, Juan Manuel de Rosas and Carlos Gardel, this important city has more than its fair share of historical drama. Page 2.

The History of Buenos Aires, Argentina
Buenos Aires, Argentina, has a long and fascinating history of wars, economic booms and busts, and art. Full of characters like Evita Perón, Juan Manuel de Rosas and Carlos Gardel, this important city has more than its fair share of historical drama.

Modern Buenos Aires, Literature and Film
Buenos Aires, Argentina, has a long and fascinating history of wars, economic booms and busts, and art. Full of characters like Evita Perón, Juan Manuel de Rosas and Carlos Gardel, this important city has more than its fair share of historical drama. Page 3.

Evita Perón - Argentina's Greatest First Lady
Evita Perón is well-known as the subject of a very successful musical...but what was she really like? Who was this remarkable woman who had captured the attention of the world by the time of her tragic death at the age of 33? Page 3.

Biography of María Eva "Evita" Perón
Evita Perón is well-known as the subject of a very successful musical...but what was she really like? Who was this remarkable woman who had captured the attention of the world by the time of her tragic death at the age of 33?

María Eva "Evita" Duarte Perón - Argentina's Greatest First Lady
Evita Peron pushed for equality and charitable works. Learn more about her women's suffrage work and the Eva Peron Foundation. Page 2.

Biography of Lope de Aguirre, Madman of El Dorado
Lope de Aguirre, conquistador and soldier of the Spanish Empire, went mad seeking El Dorado in the dense Amazonian rainforest.

Biography of Lope de Aguirre
Lope de Aguirre went crazy seeking El Dorado and in a paranoid fit, tried to declare independence from Spain. Page 2.

Chile's MIR: The Revolutionary Left Movement
In the mid 1960's, young Chilean students founded the MIR, or Revolutionary Left Movement, an urban Marxist group modeled on the Cuban Revolution. Page 2.

Chile's Revolutionary Group MIR - War on the Pinochet Dictatorship
In the mid 1960's, young Chilean students founded the MIR, or Revolutionary Left Movement. In the 1970's, it fought against the Pinochet dictatorship.

National History Museum (Museo Histórico Nacional) Santiago, Chile
Chile's National History museum is well worth a visit, as it contains a wealth of information and many priceless historical relics.

The Second Voyage of Christopher Columbus
Returning from the New World without having kept his promises of finding new trade routes to the far east, Christopher Columbus convinces the rulers of Spain to send him back with a larger fleet to establish a colony and trading posts in the lands he has discovered.

The First Voyage of Christopher Columbus (1492-1493)
Columbus made several stops on his monumental first voyage, including the present-day Bahamas, Cuba and Hispaniola.

Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) Biographical Profile
Amerigo Vespucci was one of the most important explorers during the age of discovery. An able mariner, he made two trips to the New World and explored the coast of Brazil. It was his descriptions of the lands he found that caused a French cartographer to name them

Biography of Amerigo Vespucci - Amerigo Vespucci Profile
Amerigo Vespucci was one of the most important explorers during the age of discovery. An able mariner, he made two trips to the New World and explored the coast of Brazil. It was his descriptions of the lands he found that caused a French cartographer to name them

William Walker Biography - Latin American History
William Walker was the greatest of the American

The Biography of William Walker
William Walker was the greatest of the American

Gerhard Bohne, Nazi War Criminal
Gerhard Bohne was a Nazi war criminal who was guilty of the executions of thousands of sick, elderly and infirm Germans deemed too

The Tupamaros: Uruguay's Marxist Revolutionaries
The Tupamaros were a Marxist urban guerrilla group that operated in Uruguay from the early 1960's to the mid-1980's. Their most high-profile action was the kidnapping and murder of American FBI agent Dan Mitrione in July-August of 1970. After the general amnesty of 1985, many former Tupamaros went into politics, and several have been elected to important political positions.

The Tupamaros
The Tupamaros were a Marxist urban guerrilla group that operated in Uruguay from the early 1960's to the mid-1980's. Their most high-profile action was the kidnapping and murder of American FBI agent Dan Mitrione in July-August of 1970. After the general amnesty of 1985, many former Tupamaros went into politics, and several have been elected to important political positions. Page 2.

Roberto Gomez Bolanos (Chespirito) - Biography
Roberto Gómez Bolaños (1929-2014), better known as

Túpac Amaru Biography - A Ruler of the Inca Empire
Túpac Amaru was the last member of the royal Inca family to ever rule over his people. He was captured and executed by the Spanish in 1572.

Biography of José Martí
José Martí was a Cuban revolutionary. He died in combat against Spanish forces in 1895 and is today revered as a Cuban national hero.

The Borgia Codex, Precolombian Treasure
The Borgia Codex, created in Mexico before the arrival of the Spanish, is one of only a handful of surviving precolonial books from Central Mexico.

Real Pirate Quotes - Latin American History
Real pirates are more interesting than movie ones: here are some real quotes by actual historical pirates!

Bolivar and San Martin: The Guayaquil Conference
Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar, the two greatest leaders of South America's fight for Independence, only met once, in Guayaquil in 1822.

Did Davy Crockett Die in Battle at the Alamo?
Davy Crockett was among the defenders of the Alamo when it fell to the Mexican army on March 6,1836. What happened to Crockett on that fateful day?

Spain’s American Colonies and the Encomienda System
In the colonial era, Spain initiated the encomienda system, under which thousands of people and families were

The Architecture of El Tajin
The ancient city of El Tajin is known for its innovative architecture, particularly their use of niches and cornices on their pyramids. Page 2.

The Architecture of El Tajin
The ancient city of El Tajin is known for its innovative architecture, particularly their use of niches and cornices on their pyramids.

The Fourth New World Voyage of Christopher Columbus
Ten years after his monumental voyage of discovery, much had changed for Christopher Columbus. He had gone back twice, and each time the trip ended in disaster. Still, the fifty-something adventurer and explorer felt he had one more trip in him. He convinced some investors and set off one last time in 1502.

Malinche and the Tlaxcalans: Traitors to Mexico?
Some modern Mexicans consider Cortes' interpreter Malinche and his Tlaxcalan allies traitors. Were they, or did they have reasons for their actions?

- By Category
An index of categories in the

El Tajin Archaeological Site: Tajin Chico
The Tajin Chico district of the El Tajin archaeological site (Veracruz, Mexico) was once home to the city's elite.

Top Ten Journeys and Voyages in Latin American History
Epic journeys have always been part of Latin American History. Here are the top ten legendary voyages!

The Queen Anne's Revenge
For about a year in 1717-1718, the most fearsome pirate ship in the world was Blackbeard's monstrous Queen Anne's Revenge.

The Golden Age of Piracy
In the British Caribbean from 1700 to 1725 or so, known as the Golden Age of Piracy, pirates like Blackbeard and

Pirates: Truth, Facts, Legends and Myths
Pirates are everywhere: movies, books, video games and more. How much do you really know about Blackbeard and other sea-dogs?

Ten Facts About Blackbeard the Pirate
When it comes to Blackbeard, the most famous pirate ever to sail the seven seas, it's hard to separate myth from fact.

The Battle of Palo Alto
The Battle of Palo Alto (May 8, 1846), the first major engagement of the Mexican-American War, ended inconclusively.

Biography of Diego Rivera of Mexico
Mexican Muralist Diego Rivera was as well known for controversy as art, and was also famous for his volatile marriage to fellow artist Frida Kahlo.

Biography of Felipe Calderón
Felipe Calderón (1962-) is a former president of Mexico, having been elected in 2006 and serving out his term until 2012.

Latin America - Explorers and Discoverers
The Age of Discovery featured intrepid explorers pushing back the boundaries of the known world.

My Favorite Books About Mexican History
There are many excellent books available about the History of Mexico: here are a few of my personal favorites.

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: History and Implications
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed by the United States of America and Mexico in 1848, officially put an end to the Mexican-American War.

El Tajin: the Building of the Columns
One of the most important buildings at the El Tajin archaeological site is the Building of the Columns, a once-proud palace for the lords of the city.

Biography of Captain Henry Morgan, Privateer
Sir Henry Morgan (1635-1688) was a Welsh privateer who fought for the English against the Spanish in the Caribbean in the seventeenth century.

Josef Mengele Facts - Auschwitz "Angel of Death" Doctor
During the last few years of his life, while he was still in hiding, incredible legends grew about Dr. Josef Mengele, the fugitive Nazi War Criminal.

Building 16 at El Tajin
Building 16 at El Tajin is a stunning precursor to the glory of the Pyramid of the Niches, which was built much later. Page 5.

Building A at El Tajin
Building A features some of El Tajin's most stunning architecture. Page 3.

Great Xicalcoliuhqui
The Great Xicalcoliuhqui is a winding wall located in the northeastern section of the El Tajin archaeological site. Page 4.

The Building of the Columns at El Tajin
The Building of the Columns was a great palace at El Tajin, and gets its name from the three mighty columns that once graced it. Page 7.

The El Tajin On-site Museum
The museum at El Tajin contains many valuable pieces of Tajin art. Page 6.

The Pyramid of the Niches at El Tajin
The Pyramid of the Niches is the most famous structure at the El Tajin ruin complex.

The South Ballcourt at El Tajin
The south ballcourt at El Tajin is the most beautiful one, as it is adorned with several stunning sculptures of ballgame scenes. Page 2.

The Ruins of El Tajin
The Ancient City of El Tajin dominated the Gulf Coast of present-day Mexico from about 800 to 1200 A.D..

Miguel Hidalgo and the Mexican War of Independence
Father Miguel Hidalgo kicked off Mexico's struggle for independence from Spain on September 16, 1810 when he issued his famous

El Tajin: the Pyramid of the Niches
The beautiful Pyramid of the Niches, once an important temple dedicated to the sun, is the highlight of a visit to the ruins of El Tajin.

Biography of Hernando Pizarro - Hernan Pizarro Profile
Hernando Pizarro, brother of Francisco, participated in the expedition which discovered and conquered the Inca Empire in the 1530's.

The Mesoamerican Ballgame at El Tajin
The people of the ancient city of El Tajin were avid players of the Mesoamerican ball game, which often ended with a human sacrifice.

The Conquest of the Aztec Empire
Between 1518 and 1521, conquistador Hernan Cortes warred on and defeated the mightiest Empire in the New World, the Aztecs.

The Decline of the Olmec Civilization
The mighty Olmec culture rose and fell two thousand years before Europeans set foot in Mexico. What happened to this mysterious civilization?

The Olmec: The First Great Mesoamerican Civilization.
The Olmec culture was the first great civilization of Mesoamerica. They lived on the Gulf Coast of present-day Mexico.

Christopher Columbus Biography
Christopher Columbus was the greatest explorer of his age: for centuries he was thought to have been the first to discover America.

Positions and Duties on Board a Pirate Ship
On a well-run pirate ship, different officers had different duties. Here is a list of the positions and duties on board a typical pirate ship.

The Colossal Heads of the Olmec
The Olmec civilization is today remembered as the creators of seventeen giant stone heads, which are currently in Mexican museums.

Davy Crockett - Biography and Profile
David

Biography of Mary Read, an English Pirate
Mary Read was an English pirate who sailed with Calico Jack Rackham and Anne Bonny.

Fidel Castro - Biographical Profile
Fidel Castro is a Cuban lawyer, revolutionary and politician who directed the Cuban Revolution in the 1950's and later became President.

The Siege of Veracruz
In March of 1847 the Americans landed a massive force near Veracruz, hoping to swiftly take the crucial port.

Augusto Pinochet - Biography and Profile
Augusto Pinochet (1915-2006) was a general in the Chilean military who also served as president and dictator for almost twenty years.

Hernan Cortes' Conquistador Army
Cortes' conquistador army was made up mostly of younger sons of minor nobility from southern Spain.

Emperor Pedro II of Brazil
Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil, ruled his nation for 58 years, showing a mature, steady hand during difficult times.

Timeline of the Ancient Maya
The Maya civilization peaked around 800 A.D., but it had been around for a long time before that...and is still there today!

Latin American History: The Conquistadors
Who were the leaders of the conquistador armies that brought down the mighty American civilizations?

Maya Glyphs and Writing
The ancient Maya had a complex written language consisting of hundreds of different characters or glyphs.

Ancient Maya Astronomy - the Sun, Moon and Planets
The Ancient Maya were gifted astronomers who were interested in every aspect of their skies.

Ancient Tlatelolco
Tlatelolco, a district of Mexico City, was once an independent city-state before the Spanish conquest.

Important Dates in Texas Independence From Mexico
What are the most important dates of Texas' independence from Mexico?

Biography of Gabriel Garcia Moreno - Gabriel Garcia Moreno Profile
Gabriel Garcia Moreno was president and dictator of Ecuador for several years in the turbulent mid-nineteenth century.

Emiliano Zapata: A Biography
Emiliano Zapata was the greatest idealist of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920). He led a rebel army until his assassination in 1919.

Famous Pirates and their Flags
Most of the pirates of the Golden Age of Piracy (roughly from 1700-1725) had distinctive flags which identified them to their friends and foes alike.

Blackbeard the Pirate Biography for Kids
A biography of Blackbeard, the most famous of the pirates, written especially for younger readers.

The Capture of Inca Atahualpa
In November of 1532, Spanish conquistadors under Francisco Pizarro attacked and captured Atahualpa, lord of the Inca Empire.

Important Events of the Conquest of the Aztec Empire
There were several key turning points during the Conquest of the Aztec Empire by conquistador Hernan Cortes.

The Hunt for Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann, wanted Nazi war criminal, was deep in hiding in Argentina. But agents of the new state of Israel were closing in on him.

Seven Facts About Cinco de Mayo
What happened on May fifth, and why do Mexicans celebrate it? Here are seven facts about everyone's favorite Mexican holiday.

Emiliano Zapata: Life Before the Mexican Revolution
Before the Revolution, it seemed that Emiliano Zapata was destined to lead out an ordinary life as a poor peasant in the Mexican State of Morelos.

Fray Toribio de Benavente "Motolinía"
Fray Toribio de Benavente, better known by his nickname

Captain Kidd - Biography and Profile
Captain William Kidd was a Scottish ship's captain and pirate. After turning himself in and hoping to clear his name, he was hanged for piracy.

William Travis - Biography of Texas Soldier
William Travis was the ranking officer of the Texan defenders at the legendary 1836 Battle of the Alamo.

Ten Facts About Cuauhtemoc, Last Emperor of the Aztecs
There is more myth than truth out there about Cuauhtemoc, the final Emperor of the Aztecs.

The El Manati Olmec Archaeological Site
The El Manati archaeological site is an extremely important source of information about the ancient Olmec culture.

Book Review: A General History of the Pyrates
Captain Charles Johnson's 1724 classic is called

Hernan Cortes and his Captains
Hernan Cortes did not bring down the Aztec Empire by himself: he never would have succeeded without his loyal captains.

Ten Facts About Dona Marina "Malinche"
There are countless movies, books, paintings, etc. about Malinche, the native woman who helped Cortes. What is the truth about her?

The Mexican Revolution: Zapata, Diaz and Madero
In the early days of the Mexican Revolution, Emiliano Zapata was instrumental in Francisco Madero's victory over President Porfirio Diaz.

Mexico - Flag of the United States of Mexico
The official flag of the United States of Mexico is rich in historical symbolism.

The Popol Vuh - the Maya Bible
The Popol Vuh is the Maya story of creation. One copy of these legends survived the Spanish colonial period and today it is a priceless treasure.

Victoriano Huerta Biography
Victoriano Huerta was a Mexican general who briefly became president during the Mexican Revolution.

Biography of Francois L’Olonnais - Francois L’Olonnais Profile
Francois L’Olonnais was a French pirate and buccaneer who led several attacks up and down the Spanish Main in 1666-1668.

Hernan Cortes and the Conquistador Navy that Defeated the Aztec Empire
In 1521, conquistador Hernan Cortes ordered the construction of 13 brigantines to aid in the final assault on Tenochtitlan.

Captain Morgan and the Sack of Panama - Part 2
Captain Henry Morgan was a legendary Welsh privateer who raided Spanish towns and shipping in the 1660’s and 1670’s. After the successful sacking of Portobello and a daring raid on Lake Maracaibo made him a household name on both sides of the Atlantic, Morgan stayed on his farm in Jamaica for a while before Spanish attacks convinced him to once again sail for the Spanish Main. In 1671, he launched his greatest attack: the capture and sacking of the rich city of Panama. Page 2.

Biography of Manco Inca
Manco Inca (1516-1544) was one of the last rulers of the Inca Empire. After the Spanish conquest, Francisco Pizarro appointed Manco as puppet ruler of the Inca, but repeated insults drove Manco to escape from the Spanish and rebel. He was murdered by Spaniards to whom he had given sanctuary.

Biography of Manco Inca - Part 2
Manco Inca (1516-1544) was one of the last rulers of the Inca Empire. After the Spanish conquest, Francisco Pizarro appointed Manco as puppet ruler of the Inca, but repeated insults drove Manco to escape from the Spanish and rebel. He was murdered by Spaniards to whom he had given sanctuary. Page 2.

Captain Morgan and the Maracaibo Raid
In 1668, Privateer Captain Henry Morgan and some 500 buccaneers in a dozen ships attacked Lake Maracaibo in present-day Venezuela. When he had sacked the towns on the lake, Morgan suddenly found himself face to face with three Spanish warships. How would the legendary pirate escape?

Captain Morgan and the Maracaibo Raid - Part 2
In 1668, Privateer Captain Henry Morgan and some 500 buccaneers in a dozen ships attacked Lake Maracaibo in present-day Venezuela. When he had sacked the towns on the lake, Morgan suddenly found himself face to face with three Spanish warships. How would the legendary pirate escape? Page 2.

Biography of Alvaro Obregón Salido
As the Mexican Revolution turned into a bloody battle for survival, one man and his army rose to the top: Sonoran Garbanzo bean farmer Alvaro Obregón.

Biography of Alvaro Obregón - Part 2
Alvaro Obregon led a successful army during the Mexican Revolution and clashed with Pancho Villa. Learn more about their rivalry. Page 2.

Biography of Alvaro Obregón - Part 3
As the Mexican Revolution turned into a bloody battle for survival, one man and his army rose to the top: Sonoran Garbanzo bean farmer Alvaro Obregón. Page 3.

Biography of Alvaro Obregón - Part 4
As the Mexican Revolution turned into a bloody battle for survival, one man and his army rose to the top: Sonoran Garbanzo bean farmer Alvaro Obregón. Page 4.

Biography of Pancho Villa -- Pancho Villa Profile
Few men are as legendary in Latin American History as Pancho Villa. Bandit, general, warlord, hero and murderer, Villa is a complicated and fascinating historical figure and one of the giants of the Mexican Revolution.

Biography of Pancho Villa -- Pancho Villa Profile - Part 2
Pancho Villa was a legend of the Mexican Revolution but his rebellious nature eventually worked against him. Find out more about his downfall. Page 2.

Biography of Pancho Villa -- Pancho Villa Profile - Part 3
Find out more about the death and lasting legacy of Pancho Villa, an important player in the Mexican Revolution. Page 3.

Biography of Howell Davis - The Clever Pirate
Howell Davis was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping in the Caribbean and the western coast of Africa in 1718-1719. He was a charismatic captain and treated his victims relatively humanely. Davis was a very clever pirate who preferred ruses and deception to outright force. Page 2.

The Federal Republic of Central America (1823-1840)
The Republic of Central America lasted less than twenty years, torn apart by small-minded politicians and civil wars.

The Federal Republic of Central America (1823-1840) - Part 2
The Republic of Central America lasted less than twenty years, torn apart by small-minded politicians and civil wars. Page 2.

The History of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Santo Domingo, the capitol of the Dominican Republic, is the longest continually inhabited European city in the Americas.

The Florida Expeditions of Ponce de Leon
In 1513 and again in 1521, Juan Ponce de Leon visited present-day Florida. According to legend, he was seeking the Fountain of Youth.

The Battle of Pichincha
On May 24, 1822, a rebel army led by Antonio José de Sucre clashed with a Spanish army on the slopes of Pichincha volcano, outside of Quito, Ecuador.

Biography of Manuela Sáenz
Manuela Sáenz was the mistress of Simón Bolívar. She was an important figure in the Independence movement, serving as a Colonel in the rebel army.

Biography of Jose Antonio Paez
Jose Antonio Paez was a patriot general who fought in Venezuela's war of Independence. After independence, he served as President on three occasions.

Blackbeard's Last Stand - the Death of Blackbeard
Edward

All About Pancho Villa
Everything you need to know about Pancho Villa and the Mexican Revolution: his battles, allies and more!

Chuqui Illa - The Inca Thunder God
Chuqui Illa, the Inca Thunder God, was responsible for rain, storms and other aspects of the weather. He was an important god in the Inca religion.

The Maya Calendar
The ancient Maya were keen astronomers and mathematicians and they had two complex, accurate calendars which they used to record time.

The Siege of Tenochtitlan
In 1521, Hernan Cortes and his army of conquistadors laid siege to Tenochtitlan, the mighty capital of the Aztec Empire.

Famous Pirates in Books and Movies
Today, some fictional pirates such as Jack Sparrow or Long John Silver are more famous than any genuine pirates of history.

Consequences of the Conquest of the Aztecs
The 1521 conquest of the mighty Aztec Empire had many long-term ramifications for Spain and Mexico.

Jose Miguel Carrera - Biography of Jose Miguel Carrera
José Miguel Carrera Verdugo (1785-1821) was a Chilean general and dictator who fought for the patriot side in Chile’s War for Independence from Spain (1810-1826). Together with his two brothers, Luís and Juan José, José Miguel fought the Spanish up and down Chile for years and served as head of government when breaks in the chaos and fighting allowed.

History of Jose Miguel Carrera
José Miguel Carrera Verdugo (1785-1821) was a Chilean general and dictator who fought for the patriot side in Chile’s War for Independence from Spain (1810-1826). Together with his two brothers, Luís and Juan José, José Miguel fought the Spanish up and down Chile for years and served as head of government when breaks in the chaos and fighting allowed. Page 2.

Blackbeard, the Most Fearsome Pirate of All
Edward Teach was one of the most feared pirates in the Caribbean. Learn about Blackbeard's final battle and his enduring legacy. Page 3.

Biography of Edward "Blackbeard" Teach
Blackbeard the Pirate - whose real name was Edward Teach - has achieved legendary status. This ruthless pirate worked the Caribbean for about three years before coming to a bloody end. What are the facts about the most notorious of pirates?

Biography of "Blackbeard" the Pirate
The life of Edward Teach, better known as Blackbeard the Pirate, is steeped in myth and legend. Learn some of the facts about this notorious pirate. Page 2.

Biography of Pedro de Alvarado - Pedro de Alvarado Profile
Hundreds of Spanish conquistadores came to the New World in search of glory and gold. These men were all violent and ruthless, but one man stood out from the rest for his cruelty: Pedro de Alvarado, conqueror of the Maya. Page 3.

Biography of Pedro de Alvarado - Conqueror of the Maya
Hundreds of Spanish conquistadores came to the New World in search of glory and gold. These men were all violent and ruthless, but one man stood out from the rest for his cruelty: Pedro de Alvarado, conqueror of the Maya.

Biography of Pedro de Alvarado - Pedro de Alvarado Profile
Learn more about Pedro de Alvarado's conquest and destruction of the tribes of modern day Guatemala in the 16th century. Page 2.