Middle East Issues Sitemap - Page 1 2016-09-26

May 25 1981: Gulf Cooperation Council Established
Gulf Cooperation Council Established. Page 2.

May 28 1997: Hazara Massacre of Taliban Troops in Mazaar-Sharif, Afghanistan
A Hazara Massacre of 600 Taliban Troops in Mazaar-Sharif. Page 3.

May 25, 2000: Israel Withdraws from South Lebanon - Hezbollah Forces Israeli Withdrawal from South Lebanon
Israel withdraws from South Lebanon. Page 4.

May 25, 1946 Jordan’s Independence Declared, King Abdullah Installed
Trans-Jordan gets its independence from the British Mandate.

- By Category
An index of categories in the

9/11 Photo Gallery - Last Words from the Twin Towers - Candles Memorial
A 9/11 photo gallery of Manhattan in the days immediately following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Page 6.

9/11 Photo Gallery - The Wall Street of Bartelby the Scrivener
A 9/11 photo gallery of Manhattan in the days immediately following the attacks of September 11, 2001

9/11 Photo Gallery - Susan Sontag on 9/11
A 9/11 photo gallery of Manhattan in the days immediately following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Page 5.

9/11 Photo Gallery - John Updike on 9/11
A 9/11 photo gallery of Manhattan in the days immediately following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Page 3.

9/11 Photo Gallery - Manhattan After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11 Goes Back to Normal
A 9/11 photo gallery of Manhattan in the days immediately following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Page 2.

9/11 Photo Gallery - Statue of Liberty After 9/11 - Bill McKibben on America
A 9/11 photo gallery of Manhattan in the days immediately following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Page 4.

Middle East 101
Understand the basics of the Middle East quickly and objectively: Geography, people, demographics, politics, and history before and after Islam, with emphasis on demystifying the region, eliminating stereotypes and providing illuminating context for issues of the day.

Middle Eastern Country Profiles
Complete country profiles and dossiers for Middle East countries, including country briefings, vital statistics, political, economic and social conditions and the latest issues challenging each country.

U.S.-Middle East Policy: Six Decades of Disorder
George W. Bush isn't the first president to lose his way in intractable Middle Eastern policies. The United States' direct involvement in the region dates back more than 60 years, although learning from history seems not to be the strongest suit of American foreign policy in the region. Welcome to six decades of disorder.

Iran: Country Profile, Briefings and Current Issues
The story on Iran: current issues, the state of Iran's Islamic revolution, Iran's quest for nuclear technology or weaponry, its relations with Iraq, the United States and the greater Middle East.

The Middle East's Regional and International Organizations
The Middle East isn't a geographical region so much as a political and economic one that tries to wield power beyond individual countries' borders through multinational organizations and institutions like OPEC and the Arab League. But are those organizations as powerful as they project themselves to be, or as unified in their political visions?

The Middle East Debate in Books, Magazines and OpEds
If no two snowflakes are alike, no two opinions about the Middle East are ever quite the same. The debate is rich, sometimes abrasive, often -- if one's willing to listen -- enlightening. Here's a cross-section.

Israel: Country Profile
The story on Israel: Its place in the Middle East and through six decades of conflict, the successes and failures of the peace process, and the latest political, social and economic issues.

Saudi Arabia: Country Profile, Briefings, Latest Issues
The story on Saudi Arabia: current issues, the oil economy, Saudi Arabia's place as the custodian of Islam--and a hub for Wahhabist terrorism, and its relations with the United States and the greater Middle East.

Syria: Country Profile, Briefings and Latest Issues
The story on Syria: Politics, economy, social conditions, vital statistics and the latest issues.

This Day in Middle East History - Day by Day Calendar for Middle East History
This Day in Middle East History: a day by day calendar

9/11 Photo Gallery - Don DeLillo and Fresh Kills Landfill - Debris Trucks
A 9/11 photo gallery of Manhattan in the days immediately following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Page 15.

9/11 Photo Gallery - Elizabeth Wurtzel Dissents on 9/11
A 9/11 photo gallery of Manhattan in the days immediately following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Page 11.

9/11 Photo Gallery - E.B. White on New York
A 9/11 photo gallery of Manhattan in the days immediately following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Page 13.

9/11 Photo Gallery - Osama Must Die
A 9/11 photo gallery of Manhattan in the days immediately following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Page 9.

9/11 Photo Gallery - Salman Rushdie on 9/11
A 9/11 photo gallery of Manhattan in the days immediately following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Page 8.

9/11 Photo Gallery - Twin Towers Destroyed - Remains of the Twin Towers
A 9/11 photo gallery of Manhattan in the days immediately following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Page 12.

9/11 Photo Gallery - Manhattan After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 - A 9/11 Photo Gallery
A 9/11 photo gallery of Manhattan in the days immediately following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Page 7.

9/11 Photo Gallery - Osama bin Laden Speaks to America - Wall Street Bull and Osama bin Laden
A 9/11 photo gallery of Manhattan in the days immediately following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Page 10.

9/11 Photo Gallery - Ada Louise Huxtable Reviews the World Trade Center's Twin Towers Architecture 1973
A 9/11 photo gallery of Manhattan in the days immediately following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Page 14.

Israel Attacks USS Liberty June 8, 1967 – 34 US Officers and Sailors Killed as Israel Attacks USS Liberty June 8, 1967
On June 8, 1967, Israel attacked the USS Liberty as it was sailing in international waters in the Mediterranean, killing 34 and wounding 170. The attack is never investigated. Page 2.

Saint Rafqa of Hamlaya - When Was Saint Rafqa of Hamlaya Sainted?
June 10, 2001: Saint Rafqa of Hamlaya Becomes Lebanon’s First Woman Saint. Page 4.

History and Background of the Kashmir Conflict
Kashmir explained: A brief history and background of the conflict at the heart of Pakistani-Indian tensions and wars.

Reasons for US intervention in Syria
What are the real reasons behind the US decision to prepare for military action in Syria? Was it really about Syria's chemical weapons, or where there other motives in play?

Six Day War Begin - When Did the Six Day War Begin?
June 5, 1967, the third Arab-Israeli war, also known as the Six Day War, erupts.

Suez Canal Reopens – When Did the Suez Canal Reopen?
Suez Canal reopens for the first time since 1967 war on this day, June 5, 1975. Page 3.

Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images - Jyllands-Posten Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images
The original set of Muhammad cartoons images that exploded in controversy in 2006, after publication in Denmark's Jyllands-Posten newspaper.

Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images - Jyllands-Posten Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images
The original set of Muhammad cartoons images that exploded in controversy in 2006, after publication in Denmark's Jyllands-Posten newspaper. Page 10.

Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images - Jyllands-Posten Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images
The original set of Muhammad cartoons images that exploded in controversy in 2006, after publication in Denmark's Jyllands-Posten newspaper. Page 11.

Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images - Jyllands-Posten Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images
The original set of Muhammad cartoons images that exploded in controversy in 2006, after publication in Denmark's Jyllands-Posten newspaper. Page 13.

Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images - Jyllands-Posten Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images
The original set of Muhammad cartoons images that exploded in controversy in 2006, after publication in Denmark's Jyllands-Posten newspaper. Page 2.

Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images - Jyllands-Posten Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images
The original set of Muhammad cartoons images that exploded in controversy in 2006, after publication in Denmark's Jyllands-Posten newspaper. Page 4.

Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images - Jyllands-Posten Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images
The original set of Muhammad cartoons images that exploded in controversy in 2006, after publication in Denmark's Jyllands-Posten newspaper. Page 3.

Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images - Jyllands-Posten Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images
The original set of Muhammad cartoons images that exploded in controversy in 2006, after publication in Denmark's Jyllands-Posten newspaper. Page 5.

Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images - Jyllands-Posten Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images
The original set of Muhammad cartoons images that exploded in controversy in 2006, after publication in Denmark's Jyllands-Posten newspaper. Page 6.

Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images - Jyllands-Posten Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images
The original set of Muhammad cartoons images that exploded in controversy in 2006, after publication in Denmark's Jyllands-Posten newspaper. Page 7.

Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images - Jyllands-Posten Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images
The original set of Muhammad cartoons images that exploded in controversy in 2006, after publication in Denmark's Jyllands-Posten newspaper. Page 8.

Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images - Jyllands-Posten Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images
The original set of Muhammad cartoons images that exploded in controversy in 2006, after publication in Denmark's Jyllands-Posten newspaper. Page 9.

Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images - Jyllands-Posten Muhammad Cartoons Controversy Complete Images
The original set of Muhammad cartoons images that exploded in controversy in 2006, after publication in Denmark's Jyllands-Posten newspaper. Page 12.

Jyllands-Posten Muhammad Cartoon Controversy Images
The original set of Muhammad cartoons images that exploded in controversy in 2006, after publication in Denmark's Jyllands-Posten newspaper.

Jyllands-Posten Muhammad Cartoon Controversy Images
The original set of Muhammad cartoons images that exploded in controversy in 2006, after publication in Denmark's Jyllands-Posten newspaper.

Definition of Jihad
A definition of Jihad, the Arabic word for

What Is Currently Happening in Syria?
Latest news, analysis and background information on Syria.

Syrian Civil War Explained
Civil war in Syria grew out of the anti-government uprising that started in March 2011. Who are the main players and their foreign sponsors? Who supports the government? Is the conflict in Syria a religious war? See here for all the latest background information on the conflict.

Pakistan, India and the Second Kashmir War
Brief history and background of the Second Kashmir War (1965) between India and Pakistan.

Is Libya a Democracy Now?
US and NATO forces helped Libyan rebels bring down Col. Qaddafi's dictatorship. Have Libyans managed to build a democratic order?

Top 10 Middle East Stories of the Decade – The 2000s Top Ten Middle East Stories of the Decade
The the top 10 Middle East stories of the decade from 9/11 to George W. Bush's war on terror to the Middle East's descents into chahos in Afghanistan, Iraq, Palestine-Israel and Pakistan.

From George W. Bush to Barack Obama - Top 10 Middle East Stories of the Decade - From Bush to Obama
In the 2000s, the Middle East lurched from the aggressive, warring approach of George W. Bush to the more conciliatory approach of Barack Obama.

Afghanistan's Wars Enter Fourth Decade - Top 10 Middle East Stories of the Decade - Afghan War
At war since 1979, Afghanistan's many wars entered their fourth decade in 2009, with no end in sight.

Iran as a Regional Power - Top 10 Middle East Stories of the Decade - Iran as a Regional Power
No country benefited more from the American invasion of Iraq than Iran, whose rise as a regional power and reactionary turn under Mahmoud Ahmadinejad are direct results of the invasion.

9/11 Attacks and the Rise of Islamic Terrrorism - Top 10 Middle East Stories of the Decade and the September 11 terrorist attacks
The 9/11 attacks and the rise of Islamism, one of the top 10 Middle East stories of the decade.

Iraq War - Top 10 Middle East Stories of the Decade - Bush's Iraq War
The American invasion and occupation of Iraq will stand as not just one of the top stories of the decade, but as one of the great follies in American history.

The Arab World's Arrested Development - Top 10 Middle East Stories of the Decade - Arab World's Arrested Development
For decades, the Arab world, and the Middle East have been mired in regression and arrested development. Repression breeds fanaticism.

Record Oil Prices Reach new Heights - Oil price Shocks and the Top 10 Middle East Stories of the Decade
Record oil prices again pour dollars into some Middle Eastern economies--without changing them politically.

Pakistan and Islamists - Top 10 Middle East Stories of the Decade - Taliban and Pakistan
Pakistan, a nuclear-tipped nation, is in a two-front war against the Islamist Taliban on one hand and economic chaos on the other.

Rise of Hamas - Top 10 Middle East Stories of the Decade - The Rise of Hamas in Gaza
The rise of Hamas as the leading force of Palestinian resistance after 2000 points to the splinters within Palestinians and the failures of the Palestinian-Israeli peace process.

Turkey's Rise Behind the Justice and Development Party - Top 10 Middle East Stories of the Decade - Turkey's Emergence Behind AKP
Turkish Prime Minister Recept Tayyip Erdogan and his AKP Party have turned Turkey into a rising power in the world and in many ways a model of Islamic democracy.

Can Israel Destroy Iran’s Nuclear Program?
Israel has the capacity to launch long-distance missions to bomb Iran’s nuclear sites, but the extent of damage it could inflict is unclear. Here are scenarios for an Israeli attack on Iran.

Guide to the Abu Ghraib Photos and Torture Scandal
A complete guide to the Abu Ghraib Photos and Torture Scandal: Origins, history, facts, debates, outcomes and photo galleries.

What Is the Current Situation in Israel?
Israel is a military and economic powerhouse in the Middle East. Read here about the latest developments in domestic politics, Israel's rivalry with other regional powers, and the fate of the peace process with the Palestinians.

Current Situation in the Middle East
Who’s in power in the Middle East, what kind of political systems are emerging, and what are the latest developments?

Arab Spring Impact on the Middle East
How did the Arab Spring uprisings of 2011 change the Middle East? Explosion of political activity and people power, but also political tension, economic uncertainty, instability, and even conflict.

Current Situation in the Middle East
Who’s in power in the Middle East, what kind of political systems are emerging, and what are the latest developments?

Iraq War Effect on the Middle East
Let's have a look at the Middle East ten years after the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. Did the region change the way its planners intended? What was the reaction of Iran? What did it mean for Al Qaeda?

Current Situation in Iran
Who is really in power in Iran, and who are the opposition? Read about the system of government in Iran, latest developments and analysis of current events.

Middle East News and Issues on About.com
Find all the latest developments in Middle East news, issues, opinion, politics, relations, culture and media.

More Troops for Afghanistan - Pros and Cons of More U.S. Troops for Afghanistan
The debate over more troops for Afghanistan is dividing the Obama administration while the outcome may redefine America's role in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

The Pros and Cons of More U.S. Troops for Afghanistan
Take a look at this list of the pros and cons of sending more troops to Afghanistan. Page 2.

Time's Most Influential People and the Middle East
How many Middle East-related people on Time's 100 Most Influential People in the World is a measure of the Middle East's enduring impact on American politics, culture and society.

Michael Jackson in Bahrain
When Michael Jackson, the King of Pop, re-dicovered Islam in Bahrain to escape the glare of child molestation publicity.

The Arab World and the Middle East
An explanation of the Arab world, its part in the Middle East and the Middle East's non-Arab differences.

The Middle East: Geography, History, Politics
Can the Middle East be precisely defined? Not quite. The term can be as contention as the region, but between convention and history, a fair definition is possible.

Hama Rules - Syrian Massacre of Muslim Brotherhood
Hama Rules is an expression coined by Thomas Friedman to describe Syria's ruthless repression of dissent, emanating from Hafez el Assad's massacre in Muslim Brotherhood-controlled Hama in February 1982.

Kuwait's Parliamentary Democracy
Is Kuwait a democracy? A briefing on how Kuwait's parliamentary democracy is far better than its neighbors' autocracies, but Kuwait's ruling al-Sabah family knows how to impose its will by decree.

Facts and Figures on Christians of the Middle East
Country by Country Facts and Figures on Christians of the Middle East, including Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Iraq and Egypt.

Rushdie's "Satanic Verses": Excerpts of Controversial Passages - Controversial Excerpts and Quotes from Rushdie's "Satanic Verses"
Take a look at some of the most controversial passages from Salman Rushdie's

Rushdie's "Satanic Verses": Controversial Quotes
Excerpts, quotes and explanations of some of the most controversial passages from Salman Rushdie's

Shiites' Twelve Imams - List and Chronology
A chronology and list of Shiites' Twelve Imams, founders of Islam's Twelver Shiitism, from Ali ibn Abu Talib to the ever-evanescent

UAE Independence from Britain
The United Arab Emirates won independence from Britain in December 1971. Here's a brief history of the founding of the UAE, formekly known as the Trucial States.

From Mesopotamia to Operation Iraqi Freedom
Iraq's turmoil explored from the 25-year reign of Saddam Hussein to the first Gulf War to Operation Iraqi Freedom and the consequences of the American-led occupation; Iraq's relationship with Iran and sectarian problems between Sunnis, Shiites and Kurds are also explored.

Oslo Accords Declaration of Principles - Full Text of the Palestinian-Israeli Declaration of Principles
Full text of the Oslo Accords' declaration of principles between the Palestinians (PLO) and Israelis, September 1993. Page 2.

Full Text of Oslo Accords Definition of Principles
Full text of the Oslo Accords' declaration of principles between the Palestinians (PLO) and Israelis, September 1993.

Oslo Accords Declaration of Principles - Full Text
Read the full text of the Oslo Accords' declaration of principles between the Palestinians (PLO) and Israelis. This section covers the withdrawal of forces and economic programs. Page 3.

Text of Palestinian-Israeli Declaration of Principles
Read the full text of the Oslo Accords' declaration of principles between the Palestinians (PLO) and Israelis. This section covers regional development and self-governance. Page 4.

Country Profile: Jordan
Jordan's demographics, government structure, religions, economy, military, human rights record, history and current issues are profiled.

Guide to Basic Facts and Issues in the Middle East
A guide to Middle East basics - The basic facts about the Middle East, the best books, country profiles and briefings on US-Middle East relations

Barbary Pirates Definitions
Definition and capsule history of North Africa's Barbary pirates and privateers of the 18th and 19th centuries.

Mujahidin, Mujahideen, Mujahid Definition
Definition of Mujahid, the Arabic word for

What Is the Quraysh Tribe of Mecca?
A definition of Quraysh, the old, powerful tribe from Mecca to which Prophet Muhammad once belonged before his expulsion from it.

History of the Wailing or Western Wall
Description and brief history of the Wailing Wall, also known as the Western Wall or Kotel, in Jerusalem alongside the Temple Mount.

Abu Ghraib Torture Photos - Staff Sgt. Chip Frederick and Inmate - Photos and Evidence of the Abu Ghraib Prisoner Abuse
The Abu Ghraib Torture Photos: Sampling from a scandal

Sgt. Frederick sitting on an inmate
Middle East Issues. Page 2.

Abu Ghraib Torture Photos - Human Pyramid at Abu Ghraib
The Abu Ghraib Torture Photos: Sampling from a scandal. Page 3.

Abu Ghraib Torture Photos and Testimonies - Forced to Wear Underwear on the Face
The Abu Ghraib Torture Photos: Sampling from a scandal. Page 6.

Abu Ghraib Torture Photos and Testimonies - Abu Ghraib Inmates cuffed and naked
The Abu Ghraib Torture Photos: Sampling from a scandal. Page 10.

Abu Ghraib Torture Photos - Lynndie England Humiliating a Shiite Inmate
The Abu Ghraib Torture Photos: Sampling from a scandal. Page 5.

Abu Ghraib Torture Photos - Prisoner Covered in Mud and Feces
The Abu Ghraib Torture Photos: Sampling from a scandal. Page 8.

Abu Ghraib Torture Photos - Photos Evidence and Testimonies Abu Ghraib Detainee's Injuries
The Abu Ghraib Torture Photos: Sampling from a scandal. Page 7.

Abu Ghraib Torture Photos - Terrorized by Dogs
Iraqi inmate terrorized by attack dogs. Page 4.

Afghanistan President Hamid Karzai – Image Portrait of Afghanistan’s Hamid Karzai
Image Portrait of Afghanistan’s Hamid Karzai. Page 5.

Iran's Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei - Portrait Leaders of Iran's Ali Khamenei - Middle East Leaders Images
Image gallery of the leaders of the Middle East from Pakistan to North Africa. Page 2.

Qatar's Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani - Image Portrait of Emir of Qatar Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani - Middle East Leaders
Image Portrait of Emir of Qatar Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani. Page 13.

Khaled Mashaal - Hamas Political Leader Khaled Mashaal Image Portrait
Hamas Political Leader Khaled Mashaal: Image Portrait. Page 11.

Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al Maliki – Image Portrait of Iraq’s Nouri or Nuri al Maliki
Image Portrait of Iraq’s Nouri or Nuri al Maliki. Page 4.

Mohammed VI of Morocco - Image Portrait of Morocco’s King Mohammed VI
Image Portrait of Morocco’s King Mohammed VI. Page 7.

Lebanese President Michel Suleiman - Portrait of Lebanon's President Michel Suleiman or Sleiman
Portrait of Lebanon's President Michel Suleiman or Sleiman

Turkey's Recep Tayyip Erdogan - Image Portrait of Turkey's Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan
Image Portrait of Turkey's Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan. Page 10.

Zine El Abidine Ben Ali of Tunisia - President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
Image and brief sketch-portrait of Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. Page 14.

Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak – Image Portrait of Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak
Image Portrait of Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak. Page 6.

Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad – Image Portrait of Iran’s Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Image Portrait of Iran’s Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Page 3.

Israel’s Benjamin Netanyahu - Image Portrait of Israel’s Benjamin Netanyahu
Portrait of Israel’s Benjamin Netanyahu. Page 8.

Libya’s Muammar el Qaddafi - - Image Portrait of Libya’s Muammar el Qaddafi or Ghaddafi
Image Portrait of Libya’s Muammar el Qaddafi or Ghaddafi. Page 9.

Asif Ali Zardari of Pakistan - Image Portrait of Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari
Image Portrait of Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari. Page 12.

Yemen's Ali Abdullah Saleh - Image of Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh
Image and quick sketch Profile of Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh, in power since 1978. Page 15.

Abu Ghraib Torture Photos and Evidence
The Abu Ghraib Torture Photos: Sampling from a scandal

Mentally disturbed inmate at Abu Ghraib
Middle East Issues. Page 9.

Reagan and the 1983 Marines Barracks Massacre in Beirut
Caspar Weinbeger describes how Ronald Reagan reacted to the U.S. Marines massacre in a suicide bomb attack in Beirut on Oct. 23, 1983.

Palestinian Black September terrorist at 1972 Olympics in munich
Palestinian Black September terrorist at 1972 Olympics in munich. Page 4.

1978 Camp David Conference Begins - Sept. 5, 1978 - Egyptian-Israeli Camp David Conference Begins
The Camp David Accords of 1978 began with a 12-day conference at Camp David on Sept. 5, 1978, hosted by President carter. Page 3.

Egypt Holds First Presidential Election - In 2005 Hosni Mubarak Allows Egypt's First Presidential Election
In September 2005, Hosni Mubarak allowed Egypt to vote for president for the first time. It was mostly for show. Page 6.

Terrorists Blow Up Pan Am Flight 93 - Sept. 7, 1970 - PFLP Terrorists Blow Up Pan Am Flight 93 in Cairo
Pan American Flight 93 was hijacked to Cairo, emptied of passengers and crew, and blown up the morning of Sept. 7, 1970. Page 8.

Dawson Field Hijackings - Sept. 6, 1970 Palestinians Hijack Jets to Jordan's Dawson Field
The story of the 1970 hijackings of three jets to Jordan's Dawson Field by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. Page 7.

India Invades Pakistan in Second Kashmir War - September 6, 1965 - India Invades Pakistan
September 6, 1965: India Invades Pakistan in second Kashmir War. Page 5.

Anti-Greek Rioting in Istanbul - September 6, 1955 Anti Greek Rioting in Istanbul
Anti-Greek rioting breaks out in Istanbul on Sept. 6, 1955

Egyptian-Israeli Disengagement Treaty - Sept. 4, 1975 - Second Egyptian-Israeli Disengagement Over Sinai Signed
Sept. 4, 1975: Egypt and Israel sign the second disengagement treaty over Sinai. Page 2.

Gallery of Leaders in the Middle East
Image gallery of the leaders of the Middle East from Pakistan to North Africa.

Gallery of Leaders in the Middle East
Image gallery of the leaders of the Middle East from Pakistan to North Africa.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAV - Predator Drones and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Predator drones and other Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): History, uses, costs, advantages and disadvantages.

Burj Dubai/ Burj Khalifa Facts
Fun facts and figures on Burj Dubai/Burj Khalifa, the world's tallest building and skyscraper, in the United Arab Emirates.

May 29 1964-Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Formed by Arab League in Jerusalem - PLO Founded
Arab League Forms the PLO at a meeting in Jerusalem

June 3 1989: Death of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini - Iranian Revolution's Leader Ayatollah Khomeini Dies
Death of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, leader of Iran's revolution. Page 3.

May 31 1977 - Alyeska's Trans Alaska Pipeline Is Completed - Construction Ends on Alyeska's Trans Alaska Pipeline May 31 1977
Trans Alaska Pipeline Is Completed. Page 2.

March 16 2003: Millions Demonstrate Against Iraq War – Street Power As Millions Demonstrate Against Iraq War
Anti-War Demonstrators, 2003. Middle East Issues. Page 8.

March 16 597 Babylonians led by Nebuchadnezzar conquer Jerusalem – Babylonian Conquest of Jerusalem
Babylonians led by Nebuchadnezzar conquer Jerusalem

North and Poindexter Indicted in Iran Contra Scandal - March 16 1988 Iran Contra Affair North and Poindexter Indicted
March 16 1988 the Reagan administration’s Oliver North and John Poindexter are indicted in the Iran Contra Affair. Page 6.

Lebanon’s Kamal Jumblatt Assassinated - March 16 1977 Lebanon’s Kamal Jumblatt Assassinated by Syria
Kamal Jumblatt is assassinated. Middle East Issues. Page 3.

Chemical Bombing of Kurds in Halabja Iraq - March 16 1988 Saddam Hussein Orders Chemical Bombing of Kurds in Iraq
Chemical Bombing of Kurds in Halabja Iraq - March 16 1988. Page 7.

Hezbollah Takes Terry Anderson Hostage March 16 1985 - Terry Anderson Taken Hostage in Beirut
Terry Anderson Taken Hostage, March 16, 1985. Page 5.

CIA’s William Buckley Taken Hostage - March 16 1984 CIA’s William Francis Buckley Taken Hostage in Beirut
March 16 1984 CIA’s William Francis Buckley Taken Hostage in Beirut. Page 4.

York Pogrom of March 16 1190 – The York Pogrom in England, Rehearsal of Crusaders’ Massacres
York pogrom of 1190. Middle East Issues. Page 2.

March 16 in Middle East History – This Day March 16 in Middle East History
Events that shaped Middle East history on this day, March 16, from the Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem to the York pogrom of 1190 to the Lebanese hostage crisis and the Iran-Cobnra affair.

May 29-June 4 in Middle East History - This Week May 29-June 4 in Middle East History
Events that shaped Middle East history This Week in the Middle East calendar, May 29-June 4, from the death of Ayatollah Khomeini

March 16, 2005: Palestinians Take Control of Jericho – In the West Bank Israelis Hand Over Control of Jericho to Palestinians
March 16, 2005: Palestinian Control Over Jericho. Page 9.

Syria: Country Profile - Profile of Syria
The basics on Syria: people, politics, religion, relations with Lebanon and Israel-the most pressing current issues

Syrian President Bashar el Assad - Profile
In power since 2000, Assad is one of the Middle East's most ruthless leaders.

How Stable is Saudi Arabia
Saudia Arabia faces at least five major challenges, that even the world's top oil exporter can't solve with money alone.

What Is Sharia or Islamic Law?
A definition of Sharia, or Islamic law, with background on historical and contemporary practices

Pakistan: Country Profile, Briefings and Latest Issues
The story on Pakistan: politics, economy, social conditions, Pakistan's role in the

Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani Ruler of Qatar
Read about the ruler of Qatar, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani. Qatar is one of the richest and most influential countries in the world. What can we expect from its leaders?

Hamas - What Is Hamas - FAQ
Definition of Hamas, the militant Islamist Palestinian organization founded in 1987 as a local chapter of the Muslim Brotherhood.

The Lebanese Civil War: a Timeline (1975-1990)
A year-by-year timeline of the Lebanese civil war (1975-1990), which claimed the lives of some 200,000 people and left Lebanon in ruins and divided.

Timeline of the Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990) - The Lebanese Civil War: a Timeline
Take a look at this timeline of the Lebanese civil war (1975-1990), which claimed the lives of some 200,000 people and left Lebanon in ruins. Page 2.

Colorful camels of Karachi
Camels on the glassy-water beaches of Karachi, by Aliraza Khatri

Karachi's Mazar-e-Quaid Mausoleum
Mazar-e-Quaid, the National Mausoleum in Karachi, Pakistan, is the tomb of the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The mausoleum was completed in the 1960s and is located in the center of Karachi. Page 9.

A portrait of Karachi
A young boy on the sands of Karachi beaches. Page 10.

Three Veiled Women on a Karachi Beach
A pastoral sunset scene from Pakistan's greatest city. Page 2.

A ship resting in the dusk of Karachi's Port, Pakistan
the Port of Karachi, Pakistan's largest and busiest, handling 60 percent of the nation's cargo. Page 3.

A ruin of Karachi
An old building in Karachi reflecting the city's old architectural style, by Aliraza Khatri. Page 4.

Boatmen of Hawkes Bay beach, Karachi, Pakistan
Hawkes Bay Beach Karachi Pakistan. Page 5.

A Portrait in Pictures of Karachi, Pakistan, by Karachi photographer Aliraza Khatri
A photo gallery of some of Karachi's greatest landmarks, showcasing Pakistan's greatest city's architecture and beauty, by Karachi photographer Aliraza Khatri. Page 6.

A Mosque in Karachi, Pakistan
Karachi is a center of Islamic scholarship and spiritualism, as represented by its many mosques. Page 7.

Mohatta Palace, one of Karachi's most famous landmarks
In the late 1920s Shivratan Mohatta, an ambitious businessman from Marwar commissioned the architect Ahmed Hussein Agha to design a Rajput palace in Karachi. The palace was to be located in the prestigious locale of Clifton and serve as a summer home for the Mohatta family. Agha built a spectacular summer palace in the tradition of stone palaces in Rajasthan, using pink Jodhpur stone in combination with fine yellow local stone from Gizri. Page 8.

A Portrait in Pictures of Karachi, Pakistan, by Karachi photographer Aliraza Khatri
A photo gallery of some of Karachi's greatest landmarks, showcasing Pakistan's greatest city's architecture and beauty, by Karachi photographer Aliraza Khatri.

Al Jazeera - Revolutionizing Middle Eastern Media
From its launch in 1996 Al Jazeera has revolutionized the rules of Arab television news while challenging western dominance in setting the agenda of perceptions about the Middle East.

Iraq War Timeline, 2003-2008
Iraq War Timeline: Main events of the Iraq war since the first day of the invasion in March 2003 to the present. Page 2.

Iraq War Timeline, 2003-2008
Iraq War Timeline: Main events of the Iraq war since the first day of the invasion in March 2003 to the present.

A Brief History of the Iraq War - Iraq War Gains and Losses
an analytical overview of the last five years, framed by attempted answers to three questions: What’s been gained? What’s been lost? Where to go from here?

A Brief History of the Iraq War - Iraq War Gains and Losses
an analytical overview of the last five years, framed by attempted answers to three questions: What’s been gained? What’s been lost? Where to go from here?

A Brief History of the Iraq War - Iraq War Gains and Losses
an analytical overview of the last five years, framed by attempted answers to three questions: What’s been gained? What’s been lost? Where to go from here?

A Brief History of the Iraq War - Iraq War Gains and Losses
an analytical overview of the last five years, framed by attempted answers to three questions: What’s been gained? What’s been lost? Where to go from here?

A Brief History of the Iraq War - Iraq War Gains and Losses
an analytical overview of the last five years, framed by attempted answers to three questions: What’s been gained? What’s been lost? Where to go from here?

A Brief History of the Iraq War - Iraq War Gains and Losses
an analytical overview of the last five years, framed by attempted answers to three questions: What’s been gained? What’s been lost? Where to go from here?

A Brief History of the Iraq War - Iraq War Gains and Losses
an analytical overview of the last five years, framed by attempted answers to three questions: What’s been gained? What’s been lost? Where to go from here?

A Brief History of the Iraq War - Iraq War Gains and Losses
an analytical overview of the last five years, framed by attempted answers to three questions: What’s been gained? What’s been lost? Where to go from here?

A Brief History of the Iraq War - Iraq War Gains and Losses
an analytical overview of the last five years, framed by attempted answers to three questions: What’s been gained? What’s been lost? Where to go from here?

A Brief History of the Iraq War - Iraq War Gains and Losses
an analytical overview of the last five years, framed by attempted answers to three questions: What’s been gained? What’s been lost? Where to go from here?

What Is the Golan? What Are the Golan Heights?
An explanation of the geographic and political meaning of the Golan Heights, the Syrian region occupied by Israel since 1967.

In Their Own Words: Abu Ghraib Testimonies of Abuse and Torture
Read accounts from Abu Ghraib Prisoners about their abuse and torture in their own words. Page 3.

Deir Yassin Massacre of 1948 - Facts, Memories and Consequences of the Deir Yassin Masssacre of 1948
Facts, Memories and Consequences of the Deir Yassin Massacre of 1948 by Irgun and Stern Gang militants against the mostly civilian population of the Palestinian village on the outskirts of Jerusalem.

Deir Yassin Massacre of 1948 - From Deir Yassin to Sabra and Shatila Massacre
Read about the similarities between the Deir Yassin Massacre of 1948 in Palestine and the Sabra and Shatila massacre in Beirut in 1982. Page 2.

The U.S. and the Middle East Since 1945
A Guide to American policy in the Middle East since World War II, from the Truman Administration to George W. Bush's

The U.S. and the Middle East in 10 Easy Pieces
American policy in the Middle East since World War II, from the Truman Administration to George W. Bush's

Mideast Policy from Harry Truman to George W. Bush
Read more American policy in the Middle East during Presidents H. W. Bush, Clinton, and W. Bush. Page 3.

Malcolm X in Mecca - Malcolm X's Conversion to True Islam
Malcolm X's work was cut short by assassination. Read more about the last period of his life. Page 2.

Hamas Charter, Full Text
The complete charter of Hamas, the Palestinian militant Islamist organization.

Hamas Charter, Unabridged (1988), Part 1
The complete charter of Hamas, the Palestinian militant Islamist organization. Page 2.

Hamas Charter, Unabridged (1988), Part 1 - Articles 18-21
Read the full text of the Charter of Hamas, the Palestinian militant Islamist organization. Page 5.

Hamas Charter, Unabridged (1988), Part 1
The complete charter of Hamas, the Palestinian militant Islamist organization. Page 3.

Hamas Charter, Unabridged (1988), Part 1
The complete charter of Hamas, the Palestinian militant Islamist organization. Page 4.

Latest News in the Middle East June 16 - 23 2014
A look at what happened in the Middle East from June 16 - June 23 2014.

Abu Ghraib Inmate Testimonies - In Their Own Words: Abu Ghraib Prison Inmate Testimonies of Abuse and Torture
Abu Ghraib Prison Inmates testify of abuse and torture in their own words.

Abu Ghraib Inmates Testify to Abuse and Torture
Read some of the testimonies of Abu Ghraib prisoners about the abuse and torture they suffered. Page 2.

Taliban Decrees Against Women - Taliban Rules, Decrees, Laws and Prohibitions in Afghanistan
In 1996 the Taliban imposed severe religious decrees and prohibitions on the population of Afghanistan. Read more about those rules. Page 2.

Taliban Decrees and Prohibitions Against Women
In 1996, when the Taliban took over large portions of Afghanistan, it imposed strict and severe religious decrees and prohibitions on the population, women especially. Here is a list of those decrees and prohibitions.

Funeral for Murder Victims from the 1972 Munich Olympics - Part 2
At 4:30 a.m. local time on Sept. 5, 1972, in Munich, Germany, Palestinian commandos armed with automatic rifles broke into the quarters of the Israeli team at the Olympic Village, killed two members of the team and took nine others hostage. Twenty-three hours later, the nine hostages had also been murdered. So was a German policeman. So were five of the Palestinian terrorists. Page 2.

Funeral for Murder Victims from the 1972 Munich Olympics
At 4:30 a.m. local time on Sept. 5, 1972, in Munich, Germany, Palestinian commandos armed with automatic rifles broke into the quarters of the Israeli team at the Olympic Village, killed two members of the team and took nine others hostage. Twenty-three hours later, the nine hostages had also been murdered. So was a German policeman. So were five of the Palestinian terrorists.

Malcolm X in Mecca and His Conversion to True Islam
It was in mecca that Malcolm X experienced the epiphany that would change his worldview, away from hatred for whites and toward a more universal brotherhood of men--but a brotherhood possible only under Islam.

The Middle East: Ten Indispensable Books
A list of 10 of the most useful books on Middle Eastern history, society, religion and economy.

April 20, 1988: Massive Funeral for the PLO’s Abu Jihad – The Damascus Funeral for the PLO’s Abu Jihad
PLO’s funeral for Abu Jihad

April 20, 1990 Anti-Zionist Schism in Hasidic Community Erupts in Violence – In Brooklyn’s Williamsburg, and Anti-Zionist Schism
An anti-Zionism schism in Brooklyn’s Hasidic community of Williamsburg. Page 2.

March 12, 2000 – Arab League Defends Hezbollah Attacks on Israeli Occupation – Arab League Defends Hezbollah
hezbollah's anti-americanism in south lebanon and arab league support. Page 5.

Arab and Middle Eastern media and cultural issues
Most Arab and Middle Eastern media may not be free, but that doesn't mean they're not extremely influential. Learn about the variety of media, culture and the arts, how those voices shape opinion and filter western messages on the Arab Street and beyond, and the roles censorship and state control play on controlling the message.

October 17 in Middle East History - This Day October 17 in Middle Eastern History
The events that shaped the Middle East on this day in the Mideast's history calendar: October 17.

President George W. Bush and the Middle East - What Went Wrong
What went wrong with President George W. Bush's Middle East policy? It was never thought out strategically or tactically. Only ideologically. And only half-heartedly at that.

John McCain's Vote Against U.S. Marines in Beirut - John McCain's Deception on 1983 Beirut Lebanon Deployment
John McCain claims to have voted in 1983 against sending U.S. Marines to Beirut, Lebanon, because his

Blog


Full Text of President Bush's "War on Terror" Speech
Read the full text of George W. Bush's speech to Congress on Sept. 20, 2001 declaring a War on Terror after the 9/11 attacks.

President Bush's Speech to Congress Declaring War on terror - Full Text of George W. Bush's Speech to Congress Declaring War on Terror
Full Text of George W. Bush's Speech to Congress Declaring War on Terror on Sept. 20, 2001. Page 2.

President Bush's Speech to Congress Declaring War on terror - Full Text of George W. Bush's Speech to Congress Declaring War on Terror
Full Text of George W. Bush's Speech to Congress Declaring War on Terror on Sept. 20, 2001. Page 3.

Current Situation in Iraq - What Is Happening?
What is currently happening in Iraq? Who is in power and who is behind the ongoing bomb attacks? Read about the background and analysis of latest events in Iraq.

Sunni vs. Shi'ite Islam - Cultural and Religious Differences
The difference between Sunni and Shiite Islam, the origins of the split between the two sects, and demographics about the two sects throughout the Middle East

Child Marriage: Facts, Causes and Consequences
Facts, causes and consequences of child marriage and the sexual abuse of children.

Arab Spring Uprisings
A country-by-country guide to the protests and uprisings in the Middle East that began with unrest in Tunisia in late 2010, with links to other background information.

The Reasons for the Arab Spring in 2011
What were the reasons for the Arab Spring in 2011? Read about the top ten developments that both triggered the revolt and helped it confront the might of the police state.

Religion and Conflict in Syria
Is the conflict in Syria a religious war? Why Alawites and other religious minorities tend to support the regime? Read about Syria's religious map and how it relates to the country's political faultlines.

1979 Seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca
The 1979 seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca by some 500 fundamentalist militants had nothing to do with al-Qaeda--and everything to do with what al-Qaeda became a decade and a half later.

Black September - The Jordanian-PLO Civil War of 1970
The story of the September 1970 civil war between King Hussein's Jordanian military and Yasser Arafat's PLO, what became known as Black September.

The Statue of Liberty's Egyptian Origin
Frdric Auguste Bartholdi and the Statue of Liberty's Egyptian Origins: How Lady Liberty was imagined as an Egyptian peasant lighting the entrance of the Suez Canal.

Why does Russia support the Syrian regime
Russia’s support for the Syrian regime is motivated by extensive trade and military interests that go back to the Soviet era. But how far is Russia willing to go in its suport for the regime?

What is the Arab Spring?
Anti-government uprisings broke out across the Middle East in 2011. Why do we call them the

Reasons for Violence in Iraq
What is behind the ongoing Sunni-Shiite violence in Iraq? See here for an ovreview of Sunni-Shiite relations, and how they were poisoned by the struggle for power and outside interference.

Inshallah - What does Insha'Allah mean
Definition and origins of the common Arabic word

What Is the Twelver Shiites, or Ithna Ahariyah?
Definition of Twelver Shiites, or Ithna ‘Ashariyah or Imamiyah, a major subdivision of of Shiitism's spiritual suburbs.

Israel's Creation of Hamas - How Israel Helped Create Hamas
Beginning in the 1970s, Israel helped to create Hamas in Gaza in an attempt to counterbalance the influence of Fatah and the Palestine Liberation Organization. The gamble failed.

What Is the Balfour Declaration?
The Balfour declaration of 1917 was Britain's implicit, but shot-lived, recognition that Jews ought to have a homeland in Palestine.

Does the Quran Require Women to Wear the Veil?
The veil is one of the most contentious issues in Islam and the Western world. But is the veil, or any form of head covering, actually required by the Quran, or is it an Islamic convention?

Who Is Winning the Civil War in Syria?
Who is winning the civil war in Syria: the regime of President Bashar al-Assad or Syria’s disparate opposition? Read about the balance of power on the ground, and why the conflict might drag on for a long time.

Top Ten Reasons for the Uprising in Syria
What is behind the Syrian uprising? See the root causes of the uprising in Syria

The Difference Between Alawites and Sunnis in Syria
Are the differences between Alawites and Sunnis doctrinal or political? Read about the Alawite beliefs, their place in the Syrian regime, and their alleged links to Iran.

Iran and Saudi Arabia - Middle East Cold War
At its core, the Iranian-Saudi rivalry is about power and money: two oil-rich giants, vying for control of the Strait of Hormuz, a narrow water passage that accounts for almost 20% of all oil traded worldwide.

Who Are the Syrian Rebels
The rebels in Syria have been fighting the forces of President Bashar al-Assad since 2011. Who are they really and what do they want? Are they linked to Al Qaeda?

Why Iran Supports the Syrian Regime
The alliance between Iran and Syria is one of the most resilient strategic partnerships in the Middle East, based on a unique convergence of interests.

Current Situation in Egypt
Analysis and background information on the political transition in Egypt: latest developments, the balance of power, profiles of main players.

Share: Facebook (فيس بوك ) Goes Arabic and Hebrew
Facebook, the social-networking site that's either the greatest thing since six-pack pita or the most intrusive fad since the smiley-face epidemic of the

Nowruz Mubarak! (But Wait: What Is Nowruz?)
Eid-eh Shoma Mobarak: Nowruz, the Iranian New Year, is celebrated in many parts of the world, as in New York City's annual Persian Parade. (Mario Tama/Getty

Operation El Dorado Canyon (Libya, 1986): Overview
Operation El Dorado Canyon, the 1986 U.S. Attack on Libya in retaliation for the terrorist bombing at a Berlin discotheque.

Arab Americans Populations by State
A table graphically breaking down Arab American populations in the United States in California, Michigan, New York and seven other states, according to the Census Bureau and Zogby International estimates.

Afghanistan's Rape Law - What Afghanistan's Rape Law Says and How Women Got Stoned Protesting It
What Afghanistan's rape law says and how women got stoned protesting it in Kabul.

What's a Supreme Leader? - Shiite Islam, the Iranian Revolution and the Concept of Supreme Leader
Shiite Islam, the Iranian Revolution and the Concept of Supreme Leader: an invention of Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini.

Origins and History of Arabica Coffee
What is Arabica coffee? A brief lesson in the origins and history of one of the world's richest and most aromatic coffee beans.

What Were the Camp David Accords of 1978?
The 1978 Egyptian-Israeli Camp David Accords sealed an eventual peace treaty between Israel and Egypt and remain the single-greatest American achievement for peace in the Middle East.

History of the Taliban: Who They Are, What They Want
Brief history of the rise and fall (and rise again) of the Taliban in Afghanistan, its relationship with al-Qaeda, Pakistan and the United States, and its designs on Islam through Mullah Omar Muhammad

The Taliban's Origins - Link to Madrassas of Pakistan
Understanding the Taliban's emergence through Pakistan's madrassas and its militant-Islamic intentions in Afghanistan

Mullah Omar Muhammad and the Taliban's Rise in Afghanistan - How Mullah Omar Took Control of the Taliban
As civil war was ravaging Afghanistan, Afghans were desperate for a stabilizing counter-force that would put an end to the violence. Mullah Omar Muhammad provided it.

Benazir Bhutto, Pakistan's Intelligence Services and the Taliban - History of the Taliban
How Pakistan's intelligence services (ISI) and Benazir Bhutto enabled the Taliban's rise in Afghanistan

The Taliban and the Clinton Administration - Brief History of the Taliban
How the Clinton administration was briefly seduced by the possibility that the Taliban could be a counterweight to Iranian influence in Afghanistan--and a stabilizing influence on American designs to build oil and gas pipelines through Afghanistan

The Taliban's Repressions - Taliban's War on Women and Other Totalitarian Repressions
The Taliban's long lists of edicts and decrees took an especially misogynistic view of women. Schools for girls were closed. Women were forbidden to work or leave their homes without verifiable permission.

The Taliban's 2001 Downfall - The Taliban's Return in Afghanistan and Pakistan Since 2001
The Taliban fell from power during the American-led invasion of Afghanistan in 2001. But it's returned to controlling vast swaths of Afghanistan and Pakistan's tribal areas since. With al-Qaeda in tow.

Amin Maalouf's "Origins" - A Memoir of Lebanon and Cuba in Amin Maalouf's "Origins"
Amin Maalouf's

Latest News in the Middle East June 23 - 30 2014
A weekly selection of news reports and analysis of the latest issues in the Middle East.

1970 Palestinian Hijackings of Three Jets to Jordan
The story of the 1970 hijackings of three jets to Jordan's Dawson Field by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.

Why Is the United States in Iraq?
The Bush administration has changed its rationale for war in Iraq as the complexions of the war and the occupation have changed.

What is Allahu Akbar?
Translation and explanation of Allahu Akbar, the Islamic chant and call to prayer often used in political rallies and stereotyped in the West.

How Qatar Landed the 2022 World Cup
How Qatar pulled off hosting the 2022 World Cup and what it says about the tiny emirate and its rising power in the Middle East.

A List of Israel's Prime Ministers, 1948-2008
A complete list of Israel's prime ministers from 1948 to the present.

Bin Laden's Declaration of War on the United States, 1996
Explanation and context of Osama bin laden's 1996 jihad declaration of war against the United States.

What Is the War Powers Act?
War Powers Act FAQ: How the War Powers Act of 1973 requires US presidents to seek congressional authorization to engage US troops in hostilities for longer than 60 to 90 days.

What Was the Arms-For-Hostages Iran-Contra Affair?
A bried explanation of the Reagan administration's arms-for-hostages scandal known as the Iran-Contra Affair, which implicated numerous members of the Reagan administration--including Reagan and George H.W. Bush.

Gamal Abdel Nasser Profile - Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser
Profile of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egypt's revolutionary leader (1918-1970) and the founder of Pan-Arab nationalism.

Turkish-Syrian Relations-Overview
Turkey and Syria cooperated well between 2002 and 2011. What is behind the latest confrontation between Ankara and Damascus?

Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali - Profile of Tunisia's Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali
Profile of Tunisia's ex-president, Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, one of North Africa's

Who Is in Power in Egypt
A look at the main players involved in the struggle for power in Egypt as the military gradually steps aside for an elected civilian government.

Ottoman Empire - What Was the Ottoman Empire in Turkey and Middle East History
A definition of the Ottoman Empire and its reach in Middle Eastern history from the 13th century to the ruins of World War I.

Is Iraq a Democracy
The US-led invasion in 2003 toppled the dictatorship of former Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein. But is Iraq really a democracy today? How was the civil war affected the political system?

Madrassa or Madrasa - What Is a Madrassa
A definition of the word that means, in Arabic,

The Palestine Liberation Organization
A concise history of the PLO, the Palesti9ne Liberation organization.

Salat or Islamic Prayer
Salat, or prayer, is one of the five pillars of Islam, the five duties required of every practicing Muslim.

Syria's Armed Opposition: Free Syrian Army
The Free Syrian Army (FSA) is the focal point of Syria’s armed opposition to President Bashar al-Assad: how are they organized and can they defeat the regime?

Reasons for Egypt Crisis
What went wrong in Egypt after the 2011 uprising that brought down the dictatorship of Hosni Mubarak? Read about the root causes of Egypt's political crisis.

Sunni Shiite Tension in the Middle East
An overview of Sunni-Shiite hotspots in the Middle East, and what is driving the tension.

The Niqab Compared to Veils, Burqas and Hijabs
What is the niqab in islamic dress and how is it different from face veils, burqas and hijabs or keffiyehs.

Pros and Cons of Intervening in the Syrian Conflict
Several options for intervention in the Syrian crisis are on the table, but none of them promises a quick end to the Syrian tragedy. Here's a list of pros and cons of intervening in Syria.

Who Supports Syrian Regime
The Syrian regime has survived the 2011 uprising for longer than many people assumed it would. Why do so many Syrians support President Bashar al-Assad? And what are the motives behind foreign suppport for his regime?

1980 Moscow Olympics and the Invasion of Afghanistan
Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979, the United States led a 61-nation boycott of the Summer Olympics held in Moscow in 1980.

Israeli Position on Syrian Conflict
Israel and Syria are old enemies, but over the years they have learnt to avoid open warfare. How can Israel benefit from the downfall of the Syrian regime? Can the chaos in Syria be a threat to Israel?

The Five Pillars of Islam - Historical Explanation
The five duties required of every practicing Muslim. Sunnis believe in the Five Pillars. Shiites do as well, though they add two or three.

What Is Jerusalem's Al-Aqsa Mosque or the Dome of the Rock?
Description and brief history of Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, also known as the Dome of the Rock, Islam's third-holiest site.

Ihram - Definition
The state of purity required of Muslim pilgrims before conducting the pilgrimage to Mecca.

1949 UN Resolution Calling for Referendum on Kashmir
Text of 1949 UN Resolution Calling for a referendum on Kashmir's future with India or Pakistan.

Black September: Palestinian Movement and Jordanian War
A definition and explanation of Black September -- the September 1970 Jordanian crackdown on the PLO and the movement of the same name that the civil war spawned.

Adult Illiteracy Rates (15 Years & Over) in the Middle East
Facts & Statistics on Adult Literacy and Illiteracy in the Middle East, country rankings.

Why Saudi Arabia Supports the Syrian Opposition
Saudi support for the Syrian opposition is motivated by a decades-long desire to break the alliance between Syria and the Islamic Republic of Iran.

The Assassination of Egypt's Anwar Sadat
Understanding the details behind the Anwar Sadat assassination in Cairo on Oct. 6, 1981, by a Muslim brotherhood offshoot that would later be identified with al-Qaeda.

What Is the Keffieh or Keffiyeh? (Shemaghs)
Definition and politics of the keffieh, or keffiyeh, the Arab headdress.

Iraq Casualties: 900,000 Iraqis Killed in Three Decades
A tally of Iraq casualties in war and death camps, 1980-2009, from Saddam Hussein's regime to George W. Bush's war.

What Is the Burqa in Islamic Dress?
Brief definition and description of the burqa, the

What is a Ziggurat? Definition and History
Ziggurat: definition and history of the Mesopotamian, temple-like architecture of ancient history.

What Is Pakistan's ISI or Inter-Services Intelligence
FAQ: What Is Pakistan's ISI or Inter-Services Intelligence? All you need to know about the rogue intelligence agency termed a

Middle East Oil Reserves By Country and Rank
Let's set the record straight about what few Middle East countries produce oil, and what many Middle East countries do not.

Why No Solution to Syrian Conflict
The war in Syria is the Arab world's most intractable internal conflict since the Lebanese civil war in the 1980s. What are the obstacles to a peaceful settlement?

Who are the Shabiha militias
Shabiha militias are the shock troops of President Bashar al-Assad’s regime. Where do they come from and can they win the war for Assad?

Latest News in the Middle East May 6 - 13 2014
A weekly selection of news reports and analysis of the latest issues in the Middle East.

Latest News in the Middle East April 23- 30 2014
A weekly selection of news reports and analysis of the latest issues in the Middle East.

Kuwait: Country Profile - Profile of Kuwait, Oil-Rich Emirate - Kuwait Government, Economy and Religion
Country profile of Kuwait, one of the Arab world's relatively open and politically vibrant societies.

Israel: Country Profile - Profile of Israel
The basics on Israel's government structure, its population, religious and ethnic breakdown, the military, the economy, and a summary of Israeli history going back to ancient times

The Iranian Hostage Crisis, 1979-1981 – Origins and Background of the Iranian Hostage Crisis
Origins and Background of the 444-day Iranian Hostage Crisis during the Carter administration, Nov. 4, 1979-Jan. 20, 1981: the political climate, the lethal infighting of the Carter administration and the repercussion on American prestige.

Israel's Security Fence and Separation Barrier
Why was the security fence built? Is it designed to keep Palestinians from attacking Israel--or to give Israel an excuse to grab more land? Has it been effective in reducing suicide-bomber attacks?

The Buddha Statues of Bamiyan, Afghanistan - Bamiyan's Buddha Sculptures Destroyed by the Taliban
A brief history of the magnificent Buddha statues that stood at Bamiyan, Afghanistan, for almost 1,500 years until the Taliban destroyed them in 2001.

Egypt's Sinai Peninsula - Overview & History
Brief definition, description and history of Egypt's Sinai Peninsula.

Latest News in the Middle East April 15 - 22 2014
A weekly selection of news reports and analysis of the latest issues in the Middle East

Middle East Cultures and Religions
Explore the vastness and diversity of Middle Eastern culture from its literatures to its arts to languages, media, religion and popular culture.

Middle East Countries With Nuclear Weapons
Read about the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the Middle East, and see why we should worry about the rivalry between Iran and Saudi Arabia.

Current Situation in Libya
What is currently happening in Libya? Who is in power, and why is there still violence in the country? Read about the latest news and analysis.

What Is the Shiite Crescent
The Shiite Crescent is a contentious notion of an emerging alliance of Shiite political forces in the Middle East, backed by a resurgent Iran, with the specific aim of countering the Sunni Arab, US-backed states such as Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan.

Current Situation in Qatar
Who is in power in Qatar, and what role does this Gulf Arab emirate play in the Middle East? Read about the background to Qatar's politics, along with all the latest developments and analysis.

Russia Middle East Influence
Russia has frustrated the US by supporting the Syrian regime. But could Moscow really threaten US influence in the Middle East? Is the region really that important to Russia?

Al Qaeda Organization After Osama bin Laden
Al Qaeda’s core leadership is relying increasingly on its affiliates in Afghanistan, the Middle East and the Horn of Africa, to carry on the fight.

Reasons for French Intervention in Mali
Why did France feel it was necessary to intervene in the conflict in Mali? How dangerous is the presence of Al Qaeda in the divided country?

Egypt Crisis Main Players
Egypt’s crisis is a result of a failed transition to democracy after the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak in 2011. Read about the key political actors and alliances.

The Impact of Syrian Uprising on Lebanon
The impact of the Syrian uprising on Lebanon will be as closely watched as the events in Syria itself. Have a look at 10 developments that can draw Lebanon into the fight.

Syrian Opposition - Who Can Replace Assad
Syrian opposition is a diverse mix of exiled political groups, grassroots activists organizing protests inside Syria, and armed groups waging a guerilla war on the government forces.

Turkey Role in the Arab Spring
How did Turkey become the champion of democratic change in the Arab world? What is Ankara trying to achieve by backing the Arab Spring uprisings? Read about Turkish foreign policy in the new Middle East.

Al Qaeda in Syria - Al Nusra Front
Al Nusra Front is a Syrian rebel group with links to Al Qaeda in Iraq. What are the group's goals, and what tactics is it using to get there?

Current Situation in Turkey
What is currently happening in Turkey? WHo is power, who is in the opposition? Get all the background and the latest analysi of the current developments in Turkey.

Current Situation in Tunisia
Tunisia is the birthplace of the Arab Spring protests that in 2011 shook the Middle East. What is currently happening in Tunisia? Read about the people in power, the latest developments, and what lies ahead.

Barack Obama and the Middle East: A Guide - Primers Briefings and Explainers on Barack Obama and the Middle East
Primers Briefings and Explainers on Barack Obama and the Middle East, country by country

Why Hezbollah Supports Syrian Regime
Hezbollah, Lebanese Shiite party and militia, has intervened in Syrian civil war on the side of the government. What are the group's motives, and how does that involve Iran?

How Arab Spring Started
The Arab Spring was a series of anti-government uprising that shook the Middle East in 2011. Read about the first protests and how they grew into a mass movement that brought down one of the most corrupt Arab regimes.

Latest News in the Middle East March 27 - 31 2014
A weekly selection of news reports and analysis of the latest issues in the Middle East.

Latest News in the Middle East March 19 - 26 2014
A weekly selection of news reports and analysis of the latest issues in the Middle East.

Latest News in the Middle East March 11 - 18 2014
A weekly selection of news reports and analysis of the latest issues in the Middle East.

Muslim Veil and Burqa Controversy - Guide to Muslim Veil and Burqa Controversies - Islamophobia or Assimilation
Islamophobia or assimilation? A guide to the Muslim veil and burqa controversies in Europe, the United States and the Muslim world.

Hamas-Israeli Conflict - Background and Primers on the Hamas-Israeli Conflict
The Hamas-Israeli conflict is complicating prospects for peace between Israel and the Palestinians. It's driven by intransigence on both sides, neither of which recognizes the other as a klegitimate entity. Here's a primer on the Hamas-Israeli conflict.

Is Egypt a Democracy?
Egyptians took to the streets in 2011 to protest against corruption and repression. But are they any closer to living in a democracy?