Middle East Issues Sitemap - Page 2 2016-09-26

Why is There Still Violence in Libya
Libya faces a long road toward full stabilization and the presence of autonomous, heavily armed groups poses the biggest threat to the political process.

Geraldine Brooks: "Nine Parts of Desire" (Review)


Review: "What Went Wrong," by Bernard Lewis - Islam's Decline According to Bernard Lewis
As European civilization was rising during the Enlightenment, Islamic civilization was proving incapable of keeping up with its European rivals. Bernard Lewis asks why, but his question raises more questions than it answers.

Room for Un-Mullah-Like Fun
Islam with a human face could not ask for a more eloquent advocate. Brooks’ advocacy though is only a by-product of a book primarily concerned with showing the women of Islam unsentimentally, in all their inspiring or frightful variety, and with showing the practices of Islam in the same vein. To Khomeini’s post-mortem discontent, there’s even “a little unmullah-like fun” along the way.. Page 2.

Gilad Shalit Video
Video of Gilad Shalit, the Israeli soldier captured by Palestinian commandos in a Gaza military post on June 25, 2006.

Egyptian Military's Power - Profile of the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF)
Egyptian military’s power rests on a complex web of intelligence networks, profitable business enterprises and exclusive government budgets. Civilian politicians may have captured the elected state institutions, but real power in Egypt still resides with the opaque Supreme Council of Armed Forces.

Lebanon: Country Profile - Country Profile of Lebanon
More interested in commerce than empire, the people of Lebanon have historically been more inclined to play host to a succession of invaders than build a national identity. That’s been as true since Lebanon got its independence from France in 1943 as it was in the past.

Salafism in the Middle East
Salafis are ultra-conservative Islamists advocating a religious revival in Muslim societies. What are the origins of their thought? Are all Muslims in the Middle East Salafis? Whas is their connection to Al Qaeda?

Islamists and the Arab Spring Uprisings
The Arab Spring uprisings in 2011 unleashed great political change in the Middle East. Did Islamist groups participate in the protests? How did they get involved, and how have they benefited from the changes?

who are the islamists
Islamism is probably the most powerful political force in the Middle East today. Where does this ideology come from, and how does it relate to Islam?

Is Turkey a Democracy
Turkey has one of the healthiest democratic systems in the Muslim world, although with considerable deficits on the issue of the protection of minorities, human rights, and the freedom of the press.

Latest News in the Middle East February 17 - 23 2014
A weekly selection of news reports and analysis of the latest issues in the Middle East.

Latest News in the Middle East December 30 - January 6 2014
A weekly selection of news reports and analysis of the latest issues in the Middle East.

Latest News in the Middle East January 13 - 19 2014
A weekly selection of news reports and analysis of the latest issues in the Middle East.

Latest News in the Middle East January 20 - 27 2014
A weekly selection of news reports and analysis of the latest issues in the Middle East.

Latest News in the Middle East February 10 - 16 2014
A weekly selection of news reports and analysis of the latest issues in the Middle East.

Latest News in the Middle East February 4 - 9 2014
A weekly selection of news reports and analysis of the latest issues in the Middle East.

Results of Egypt's 2012 presidential election
Final results of the first & second round of Egypt's 2012 presidential election, along with info on voter turn out and conduct of the polls.

Guide to Egypt's Presidential Election 2012
Rounding up the drama of Egyptian politics with the latest analysis and background information.

Why the Crisis in Bahrain Will Not Go Away
Five reasons why crisis in Bahrain won't go away,as Bahrain’s Shiite opposition continues its struggle against the Sunni royal family,

turkey intervention in Syria
Why is Turkey reluctant to intervene in Syria? What could force Turkey to go to war and what would the invasion look like? Read about scenarios on Turkey's intervention in Syria.

Why Lebanon Matters to Israel
The louder the drumbeats of war between Israel and Iran, and the deeper the slide toward civil war in Syria, the more we’ll be nervously looking at Lebanon in 2012.

Al Qaeda and Arab Spring
Arab Spring uprisings in 2011 have changed the political map of the Middle East. How did Al Qaeda react to these upheavals? Was Arab Spring a threat or an opportunity for the terrorist network?

The Satanic Verses in Islamic History - What Were the Satanic Verses in Islam and the Koran
An explanation of the Satanic verses in Islamic history (as opposed to

Muammar el Qaddafi's Green Book - What Is Gaddafi's Green Book and Influence on Libya
Muammar el Qaddafi's Green Book is a three-part collection of political thoughts, social and economic theories and day-to-day how-to guides by Libya’s Muammar el Gadddafi. The book sums up Qaddafi’s “Third Universal Theory,” designed to be an alternative to capitalism and “atheistic communism.”

What Is the Military's Heat-Ray Gun or Active Denial System? - ADS Milityary Crowd and Riot Control Heat Ray Gun
The U.S. military deployed a heat-ray gun, or

"The Kite Runner" Controversy and Afghanistan's Regression
Afghanistan has been retreating back into chaos and repression in 2006 and 2007. The decision to delay the release of 'The Kite Runner

Summary Findings of the Winograd Commission on Israel's 2006 Lebanon War, Interim Report
Summary of the April 2007 interim report of the Winograd commission on the conduct of the Israeli government of Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and the Israeli military regarding Israel’s 2006 war in Lebanon.

Summary Findings of the Winograd Commission on Israel's 2006 Lebanon War, Interim Report
Summary of the April 2007 interim report of the Winograd commission on the conduct of the Israeli government of Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and the Israeli military regarding Israel’s 2006 war in Lebanon. Page 2.

Summary Findings of the Winograd Commission on Israel's 2006 Lebanon War, Interim Report
Summary of the April 2007 interim report of the Winograd commission on the conduct of the Israeli government of Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and the Israeli military regarding Israel’s 2006 war in Lebanon. Page 3.

Summary Findings of the Winograd Commission on Israel's 2006 Lebanon War, Interim Report
Summary of the April 2007 interim report of the Winograd commission on the conduct of the Israeli government of Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and the Israeli military regarding Israel’s 2006 war in Lebanon. Page 4.

Summary Findings of the Winograd Commission on Israel's 2006 Lebanon War, Interim Report
Summary of the April 2007 interim report of the Winograd commission on the conduct of the Israeli government of Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and the Israeli military regarding Israel’s 2006 war in Lebanon. Page 5.

Egypt at 2008 Beijing Olympics – Guide to Egypt’s athletes, games and history at 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics
Your Guide to the 2008 Beijing Olympics for Egypt: Egypt’s Olympic history and country profile, and Egypt’s athletes at the 2008 Olympics by name and by sport, or game.

Timeline of Egyptian Revolution 2011
The timeline of Egyptian revolution follows the events from the fall of former president Hosni Mubarak in February 2011 through the troubled transition period leading to the first parliamentary elections in November 2011.

America's Pro-Israel Bias - Why the United States Takes Israel's Side in the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict
American policy in the Middle East has had few successes to speak of—fewer still when considering the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. One reason: With few exceptions (President Carter certainly, President Clinton occasionally), Arabs in general and Palestinians in particular have not trusted American negotiators. The reason for that is no mystery. American negotiators and mediators have always taken sides—Israel’s.

The Assassination of Khalil al-Wazir "Abu Jihad" - Mossad's Tunis Assassination of the PLO's "Abu Jihad"
Background, details and consequences of the Mossad's assassination of the PLO's Abu Jihad, or Khalil al-Wazir, in Tunis on April 16, 1988

The Assassination of Khalil al-Wazir "Abu Jihad" - Mossad's Tunis Assassination of the PLO's "Abu Jihad"
Background, details and consequences of the Mossad's assassination of the PLO's Abu Jihad, or Khalil al-Wazir, in Tunis on April 16, 1988. Page 2.

Terrorism Sources, Documents, Speeches, Archives war on terror
Vital documents about terrorism, the war on terror, speeches and studies relating to the war on terror, al-Qaeda and the history of terrorism in the Middle East

Primary source documents in the Middle East conflict
Primary source documents in the Middle East conflict, including speeches, statistics, studies and testimonies

The Palestinian-Israeli conflict from its origins to the present
Principal issues dividing Israelis and Palestinians, origins of the conflict, the various Arab-Israeli wars, the uprisings, or intifada, the West Bank and Gaza and recent differences between the two Occupied Territories, human rights issues.

Kuwait Country Profile, Briefings, Current Issues - The Complete Story on Kuwait
The story on Kuwait: current issues, Kuwait's oil-dependent economy, Kuwait's relatively freer political structure, its history, its close ties with the West, and its place between two Arab giants--Saudi Arabia and Iraq.

Libya: Country Profile, History, Government, Current Issues
The story on Libya: Country profile, briefings, recent and past history, the country's support for terrorism in the 1970s and 1990s, its isolation under Col. Muammar Qaddafi's long rule, and its slow motions toward rehabilitation in the 21st century.

Mauritania: Country Profile - Profile of Mauritania
The story on Mauritania: Country profile, briefings, recent and past history, Mauritania's challenges as an emerging democracy seeped in a history of military juntas and slavery.

Oman - Country Profile, Latest Issues, Briefings on Oman
The story on Oman, the

Palestine and the Palestinians
The story on Palestine and the Palestinians: The situation in the Occupied Territories, the refugees, the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, the hopes for (and obstacles in the way of) an independent Palestinian state and Hamas' rise.

Yemen - Country Profiles, Backgrounders, Briefings
The story on Yemen: current issues, Yemen's place in the

Cyprus - Country Profile, Briefings and Latest Issues on Cyprus
The Story on Cyprus: current issues, Cyprus's divided status between Turkish-backed Cypriots and Greek-backed Cypriots, and the peace process aimed at reunification.

Lebanon: From Civil War to stalemate.
Lebanon: Internal and external conflicts. The 1975-1990 civil war and its aftermath. Syrian occupation and interference. Rise of Hezbollah. Chronic conflicts with Israel.

Morocco: Country Profile, Briefings and Latest Issues
The story on Morocco: Politics, economy, social conditions, vital statistics and the latest issues.

Somalia: Country Profile, Briefings and Latest Issues
The story on Somalia: Politics, economy, Somalia's chronic civil war, vital statistics and the latest issues.

Turkey: Country Profile, Briefings and Latest Issues
The story on Turkey: politics, economy, social conditions, vital statistics and Turkey's dual role between Asian and European allegiances.

Algeria: Country Profile
The story on Algeria: Country profile, briefings, recent and past history, Algeria's politics and religion, profiles of Algerian newsmakers and updates on current issues.

Bahrain: Country Profile, Latest Issues, Briefings
The story on Bahrain: current issues, how a minority Sunni family rules over a majority of Shiites, and Bahrain's place in the Persian Gulf's geopolitics--caught between Iran, Saudi Arabia and the United States.

Egypt: Country Profile, Briefings, Latest Issues
The story on Egypt: The Arab world's most populous country is also one of its most authoritarian. Between economic challenges and an uncertain political succession for President Hosni Mubarak, Egypt is struggling to maintain its role as an Arab leader.

Ethiopia country profile, briefings, backgrounders - Ethiopia explained
The Story on Ethiopia: current issues, Ethiopia's place in East Africa and the politics of the Horn of Africa, its relations with Eritrea and the United States.

Jordan
Country Profile, Issues, History and Current Events, including Jordan's relationship with the United States and its place in the context of the Arab-Israeli conflict.

Middle East Glossary Words - W - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - W - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - X - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - X - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - Y - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - Y - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - K - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - K - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - L - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - L - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - N - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - N - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - O - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - O - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - P - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - P - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - Q - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - Q - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - R - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - R - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - T - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - T - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - U - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - U - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - V - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - V - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - B - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - B - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - C - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - C - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - D - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - D - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - E - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - E - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - F - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - F - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - G - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - G - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - H - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - H - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - I - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - I - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

Middle East Glossary Words - J - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World
Middle East Glossary Words - J - Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World

The Arab-Israeli conflict from its origins to the present.
When did the Arab-Israeli conflict begin? What have the Arab-Israeli wars got to do with the Palestinian question? How have the Palestinian uprisings precipitated or ambushed the peace process, and when will Israelis and Palestinians see past their no-exit strategies?

Glossary for the Middle East, Islam and the Arab World - Index
Glossary of terms, concepts, customs, traditions, people and places most commonly used in connection with the greater Middle East, Islam and the Arab World, including relevant translations of Arabic terms and explanations, in today's contexts, of historic and sectarian terms.

Oil, Energy and the Middle East
More than half the world's known oil reserves are sitting under Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates. Explore how the politics of oil fuel much of the world's relationship with the region and dictate big and small-power strategy.

Religion & Sectarianism
The Middle East's principal religions and sects, how they differ, how and why they clash. Learn about the role of religion in politics, law and society, the difficulty of separating religion from politics, how religious differences have fueled numerous wars, and what it is about Sunnis and Shiites that has them reenacting the Reformation--with Arabic subtitles.

Terrorism: Myths and Reality
Terrorism in the Middle East from North Africa to Pakistan: Who are the terrorists? What do their organizations aim for? What are the myths of terrorism? Is the West responding to the terrorist threat or to the West's perceptions of a

George W. Bush Declares His "War on Terror" - Sept. 20, 2001 - George W. Bush Declares His "War on Terror"
President Bush Declares his

August 14-August 20 in Middle East History – This day and This Week August 14-August 20 in Middle East History
Events that shaped Middle East history on this day and this week in the Middle East calendar, August 14-August 20, from the Palestinian riots of 1929 to Cyprus’ independence day

Israel Annexes Arab East Jerusalem - June 27, 1967 – Israel Illegally Annexes Arab East Jerusalem
June 27, 1967: Israel’s annexation of Jerusalem. Page 2.

June 26-July 2 in Middle East History – Photo Gallery - This day and This Week June 26-July 2 in Middle East History
Events that shaped Middle East history on this day and this week in the Middle East calendar, June 26-July 2, including the annexation of Jerusalem, Bahrain’s coups and the hijacking of TWA Flight 847

May 22-May 28 in Middle East History – This Week in Middle East History: May 22-May 28
Events that shaped Middle East history on this day in the Middle East calendar, May 25 may 22 may 23 may 28 , from Jordan’s independence to Israel’s withdrawal from South Lebanon.

March 11, 1976 – Lebanon’s Brig. Gen. Aziz al-Ahdab Stages Unsuccessful Coup - Aziz al-Ahdab’s Coup in Lebanese Civil War
March 11, 1976 – Lebanon’s Brig. Gen. Aziz al-Ahdab Stages Unsuccessful Coup. Page 3.

March 11 in Middle East History - This Day March 11 in Middle Eastern History
The events that shaped the Middle East on this day in the Mideast's history calendar: March 11, from the Ottoman Empire’s loss of Baghdad to the 1977 Hanafi siege in Washington DC Madrid train bombing of 2004

March 11 in Middle East History - This Day March 11 in Middle Eastern History
The events that shaped the Middle East on this day in the Mideast's history calendar: March 11, from the Ottoman Empire’s loss of Baghdad to the 1977 Hanafi siege in Washington DC Madrid train bombing of 2004. Page 6.

March 11 in Middle East History - This Day March 11 in Middle Eastern History
The events that shaped the Middle East on this day in the Mideast's history calendar: March 11, from the Ottoman Empire’s loss of Baghdad to the 1977 Hanafi siege in Washington DC Madrid train bombing of 2004. Page 5.

What Are Arab Human Development Reports? - The UNDP Arab Human Development Reports
Explanation and brief history of the UN's Arab Human Development Reports providing a stark picture of Arab society, culture and politics.

Human Rights Council - What Is the United Nations Human Rights Council?
Purpose, history and make-up of the United Nations' Human Rights Council in a few words.

Palestinian Authority FAQ (PA)- What Is the Palestinian Authority (PA) FAQ
What is the Palestinian Authority (PA), how different is it from the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and other frequently asked questions.

What Is a Status of Forces Agreement, or SOFA - Iraq, U.S. Troops and the Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA)
An explanation of Status of Forces agreements, or SOFA, between the United States and some 100 governments hosting U.S. troops.

OPEC - What Is Opec, the Organization of Oil Exporting Countries?
OPEC: History and member countries of the Organization of Oil Exporting Countries.

Iran's Council of Guardians - What Is the Purpose and Power of Iran's Council of Guardians?
A brief explanation of the power and purpose of Iran's 12-member, appointed Council of Guardians.

Does Iran Have Nuclear Weapons? Iran and the Bomb
Does Iran have nuclear weapons? No. Does it have the capability to build them? Speculation aside, nobody really knows.

What Is Shebaa Farms? - Lebanon Syria Israel and the Dispute Over Shebaa Farms
Basics of the dispute over Shebaa Farms, the sliver of land at the Lebanon-Syria border that Israel has occupied as part of the Golan Heights since 1967.

Sharjah - What Is the United Arab Emirates' Sharjah - History Geography and Politics
Brief portrait of Sharjah, one of the United Arab Emirates' seven federated, autonomous mini-states.

Fatah-Hamas Reconciliation Agreement - Text of the 2011 Fatah-Hamas Reconciliation Agreement
Full text of the Fatah-Hamas reconciliation agreement of April 27, 2011, outlining elections, security issues and governing matters.

James Madison Declares Victory Against Barbary Pirates (1815) - In His 1815 Message to Congress Madison Declares Victory Over Barbary Pirates
In his Seventh Annual Message to Congress, in 1815, President James Madison Declares Victory Over Barbary Pirates after three decades of war.

Khartoum Declaration (1967) - Full Text of the Khartoum Declaration in Arab-Israeli Conflict
Full text of the 1967 Khartoum Declaration, in which Arab states implici9tly recognized that the Arab-Israeli Conflict would be resolved politically, not militarily.

THAAD Ballistic Missile Defense - What Is the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) Ballistic Missile System
Brief description of the THAAD missile defense system built by Lockheed Martin.

Imam - In Islam, What Is an Imam, or Khalifah
Definition of Imam, or Khalifah, in Islam.

March 8 Alliance - What Is Lebanon's March 8 Alliance
Lebanon's March 8 alliance: definition and brief history of the pro-Syrian, Hezbollah-led political coalition.

Buzkashi - National Sport of Afghanistan - What Is Buzkashi
Definition of the national sport of Afghanistan and other central Asian cultures.

Fellah, Fellaheen - What Are Fellaheen, or Fallaheen
Fellah is the Arabic word for farmer, or agricultural worker who makes his living from the land. Fellaheen is the plural for the word, which has also come to represent a class of people in the Arab agricultural world.

IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency - What Is the IAEA, the International Atomic Energy Agency
Definition and brief history of the IAEA, the International Atomic Energy Agency, a United Nations agency.

CENTCOM - What Is CENTCOM, the Pentagon's United States Central Command Over the Middle East
De3finition and geograp-hic command of CENTCOM, the military's United States Central Command over the Middle East.

Private Contractors and Troops in Iraq - Contractors, Mercenaries and U.S. Troops in Iraq
Throughout the Iraq war, the number of U.S. troops in country has always been almost equal to the number of private contractors.

Internet Usage in the Middle East by Country - Chart of Internet Usage in the Middle East
A chart of Internet usage in the Middle East by country, including growth trends, 2000-2008.

U.S. Dependence on Foreign Oil, by Country
America's dependence on foreign oil, not as much from the Middle East as generally assumed, foreign sources of Petroleum products and percentages of domestic product supplied

Top world oil exporters 2006
World's top oil and petroleum products exporters 2006, Middle East oil production barrels of oil per day

Top world oil consumers 2006
World's top oil and petroleum products consumers 2006, Middle East oil consumption barrels of oil per day

Top World Oil Producers 2006
World's top oil producers 2006 United States Saudi Arabia petroleum production barrels of oil per day millions leading nations

The 2006 Lebanon War: Israel and Hezbollah Square Off
A 34-day war between Israel and Hezbollah that failed to achieve Israel's objectives while feeding into Hezbollah's mythology as Lebanon's

Israel and Gaza - A Withdrawal That Did Not End Israel's Occupation of Gaza
In 2005, Israel officially withdrew from the Gaza Strip. But the withdrawal did not end Israel's effective control of the Palestinian territory in all vital regards, thus inflaming Palestinian resentment rather than diffusing it.

Bahrain: Shiite Majority, Sunni Rule
Bahrain is the last country in the Middle East with a majority Shiite population still ruled by a minority, and authoritarian, Sunni family. The small Persian Gulf country is a study in restlessness.

Egyptian-Israeli Disengagement Treaties of 1974 and 1975
Following the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, the 1974 and 1975 disengagement treaties between Egypt and Israel were the first step toward a final peace agreement between the two countries.

Egyptian-Israeli Disengagement Treaties of 1974 and 1975
Following the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, the 1974 and 1975 disengagement treaties between Egypt and Israel were the first step toward a final peace agreement between the two countries. Page 2.

The Armenian Genocide by Ottoman Turks - Facts, Figures and Evidence in the Armenian Genocide by Turkey
It's a

Iraq War Timeline 1973-1993
A timeline of the events leading up to the first Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm) and through the end of the administration of the first George Bush in 1993.

Iraq War Timeline 1993-2003
Iraq War Timeline: the events between the aftermath of first Gulf War and Operation Iraqi Freedom, launched in March 2003.

Iraq War Timeline, Part 2 - from the End of First Gulf War to the Eve of Operation Iraqi Freedom, 1993-2003
A timeline of the events between the aftermath of first Gulf War and Operation Iraqi Freedom, launched in March 2003. Page 2.

Blackwater Nisoor Square Masssacre - Facts and Bakcground of Blackwater Nisoor Square Massacre in Iraq
Facts and brief history of the Blackwater/Nisoor Square massacre iN Baghdad, Iraq, on Sept. 16, 2007.

Arabs and Ellis Island - History of Arab and Middle Eastern Immigrants and Ellis Island
A brief history of Arabs and Middle Eastern immigrants who passed through Ellis Island between 1892 and 1954.

Osama bin Laden's 1996 Declaration of War - Bin Laden's 1996 Fatwa Declaring War on the United States
osama bin laden declaration of war 1996 fatwa mullah omar land of the two mosques jihad declaration

Egyptian Jokes and Humor - Understanding Modern Egypt Through Jokes and Humor
Egyptians and poor and unfree -- except in their jokes. Egyptian jokes and humor provide insights into Egyptian society, culture and politics.

Understanding the Egyptian Revolution and U.S. Policy - Hosni Mubarak, the Egyptian Revolution and U.S. Policy
Understanding the Egyptian Revolution against Hosni Mubarak in the context of U.S. or American policy in the Middle East.

Understanding the Egyptian Revolution and U.S. Policy - Hosni Mubarak, the Egyptian Revolution and U.S. Policy
Understanding the Egyptian Revolution against Hosni Mubarak in the context of U.S. or American policy in the Middle East. Page 2.

The Truman Doctrine - How US-Middle East Policy Gave Rise to the Truman Doctrine
The Truman Doctrine explained: How US-Middle East policy in Turkey and Greece gave rise to the Truman Doctrine and Soviet Containment in six decades of cold war.

The Failed Rescue of American Hostages in Iran – Background and Consequences of a Failed Rescue of Operation Eagle Claw
Background and political context of the failed rescue of American hostages in Iran on April 24, 1980.

Nuclear Iran - What If Iran Had Nuclear Weapons?
Do the West or Israel have any standing to stop Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons? Is a nuclear Iran more dangerous than a pre-emptive war on Iran?

Iranian Nukes - Iran's Nuclear Weapons Program
Iran has been aiming to become a nuclear power for more than two decades. The question has always been: for peaceful or offensive means? Iranian leaders themselves have been of two minds an Iranian nuclear weapons program.

Iranian Nukes - Iran's Nuclear Weapons Program
Iran has been aiming to become a nuclear power for more than two decades. The question has always been: for peaceful or offensive means? Iranian leaders themselves have been of two minds an Iranian nuclear weapons program. Page 2.

Gibran Khalil Gibran Profile - "The Prophet" Author and Lebanese Poet Gibran Khahlil Gibran Profile
A profile of Gibran Khalil Gibran (1883-1931), Lebanese-American author of

Benjamin Netanyahu Profile - Israel's Benjamin Bibi Netanyahu, Profile of Israel's Prime Minister
A profile of Benjmin

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Profile - Iranian President and Firebrand Mahmoud Ahmadinejad: a Profile
Profile of Iranian President and firebrand Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, including details on

Turkey: Country Profile - Profile of Turkey
Turkey is a country of contradictions: Politically European and secular but culturally Asian and Islamic, a member of NATO at loggerheads with other NATO members like the United States and Greece and a powerful economy still teetering on the edge of chaos.

Profile: Turkey's Recep Tayyip Erdogan - Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan
Born into a poor, rural family, Recep Tayyip Erdogan rapidly rose to power on the strength of Turkey's increasingly powerful Islamist electorate. Read a full profile of Erdogan's rise and politics.

Iraq: Country Profile - Profile of Iraq
Iraq's evolution from cradle to civilization to invaders' welcome mat, and its current struggle to make a nation out of sectarian splinters and under occupation.

Anwar el Sadat Profile - Profile of Egypt's Anwar el Sadat
A profile of Egypt's Anwar el Sadat (1918-1981), bold, authoritarian

Profile: Qatar's Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani - Emir of Qatar Profile
Qatar's Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani is one of the Middle East's most influential, reformist leaders, balancing his country's traditional conservatism with his vision of a technologically modern and culturally diverse state.

Qatar - Country Profile
Country briefing on Qatar, one of the Arab world's smallest, richest and relatively more liberal countries.

Morocco: Country Profile - Profile of Morocco
The basics on Morocco: people, politics, religion, King Mohammed VI's monarchy, the situation in Western Sahara-the most pressing current issues

Asif Ali Zardari Profile - Profile of Pakistan's Asif Ali Zardari, Widow of Benazir Bhutto
Asif Ali Zardari, husband of the late Benazir Bhutto, is known as Pakistan's

Yemen: Country Profile - Country Profile of Yemen and Yemeni Politics, History & Culture
The story on Yemen: current issues, Yemen's place in the

Is Hezbollah Still a Terrorist Organization? - Lebanon, the US and Hezbollah: Is It Still a Terrorist Organization?
It has an unquestionably terrorist past, but is Lebanon's Hezbollah still a terrorist organization? The answer isn't as simple, or stereotypical, as the United States makes it out to be.

1977 Hanafi Siege in Washington - What Was the 1977 Hanafi Siege in Washington, D.C.
Brief history of the Hanafi siege and kidnapping by 12 Black Muslim gunmen of 134 hostages at three locations in Washington, D.C. on March 9-11, 1977.

What Is UNRWA - The United Nations Relief Works Agency? – UNRWA Defined
UNRWA - A definition and brief history of the United Nations Relief Works Agency, the Palestinians' principal refugee relief organization.

What Is al-Naqba, or al-Nakba - The Catastrophe
May 14, 1948 marks Israel's declaration of independence. For Palestinians and Arabs, May 14, 1948 marks al-Naqba, or

What Is Egypt's Suez Canal - History and Politics of Egypt's Suez Canal
How the Suez Canal came to be in the 19th century, how and why Egypt nationalized it in 1956, and what it has meant to Egypt since.

The Battle of El Alamein in Egypt - What Was the Battle of El Alamein
A briefing on the Battle of El Alamein in Egypt (1942), a turning point in World War II that shifted the momentum from the Axis to the Allies.

Iran's Assembly of Experts - What Is the Purpose and Power of Iran's Assembly of Experts?
A brief explanation of the power and purpose of Iran's 86-member, elected Assembly of Experts, which elects the Supreme Leader.

Is Iran a Nuclear Threat to Israel? - Hamas, Hezbollah and Iran's Nuclear Threat to Israel
Does Iran pose a nuclear threat to Israel, or a proxy threat through Hamas in Gaza and Hezbollah in Lebanon? The quick answer is no. Read the details.

Obama's Pakistan Challenge - Why Is Pakistan Barack Obama's Biggest Middle East Challenge
Pakistan--not Palestine-Israel, not Iran, not Iraq--is Barack Obama's biggest Middle East (and foreign policy) challenge. Here is why, and how Obama could go about addressing it.

U.S. Troops Operating in Pakistan - Are US Troops Operating in Pakistan?
History and extent of US troops operating secretly in Pakistan since the beginning of the war in Afghanistan in 2001.

The War of Attrition - What Was the War of Attrition Between Egypt and Israel 1968-1970
Brief history and explanation of the 1968-1970 war of attrition between Egypt and Israel, using elements of the PLO.

How Should Obama Deal With Iran? - Policy Alternatives for Obama and Iran Over Nuclear Weapons
A point-by-point outline of how President Barack Obama should deal with Iran, its nuclear ambitions and its perceived threat to Israel.

What Was Operation Eagle Claw – The Failed Rescue of American Hostages in Iran – Military Details of Operation Eagle Claw
Military and operational details of Operation Eagle Claw, the failed rescue of American hostages in Iran on April 24, 1980, during the Carter administration.

First Zionist Congress - August 29, 1897 First Zionist Congress in Basel Switzerland
Theodor Herzl's Zionist Organization holds the first Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland. Page 2.

Muammar Qaddafi Takes Power in Libya - September 1, 1969 Muammar Qaddafi Takes Power in Libya
Libya's Muammar Qaddafi takes power in a coup on Sept. 1, 1969. Page 3.

Burj Dubai, World's Tallest Skyscraper - Construction begins on Burj Dubai, World's Tallest Skyscraper
September 2004: Construction begins on Burj Dubai, to become the world's tallest skyscraper. Page 3.

Iraq Declares Kuwait Its 19th Province - Iraq Renames Kuaait Kadhima and Declares it Its 19th Province
After invading Kuwait on Aug. 2, Iraq's Saddam Hussein renames the country Kadhima and declares it Iraq's 19th province.. Page 4.

Hezbollah Terrorist Blows Up American Embassy in Beirut - September 20, 1984 - Hezbollah Suicide Attack on U.S. Embassy in Lebanon
Hezbollah Attacks the US Embassy in Beirut for the second time in 17 months.. Page 2.

Morocco's King Hassan Assassination Attempt - August 16, 1972 Assassination Attempt on Morocco's King Hassan
The August 16, 1972 assassination attempt on Morocco's King Hassan by fighter jets attacking Hassan's Boeing 727. Page 2.

March 12 1971 – Turkish Military Ousts Demirel Government – Military Coup as Demirel Government Is Ousted
Demirel Government Ousted. Middle East Issues. Page 3.

Cyprus Independence Day - August 16 1960 - Cyprus Gains Independence from Britain
Cyprus gains independence from Britain on August 16, 1960. Page 3.

June 30, 1985 – Hezbollah Hijackers release 39 American Hostages – TWA Flight 847 Hostage Crisis Ends as Hezbollah Releases 39 American Hostages
TWA Flight 847 Hostage Crisis. Middle East Issues. Page 3.

Qatar’s Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani Deposes His Father in a Coup – June 26 1995 Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani Becomes Ruler of Qatar
Hamad Bin Khalifa al-Thani. Middle East Issues.

March 12, 1880 or 1881 – Kemal Ataturk is Born – Possible Birth of Founder of Modern Turkey Kemal Ataturk
Kemal Ataturk birth. Middle East Issues.

March 11 1956 Bahrain riots - 11 Die in Bahrain riots Over British Rule
The events that shaped the Middle East on this day in the Mideast's history calendar: March 11, including the 1956 Bahrain riots in which 11 people died. Page 2.

1956 Suez Canal Crisis Boycott - Melbourne Olympics and the Arab Boycott
1956 Melbourne Olympics sculpture at Lake Wendouree Page 5.

Afghanistan's Mehbooba Ahadyar, Olympic runner
Afghanistan's Mehbooba Ahadyar,19 year old runner. Page 6.

Lebanon's Gretta Taslakian
Lebanon's Gretta Taslakian. Middle East Issues. Page 2.

Iraq War - Everything You Want and Need to Know
Complete guide to the basics about the Iraq war: timelines, causes, costs, objectives, history, profiles of the main actors and frequently asked questions.

Dawa or Al Dawa Party - What Is Iraq's Shiite Islamic Al Dawa Party
Definition and brief history of Iraq's Shiite Al Dawa Party.

Yom Kippur War, or Ramadan War, October 6-26 1973
A brief explanation of the Yom Kippur, or Ramadan, war between Israel and Egypt in October 1973.

Ibadi or Ibadiyah Islam - What Is the Ibadi Dynasty form of Islam
Ibadi Islam, the moderate form of Islam introduced into Oman in the 8th century, is defined.

Hazara of Afghanistan - Who Are the Ethnic Hazara Shiites of Afghanistan
A definition of Hazara, the Shiite Afghan minority of the Hazarajat region of Afghanistan.

Sawm defined - What is Sawm, or Siyam, Ramadan fasting, one of the five pillars of Islam
Sawm, or fasting is one of the five pillars of Islam, the five duties required of every practicing Muslim.

Masjid al-Haram or Grand Mosque in Mecca - What Is Masjid al-Haram or the Grand Mosque in Mecca
Definition and brief history of Masjid al-Haram, or the Grand Mosque, the holiest site in Islam, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia

Abana or Barada - What Is the Abana or Barada River in Syria - Biblical History and Geography
Definition of the Abana River, mentioned in the Bible to refer to a river in Syria that flows through Damascus and is known as the Barada River today.

Blackwater Worldwide - What Is Blackwater Worldwide, Formerkly Blackwater USA, Private Security Contractor
A definition and brief profile of Blackwater Worldwide, the private security contractor and trainer of police and mercenary personnel that gained notoriety from incidents involving abuse of power in the Iraq war.

Dunam or Dunum - What Is a Dunam?
Definition of Dunam, or Dunum, the measure of landholdings in the Ottoman Empire and Palestine/Israel.

Operation Desert Shield - The First Gulf War and Operation Desert Shield
Definition of Operation Desert Shield, precursor to Operation Desert Storm, during the first Gulf War against Iraq in 1990.

Operation Desert Storm - The First Gulf War and Operation Desert Storm
Definition and scope of Operation Desert Storm, the offensive phase of the U.S.-led military operation to clear Kuwait of Iraqi forces in the first Gulf War, in January-February 1991.

Ashura 10th Day of the Muslim Month of Muharram - What Is Ashura
Definition of Ashura, day of the commemoration of the martyrdom of Husayn, Muhammad's grandson and the third imam of Shiite Islam.

Hijab, or Veil (Burqah, Chador) Definition - What Is the hijab or veil
A definition of the many meanings and applications of the Arabic word hijab, or veil, in the Middle East and the Islamic world.

Yemen's Ali Abdullah Saleh - Profile of Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh
Profile of Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh, in power since 1978.

United Arab Emirates: Country Profile
The United Arab Emirates is among the Persian Gulf's wealthiest, most stable states. Here's the story on its oil-rich but diversifying economy, its few political and religious freedoms. Its military, demographics and history are also profiled.

Algeria: Country Profile - Algeria's Government, Economy, Religion, History
Profile of Algeria's politics, society and economy, its past history of subjugation under the French and recent history of civil war with Islamists.

Mustafa Benfodil: Because Art is Free to Be Impolite - Censorship and Mustafa Benfodil
Algerian artist Mustafa Benfodil explains his art installation, censored at the Sharjah Biennial in April 2011.

Who Is Rory Stewart? - Brief Biography of Rory Stewart, Afghanistan and Iraq Expert
Brief biography of Afghanistan and Iraq expert Rory Stewart.

Bush's Road Map for Peace in the Middle East, Five Years Later: What's Been Achieved?
An analysis of George W. Bush's 2002 proposal for peace between Israel and Palestine

Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda: A Profile
The life and aims of the world's most wanted terrorist

Muammar el Qaddafi Profile - Profile of Libya's Muammar el Ghaddafi
Libya's Muammar el-Qaddafi is a compelling contradiction, a one-time sponsor of terrorism and revolution who now preaches cooperation and globalism while courting western favors. A complete profile of the man Ronald Reagan once referred to as

Museum of Islamic Art - What is the Doha, Qatar Museum of Islamic Art
Description and brief history and purpose of the Museum of Islamic Art in Doha, Qatar, designed by I.M. Pei

Middle East Basics
Learn the basics of Middle Eastern issues, trends, politics and history from West Africa to Pakistan and from pre-Islamic times to today's headlines.

Middle East Conflicts - Iraq War - Arab Israeli Conflict - Afghanistan and More
The Middle East is often defined by its conflicts. That's unfortunate. In many respects, it's also accurate. The Middle East is the most unstable, repressive, and violent region of the world. This page breaks down those conflicts and helps you learn more about each in manageable steps.

September 18 to September 24 in Middle East History - This day and This Week September 18 to September 24 in Middle East History
Events that shaped Middle East history on this day and this week in the Middle East calendar, September 18 to September 24, from the Iran-Iraq war to George W. Bush's declaration of the

August 28-September 3 in Middle East History – This day and This Week August 28-September 3 in Middle East History
Events that shaped Middle East history on this day and this week in the Middle East calendar, August 28-September 3, from the first Zionist Congress to Qaddafi's rise to consequences of the French veil ban in schools.

Profile of Oman - Country Profile of Oman
Basics on Oman's population, religious and ethnic breakdown, government, the military, the economy, and a summary of Oman's history going back to ancient times

White Phosphorus - What Are White Phosphorus Munitions and Bombs
Explanation and description of white phosphorus, the munitions and bombs designed to give soldiers cover but that Israel used in Gaza as offensive, incendiary weapons.

Afpak - What Is Afpak - Conflation of Afghanistan and Pakistan
Definition of

Muezzin - What Is a Muezzin - Mosque Reciters
Brief definition of muezzin, the caller to prayer in Islam.

Halal - What Is Halal in Islam, the permissible
Explanation of halal, the koranic term pertaining to what is permissible in Islam, especially in food consumption, as opposed to haram.

Anti-Defamation League (ADL) - What Is the Anti-Defamation League or ADL
Definition and brief history of the Anti-Defamation league, or ADL, the Jewish human and civil rights organization dedicated to battling anti-Semitism and other forms of discrimination.

Hakawati - What Is a Hakawati - Definition
Definition of hakawati, the Arabic word for teller of tales popularized by Lebanese novelist Rabih Alameddine.

Knafeh or Kunafeh Cheescake
A definition of Knafeh or Kunafeh, the cheescake and Levant favorite.

Kashmir - What Is Kashmir - Pakistan India and the Conflict Over Kashmir
Brief description of Kashmir, the region disputed by India and Pakistan.

Pakistan - Vital Statistics for Pakistan's Economy, Literacy, Poverty, Women and Social Indicators - Facts and Figures
Vital Statistics for Pakistan's Economy, Literacy, Poverty, Women and other Social Indicators

Fatwa - What Is a Fatwa, or Islamic Legal Opinion
Definition of Fatwa, or legal opinion interpreting Islamic law.

Private Security Contractors - What Are Private Security Contractors or Mercenaries in Iraq and Afghanistan War
A definition of private security contractors, the euphemism used to describe mercenaries providing guard and fighting services in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars.

Takfir - What Is Takfir, or Excommunication in Islam
Definition of takfir, the controversial concept, in perverted interpretations of Islam, of excommunicating unbelievers or apostates and, in some cases, justifying their killing.

Jericho, Oldest City in the World - What Is Jericho in the Palestinian west Bank, the Oldest City in the World
Brief history of Jericho, in the Palestinian West Bank, believed to be the oldest city in the world.

Hashemite or Hasimi - What Is the Hashemite Dynasty
Brief definition of Hashemite and the Hashemite dynasty, descendded of the clan of Hashim, including the current ruler of Jordan.

Uighurs - Who Are the Turkic Native Uighurs of Western China
Who are the Turkic Native Uighurs of Western China's Xinjiang Province?

Intifada, or Uprising - What Is the Palestinian Intifada
Definition of Intifada, or uprising, or, literally,

President Bush Speech Launching Attack on Afghanistan and the Taliban - President Bush Speech Launching Operation Enduring Freedom
Speaking to the nation from the White House Treaty Room at 1:00 p.m. Eastern Time, on Oct. 7, 2001, President George W. Bush announced the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom against the Taliban regime and al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. The joint U,.S.-British air assault would be followed within days by a ground assault, which involved mostly Afghan forces. Bush's remarks follow.



Dubai, UAE - What Is Dubai of the United Arab Emirates
Brief portrait of Dubai, the most populous of the seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates in the Arabian Gulf.

Fatah - What Is Fatah - FAQ
Defining Fatah, the Palestinian party founded in the mid-1950s and led by Yasser Arafat until his death in 2004.

What Is Zionism? FAQ - A Brief Objective History of Zionism
What is Zionism? A brief and objective history from Theodor Herzl to modern Israel and its anti-Zionist reactions.

Israel's Peace Now Organization - What Is Israel's Peace Now
Description and brief history of Peace Now, one of Israel's largest non-governmental and human rights organizations working for a two-state solution and a resolution of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.

French Veil Law - Aug. 29 2004 Journalists Taken Hostage Over French Veil Law
President Jacques Chirac refuses to meet demands that the French veil law be repealed. Captors in Iraq hold journalists Georges Malburnot of Le Figaro and Ouest-France and Christian Chesnot of Radio France Internationale hostage.

August 14, 1929 Palestinians Revolt - Breakout of Palestinian Revolt Against Zionism and British Mandate
August 14, 1929 : Breakout of Palestinian Revolt Against Zionism and the British Mandate

American Jews and Allegiance to Israel - David Ben-Gurion on U.S. Jews and Allegiance to Israel
David Ben Gurion clarifies his expectations of American Jews and their allegiance to Israel.

Black September at the 1972 Olympics - Palestinian Black September terrorists at 1972 Olympics in Munich
Palestinian Black September terrorist at 1972 Olympics in munich

All About Afghanistan from Alexander the Great to Operation Enduring Freedom
Afghanistan from its origins as a crossroads in the Middle East to the Soviet invasion of 1979: The rise and fall of the Taliban, its use as a sanctuary by Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda, and its current struggles in the war on terror.

Country Profiles, Afghanistan through Israel
Complete country profiles and dossiers for Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Egypt, Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti and the Central Asian Republics, including country briefings, vital statistics, political, economic and social conditions and the latest issues challenging each country.

Middle Eastern Country Profiles, J through P
Complete country profiles and dossiers for Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan and Palestine and the Palestinians, including country briefings, vital statistics, political, economic and social conditions and the latest issues challenging each country.

Hosni Mubarak of Egypt - Profile of Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak
Profile of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak

Hosni Mubarak of Egypt - Profile of Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak
Profile of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak

Hosni Mubarak of Egypt - Profile of Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak
Profile of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak

Hosni Mubarak of Egypt - Profile of Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak
Profile of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak