Classic Literature in Translation Sitemap - Page 1 2016-09-26

Gothic Literature: Definition
What's the definition​ of Gothic literature? It's a genre of novels and short stories; popular 18th to 19th century, with variations up to the current day.

Authors A-Z
Profiles of major authors, arranged alphabetically by last name.

Authors by Language and Nationality
Profiles of major authors, organized by original language.

- By Category
An index of categories in the

E, F, G
Author last names beginning with E, F, or G.

A, B
Author last names beginning with A or B.

C, D
Author last names beginning with C or D

German Literature
An author-by-author guide to major German writers.

Italian Literature
An author-by-author guide to major Italian writers.

H, I, J, K
Author last names beginning with H, I, J, or K.

L, M, N
Author last names beginning with L, M, or N.

O, P
Author last names beginning with O or P.

Q, R, S
Author last names beginning with Q, R, or S.

French Literature
An author-by-author guide to major French writers.

Multi-Language Authors
Discover how, and why, some of the world's greatest authors wrote in multiple languages.

Japanese Literature
An author-by-author guide to major Japanese writers.

Portuguese Literature
Read about the poets, essayists, and novelists who have risen to fame in Portugal and Brazil.

Norwegian Literature
An author-by-author listing of major Norwegian writers.

Russian Literature
An author-by-author guide to major Russian writers.

Spanish Literature
An author-by-author guide to major Spanish writers.

Study Guides for Individual Books
Study guides and profiles of major novels, short stories, and poetry collections.

T, U, V
Author last names beginning with T, U, or V.

W, X, Y, Z
Author last names beginning with W, X, Y, or Z.

Literature Awards and Prizes
Information about some of the most prestigious honors for writers, translators, and literary scholars.

Reading Lists
Want some tips on what book to pick up next? Check out the helpful topics in this section and discover new ways to delve into international literature.

Translators and Translations
Resources on translation editions, translation scholarship, and the history of literature in translation.

Literature and Film
Important films based on works of international literature. Arranged by the language and nationality of the original novel, story, or narrative.

Terms and Definitions
Short explanations of important authors' movements, writing styles, and, literary devices

"A Simple Heart" by Gustave Flaubert - Study Guide
In this famous tale, Gustave Flaubert uses a sophisticated writing style to tell the story of a simple, kindly servant. Learn more about


Italo Calvino's Invisible Cities Summary & Study Guide
Read our analysis of Italo Calvino's post-modern masterpiece. And learn how Calvino used unconventional novelistic techniques to examine reading, writing, and interpretation itself.

"A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings": Study Guide
In this ambitious short story, strange events and improbable characters raise complex points about community, entertainment, and religion. Read our study guide here.

Yasunari Kawabata’s “Snow Country” - Study Guide
An overview of Yasunari Kawabata’s acclaimed novel “Snow Country,” including background, key topics, and discussion questions.

Classic Literature in Translation on
From Homer to Kafka, we provide easy-to-follow discussion, analysis, and study guides of the world's most classic literature in translation.

Religious and Philosophical Narratives
Books that directly raise philosophical and theological issues of great intellectual importance.

Best Translated Book Award
Created in 2007, the Best Translated Book Award honors excellence in contemporary writing and in the art of translation. Read more about the award's finalists and winners.

Franz Kafka’s “The Metamorphosis” - Study Guide
An overview of Franz Kafka’s classic novella “The Metamorphosis,” including background, key topics, and discussion questions.

Franz Kafka’s “A Hunger Artist” - Study Guide
An overview of Franz Kafka’s short story “A Hunger Artist,” including background, key topics, and discussion questions.

Franz Kafka’s “The Judgment” - Summary
Unexpected reversals, family conflicts, and comically dark descriptions are just a few of the ingredients of this uncanny short story.

"The Lady with the Pet Dog" - Story Summary and Commentary
“The Lady with the Pet Dog” is embellished with flights of lyric description, melancholy imagery, and cosmic speculation.

What Is Psychological Realism in Writing?
This genre is associated with novelist Henry James, who used his fiction to explore family relationships and romantic desires in painstaking detail.

Friedrich Nietzsche: Author Profile
Nietzsche made groundbreaking contributions to philosophy and art theory. But he was also a master prose stylist and a daring experimental writer. Read more in our author biography.

Pablo Neruda: Author Profile
Neruda was both an accomplished stylist and one of the 20th century's greatest politically-engaged authors. Learn about the Chilean poet and the causes he defended in our author bio.

Federico García Lorca: Author Profile
Lorca's international career in poetry and drama was cut short by an untimely death—a result of political violence. Read about this Spanish writer, his travels, and his masterpieces.

Yukio Mishima: Author Profile
Mishima was one of the most prolific, most accomplished writers in 20th century Japan—but is also remembered for his unusual, samurai-like code of ethics. Read more in our biography.

Italo Calvino: Author Profile
Discover Italo Calvino's great experimental novels. And learn how Calvino combined folklore, realism, and self-reflexive writing to become one of the most original authors of the post-modern era.

Marcel Proust: Author Profile
Proust's masterpiece novel,

Alexandre Dumas (the Younger): Author Profile
Discover the tempestuous personal life of Dumas the Younger. And discover, too, how Dumas used this material to create some of the 19th-century's most influential novels and plays.

Boris Pasternak: Author Profile
Pasternak survived the harsh political climate of socialist Russia and penned a masterpiece novel,

Fernando Pessoa: Author Profile
Pessoa rejuvenated the poetry of his native country—Portugal—by importing new European influences and experimenting with alternate personalities. Discover more about Pessoa's life.

Alexander Pushkin: Author Profile
With his inventive poems and narratives, Pushkin won a new, respected status for Russian literature. Read on about the short life and long-lasting influence of this great writer.

Paulo Coelho: Author Profile
Coelho's inspirational novels have made him one of the most popular contemporary authors in world literature. Read more about Coelho's projects, and about Coelho's own tumultuous life.

Per Petterson: Author Profile
Today, Per Petterson is one of the most respected and most widely-read Norwegian writers. Learn about Petterson's novels of consciousness, memory, and history in our profile.

Gabriel García Márquez: Author Profile
In his novels, Garca Mrquez combined political statements with flights of fantasy. Read on, and discover more about the life and ideas of this Nobel Prize-winning storyteller.

Nikolai Gogol: Author Profile
In his fiction, Gogol approached social and cultural problems using a mixture of caricature, absurdity, and moral purpose. Read on and learn more about this great Russian writer.

Jules Verne: Author Profile
Learn how Jules Verne captivated 19th-century readers with his tales of adventure. And discover how Verne's visionary fictions continue to entertain 21st-century readers.

Junichiro Tanizaki: Author Profile
Tanizaki's works range from sensational, sexually-charged tales to modern-day chronicles of Japanese life and culture. Read more about one of Japan's most respected novelists.

Rainer Maria Rilke: Author Profile
An art critic, poet, and international traveler, Rilke created powerful descriptive writings that draw on painting, sculpture, and past literature. Read more about his life and work here.

Victor Hugo: Author Profile
Victor Hugo created heroic and virtuous characters—but also chronicled poverty, violence, and the dark side of human nature. Read our biography of this great poet and novelist.

Yasunari Kawabata: Author Profile
Read about Japan's first Nobel laureate in literature. And learn how Kawabata developed a prose style of remarkable concision, density, and evocative power.

Anna Akhmatova: Author Profile
In this biography, discover how Anna Akhmatova survived political persecution in the Soviet Union—and how she transformed her experiences into precisely-designed, poignant poetry.

Isaac Babel: Author Profile
Babel witnessed political and social upheaval in Soviet Russia, and committed his impressions to stark, masterfully-written short stories. Discover Babel's life and times in our biography.

Knut Hamsun: Author Profile
Though Hamsun was a novelist of remarkable gifts, his legacy has been marred by his late-in-life enthusiasm for fascist politics. Read more about Hamsun's tumultuous career in our profile.

Detective Fiction: Definition
Writing genre popular from the middle of the 19th century to the present day

Dystopian Fiction: Definition
Genre of novel writing concerned with dysfunctional cultures and self-destructive schemes for social improvement; popular from the middle of the 20th century to the present

Epistolary Novel: Definition
Method of novel writing that flourished in the 18th century, but that is present (with considerable changes) in later fiction

Utopian Fiction: Definition
Genre of creative writing concerned with harmonious and idealized societies; defined in the Renaissance but present, in some form, in most historical periods

Antihero: Definition
Main character who displays traits that are not commonly associated with a fictional hero; present throughout literary history but prevalent in recent times

Tragedy: Definition
Major writing form that describes the downfall of a remarkable yet flawed main character; popular with variations in most historical periods

Magical Realism: Definition
International writing style, popular from the mid 20th century to the present

Roman à Clef: Definition
French term that means

Romanticism: Definition
Broad-based intellectual and literary movement, late 18th to mid 19th century

Realist Novel: Definition
1) Literary form made famous by Honor de Balzac and Gustave Flaubert, popular in 19th-century France; 2) Loosely-defined genre, popular from the 19th century to today

Pastoral Literature: Definition
Widespread writing genre, from ancient times to the 19th century

Picaresque Fiction: Definition
Writing genre prominent in Spain and based on comedy and adventure, Renaissance to the present

Psychoanalytic Literature: Definition
Literature influenced by modern psychological theory, early 20th century to present

Modernism: Definition
General movement in literature and the fine arts, prominent in the early to mid 20th century

Postmodernism: Definition
Broadly-defined set of literary and artistic tendencies, middle of the 20th century to the present

Metafiction: Definition
Writing that self-consciously examines the techniques and conventions of literary fiction; prominent from the Renaissance to today, but present in all historical periods

Theater of the Absurd: Definition
Trend or tendency in experimental theater; early 20th century to the present

Epic Poetry: Definition
Genre of long-form or narrative poetry; ancient times to the present

Old English: Definition
Form of the English language spoken during the Middle Ages (roughly from 500 to 1100 A.D.); radically different from Modern English

Middle English: Definition
Version of the English language spoken during the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance (1100 to 1500 A.D.); substantially different from Modern English

The Scaglione Prize for Translation
Administered by one of the most influential humanities organizations in America, the Scaglione prize honors excellence in translation. Read more about the award and its recipients here.

The Christian Gauss Award
The Christian Gauss Award is designed to honor outstanding books of literary scholarship. Read more the researchers and writers who have taken this honor home.

The Cervantes Prize
Awarded only to Spanish-language authors, the Cervantes Prize is one of the most prestigious honors in modern literature. Explore our overview of this award and its most renowned recipients.

The International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award
Read our profile of this relatively new yet extremely prestigious writing prize. And learn about the famous authors who have won, and judged, the IMPAC Dublin Award.

The PEN Translation Prize
Administered by one of today's most respected literary institutions, the PEN Prize recognizes outstanding contemporary translators. Learn more about the award and the scholars who have won it.

Russian Literature on Film
Learn all about the Russian classics that have been adapted, re-worked, or re-imagined by filmmakers.

French Literature on Film
Learn about the very different films that have been inspired by classic French writings.

"Beowulf": Study Guide
The Old English epic

Translations by Major Creative Writers
Learn about the great novelists, poets, essayists, and philosophers who have translated major works of classic literature.

"A Boring Story": Study Guide
By taking a distinguished yet disappointed professor as his main character, Anton Chekhov creates a complex account of ambition, romance, and failure. Read our study guide for

"Pierre Menard, Author of the 'Quixote'": Study Guide
Borges's short stories are playful yet intelligent commentaries on reading and writing. Delve into our analysis of one of his best-known fictions,

"Death in Venice": Study Guide
One of Thomas Mann's most famous works of fiction,

"The Fall": Study Guide
In Camus's intricate short novel, a sophisticated lawyer explains his past deeds and reveals his ironic, disconcerting philosophy of life. Discover more in our study guide for

"Notes from Underground": Study Guide
In this darkly humorous novel, an anti-social narrator reflects on his uncomfortable past and his rebellious present. Delve into Dostoevsky's

"Siddhartha": Study Guide
Set in India during the early days of Buddhism,

Travel and Adventure
Stories of war, intrigue, and heroic escapades-often set in lush locations and fascinating periods of history.

Famous Books of Advice
Discover essays, prose narratives, and collections of sayings that foster new skills—but also lead their readers to moral and spiritual improvement. Selections from ancient times to the Renaissance.

Famous Flash Fiction
Discover some of history's most renowned flash fiction writers in our author-by-author guide.

Albert Camus: Author Profile
Camus's writings depict violence, absurdity, and moments of self-discovery. Read about the great Existentialist and his novels—including

The Nobel Prize
Important facts about one of the most coveted prizes in world literature.

Author last names beginning with D

Author last names beginning with F.

Author last names beginning with M.

French Literature
An author-by-author guide to major French writers.

Author last names beginning with P.

Author last names beginning with A.

Author last names beginning with I.

Author last names beginning with L.

Author last names beginning with O.

Author last names beginning with Q.

Author last names beginning with R.

U, V
Author last names beginning with U or V.

Author last names beginning with E

Author last names beginning with H.

Author last names beginning with J.

Literature Awards and Prizes
Profiles of some of the most important awards, honors, and competitions in international literature. This section contains information on prizes for original writing, as well as prizes for excellence in translation.