Latin American History Sitemap - Page 2 2016-09-26

Bartholomew "Black Bart Roberts - Pirate and His Flag
Bartholomew. Latin American History.

Bartholomew "Black Bart Roberts - Pirate and His Flag
Bartholomew

Biography of Bartholomew Roberts - Pirate Black Bart Roberts
Bartholomew

10 Important Events in the History of Latin America
Latin America has been influenced by wars, rebellions, invasions and more. Check out this list of the most important events in Latin American history. Page 2.

Biography of Francisco de Miranda (1750-1816)
Francisco de Miranda (1750-1816) was a Venezuelan patriot, adventurer and general who made important contributions early in Latin America's struggle for independence from Spain.

Biography of Francisco de Miranda - Francisco de Miranda Profile
Francisco de Miranda (1750-1816) played an important part in Latin America's fight for independence from Spain. Find out more about his legacy. Page 2.

Biography of Gonzalo de Sandoval
Gonzalo de Sandoval (1497-1528) was Hernan Cortes' most reliable lieutenant during the conquest of the Aztec Empire.

Christopher Columbus: Hero or Villain?
Some think he was a brave hero and others think he was a monster who brought slavery and disease to the New World. What's the truth about Columbus?

Antonio de Montesinos: The Chiribichi Incident
On December 4, 1511, Dominican friar Antonio de Montesinos delivered a scathing sermon to the Spanish colonists on Hispaniola, criticizing them for enslaving the natives of the Caribbean. He was practically run out of town, but continued his work on behalf of better conditions for the natives until his death in 1545. Page 2.

Ten Facts About Hernan Cortes
Learn the facts about Hernan Cortes, the conquistador who brought down the Aztec Empire.

La Navidad: First European Settlement in the Americas
On Columbus' first voyage, he was forced to leave behind 39 men at a settlement he named La Navidad.

Francisco Madero Bio: Father of the Mexican Revolution
Francisco I. Madero (1873-1913) was a reformist politician and writer who served as President of Mexico from 1911 to 1913.

Biography of Francisco Madero-Profile of Francisco Madero
An unlikely revolutionary, Francisco Madero (1873-1913) was a Mexican writer and politician whose efforts to democratically unseat dictator Porfirio Diaz resulted in the start of the Mexican Revolution. Page 2.

Biography of Francisco Madero-Profile of Francisco Madero
An unlikely revolutionary, Francisco Madero (1873-1913) was a Mexican writer and politician whose efforts to democratically unseat dictator Porfirio Diaz resulted in the start of the Mexican Revolution. Page 3.

Mexican Revolution: Battle of Zacatecas and Pancho Villa
June, 1914: Surrounded on all sides by rebel armies, Mexican President Victoriano Huerta sent most of his remaining soldiers and one of his best generals to defend the strategic city of Zacatecas. The federal troops dug in and set their defenses. It seemed invulnerable, but their opponent was Pancho Villa and the mighty Division of the North. The resulting clash became the stuff of legend. Page 2.

Mexican Revolution: The Battle of Zacatecas
June, 1914: Surrounded on all sides by rebel armies, Mexican President Victoriano Huerta sent most of his remaining soldiers and one of his best generals to defend the strategic city of Zacatecas. The federal troops dug in and set their defenses. It seemed invulnerable, but their opponent was Pancho Villa and the mighty Division of the North. The resulting clash became the stuff of legend.

Venezuela's Independence from Spain - 15 Years of Violence
Venezuela was a leader in Latin America’s Independence movement. Led by visionary radicals such as Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Miranda, Venezuela was the first of the South American Republics to formally break away from Spain. The decade or so that followed was extremely bloody, with unspeakable atrocities on both sides and several important battles, but in the end the patriots prevailed, finally securing Venezuelan independence in 1821.

Independence from Spain in Venezuela
Venezuela was a leader in Latin America’s Independence movement. Led by visionary radicals such as Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Miranda, Venezuela was the first of the South American Republics to formally break away from Spain. The decade or so that followed was extremely bloody, with unspeakable atrocities on both sides and several important battles, but in the end the patriots prevailed, finally securing Venezuelan independence in 1821. Page 2.

Biography of Alonso de Avila
Alonso de Avila (1486-1542) was a Spanish conquistador on the Cortes expedition. Cortes trusted Avila to deliver the King's Fifth in 1522.

Timeline of Hernan Cortes' Conquest of the Aztecs
This timeline shows the major dates of Hernan Cortes' ruthless destruction of the Aztec Empire in 1521.

10 Important Events in the History of Latin America
Latin America has always been shaped by events: wars, rebellions, invasions and more. Which have been the most important? My top ten are based on international and domestic impact.

The War that Tore the Inca Empire Apart
From 1527 to 1532, brothers Huscar and Atahualpa were locked in a brutal civil war over who would lead the mighty Inca Empire. Page 2.

Huáscar and Atahualpa: An Inca Civil War
From 1527 to 1532, brothers Huscar and Atahualpa were locked in a brutal civil war over who would lead the mighty Inca Empire.

When Captain Morgan Sacked the Spanish Main
On July 11, 1668, the legendary privateer captain Henry Morgan and a small army of buccaneers attacked the city of Portobelo in present-day Panama. Page 2.

Biography of Bernardo O'Higgins of Chile
Bernardo O'Higgins (1778-1842) was a Chilean landowner and one of the leaders of its struggle for Independence. Although he had no formal military training, O'Higgins took charge of the ragged rebel army and fought the Spanish from 1810 to 1818 when Chile finally achieved its Independence. Today, he is revered as the liberator of Chile and the father of the nation

Bernardo O'Higgins - Biography of Bernardo O'Higgins
Bernardo O'Higgins (1778-1842) was a Chilean landowner and one of the leaders of its struggle for Independence. Although he had no formal military training, O'Higgins took charge of the ragged rebel army and fought the Spanish from 1810 to 1818 when Chile finally achieved its Independence. Today, he is revered as the liberator of Chile and the father of the nation. Page 2.

Biography of Bernardo O'Higgins - Liberator of Chile
Bernardo O'Higgins (1778-1842) was a Chilean landowner and one of the leaders of its struggle for Independence. Although he had no formal military training, O'Higgins took charge of the ragged rebel army and fought the Spanish from 1810 to 1818 when Chile finally achieved its Independence. Today, he is revered as the liberator of Chile and the father of the nation. Page 3.

Simon Bolivar - Biography of Simon Bolivar
Venezuelan Simon Bolivar was the most important leader of South America's Independence movement, which lasted from 1806 to 1825. A brilliant general and visionary politician, he led the liberation of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. His dream of a strong, united Latin America is still unfulfilled. Page 4.

Simon Bolivar - Biography of Simon Bolivar
Venezuelan Simon Bolivar was the most important leader of South America's Independence movement, which lasted from 1806 to 1825. A brilliant general and visionary politician, he led the liberation of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. His dream of a strong, united Latin America is still unfulfilled. Page 3.

Simon Bolivar - Biography of Simon Bolivar
Venezuelan Simon Bolivar was the most important leader of South America's Independence movement, which lasted from 1806 to 1825. A brilliant general and visionary politician, he led the liberation of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. His dream of a strong, united Latin America is still unfulfilled. Page 2.

Biography of Simon Bolivar - Liberator of South America
Venezuelan Simon Bolivar was the most important leader of South America's Independence movement. A brilliant general and visionary politician, he led the liberation of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. His dream of a strong, united Latin America is still unfulfilled.

Olmec Art and Sculpture - History and Details
The Olmec civilization of ancient Mexico produced many notable works of art which are still admired today.

Book Review: A Glorious Defeat by Timothy J. Henderson
A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and its war with the United States is a well-written book written about the 1846-1848 Mexican-American War.

Manco Inca’s Rebellion (1536-1544)
In 1536, Manco Inca, puppet ruler of the Inca Empire, escaped from his Spanish captors and mounted an armed insurrection against the Spanish.

Blackbeard the Pirate - Myths, Truths and Biography
Edward

Controversial Presidents of Central America
The nations of Central America have been ruled by statesmen, madmen, generals, politicians and even a North American from Tennessee!

Quito Legend: the Story of Father Almeida
Everyone in Quito knows the legend of the hard-partying Father Almeida.

The Maya Codices and Books - An Overview
Most of the Maya codices, or books, were destroyed and today only fragments of four of them remain.

The Truth About Christopher Columbus
Some think he was a brave hero and others think he was a monster who brought slavery and disease to the New World. What's the truth about Columbus? Page 2.

Mexican Revolution: The Big Four Warlords
With the defeat of Victoriano Huerta and Pascual Orozco, the Mexican Revolution was down to four mighty warlords: Zapata, Villa, Obregon and Carranza.

Biography of Hernan Cortes - Profile of Hernan Cortes
With dwindling provisions and 600 soldiers, Hernan Cortes was able to defeat the mighty Aztec Empire and hundreds of thousands of warriors.

Biography of Conquistador Hernan Cortes
Hernan Cortes, with dwindling provisions and 600 soldiers, was able to defeat the mighty Aztec Empire and its hundreds of thousands of warriors. Page 2.

Zapata (2004) Movie Review - Review of Zapata Starring Alejandro Fernandez
2004's Zapata: Dream of the Hero was a much-anticipated biography of legendary revolutionary Emiliano Zapata starring popular singer Alejandro Fernandez.

Captain Morgan and the Sack of Portobello
On July 11, 1668, the legendary privateer captain Henry Morgan and a small army of buccaneers attacked the city of Portobelo in present-day Panama.

Captain Morgan and the Sack of Portobello
On July 11, 1668, the legendary privateer captain Henry Morgan and a small army of buccaneers attacked the city of Portobelo in present-day Panama. Page 3.

Pirates, Privateers, Buccaneers and Corsairs
Pirate, privateer, buccaneer or corsair? These words have similar meanings, but there are important differences.

Biography of Cristobal de Olid
Conquistador Cristobal de Olid was one of Hernan Cortes' top captains during the Conquest of the Aztec Empire.

Juan Domingo Peron and Argentina's Nazis
The link between Argentine president Juan Domingo Peron and the Nazi refugees who flooded Argentina after World War two has long been suspected. Recent research has proven that Peron not only allowed them to come, but welcomed them with open arms.

Biography and Profile of Diego De Almagro
Diego de Almagro was an important conquistador who played a key role in the conquest of the mighty Inca Empire. He was later defeated and executed by his former friend and ally Francisco Pizarro in the civil wars that followed the conquest.

Biography of John “Calico Jack” Rackham
John. Latin American History.

Cuban Revolution: The Voyage of the Granma
In November of 1956, 82 Cuban rebels under the command of Fidel Castro set sail from Mexico to Cuba in the Granma, a small yacht designed for only twelve people. The Granma made it (barely) to Cuba, and the men who disembarked became the inner core of the movement which would end the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1959.

The History of Bogota, Colombia
Bogota, the capital of Colombia, is a proud, bustling city with a long and fascinating history.

The History of Bogota, Colombia
Bogota, the capital of Colombia, is a proud, bustling city with a long and fascinating history. Page 2.

Ancient Olmec Culture in Latin American History
Historians and archaeologists are piecing together information about the long-lost Olmec culture of ancient Mesoamerica.

Ancient Olmec Trade and Economy
The ancient Olmec culture was one of the first in Mesoamerica to embrace long-distance trade routes as a way of enriching their society.

Politics and the Political System of the Ancient Maya
The Ancient Maya had a complex political system with a king at the top. The King had many duties including leading in times of war and acting as a conduit between his people and the Gods.

Biography of Rigoberta Menchu of Guatemala
Rigoberta Menchu, the controversial winner of the 1992 Nobel Peace Prize, is still active in Guatemalan politics and native rights movements around the world.

Conquest of the Inca: The Battle of Teocajas
May, 1535: In the frosty highlands outside the Inca city of Tombebamba, a force of Spanish conquistadors led by Sebastian de Benalcazar faced off against Inca General Ruminahui and his host of thousands of native warriors. At stake: the fate of the city of Quito and the northern Inca Empire.

Mexican Independence from Spain - The Hidalgo Era, 1810-1811
Mexico's war of Independence from Spain is best described in stages. The first phase of the conflict lasted for only a few months, from late 1810 to early 1811, when Father Miguel Hidalgo struck the first blows against Spanish colonialism.

Biography of Pirate Anne Bonny
Anne Bonny (1700-1782, exact dates uncertain) was a pirate who fought under the command of “Calico Jack” Rackham between 1718 and 1720. Together with fellow female pirate Mary Read, she was one of Rackham’s more formidable pirates, fighting, cursing and drinking with the best of them. She was captured along with the rest of Rackham’s crew in 1720 and sentenced to death, although her sentence was commuted because she was pregnant.

The Pirate Hunters
During the age of piracy, pirates like Blackbeard and

Details of The Siege of San Antonio
From October to December of 1835, rebellious Texans laid siege to the town of San Antonio. They attacked in early December and captured the city after days of fierce fighting.

All About Pirates and Their Treasure
In the movies, pirates always seem to have huge chests of gold and jewels. Was this really the case? Learn more about what sort of treasure a pirate could really hope to find.

Inti - the Inca Sun God - Incan History
Inti, the Sun God, was the second-most important god to the Inca culture after Viracocha, the Creator.

Francisco de Orellana’s Amazon River Expedition
In 1542.Francisco de Orellana and about 50 Spaniards became the first men to explore the Amazon River, making their way from the Andean highlands to the Atlantic Ocean.

Josef Mengele, Nazi War Criminal
Josef Mengele was a German doctor and administrator who conducted infamous experiments at the Auschwitz death camp during World War Two. After the war, he escaped to South America and eluded capture for over 30 years.

The Madrid Codex - Ancient Maya Book
The Madrid Codex is one of only four surviving books attributed to the Ancient Maya culture. It is the largest of the four and contains much information about Maya calendars and rituals.

Josef Schwammberger, Nazi War Criminal
Josef Schwammberger (1912-2004) was a Nazi officer in World War two who became a wanted criminal after the war. He fled to Argentina, where he lived for decades. He was extradited to Germany in 1990 and convicted of war crimes.

Biography of Ernesto "Che" Guevara - Che Guevara Profile
One of the more famous (or infamous, depending on your point of view) protagonists of the Cuban Revolution, Argentine doctor Ernesto

Ernesto "Che" Guevara Biography
One of the more famous (or infamous, depending on your point of view) protagonists of the Cuban Revolution, Argentine doctor Ernesto

Biography of Ernesto "Che" Guevara - Che Guevara Profile
One of the more famous (or infamous, depending on your point of view) protagonists of the Cuban Revolution, Argentine doctor Ernesto

Mexican President Santa Anna - Biography
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, president of Mexico eleven times from the 1830's to 1850's, was the leader of the Mexican forces at the Battle of the Alamo.

Stede Bonnet, the Gentleman Pirate Biography
Major Stede Bonnet (1688-1718) was the most unlikely of pirates. He had a family and a prosperous plantation on Barbados, and didn't know one end of a sloop from the other. But he was determined to become a pirate, so he bought himself a ship, hired a crew and set sail.

Pirate Ships - History and Culture
Of all the tools of the piracy trade, a good pirate ship was probably the most important.

The Battle of Chapultepec - Mexican-American War
On September 13, 1847, the American army captured the fortress of Chapultepec, home of the Mexican Military Academy and gateway into Mexico City.

Biography of John Riley - Saint Patrick's Battalion
John Riley (1805-1850) was an Irish Catholic soldier who deserted the American army during the Mexican-American War and joined the Mexicans. He founded the St. Patrick's Battalion, which fought with distinction on the Mexican side during the war.

Sam Houston Biography - Early Life & History
Sam Houston (1793-1863) was one of the leaders of Texas' independence movement. He was in command of the Texan forces at the decisive Battle of San Jacinto in 1836. Later he went on to a distinguished career as a politician and statesman.

The Texas Revolution and the Republic of Texas
After years of escalating differences with Mexico, settlers in the region of Texas rebelled, kicking off a short war which resulted in Texas becoming an independent nation.

Biography of Charles Vane
Charles Vane (1680? – 1721) was an English pirate who was active in the Caribbean and the southeast coast of the United States during the first part of the eighteenth century, sometimes referred to as the “Golden Age of Piracy.” A close associate of other ruthless buccaneer commanders such as Blackbeard and Stede Bonnet, Vane distinguished himself by his unrepentant attitude towards piracy and his cruelty to those he captured.

Causes of Texas Independence
In March of 1836, Texas broke off from Mexico, declaring its independence. Why did it do so? There were many factors that led to Texas setting off down its own path.

Biography of Pirate Samuel "Black Sam" Bellamy
Samuel

Erich Priebke Biography - Profile of Erich Priebke
Erich Priebke was a former Nazi war criminal who lived for decades in Argentina before being extradited to Italy for his role in a 1944 massacre.

Pirate Henry 'Long Ben' Avery Biography
Henry Every was an English pirate who made one huge score - the Grand Mughal of India's treasure ship, in 1695. He retired with his wealth and was never heard from again, giving rise to many myths and legends.

How Did Porfirio Diaz Stay in Power for 35 Years?
How did Mexican Dictator Porfirio Diaz cling to power for 35 years?

Biography of Cuauhtemoc, Eleventh Tlatoani of the Mexica
Cuauhtemoc (1500-1525) was the last great leader of the Mexica people, lords of the Aztec Empire. He fought the Spanish but was defeated and executed.

The Ruins of Xochicalco, Mexico
Xochicalco was a thriving pre-Hispanic city and commercial hub around 700-900 A.D.

Controversial People in Latin American History
Many leaders of Latin America were controversial in their time, and some still are many years since their death.

Women in the History of Latin America
From Evita Peron to Cristina Fernndez de Kirchner, women have always played key roles in the history of Latin America.

Important Figures of the Conquest of the Aztec Empire
The Conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521 sent shockwaves through both sides of the Atlantic. Who were the leaders on both sides?

The Dresden Codex
The Dresden Codex is one of only four surviving Maya books. It is mostly about astronomy and religious rituals.

Peru's War for Independence - The Battle of Junin
On August 6, 1824, Liberator Simon Bolivar routed a mighty Spanish army at Lake Junin, high in the Peruvian mountains.

Wars in Latin American History
Nearly every nation from Mexico to Chile has been involved, at some point, in a bloody conflict, either internal or with neighboring countries.

The National Museum of Colombia
In the heart of Bogota, you will find Colombia's National Museum, home to a treasure trove of history and art.

Biography of Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986)
Jorge Lus Borges (1899-1986) was an Argentine writer and poet.

Facts of Latin American History
Here you'll find facts about famous figures in Latin American history, such as Miguel Hidalgo, Blackbeard, Pancho Villa and more!

Pancho Villa: Ten Facts About Mexican Leader
Pancho Villa was probably the best-known of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution. Still, most people don't know some of the more interesting parts of his history. Here are some fun facts about Pancho Villa.

The Battle of Resaca de la Palma
The Battle of Resaca de la Palma (May 9, 1846), was an early battle of the Mexican-American War. Mexican forces held a good defensive position along a creek bed, but were routed by General Zachary Taylor's Army of Occupation. The win at Resaca de la Palma cleared the way for Taylor to march on Monterrey.

The Ezeiza Massacre
On June 20, 1973, former president Juan Domingo Peron returned triumphantly to Argentina after 18 years in political exile. As his supporters gathered at the Ezeiza Airport to welcome him back, a firefight broke out between conservative Peronists and liberal Peronists, resulting in at least 13 dead.

Biography of Pirate Captain John Phillips
Captain John Phillips (1690? - 1724) was a ruthless pirate leader who captured several ships in the Caribbean and along the North American coast in 1723-1724. He was killed when prisoners and forced pirates on board mutinied.

Roots of the Mexican-American War
In 1846, Mexico and the USA went to war. Each nation had its reasons for doing so. Why did these two neighbors take up arms against one another?

The Tlatoanis of Old Mexico
The Mexica (Aztecs) of old Mexico did not have Kings or Emperors: they had Tlatoani or

Sir Walter Raleigh's First Journey to El Dorado (1595)
In 1595, legendary Elizabethan courtier and poet Sir Walter Raleigh set out on a quest to find El Dorado in the highlands of Guyana.

The New Laws of 1542
The

The Death of Montezuma
Emperor Montezuma of the Aztecs died on June 29, 1520. What were the circumstances of his death?

The Tomb of King Pakal of Palenque
The tomb of King Pakal of Palenque, discovered in 1952, is one of the most important finds in the history of Latin America. The tomb contained a treasure trove of artifacts and information about the ancient Maya.

The Tlatelolco Massacre
The Tlatelolco Massacre, often referred to as

Inca Star Worship and Constellations
The Inca placed great importance on stars and constellations, seeing

The Inca Empire
The mighty Inca Empire took centuries to build and stretched from Chile to Colombia.

Independence Days in Latin America
Each nation in Latin America has its own Independence Day which it celebrates with festivals, parades, etc.

Conquistadors vs. Aztecs: The Battle of Otumba
In July of 1520, Spanish conquistadors fought an Aztec army at the Battle of Otumba.

The Sarcophagus of Pakal
King Pakal of Palenque's sarcophagus is a priceless relic of the ancient Maya, containing a treasure trove of information.

Ten Facts About Montezuma
Do you know the facts about the legendary Emperor Montezuma of the Aztecs?

1518: the Juan de Grijalva Expedition
In 1518, an expedition led by Juan de Grijalva explored Mexico's gulf coast and Yucatan Peninsula.

The August 10 Movement
On August 10, 1809, a group of citizens in Quito, Ecuador, set up their own government in defiance of Spain.

The Conquistadors of Peru
In 1532, a handful of tough Spanish conquistadors began the conquest of the Inca Empire. Who were the leaders of this historic expedition?

Who Killed Mexican Warlord Pancho Villa?
When legendary warlord Pancho Villa was gunned down in July of 1923, most Mexicans suspected a conspiracy... and they were right. Who killed Pancho Villa?

Pancho Villa - Who Killed Pancho Villa
When legendary warlord Pancho Villa was gunned down in July of 1923, most Mexicans suspected a conspiracy...and they were right. Who killed Pancho Villa? The conspiracy went all the way to the top: the Mexican Presidential Palace. Page 2.

Hernan Cortes and the Maya of Potonchan
In Potonchan, the Cortes expedition picked up Malinche, the interpreter who would play an important role in the conquest of the Aztecs.

Ten Facts About the Spanish Conquistadors
Do you know the facts about the ruthless conquistadors who handed the New World to the King of Spain on a bloody platter?

Emperor Montezuma Before the Spanish
Emperor Montezuma II was a skilled leader who ably ruled his nation before the 1519 arrival of the Spanish conquistadors.

The Cholula Massacre
In October of 1519, conquistador Hernan Cortes ordered the murder of thousands of unarmed citizens of Cholula he believed were plotting against him.

Cuitlahuac, Tenth Emperor of Mexico
Upon the Death of Montezuma in 1520, Cuitlahuac became leader of the Aztec Empire. Unlike Montezuma, Cuitlahuac valiantly fought the Spanish invaders.

The Battle of Concepcion
On October 27, 1835, a large force of Mexicans sallied forth from the besieged city of San Antonio and engaged the Texans at the Concepcion Mission.

Biography of Rodolfo Fierro - Rodolfo Fierro Profile
Rodolfo Fierro, a.k.a.

Biography of Juan Domingo Peron of Argentina
Juan Domingo Peron was a general, diplomat, and three-time President of Argentina. He was a rare blend of career soldier, charismatic politician and leftist strongman, and his influence on the history of his nation is difficult to overstate. Known to many as the husband of Evita Peron, Juan Domingo left behind a huge political and historical legacy.

Lázaro Cárdenas del Rio: Mexico’s Mr. Clean
Lzaro Crdenas del Rio was President of Mexico from 1934 to 1940.

Biography of Pascual Orozco
Pascual Orozco was an important leader during the early days of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920).

Biography of Francisco de Paula Santander
Francisco de Paula Santander was a politician and general who fought the Spanish alongside Simon Bolivar.

Biography of Rafael Carrera - Rafael Carrera Profile
Rafael Carrera (1815-1865) was Guatemala's first President.

The Bogotazo: April 9, 1948
On April 9, 1948, Bogota, Colombia, erupted in a massive riot known as the

Ten Facts About Pedro de Alvarado
Pedro de Alvarado was one of the most important conquistadors, taking part in campaigns against the Aztecs, Maya and Inca.

Timeline of the Mexican-American War
Here are the important dates from the 1846-1848 Mexican-American War. Includes battles, treaties, politics and more.

Biography of Tizoc
The seventh Tlatoani or Emperor of the Aztecs was Tizoc, uncle of Montezuma. Historians suspect he was murdered to make way for his brother.

Hernan Cortes and his Tlaxcalan Allies
Conquistador Hernan Cortes never would have conquered the Aztec Empire without the help of the Tlaxcalans.

The Ruins of Tula
The ruined city of Tollan, better known as Tula, is one of Mexico's premier archaeological sites. Tula was once the home city of the mighty Toltec civilization.

Massacre at the Festival of Toxcatl
On May 20, 1520, conquistador Pedro de Alvarado ordered his men to slaughter unarmed Aztec nobles at the Festival of Toxcatl.

The Night of Sorrows
On the night of June 30 - July 1, 1520, Spanish conquistadors were forced to flee Tenochtitlan. This is remembered as the

Toltec Gods and Religion
The Ancient Toltec civilization worshiped several gods, including Tlaloc and Tezcatlipoca. They are most closely associated with Quetzalcoatl, however, and the warlike Toltecs spread the cult of the Feathered Serpent all over Central Mexico.

Toltec Art, Sculpture and Architecture
The Toltec civilization, which dominated Central Mexico from around 900 to 1150 A.D., produced some striking examples of art and architecture which can still be seen today.

Toltec Weapons, Armor and Warfare
The warriors of the ancient Toltec civilization were fierce in battle, fighting for conquest, sacrifices and to spread the worship of their ruthless gods.

Temple B of Tula
Pyramid B is one of the most important buildings at Tula, the ruined capital of the ancient Toltec Empire.

The Ancient Toltec Civilization
The Toltec civilization ruled central Mesoamerica from its home base of Tula from about 900-1150 A.D. The Toltecs were great warriors who spread the worship of their main god, Quetzalcoatl, far and wide.

1520: The Battle of Cempoala
On May 28, 1520, two armies of Spanish conquistadors led by Hernan Cortes and Panfilo de Narvaez respectively clashed in the town of Cempoala.

Biography of Malinche
Dona Marina, or

The Codex Vaticanus B
The Codex Vaticanus B is a priceless document, one of only a handful of surviving pre-conquest Mesoamerican codices. It contains a ritual calendar which ancient priests used to divine the will of the gods.

The Battle of Churubusco - Mexican-American War
On August 20, 1847, the invading American army gained a foothold in Mexico City at the bloody Battle of Churubusco. Today, the battle is largely remembered for the spirited defense put up by the St. Patrick's Battalion, a Mexican army unit comprised mainly of Irish Catholic deserters from the US army.

The Spanish Conquistadors
The conquistadors were ruthless professional soldiers who conquered the great empires of North and South America in the sixteenth century.

Biography of Sebastian de Benalcazar - Sebastian de Benalcazar Profile
Sebastian de Benalcazar (1500-1551) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who took part in Francisco Pizarro's conquest of the Inca Empire. He is today best remembered as the founder of the cities of Quito, Popayan and Cali.

Biography of Francisco Pizarro, Spanish Conquistador
Francisco Pizarro was a Spanish conquistador who led the expedition in 1532 that defeated the mighty Inca Empire of Peru. He ruled Peru as an agent of the King of Spain for almost ten years before he was assassinated in Lima.

Biography of Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro was a Spanish conquistador who led the expedition in 1532 that defeated the mighty Inca Empire of Peru. He ruled Peru as an agent of the King of Spain for almost ten years before he was assassinated in Lima. Page 2.

Mayapan - The Ancient City of Mayapan
Located in the Mexican State of Yucatan, Mayapan is a ruined city associated with the Maya culture. It was the last of the great Maya cities, reaching its peak around 1300 A.D. before being abandoned in 1450 A.D.

King Pakal of Palenque
King Pakal of the Maya city of Palenque ruled his people for almost seventy years. His tomb, discovered in 1952, contained a wealth of information about this mysterious ancient culture.

Biography of Vasco Nuñez De Balboa (1475-1519)
Vasco Nuez de Balboa (1475-1519) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer of the early colonial era. He is credited with leading the first European expedition to discover the Pacific Ocean (which he referred to as the

Biography of Vasco Nuñez de Balboa - Vasco Nuñez de Balboa Profile
Vasco Nuez de Balboa (1475-1519) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer of the early colonial era. He is credited with leading the first European expedition to discover the Pacific Ocean (which he referred to as the

Cuban Revolution: The Battle of Santa Clara
In the dying days of 1958, rebel forces tightened the noose around the neck of Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. His last hope was the powerful federal garrison at the city of Santa Clara, guarding the road to Havana. Fidel Castro sent his most trusted lieutenant, Ernesto

Cuban Revolution: The Battle of Santa Clara
In the dying days of 1958, rebel forces tightened the noose around the neck of Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. His last hope was the powerful federal garrison at the city of Santa Clara, guarding the road to Havana. Fidel Castro sent his most trusted lieutenant, Ernesto

Pirate Stede Bonnet's Letter to the Governor
In late 1718, Stede Bonnet, the legendary

Chapultepec Castle and Mexico’s National History Museum
History buffs visiting Mexico City will not want to miss Chapultepec Castle, home of Mexico's National History Museum and a historical site in its own right.

Saint Juan Diego
In December of 1531, Mexican Juan Diego had four visions of the Virgin Mary on a hill outside of Mexico City. Nearly five centuries later, the Virgin of Guadalupe is a unique social phenomenon and Juan Diego has been elevated to sainthood.

The National Cultural Museum of Quito
Quito's Cultural Museum - also known as the Central Bank Museum - is a great place to check out colonial and Pre-Colombian art.

Chile's Independence from Spain: The Battle of Chacabuco
In February of 1817, the rebel Army of the Andes, led by Bernardo O'Higgins and Jose de San Martin, clashed with a Spanish army at the Battle of Chacabuco. The resounding patriot victory opened the way to Santiago and helped free Chile from Spanish rule.

Biography of Montezuma Xoyocotzín
Montezuma Xocoyotzin, ninth tlatoani or emperor of the Mexica, is best known for ruling the empire when it was lost to Spanish conquistadors.

Biography of Montezuma Xoyocotzin
Montezuma Xocoyotzin, ninth tlatoani or emperor of the Mexica, is best known for ruling the empire when it was lost to Spanish conquistadors. Page 2.

Biography of Diego Velazquez de Cuellar
Diego Velazquez de Cuellar was a colonial administrator best remembered for being the man to authorize Hernan Cortes' 1519 expedition of conquest.

1520: the Panfilo de Narvaez Expedition to Mexico
In 1520, Panfilo de Narvaez brought an army to Mexico to capture Hernan Cortes, but in the end only wound up providing him reinforcements.

Biography of Archbishop Oscar Romero
Archbishop Oscar Romero spoke out against violence in his homeland. His condemnation of government repression earned him an assassin's bullet in 1980.

Biography of Archbishop Oscar Romero
Archbishop Oscar Romero spoke out against violence in his homeland. His condemnation of government repression earned him an assassin's bullet in 1980. Page 2.

The Cortes House and Ermita del Rosario
Near Veracruz, Mexico, you can see the ruins of one of the first European structures in North America.

Top Ten Villains of Latin American History
Every story needs a hero...and a villain! From Blackbeard to Pablo Escobar, here are the top ten villains of Latin American history.

Where is El Dorado?
El Dorado...the mythical lost city of gold. Thousands of men over the course of 300 years searched for it. Did they find it? Where is El Dorado?

Armor and Weapons of the Spanish Conquistadors
With just a few hundred men, the Spanish were able to bring down and control the mighty Aztec and Inca, powerful Empires with armies in the thousands. How were they able to do it? The weapons and armor of the conquistadors had a lot to do with their success.

Weapons and Armor of the Spanish Conquistadors
With just a few hundred men, the Spanish were able to bring down and control the mighty Aztec and Inca, powerful Empires with armies in the thousands. How were they able to do it? The weapons and armor of the conquistadors had a lot to do with their success. Page 2.

Everything a Pirate of the Golden Age Needed to Know
Being a pirate was more complicated than you might think. What did pirates need to know?

The Trials of the Pirates
Back in the day, once you went pirate and sailed off in search of treasure and adventure, chances were good that things would end badly. Those pirates that were captured were given a trial and usually hanged.

Biography of Jorge Montt Alvarez
Jorge Montt was a Chilean Admiral who served as President of his nation from 1891 to 1896.

The Pirate Code of Captain George Lowther
Most pirates set down a

ODESSA and the Nazi Ratlines
After World War Two, Nazi war criminals were looking to get out of Europe. Fortunately for them, there were

ODESSA and the Nazi Ratlines
After World War Two, Nazi war criminals were looking to get out of Europe. Fortunately for them, there were

The Battle of San Jacinto - Texas Revolution
On April 21, 1836, Texan rebels secured their independence from Mexico with a stunning victory at the battle of San Jacinto.

All About the Texas Revolution
The Texas Revolution only lasted a few months in 1835-1836, but it was one of the most important events in the history of both Mexico and the United States.

Biography of Jim Bowie in the Battle of Alamo
James Bowie (1796-1836) was an American frontiersman and one of the leaders of the Texas Revolution. He was present at the legendary Battle of the Alamo, where he was killed along with all of his comrades. Today he is considered a great hero in Texas.

Stephen F. Austin Biography (Founding Father of Texas)
Stephen F. Austin was the founder of an important settlement in Mexican Texas in the 1820's. He was an important leader of the Texas Revolution and served as the Republic of Texas' first Secretary of State.

1819: Simon Bolivar Crosses the Andes
In 1819, the War for Independence in Northern South America had stalled. Venezuela, where most of the fighting had taken place, was in ruins. Simon Bolivar decided to take the fight to neighboring New Granada, now Colombia. In his way: the snowcapped peaks of the mighty Andes Mountains.

April 19, 1810: Venezuela’s Declaration of Independence
On April 19, 1810, Venezuelan patriots met and approved a limited Declaration of Independence from Spain. This led to the First Venezuelan Republic as Venezuela became the first part of Spain's New World Empire to break away.

Nine Facts About Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl, the Feathered Serpent, was one of the most important gods in ancient Mesoamerica. The spread of the cult of Quetzalcoatl is associated with the Toltec civilization, although he was also revered by the Aztecs.

Cuba: The Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961)
The Bay of Pigs invasion of April 1961 was one of the worst foreign policy disasters in American history.

Cuba: The Bay of Pigs Invasion
After the Cuban Revolution, the Castro regime became increasingly hostile towards the United States and its interests. In 1961, President John Kennedy approved a CIA plan to arm and train Cuban exiles to invade Cuba and install a new government. The resulting attack, known as

Ten Facts About the Ancient Toltecs
The Ancient Toltec civilization dominated Mesoamerica from 900 to 1150 A.D. or so. Who were the Toltecs, and what happened to them?

Tula and Chichen Itza
The obvious architectural and thematic similarities between the Toltec city of Tula and the Maya city of Chichen Itza are too numerous to ignore. What was the connection between these two lost civilizations?

Biography of Pirate George Lowther
George Lowther was an English pirate active from 1721 to 1723. Although he was relatively successful, he never became as famous as other pirates like Blackbeard. His final fate is unclear, but it is thought that he took his own life after being marooned on an island.

The Pizarro Brothers: Francisco, Hernando, Juan and Gonzalo
The five Pizarro brothers led 160 conquistadors on a daring conquest of the Inca Empire in 1532.

The Natural History of the Galapagos Islands
The remote Galapagos Islands have a fascinating natural history. Not for nothing are they known as

The Legend of El Dorado
For centuries, greedy men scoured the unknown interior of South America for the legendary city of El Dorado. Did they ever find it, or was it merely a myth all along?

The Legend of El Dorado
For centuries, greedy men scoured the unknown interior of South America for the legendary city of El Dorado. Did they ever find it, or was it merely a myth all along? Page 2.

The Seekers of El Dorado
For years, European adventurers searched in vain for the legendary city of El Dorado. Who were these men who dedicated their lives to chasing a golden illusion?

The Petrified Forest of Puyango
The Petrified Forest of Puyango is an area in southern Ecuador known for fossilized trees and marine organisms. Most of the trees are roughly 100 million years old. It is part of the Dry Forest Biosphere Reserve and a popular tourist attraction.

Bernardo O'Higgins and the Liberation of Chile
General Bernardo O'Higgins was the leading Chilean freedom fighter in his nation's struggle for independence from Spain.

Biography of Nicolas Bravo - Nicolas Bravo Profile
Nicolas Bravo (1786-1854) was a Mexican soldier and conservative politician who was prominent in his nation during the period of time from Independence to the Mexican-American War.

Biography of Juscelino Kubitschek - Juscelino Kubitschek Profile
Juscelino Kubitschek was President of Brazil from 1956 to 1961. His administration was marked by great prosperity and the construction of Brasilia, the national capital.

Biography of Howell Davis - Howell Davis Profile
Howell Davis was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping in the Caribbean and the western coast of Africa in 1718-1719. He was a charismatic captain and treated his victims relatively humanely. Davis was a very clever pirate who preferred ruses and deception to outright force.

Biography of José Manuel Balmaceda
Jos Manuel Balmaceda was President of Chile from 1886 to 1891. A liberal, he wanted to use his country's newfound wealth to expand education, transportation and the military. His constant fighting with Congress eventually led to a disastrous civil war, which he lost.

Simon Bolivar and the Admirable Campaign
In mid-1812, the First Venezuelan came crashing down as Spanish forces drove patriots out of Caracas and into exile. Approximately one year later, Liberator Simon Bolivar triumphantly re-entered Caracas, having defeated Spanish armies every step of the way from neighboring New Granada (Colombia). His army had gone 800 miles in three months, and his brilliant, reckless march on Caracas became known as the Admirable Campaign. Page 2.

Simon Bolivar and the Admirable Campaign
In mid-1812, the First Venezuelan came crashing down as Spanish forces drove patriots out of Caracas and into exile. Approximately one year later, Liberator Simon Bolivar triumphantly re-entered Caracas, having defeated Spanish armies every step of the way from neighboring New Granada (Colombia). His army had gone 800 miles in three months, and his brilliant, reckless march on Caracas became known as the Admirable Campaign.

Biography of Jose de San Martin
Jos Francisco de San Martn (1778-1850) was an Argentine General, governor and patriot who led his nation during the wars of Independence from Spain. He was a lifelong soldier who fought for the Spanish in Europe before returning to Argentina to lead the struggle for Independence. Today, he is revered in Argentina, where he is considered among the founding fathers of the nation. He also led the liberation of Chile and Peru. Page 2.

Jose de San Martin - Liberator of Argentina, Chile & Peru
Jos Francisco de San Martn (1778-1850) was an Argentine General, governor and patriot who led his nation during the wars of Independence from Spain. He was a lifelong soldier who fought for the Spanish in Europe before returning to Argentina to lead the struggle for Independence. Today, he is revered in Argentina, where he is considered among the founding fathers of the nation. He also led the liberation of Chile and Peru.

Biography of Jose de San Martin
Jos Francisco de San Martn (1778-1850) was an Argentine General, governor and patriot who led his nation during the wars of Independence from Spain. He was a lifelong soldier who fought for the Spanish in Europe before returning to Argentina to lead the struggle for Independence. Today, he is revered in Argentina, where he is considered among the founding fathers of the nation. He also led the liberation of Chile and Peru. Page 3.

Mexican War of Independence: The Battle of Calderon Bridge
In January of 1811, Mexican rebels under Miguel Hidalgo and Ignacio Allende were on the run from royalist forces. Picking advantageous ground, they prepared to defend the Calderon Bridge which leads into Guadalajara. Could the rebels hold out against the smaller but better trained and equipped Spanish Army?

The History of Venezuela
Venezuela was named by Europeans during the 1499 Alonzo de Hojeda expedition: a tranquil bay was described as

The History of Venezuela
Venezuela was named by Europeans during the 1499 Alonzo de Hojeda expedition: a tranquil bay was described as

The Battle of Rancagua
On October 1, 1814, Chilean patriots led by Bernardo O'Higgins battled a massive Spanish army in the town of Rancagua. The patriots were routed, leading to three more years of Spanish rule in Chile.

Manuel Piar - Biography of General Manuel Carlos Piar
General Manuel Piar was an important leader in Venezuela's struggle for independence from Spain. Although he was a skilled general and efficient recruiter, Simon Bolivar ordered him tried and executed for insubordination in 1817.

Biography of Mariano Moreno - Mariano Moreno Profile
Dr. Mariano Moreno led Argentina in battles against the British and the Spanish in the early part of the nineteenth century and is today considered one of the founding fathers of the Republic of Argentina.

Mexican Independence - The Siege of Guanajuato
On September 28, 1810, an angry mass of Mexican insurgents led by Father Miguel Hidalgo descended on the hapless mining city of Guanajuato. The Spaniards in the city quickly organized a defense, fortifying the public granary. The mob of thousands was not to be denied, however, and after a five-hour siege the granary was overrun and all inside massacred.

Biography of Edward Low - Edward Low Profile
Edward

Biography of Edward Low
Edward

The Mexican-American War
The Mexican-American War (1846-1848) was a long, bloody conflict between the United States of America and Mexico. The USA won the war and gained much of the current American west and southwest.

The Battle of the Alamo - Latin American History
On March 6, 1836, The Mexican army attacked the Alamo, a fortress-like old mission in San Antonio, Texas. Inside were some 200 Texan rebels, determined to drive them off or give their lives for the cause of Texas Independence. The Battle of the Alamo is now a legendary part of Texan (and Mexican) history.

Benito Juarez: Mexico's Liberal Reformer
Benito Juarez, one of Mexico's most important statesmen and reformers, was the most powerful Mexican politician of his era and a driving force in Mexican politics for several years.

Biography of Atahualpa the Last King of the Inca
In 1532, Spanish conquistadors discovered the wealthy Inca Empire, high in the South American Andes. The only thing standing between these greedy men and the gold they dreamed of was young Emperor Atahualpa, fresh off a victory in a civil war.

Why did the Americans Win the Mexican-American War?
In the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), the Mexicans had

Ten Facts About Anne Bonny and Mary Read
Anne Bonny and Mary Read became famous in a most unlikely way: they joined a pirate crew! They have since become legendary, the ferocious female pirates who fought under the flag of Captain John

Latin American Dictators - Leaders in Complete Control
Latin America has traditionally been home to dictators: charismatic men who have seized almost complete control over their nations and held it for years, even decades. Some have been fairly benign, some cruel and violent, and others merely peculiar. Here are some of the more noteworthy men who have held dictatorial powers in their home nations.

The Battles of the Mexican-American War
During the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) the two rival armies met in battle on several occasions from California to Mexico City. Here you'll find descriptions of several of the major engagements.

Hugo Chavez - Biography and Dictatorship
Venezuela's firebrand dictator was known for making waves. After leaping onto the public stage with a failed 1992 coup attempt, Chavez became president legally in 1998 and never looked back. Loved by the poorest Venezuelans, Chavez made many enemies over the years, many of them in the United States government. In the end, only cancer could remove Hugo Chavez from the Presidential chair of Venezuela.

Cinco De Mayo - America's Favorite Mexican Holiday
Everything you need to know abut Cinco de Mayo, from the history of the holiday to how to make a memorable guacamole dip!

Ten Facts About Father Miguel Hidalgo
Father Miguel Hidalgo kicked off Mexico's Independence Movement on September 16, 1810 with his famous Cry of Dolores. He is considered the founding father of the United States of Mexico, but he remains misunderstood by many. Here are ten facts about Mexico's favorite Liberator.

10 Facts About the Ancient Olmec in Mesoamerica
The Olmec culture was the first great Mesoamerican civilization. Historians and archaeologists have learned many things about this mysterious empire which peaked three thousand years ago.

Ten Facts About El Dorado, Legendary City of Gold
When a place is as legendary as El Dorado, facts sometimes get lost is the changing winds of history. Was El Dorado real? Where was it? Find out the facts about the mythological city of gold.

South America's Liberators - A Biographical List
In 1810, South America was still part of Spain's vast New World Empire. By 1825, however, the continent was free, having won its independence at the cost of bloody wars with Spanish and royalist forces. Independence might never have been won without the brave leadership of men and women ready to fight for liberty. Meet the Liberators of South America!

Ten Facts About the Mexican-American War
The Mexican-American War (1846-1848) is a

The Gods of the Olmec
The mysterious Olmec civilization, which thrived from approximately 1200-400 B.C., left behind depictions of at least eight different gods.

Biography of Anastasio Somoza García
Anastasio Somoza Garca seized power in Nicaragua in 1936, beginning a dynasty of rule that would pass through his two sons and last until 1979.

Haiti: The US Occupation, 1915-1934
In 1915, the government of the United States of America sent troops to occupy Haiti to put an end to recent anarchy and to defend US economic and military interests. Although the US rule was fairly benign, it was unpopular both in the United States and Haiti and forces were withdrawn in 1934.

Famous Pirate Ships - Latin American History
The sea-dogs of the Golden Age of piracy are famous for their brazen high seas larceny, but they wouldn't have gotten far without their ships.

Civil War Generals Who Served in the Mexican-American War
In many ways, the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) was a precursor to the US Civil War (1861-1865). One important connection is found in the military leaders of both conflicts: most of the important Generals who served on both sides of the Civil War fought in Mexico.

South America Presidents - Latin America History
Over the years, many men (and a few women) have been president of the different nations of South America. Some have been crooked and some misunderstood.

The History of the City of Antigua, Guatemala
Founded by legendary conquistador Pedro de Alvarado, historic Antigua is one of Central America's most beautiful and beloved cities. Today, it is one of Guatemala's top visitor attractions.

Captain Morgan and the Sack of Panama
Captain Henry Morgan was a legendary Welsh privateer who raided Spanish towns and shipping in the 1660's and 1670's. In 1671, he launched his greatest attack: the capture and sacking of the rich city of Panama.

Simon Bolivar and the Battle of Boyaca
1819: the War for South American Independence had stalled in Venezuela, where Liberator Simon Bolivar had fought Spanish forces to a stalemate. Crossing the frozen Andes Mountains, Bolivar made for the Viceregal seat at Bogota. In his way was the largest Spanish army in New Granada (Colombia). The two armies met near the Boyaca River in August, 1819, and the fate of South America would be decided by the legendary battle.

Ambrosio O'Higgins - Biography of Ambrosio O'Higgins
Ambrose (

The First Venezuelan Republic, 1810-1812
In 1810, Venezuela was the first Latin American nation to formally break away from Spain and set up an independent republic. The First Venezuelan Republic was led by Simon Bolivar and Francisco de Miranda and lasted two years before a combination of natural disasters and military defeats destroyed it.

The First Venezuelan Republic, 1810-1812
The First Venezuelan Republic was doomed by a devastating earthquake combined with Spanish military might. Page 2.

Biography of Juan Sebastián Elcano
Juan Sebastin Elcano was a Basque sailor and navigator, and the first man to successfully complete a round-the-world naval voyage. He set out from Spain in 1519 as part of the Magellan expedition and returned in 1522, having led the fleet after Magellan's death.

Biograpy of Camilo Cienfuegos
Camilo Cienfuegos was one of the leaders of the Cuban Revolution, as famous to Cubans as Fidel Castro and Che Guevara. Considered a hero of the revolution by Cuba's government, there are neverhteless lingering doubts about his untimely death and whether or not Fidel Castro had anything to do with it.

Antonio de Montesinos
On December 4, 1511, Dominican friar Antonio de Montesinos delivered a scathing sermon to the Spanish colonists on Hispaniola, criticizing them for enslaving the natives of the Caribbean. He was practically run out of town, but continued his work on behalf of better conditions for the natives until his death in 1545.

Biography of Antonio Guzmán Blanco - Antonio Guzmán Blanco Profile
Antonio Guzmn Blanco was President of Venezuela from 1870 to 1888. A fairly benign dictator, he is remembered for overseeing a period of stability and growth, even though his personal corruption and vanity were legendary. He was eventually deposed in absentia while on a vacation to France.

Historic Tula
Tula de Allende is a charming town located about two hours from Mexico City. There are several sites of historical interest in and around the town.

Biography of Orlando Letelier
Orlando Letelier was a rising political star in Chile in 1973, when General Augusto Pinochet seized control of the government. Living in exile, Letelier was an outspoken critic of the military regime, and in September, 1976, he was killed in Washington, D.C. by Chilean agents: an attack on US soil by an

Mexico City: The 1968 Summer Olympics
In the summer of 1968, Mexico City hosted the XIX Olympiad, having beaten out Detroit and Lyon for the honor of doing so. The games were marred by the tragic Tlatelolco Massacre before they even began, but went on to be one of the more memorable Olympics ever.

The Thousand Days' War
The Thousand Days' War, a Civil War fought in Colombia from 1899-1902, devastated the nation and brought about the secession of Panama as an independent nation.

Biography of Manuel Zelaya - Manuel Zelaya Profile
Manuel Zelaya (1952-) is a Honduran businessman and politician. A leftist, he cultivated close ties with like-minded politicians such as Hugo Chavez of Venezuela. He was elected to serve the a term of office from 2006-2010, but was ousted in June of 2009 in a coup that resulted from his attempt to change the constitution to allow him to run for re-election.

The Battle of Buena Vista - Mexican American War
On February 23, 1847, Mexican General Santa Anna and his army attacked a dug-in but outnumbered American army near the Buena Vista ranch near Saltillo. The battle ended inconclusively, allowing both sides to claim it as a victory.

The Wars of Mexico Throughout History
Mexico has been involved in several wars and conflicts, both internal and against foreign powers.

Major Stede Bonnet and the Battle of Cape Fear River
On September 27, 1718, hardened pirates serving under Stede Bonnet fought against two pirate hunter ships under the command of Colonel William Rhett.The pirates were eventually overcome and taken in chains to Charles Town (now Charleston) where all of them, including Bonnet, were hanged.

The History of São Paulo
So Paulo, Brazil, is the largest city in Latin America, edging out runner-up Mexico City by a couple million inhabitants. It has a long and interesting history, including serving as home base for the infamous bandeirantes.

Independence in Chile - the Battle of Maipu
On April 5, 1818, Argentine General Jos de San Martn defeated a mighty army of Spanish and royalists near the Maip River in Chile. The loss was a devastating one for the royalist cause, as almost the entire army was killed or captured. The battle marks the end of Spanish power in Chile.

Assassinated Leaders of Latin America
The history of Latin America is a long and bloody one, riddled with conflicts, wars and massacres. It is no surprise, then, that many important leaders in Latin America wound up in the sights of assassins.

Top Ten Stories in Latin American History from 2000-2010
The decade of the

Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva - President of Brazil Biography
Luiz Incio Lula da Silva was President of Brazil from 2001 to 2010. He is a leftist with many centrist positions and is a respected leader in South American politics. Under his leadership, Brazil reduced poverty and increased exports.

Biography of Ollanta Humala Tasso
Ollanta Humala is a Peruvian army officer and politician. He was elected to the Presidency of Peru in June of 2011.

Raul Castro - Biography
The brother of Fidel Castro played an important role in the Cuban Revolution and in post-revolution Cuba, including serving as President.

Most Impressive Facial Hair in Latin American History
From Simon's sideburns to Fidel's beard, facial hair has been a proud part of Latin American history. Here are a few unshaven all-stars.

Mexico's War For Independence: the Battle of Monte de las Cruces
In late October of 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo led an angry mob of close to 80,000 poor Mexicans towards Mexico City. The rebel army was like a swarm of locusts, destroying everything in its path, and the residents of the city were terrified. Every available royalist soldier was sent out to meet Hidalgo's army, and on October 30 the two armies met at Monte de las Cruces. Would arms and discipline prevail over numbers and rage?

Biography of Francisco de Orellana
Francisco de Orellana was a Spanish conquistador who joined the ill-fated expedition into the interior of South America led by Gonzalo Pizarro in 1541. After Pizarro and Orellana became separated, Orellana continued downstream, eventually discovering the Amazon River and making his way to the Atlantic Ocean.

Emiliano Zapata and the Plan of Ayala
In November, 1911, revolutionary leader wrote one of the most important documents in the history of Mexico: the Plan of Ayala, which called for the removal of President Francisco Madero and demanded land reform in rural Mexico.

Argentina: The May Revolution - Latin American History
As Napoleon's armies stormed across Spain, leaders in Buenos Aires decided that they could no longer rely on the Spanish crown to protect them. Taking matters into their own hands, they declared a temporary independence, which would become permanent in 1816.

Biography of Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618)
Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618) was an English courtier, writer, poet, explorer and sailor. He was a favorite of Queen Elizabeth I and is remembered for his quest to find the legendary city of El Dorado.

Huascar, Inca Emperor 1527-1532
When Inca Emperor Huayna Capac died in 1527, his sons Atahualpa and Huascar fought bitterly over his throne. Huascar held Cuzco, but Atahualpa had the army.

Talk Like a Pirate Day - September 19
Arrrr! September 19 be Talk Like a Pirate Day! Here's the info ye be needin' to make yer day a straight-on broadside!

The Ten Best Pirate Attacks in History
A pirate's life was a hard one, what with poor food, violence and the prospect of hanging if caught. Sometimes, however, it paid to be a pirate.

The Five Most Awesome Pirates You’ve Never Heard of
Blackbeard and Captain Morgan get all the glory these days, but they were far from the only buccaneers who plundered their way across the seven seas!

Famous Ships in Latin American History
From the Santa Maria to the USS Maine, ships have played important roles in the history of Latin America.

Assassinations of the Mexican Revolution
The Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) was a bloody, brutal struggle that left millions dead. Most of the leaders of the Revolution also came to bloody ends - usually an assassin's bullet. Here are some of the more notorious assassinations of the Mexican Revolution.

Battles of Mexico's Independence From Spain
Mexico's Independence from Spain came at a high cost. Thousands of Mexicans lost their lives fighting both for and against the Spanish between 1810 and 1821. Ultimately, patriot heroism at these legendary battles secured Mexico's Independence.

The History of Ecuador
Ecuador is one of the smallest nations in the Andes, but it is rich with history. The region has been inhabited by various ethnic groups for ages, and Quito was an important city in the Inca Empire. It was the scene of pivotal battles during both the conquest and the war of Independence. Ecuador continues to produce influential politicians and is an important part of western South America.

The Most Influential Mexicans Since Independence
Since achieving independence from Spain, Mexico has been home to dictators, artists, writers, statesmen, criminals, athletes and madmen. So who are the most influential people to have been born in this great land since it became independent?

The Crookedest Politicians in the History of Latin America
There's something about being president in Latin America that seems to bring out the worst in some people. The whole region, from Mexico to Argentina and everywhere in between, produces one crooked politician after another. Here are some of the more notorious ones.

Great Mysteries of Latin American History
The History of Latin America is full of mysteries including unsolved murders, strange disappearances and sinister conspiracies!

Biography of Ignacio Allende - Ignacio Allende Profile
Ignacio Allende was a Mexican cavalry captain and an early fighter for Mexican Independence. He was present at the famous

The Olmec Royal Compound at La Venta
The so-called

La Venta – Olmec Archaeology site La Venta
The ancient city of La Venta is one of the most important Olmec archaeological sites.

The Chile Expedition of Diego de Almagro
In 1535, Spanish conquistador Diego de Almagro led an expedition into present-day Chile. Conditions were harsh, however, and the expedition returned to Peru in 1537.

Biography of Pedro de Valdivia
Pedro de Valdivia was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who is best remembered today as the European founder of Chile.

The Ransom of Atahualpa
When Atahualpa, Emperor of the Inca, was captured by Spanish conquistadors under Francisco Pizarro, he promised to deliver a fortune in ransom.

Gonzalo Pizarro’s Rebellion
In 1542, the King of Spain approved the

The Olmec City of San Lorenzo
The Olmec city of San Lorenzo - the name is modern, as the original has been lost to time - was the first major Mesoamerican city.

Olmec Ruins at La Venta Complex A
The ruined Olmec city of La Venta is an important archaeological site. Within the site, one of the most important sections is

Biography of Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada
Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who successfully subjugated the Muisca people of present-day Colombia in 1538.

Biography of Gonzalo Pizarro - Gonzalo Pizarro Profile
Gonzalo Pizarro was the brother of Francisco Pizarro, leader of the Spanish conquistador expedition which brought down the mighty Inca Empire in the 1530's. Later, Gonzalo would take an active part in the civil wars that broke out among the conquistadors before openly rebelling against the Spanish crown over the New Laws of 1542.

Biography of Jose "Pepe" Figueres - Jose Figueres Profile
Jose Figueres was a Costa Rican politician who served as President on three occasions between the 1940's and the 1970's. He was an important architect of modern Costa Rica.

The Paris Codex - Ancient Maya Book
The Paris Codex is one of only four surviving Maya books. It is full of priceless information about Maya culture, particularly calendars and prophecy.