Latin American History Sitemap - Page 3 2016-09-26

Sir Walter Raleigh's Second Journey to El Dorado
In 1617, legendary Elizabethan courtier Sir Walter Raleigh sailed to South America to look for the legendary city of El Dorado, which he had failed to find in 1595.

Biography of Eloy Alfaro – Eloy Alfaro Profile
Eloy Alfaro, the

The Conquistador Civil War: Almagrists vs. Pizarrists
After Diego de Almagro and Francisco Pizarro teamed up to conquer and loot the wealthy Inca Empire in 1533, the two men and the conquistadors loyal to each of them had a falling-out over the division of loot. Europeans in the newly-conquered territory began fighting each other: the conquistador civil wars would eventually claim the lives of both Pizarro and Almagro.

The History of Quito
Quito, the capital city of Ecuador, is a friendly, bustling city located high in the Andes Mountains. It has a long and interesting history and is popular with tourists.

Ecuadorian Legend – the Story of Cantuña
The legend of Cantuña is one of Quito, Ecuador's most popular myths.

The Colombia-Peru War of 1932
In 1932, Peruvian irregulars attacked a remote Colombian outpost with the intent of keeping it as Peruvian territory. War swiftly broke out between the two nations as they fought over a chunk of the Amazon River basin. The war itself was a stalemate of sorts, but Colombia eventually got to keep the town seized by the Peruvians.

The Battle of Molino del Rey - Mexican-American War
On September 8, 1847, Americans began their final assault on Mexico City. The first phase of the attack was to take out the fortified mill known as

The Battle of Cerro Gordo - Mexican-American War
On April 17-18, 1847, the American army, marching on Mexico City, was met in a hilly region outside the city of Xalapa by General Santa Anna and 12,000 dug-in Mexican soldiers. The Americans were able to flank Santa Anna and rout the Mexicans, who retreated back to Mexico City to make a last stand there.

Porfirio Diaz goes into exile
In May of 1911, dictator Porfirio Diaz went into exile, but his departure did not put an end to the nascent Mexican Revolution. Page 18.

Las Limas Monument 1
Olmec Art - Las Limas Monument 1

Olmec Celts
Celts are small, ornamental tools. The Olmec culture made many such celts, some of which are inscribed with important figures and details. Page 4.

Olmec Colossal Head
Olmec Colossal head on display. Page 2.

The El Azuzul Twins
The

The Olmec Wrestler


La Venta Monument 19
La Venta Monument 19 is the first depiction of a feathered serpent in Mesoamerican Art. Page 6.

Olmec Rain God Evolution
This famous chart of the evolution of the visage of the Mesoamerican rain god was developed by Mexican artist Miguel Covarrubias. Page 7.

Olmec Art
The Olmec civilization flourished along Mexico's gulf coast from about 1200 - 400 B.C. They are remembered today for their stunning works of art.

Eras
Because Latin America was often shaped by cataclysmic events such as the Conquest and the Wars of Independence, it is easy to divide up by era. The different time periods of Latin American History have very distinctive characteristics and points of interest.

Biography of Carlos Prats
Carlos Prats was a Chilean Army General who served under President Salvador Allende. After Allende was removed in a coup, Prats fled to Argentina, where Chilean agents assassinated him in 1974.

Taita Boves - Biography of Jose Tomas Boves
Violent, cruel and deadly, Jose Tomas Boves was one of Liberator Simon Bolivar's greatest adversaries. A Spanish smuggler-turned-general, Boves raised a mighty army in the Venezuelan plains which he named the

Soldadera of the Mexican Revolution
Soldadera of the Mexican Revolution. Page 15.

Revolutionary Soldiers
Revolutionary take a group photo in front of a house. Page 17.

Villistas Fighting for Madero
Villista soldiers fighting for Madero in 1910. Page 19.

Madero supporters in the Plaza de Armas
On June 7, 1911, Francisco I. Madero entered Mexico City, where he was greeted by a massive crowd of supporters. Page 20.

Federal troops practice with machine guns and artillery
Federal troops practice with machine guns and artillery. Page 21.

Zapatista Officers in Mexico City
Zapatista Officers in Mexico City. Page 16.

Venustiano Carranza
Venustiano Carranza. Latin American History. Page 3.

Emiliano Zapata
Emiliano Zapata. Portrait by Agustin Casasola. Page 2.

The rebel army of Pascual Orozco in 1912
Pascual Orozco rose from obscurity to become one of the most powerful men in the early part of the Mexican Revolution. In this photo, his troops get ready to board a train to go into combat. Page 5.

Federal Troops in Action
Federal troops fighting from a trench during the Mexican Revolution. Page 8.

Francisco Madero in 1911
May of 1911 was a momentous month in Mexico. Former Dictator Porfirio Diaz was headed into exile, and upstart presidential candidate Francisco Madero was on his way to the capital to organize new elections. Page 7.

Felipe Angeles and other commanders of the Division del Norte
Felipe Angeles and other commanders of the Division del Norte in 1914. Page 9.

Pancho Villa cries at the tomb of Francisco I. Madero
In late 1914, Pancho Villa finally visited the tomb of his friend and ally, Francisco I. Madero. Page 10.

The Death of Emiliano Zapata
On April 10, 1919, rebel warlord Emiliano Zapata was double-crossed, ambushed and killed by federal forces working with Coronel Jesus Guajardo. The poor people of southern Mexico were devastated to learn that Zapata, who had always stood up for their rights, was gone. Page 4.

Madero Enters Cuernavaca
Things were looking up for Mexico in mid-1911. Dictator Porfirio Diaz had fled the country in May, and energetic young Francisco I. Madero was poised to take over as president. Madero had enlisted the aid of men such as Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata with the promise of reform and with his victory, it looked like the fighting would stop. Page 6.

Zapatistas entrenched in a cornfield
Zapatistas entrenched in a cornfield. Page 11.

Revolutionaries on a Train
During the Mexican Revolution, trains were an important means of transportation. Page 14.

Generals Huerta, Rábago and Tellez after the Second Battle of Rellano
Generals Huerta, Rábago and Tellez after the Second Battle of Rellano. Page 12.

Rodolfo Fierro
Rodolfo Fierro,

Republic of Colombia 10000 peso note
The Republic of Colombia 10000 peso note. Page 4.

The Republic of Colombia 5000 peso note
The Republic of Colombia 5000 peso note. Page 3.

Republic of Colombia 20000 peso note
The Republic of Colombia 20000 peso note. Page 5.

Republic of Colombia 50000 peso note
The Republic of Colombia 50000 peso note. Page 6.

The Colombian 2000 peso note
The Republic of Colombia 2000 peso note. Page 2.

Bernardo O'Higgins
Bernardo O'Higgins. Latin American History. Page 3.

Jose Miguel Carrera
Jose Miguel Carrera. Latin American History. Page 5.

Miguel Hidalgo
Miguel Hidalgo. Latin American History. Page 2.

Simon Bolivar, The Liberator
Simon Bolivar. Latin American History.

Jose de San Martin
Jose de San Martin. Latin American History. Page 6.

Francisco de Miranda
Long before Simon Bolivar, there was Francisco de Miranda. Francisco de Miranda was a Venezuelan who rose to the rank of General in the French Revolution before deciding to try and liberate his homeland from Spain. He invaded Venezuela in 1806 with a small army and was driven off. He returned in 1810 to take part in the establishment of the First Venezuelan Republic and was captured by the Spanish when the Republic fell in 1812. Page 4.

Statue of Saint Hermano Pedro, Antigua, Guatemala
Statue of Saint Hermano Pedro, Antigua, Guatemala. Page 3.

Ruins of San Francisco Cathedral, Antigua, Guatemala
Ruins of the San Francisco Cathedral, Antigua, Guatemala. Page 2.

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. Latin American History.

Benito Juarez
Benito Juarez. Latin American History. Page 3.

Maximillian of Austria, Emperor of Mexico
Maximillian of Austria, Emperor of Mexico. Page 2.

Porfirio Diaz
Porfirio Diaz. Latin American History. Page 4.

Francisco I. Madero
Francisco I. Madero was President of Mexico from 1911 to 1913. Although he succeeded in bringing down the mighty Porfirio Diaz, he could not contain the powerful forces of revolution that he unleashed. He was executed in 1913, kicking off the bloodiest years of the Mexican Revolution. Page 4.

Venustiano Carranza
Venustiano Carranza. Latin American History. Page 3.

Victoriano Huerta
Victoriano Huerta (1850-1916) was a Mexican general who served as president from February, 1913 to July of 1914. An important figure in the Mexican Revolution, he fought against Emiliano Zapata, Pancho Villa, Félix Díaz and other rebels before and during his time in office. Page 2.

Alvaro Obregon
Alvaro Obregon (1880-1928) was one of the leading generals of the Mexican Revolution. It is his election to the Presidency in 1920 that is often accepted as the end of the revolution. He was assassinated in 1928. Page 5.

Porfirio Diaz
Porfirio Diaz. Latin American History.

The Ruined Main Cathedral of Antigua, Guatemala
The Ruined Main Cathedral of Antigua, Guatemala. Page 6.

The Cathedral of Antigua, Guatemala
The Cathedral of Antigua, Guatemala. Page 5.

The Public Pila of Antigua, Guatemala
The Public Pila of Antigua, Guatemala. Page 4.

The Tomb of Pedro de Alvarado
The Tomb of Pedro de Alvarado. Latin American History. Page 7.

Black in Latin America: Haiti and the Dominican Republic - an Island Divided
Haiti and the Dominican Republic: an Island Divided is part one of the 2011 PBS series Black in Latin America.

Biography of Juan Pizarro - Juan Pizarro Profile
The name Francisco Pizarro is well-known: he was the ruthless conquistador who brought down the mighty Inca Empire. But he never could have done it without his brothers. Juan Pizarro was reckless, cruel and greedy and although he was the first Pizarro to die a bloody death, he would not be the last.

Biography of Fernando Lugo Méndez - Fernando Lugo Méndez Profile
Fernando Lugo Méndez is a former Catholic Bishop and the current President of Paraguay. A leftist reformer, he ran on change and was elected in a landslide in 2008, becoming the first president since 1946 to come from a party other than the Colorado Party.

Independence from Spain: Francisco de Miranda's 1806 Invasion of Venezuela
In 1806, legendary Venezuelan patriot led a force of some 500 volunteers in an attack on mainland South America, seeking to kick off a war of independence which would free Latin America from Spanish rule. Although the invaders were quickly driven off, the bold attack remains an important milestone in South American Independence.

1499: The Alonso de Hojeda Expedition to the New World
Christopher Columbus shook up the world in 1492 with his discovery of previously unknown land and people to the west of Europe. He was soon followed by other intrepid explorers looking for gold, pearls, trade routes and slaves. One such explorer was Alonso de Hojeda, who was accompanied on his legendary 1499 expedition by Amerigo Vespucci, who would later lend his name to the new continents.

Who is on Colombia's Money?
One of the greatest honors a nation can bestow on one of its leaders is to put his or her image on a bill or coin. Who are the people who have been so honored in Colombia?

Presidents of Mexico, 1900-present
The turbulent modern age of Mexico has seen many different men hold the Presidency. The century began with the iron-willed dictator Porfirio Diaz on the throne. After the chaos of the Mexican Revolution, it settled down a bit with decades of rule by one political party, the PRI. All of these men left their mark on the nation: here are some of the more important ones.

Presidents of Mexico, 1810-1900
The period from 1810 to 1900 was an important one for the United States of Mexico. During this time, the young nation went through a number of different presidents, from madmen (Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna) to statesmen (Benito Juarez) to dictators (Porfirio Diaz) to emperors (Maximilian of Austria). Each of these men left his mark on Mexican politics: here are some images and photos of these historic figures.

Photos of the Mexican Revolution
The Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) broke out at the dawn of modern photography, and as such is one of the first conflicts to have been documented by photographers and photojournalists. Here are some memorable images from a terrible war.

Photos of the Mexican Revolution
The Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) broke out at the dawn of modern photography, and as such is one of the first conflicts to have been documented by photographers and photojournalists. Here are some memorable images from a terrible war.

Biography of Juan José Torres
Juan José Torres was a Bolivian general and President of his country for a brief time in 1970-1971. Deposed by Colonel Hugo Banzer, Torres went to live in exile in Buenos Aires. While in exile, Torres attempted to subvert the Bolivian military government. He was assassinated in June of 1976, and many believe Banzer gave the order.

The Top Ten Liberators of Latin America
In 1810, Spain controlled much of the known world, its mighty New World Empire the envy of all the nations of Europe. By 1825 it was all gone, lost in bloody wars and upheavals. The Independence of Latin America was wrought by men and women determined to achieve liberty or die trying. Who were the greatest of this generation of patriots?

Wars and Events
The History of Latin America is long and bloody. From the ruthless regional dominance of the Aztecs and Inca to the horrors of the conquest to savage acts of repression by governments against their own citizens -- in the last twenty years, no less -- Latin America is a land that has been shaped by strife and conflict.

Photo Gallery: Historic Antigua, Guatemala
The charming colonial city of Antigua is Guatemala's most historic town. Destroyed by an earthquake in 1773, many of the city's most important buildings were subsequently abandoned. Ironically, this destructive earthquake therefore preserved some colonial architecture in the form of ruined churches and convents. Come take a virtual photo tour of some of Antigua's most historic sites!

Biography of Francis Spriggs - Francis Spriggs Profile
Francis Spriggs (roughly 1690-1725) was an English pirate captain who raided shipping in the Caribbean from 1723-1725. Before becoming captain of his own ship, Spriggs fought under George Lowther and Edward Low. He and his crew were known to be sadistic and capricious, more than usual for a pirate crew.

People & Places
Contains links to biographies of major figures in the history of Latin America. Also contains links to descriptions of important places such as cities and countries.

Federal Troops in 1913
Federal troops getting ready to mobilize in 1913

Jorge Eliecer Gaitan and the Colombian 1000 peso bill
The Republic of Colombia 1000 peso note.

Ruins of the San Jeronimo Church and School, Antigua, Guatemala
Ruins of the San Jeronimo Church and School, Antigua, Guatemala

Victoriano Huerta
Victoriano Huerta (1850-1916) was a Mexican general who served as president from February, 1913 to July of 1914. An important figure in the Mexican Revolution, he fought against Emiliano Zapata, Pancho Villa, Félix Díaz and other rebels before and during his time in office.

Venustiano Carranza
Venustiano Carranza

Francisco I. Madero
Francisco I. Madero was President of Mexico from 1911 to 1913. Although he succeeded in bringing down the mighty Porfirio Diaz, he could not contain the powerful forces of revolution that he unleashed. He was executed in 1913, kicking off the bloodiest years of the Mexican Revolution.