Military History Sitemap - Page 5 2016-05-11

Immelmann Turn - Air Combat Immelmann Turn
The Immelmann Turn is a classic air combat maneuver named for World War I ace Max Immelmann.

USS Constitition - Frigate Constitution - War of 1812
USS Constitution was launched in 1797 and is the oldest commissioned warship in the US Navy. Earning fame during the War of 1812, USS Consititution defeated the British frigates Guerriere and Java. Known as

Doughboy - World War I - American Soldier
Definition of the term

Anti-Aircraft Artillery - AAA Anti-Aircraft Artillery
AAA is the abbreviation for anti-aircraft artillery.

US Navy: Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
USS Chesapeake was a US Navy frigate that was part of the 1807 Chesapeake-Leopard Affair and later captured by HMS Shannon during the War of 1812.

World War II: The Big Three Meet
November 1, 1943 - Roosevelt, Churchill, and (right) open the Tehran Conference. The first face-to-face meeting of the

World War II: German Troops Occupy the Sudetenland
October 10, 1938 - As a result of the Munich Agreement, German troops complete their occupation of the Sudetenland. Having successfully claimed Austria in

War of 1812: "We have met the enemy and they are ours!"
September 10, 1813 - Master Commandant Oliver H. Perry (right) defeats the British at the Battle of Lake Erie. Through the first half of 1813, American and

Civil War Copperhead - Definition
A Copperhead was a term for Northern opponents of the American Civil War.

Definition and Examples of Containment
Containment was a foreign policy strategy followed by the United States during the Cold War. Containment stated that communism needed to be contained, or it would spread to neighboring countries.

Flying Ace - Flying Ace Definition
An ace is a pilot who has been credited with five or more aerial victories.

Iraq War Military History - Battle of Fallujah
The Second Battle of Fallujah was fought in 2004. The process of clearing the city was slowed by booby-traps and improvised explosive devices.

Battle of Najaf - Iraq War Battle of Najaf
The Battle of Najaf occurred between March 24 and April 4, 2003, during the Iraq War. Part of the invasion of Iraq, the battle saw American forces surround the city of Najaf after heavy fighting. With Najaf isolated, troops battled to clear it of Iraqi and insurgent forces.

World War II: Potsdam Conference and Agreement
The Potsdam Conference was held July 17 to August 2, 1945, during the final days of World War II. Meeting in Potsdam, Germany, the

Appeasement Munich Agreement - World War II History
The Munich Agreement was concluded on September 30, 1938, and saw the powers of Europe give in to Nazi Germany's demands for the Sudetenland. Meeting in Munich, British and French leaders elected to effectively cede part of Czechoslovakia rather than risk war. The Munich Agreement was part of a policy of appeasement which led Europe down the path to World War II.

Washington Naval Disarmament Treaty
The Washington Naval Treaty was signed on February 6, 1922, and dramatically limited the naval armaments of the United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy. As a result of the negotiations, the Washington Naval Treaty stipulated tonnage limitations on capital ships. The treaty led to many warships being scrapped and prevented the construction of other planned vessels.

World War I: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed March 3, 1918 and took Russia out of World War I. Following the revolution in Russia, the Bolsheviks sought an immediate end to hostilities with the Central Powers. By the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the were able to exit the conflict, but lost large amounts of territory.

American Revolution - Treaty of Alliance (1778)
Providing French support during the American Revolution, the Treaty of Alliance was critical to the United States gaining independence.

Fabian Strategy: Wearing Down the Enemy
Fabian strategy is one where pitched battles are avoided in favor of harassment and waging a war of attrition. Pioneered by Quintus Fabius Maximus, Fabian strategy has been employed several times through history, most notably during the American Revolution.

World War II: The White Rose Resistance Group
The White Rose was a non-violent resistance group based in Munich during World War II. Comprised largely of University of Munich students, the White Rose published and distributed several pamphlets speaking out against Third Reich. The group was destroyed in 1943, when many of its key members were caught and executed.

World War II: The Liberty Ship Program
Liberty Ships were mass-produced cargo ships built during World War II to provide the Allies with much needed merchant tonnage. Designed to replace merchant ships lost to U-boat attacks, Liberty Ships were of a simple design that could be build quickly. Utilizing a variety of new and old technologies, Liberty Ships proved vital to the Allied war effort.

Korean War MiG-15 Communist Jet Fighter
The MiG-15 was a key Communist jet fighter during the Korean War. Designed by Artem Mikoyan and Mikhail Gurevich, the MiG-15 was designed for the Soviet Union and was one of the first swept wing jet fighters. Flying over North Korea, the MiG-15 routinely dueled American F-86 Sabres in

Vietnam War: F-8 Crusader Profile - Military History
The F-8 Crusader was developed in the 1950s as a fighter for the US Navy. Entering service in 1957, the F-8 Crusader was the last American fighter designed with guns as its primary weapon. The F-8 Crusader saw extensive service during the Vietnam was and was not fully retired until 1999.

Vietnam War - Soviet MiG-21 Fishbed
The MiG-21 Fishbed was introduced in 1959, and became the world's most produced supersonic fighter. Flown by over fifty countries during its long career, the MiG-21 Fishbed saw extensive use during the Vietnam War and various conflicts in the Middle East. Some variants of the MiG-21 remain in service to this day.

F-35 Lightning II - Joint Strike Fighter - Lockheed
The F-35 Lightning II is result of the multi-nation Joint Strike Fighter program. Spearheaded by the United States and Great Britain, the F-35 will be both nations' next generation close air support, tactical bombing, and air-to-air aircraft. The F-35 Lightning II will also be built in a carrier version for use at sea.

B-2 Spirit - Stealth Bomber - US Air Force
The B-2 Spirit is a stealth bomber that entered service with the US Air Force in 1997. Developed during the Cold War, the B-2 Spirit was intended for penetrating Soviet defenses. Currently in service, the B-2 Spirit has been used in several conflicts including Kosovo and Afghanistan.

MiG-23 - MiG-23 Flogger - Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23
The MiG-23 Flogger was a fighter developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Built by Mikoyan-Gurevich, the MiG-23 featured a variable-geometry wing and was staple of the Soviet Air Force. Exported widely, the MiG-23 has seen combat in numerous conflicts around the world.

MiG-17 - MiG-17 Fresco
The MiG-17 Fresco was a Soviet fighter developed during the Cold War. Flying for several Communist air forces, the MiG-17 saw extensive service during its career. The MiG-17 saw combat against American aircraft during the Vietnam War.

F-117 Nighthawk Stealth Fighter Profile & History
The Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk was the world's first operational stealth fighter. Designed by the Lockheed Skunk Works, the F-117 entered service in 1983, but remained secret for several years. The F-117 saw extensive service during the Gulf War and Kosovo War before being retired in 2008.

Lockheed U-2 Spy Plane
The Lockheed U-2 spy plane was developed in the 1950s by the Skunk Works at Lockheed. The U-2 is capable of extreme high altitude flight and has been used extensively as a surveillance aircraft as well as for research. The U-2 came to prominence when one was downed over the Soviet Union in 1960.

Military History of Lockheed F-104 Starfighter
The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter was developed in the 1950s as an interceptor for the US Air Force. Though the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter's USAF career was short, it was used extensively by by reserve forces and foreign air forces. Sold in large numbers to the Luftwaffe, the F-104 Starfighter's poor safety record caused scandals as did bribes associated with its sale.

Cold War: Convair B-36 Peacemaker
The Convair B-36 Peacemaker was a strategic bomber operated by the US Air Force during the early years of the Cold War. Development of the B-36 Peacemaker began during World War II and the aircraft entered service in 1949. The B-36 Peacemaker remained in service until 1959.

Grumman F-14 Tomcat - US Navy Fleet Defender
The F-14 Tomcat entered service in 1972, as the US Navy's principal fleet defense fighter. Armed with a variety of missiles, the F-14 was intended to prevent long-range attacks against US carrier groups as well as perform air superiority roles. The F-14 later was adapted for air-to-ground attack prior to its retirement in 2006.

Ju 87 Stuka Dive Bomber - World War II Vehicles
The Junkers Ju 87 Stuka was a noted dive bomber used by the Luftwaffe during World War II. Entering service in 1936, the Ju 87 Stuka was a feared and effective weapon during the early years of the war. The Ju 87 Stuka fell out of favor later in the war as Allied fighters improved.

SB2C Helldiver - Curtiss SB2C Helldiver
The Curtiss SB2C Helldiver was a US Navy dive bomber used during World War II. The SB2C Helldiver experienced a variety of technical problems during its developemnt and after its introduction which led to a widespread dislike of the aircraft by crews. Despite these issues, the SB2C Helldiver saw extensive service during the last two years of the war.

World War II - Avro Lancaster Bomber
The Avro Lancaster was a bomber flown by the Royal Air Force during World War II. The Avro Lancaster entered service in 1942 and was used for the remainder of the conflict. The Lancaster was heavy bomber that was primarily used at night.

World War II: Northrop P-61 Black Widow
The Northrop P-61 Black Widow was a night fighter used during World War II. Developed for the US Army Air Forces, the Northrop P-61 Black Widow entered service in 1944. Used in most theaters, the Northrop P-61 Black Widow proved a highly effective aircraft.

World War II: Hawker Hurricane
The Hawker Hurricane entered service in 1937 and saw extensive service with the Royal Air Force. The Hawker Hurricane played a key role in the Battle of Britain and was key in defeating the Germans. Over 14,000 Hawker Hurricanes were built by 1944.

Heinkel 219 - World War II - Night Fighters - Luftwaffe
The Heinkel 219 Uhu was German night fighter developed during World War II. The first military aircraft equipped with ejection seats, the Heinkel 219 possessed a radar set and other advances. The Heinkel 219 proved effective, but was only availible in small numbers before the end of the war.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190 - World War II Focke-Wulf Fw 190
The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 was a German fighter of World War II. Introduced in 1941, the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 served the Luftwaffe for the remainder of the war. Suitable for a variety of roles, the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 saw extensive service and was updated several times during the war to maintain parity with the newer Allied fighters.

World War II - Curtiss P-40 Warhawk
The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk was an American-built fighter during World War II. Used by several Allied nations, the P-40 Warhawk saw service in most theaters of the conflict. The P-40 Warhawk was most famously used by the American Volunteer Group in China, also known as the Flying Tigers.

Bristol Beaufighter - World War II - Royal Air Force
The Bristol Beaufighter was a heavy fighter used by the Royal Air Force during World War II. A development of the Bristol Beaufort torpedo bomber, the Beaufighter saw widespread service in all theaters. During the conflict, the Bristol Beaufighter filled many roles including night fighter, fighter-bomber, and torpedo bomber.

P-39 Airacobra - Bell Aircraft - World War II
The Bell P-39 Airacobra was an Allied fighter aircraft during World War II. Entering service in 1941, the P-39 Airacobra saw service in most theaters of the war, but was hampered by the lack of an effective turbo-supercharger. The P-39 Airacobra was flown in large numbers by the Soviet Union who received the type via Lend-Lease.

Heinkel He 111 - Luftwaffe - World War II - Bombers
The Heinkel He 111 was a German bomber that saw widespread usage during World War II. Covertly designed in the 1930s, the Heinkel He 111 first saw service during the Spanish Civil War. With the beginning of World War II, the Heinkel flew on all fronts of the conflict in Europe and remained in service until 1945.

Fokker D.VII - German Fokker D.VII - World War I Fokker D.VII - Fokker D.VII Fighter
The Fokker D.VII was one of the finest fighters produced by the Germans during World War I. Superior to most Allied fighters, the Fokker D.VII led to a second

An Overview of Operation Allied Force in Kosovo
Operation Allied Force began in March 1999, following Yugoslavia's refusal end repression and violence in Kosovo. Flying from bases in Italy and the Adriatic Sea, NATO aircraft struck targets across Yugoslavia and Kosovo. On June 12, Operation Allied Force ended following Slobodan Milosevic's acceptence of an UN occupation of Kosovo.

Berlin Airlift and Blockade in the Cold War
The Berlin Airlift was the response of the Western Allies to the Soviet Union shutting down access to Berlin in June 1948. Flying from Allied occupation zones, the Berlin Airlift provided West Berlin with food, fuel, and supplies through the winter of 1948/1949. A massive effort, the Berlin Airlift forced the Soviets to end the blockade.

Operation Linebacker - The Bombing of North Vietnam
Operation Linebacker took place May 9 to October 23, 1973, during the Vietnam War. Operation Linebacker was an air campaign intended to interdict North Vietnamese troops and supplies during the Easter Offensive. The bombing campaign during Operation Linebacker forced the North Vietnamese to return to the peace talks.

World War II: Bombing of Dresden Background
The Bombing of Dresden took place February 13-15, 1945 during World War II. In the course of the bombing, Dresden was struck by British and American aircraft which resulted in the destruction of the city and widespread civilian casualties.

World War II Bomber Command Dambuster Raids
The Dambuster Raids were conducted May 17, 1943, against several dams in Germany. Utilizing special bombs the RAF succeeded in breaching the dams.

World War II: The Doolittle Raid
The Doolittle Raid was launched on April 18, 1942, and was the first Allied attack to strike the Japanese homeland. Flying B-25 bombers from USS Hornet, the Doolittle raiders struck targets in Tokyo and other cities. While the Doolittle Raid did little physical damage, it provided a significant boost to American morale.

Spanish Civil War: Bombing of Guernica
The Bombing of Guernica occurred on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War. Taking off, planes of the German Condor Legion attacked the city of Guernica in support of Nationalist troops. Striking Guernica, the planes caused heavy civilian casualties.

World War II Sten Gun
The Sten was as type of British submachine gun developed and used during World War II. Entering service in 1941, the Sten gun was simple to build and maintain and was widely used by British troops and exported to other allies and resistance forces. Over 4 million Sten guns were ultimately made.

Sturmgewehr 44 Assault Rifle - World War II Weaponry
The Sturmgewehr 44 was the first assault rifle to see deployment on a large scale. Developed by Nazi Germany, the Sturmgewehr 44 was introduced in 1943, and first saw service on the Eastern Front. Though far from perfect, the StG44 proved a versatile weapon for German forces.

Development of M1 Garand - World War II Rifles
The M1 Garand was the first semiautomatic rifle to be issued to an entire army. Developed in the 1920s and 1930s, the M1 was designed by John Garand. Firing a .30-06 round, the M1 Garand was the main infantry weapon employed by US forces during World War II and the Korean War.

US Military: Colt M1911 Pistol
The Colt M1911 pistol was the standard sidearm of the US military from 1911 to 1985. Designed by John Browning, the M1911 fired a .45 ACP cartridge and became an iconic pistol. The M1911 was retired in 1985 when the US military transitioned to the Beretta 92 series.

Needle Gun - Prussian Needle-Gun Austro-Prussian War
The Dreyse Needle Gun was the first military rifle to incorporate breech-loading with a bolt-action. Entering service in 1848, the Needle Gun was used extensively by Prussian forces during the Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian Wars. In 1871, the Needle Gun was replaced by the Mauser Rifle.

American Revolution: "Brown Bess" Musket
Originally the Long Land Pattern, the

The Manhattan Project - Making the Atomic Bomb
The Manhattan Project was the Allied effort to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Led by Maj. Gen. Leslie Groves and J. Robert Oppenheimer, the Manhattan Project developed research facilities across the United States. The Manhattan Project was successful and made the atomic bombs used at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

German V-2 Rocket - World War II Weaponry
The V-2 was designed by the Germans during World War II and was the world's first ballistic missile. Fired from mobile launchers, V-2 strikes hit Antwerp and London during the latter stages of the conflict. Following the war, the V-2's creators played key roles in the space race.

World War II: Ordnance QF 25-Pounder Field Gun
The Ordnance QF 25-pounder was the standard artillery piece used by British Commonwealth forces during World War II. Designed to be an improvement over the World War I-era 18-pounder, the 25-pounder saw service in all theaters and was a favorite with gun crews. It remained in use through the 1960s and 1970s.

A22 Churchill Tank - World War II Vehicles
The A22 Churchill tank was used by British forces during World War II. Designed as an infantry support tank, the Churchill possessed thick armor and was capable of overcoming many obstacles that would have blocked other tanks of the day. Rushed into production, it was heavily altered during the war and was used as the basis for many specialized vehicles.

History of US Naval Station at Pearl Harbor
The homeport of the US Pacific Fleet, Pearl Harbor was first acquired by the United States in 1887. Slow to develop due to its shallow entrance channel, Pearl Harbor became the US Navy's premier base in the Pacific in the years prior to World War II. Attacked on December 7, 1941, Pearl Harbor rose from the ashes and supported the US Pacific Fleet throughout the war. Still in full use today, Pearl Harbor continues to stand guard over the

HMS Queen Mary - Battlecruiser - World War I - Royal Navy
HMS Queen Mary was a British battlecruiser that entered service in 1913. The last battlecruiser completed for the Royal Navy prior to World War I, HMS Queen Mary saw action during the early engagements of the conflict. Sailing with the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron, HMS Queen Mary was lost at the Battle of Jutland in May 1916.

USS George Washington - USS George Washington SSBN-598
USS George Washington (SSBN-598) was the United States' first ballistic missile submarine. Launched in 1959, USS George Washington served in a nuclear deterrent role until 1982. For the last three years of its career, USS George Washington served as an attack submarine.

HMHS Britannic - Hospital Ships - World War I
HMHS Britannic was a British hospital ship during World War I. A sister of RMS Titanic, HMHS Britannic conducted several voyages to the Mediterranean to evacuate wounded. In November 1916, HMHS Britannic struck a mine and sank.

HMS Dreadnought (WWI Battleship) Overview
HMS Dreadnought entered service in 1906 and immediately rendered existing battleships obsolete. The first to feature an

Weapons - Weapons in Military History
In this section we examine the weapons and equipment used in war. From the earliest slings and spears to the most advanced laser-guided munitions and missiles, weapons have evolved dramatically over the centuries.

Military History People and Places
This section focuses on biographies of military leaders from throughout history. Here you will find biographies of military leaders from armies, navies, and air forces through the centuries.

Wars and Battles Throughout History
This section deals with wars and battles thoughout military history. Featured here are articles, profiles, and galleries that examine various wars and battles and their impact on the world.

HMS Victory - Royal Navy Napoleonic Wars HMS Victory
HMS Victory was first commissioned into the Royal Navy in 1778. A 104-gun ship of the line, HMS Victory was present at many of the key naval battles of the Napoleonic Wars and is best remembered as Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson's flagship at the Battle of Trafalgar. Retired from active service in 1812, HMS Victory was used for a variety of purposes before being restored as a museum ship.

HMS Hood - World War II HMS Hood
HMS Hood was a noted battlescruiser that entered service with the Royal Navy in 1920. HMS Hood was the pride of the British fleet for much of the interwar period and later took part in the 1940 attack on the French fleet at Mers-el-Kebir. HMS Hood was sunk by the German battleship Bismarck during the Battle of the Denmark Strait in May 1941.

PT-109 - John Kennedy and PT-109
PT-109 was an 80-ft. patrol torpedo boat used by the US Navy during World War II. Commanded by Lt. John F. Kennedy, PT-109 was sunk by the destroyer Amagiri on August 2, 1943. Aftet the loss of PT-109, Kennedy went to great lengths to have his crew rescued.

HMS Nelson - World War II - Royal Navy - Battleships
HMS Nelson was a British battleship that saw service during World War II. Completed in 1930, HMS Nelson's design was a product of the Washington Naval Treaty. During World War II, HMS Nelson served in the Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Indian Oceans.

HMS Warspite - Battleship of World Wars I & II
Launched in 1913, the battleship HMS Warspite saw extensive service during both world wars. A Queen Elizabeth-class battleship, Warspite fought at Jutland in 1916. After an extensive modernization in 1935, Warspite fought in the Mediterranean and Indian Oceans during World War II and provided support during the Normandy landings.

Tirpitz - German Battleship Tirpitz - World War II
Tirpitz was a large German battleship that saw service during World War II. A sister ship to Bismarck, Tirpitz largely saw duty in the North Atlantic and Norway. During the course of the war, the British made several efforts to sink Tirpitz and finally succeeded in late 1944.

Japanese Battleship Yamato - World War II History
The Japanese battleship Yamato, and its sisters, were the largest, most powerful ships of their type ever constructed. Completed in late 1941, Yamato served with the Imperial Japanese Navy throughout World War II. In April 1945, Yamato was sunk by US aircraft while on a

USS Wasp - World War II - CV-7 - Aircraft Carrier
USS Wasp (CV-7) was an American aircraft carrier that served during World War II. Launched in 1939, USS Wasp saw duty in the Atlantic and Pacific during the early parts of the conflict. Operating in support of US forces on Guadalcanal, USS Wasp was sunk by I-19 on September 15, 1942.

Haruna - Japanese Battleship Haruna - World War II
Haruna was a Japanese battleship that saw service during World War I and World War II. Initially built as a battlecruiser, Haruna was heavily modified during the interwar years. During World War II, Haruna saw action during several of the major battles in the Pacific including Midway, Philippine Sea, and Leyte Gulf. Haruna was sunk at Kure in July 1945.

Akagi - World War II - Aircraft Carrier - Battle of Midway
Commissioned in 1927, Akagi was a Japanese aircraft carrier that saw service during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. Akagi took part in the attack on Pearl Harbor and the Japanese advances through the Dutch East Indies. Akagi was sunk during the Battle of Midway in 1942.

CSS Alabama - Civil War - Confederate Raider
CSS Alabama was a Confederate warship that entered service in August 1862. A renowned commerce raider, CSS Alabama conducted cruises around the world during its career. CSS Alabama was sunk by USS Kearsarge in June 1864.

Battle of Prairie Grove - American Civil War
The Battle of Prairie Grove was fought December 7, 1862, during the American Civil War and saw Union and Confederate troops clash in northwest Arkansas.

Battle of Tsushima - Russo-Japanese War - Heihachiro Togo
The Battle of Tsushima was fought on May 27-28, 1905, during the Russo-Japanese War. Sailing from the Baltic Sea, the Russian fleet traveled over 18,000 miles before encountering the Japanese in the Straits of Tsushima. Engaging the Russians at the Battle of Tsushima, Admiral Togo destroyed over two-thirds of their fleet.

Battle of Port Arthur - Russo-Japanese War
The Battle of Port Arthur was the opening engagement of the Russo-Japanese War. On the night of February 8/9. 1904, Japanese ships under Admiral Togo launched a surprise destroyer attack on Russian naval forces. The next day a major fleet engagement was fought off Port Arthur.

The Battle of the Philippine Sea - World War II
The Battle of the Philippine Sea was fought June 19-20, 1944, and was a decisive victory for the Allies. It's also known as the Marianas Turkey Shoot.

Battle of Cape Esperance - Guadalcanal Campaign - World War II
The Battle of Cape Esperance took place on October 11/12, 1942, in the waters off Guadalcanal. Fighting off Cape Esperance, the battle was the third major naval engagement of the Guadalcanal Campaign. In the Battle of Cape Esperance, American forces were able to sink a Japanese cruiser and three destroyers.

Battle of Tassafaronga - World War II - Guadalcanal Campaign
The Battle of Tassafaronga saw American and Japanese naval forces clash on November 30, 1942, during World War II. Part of the Guadalcanal Campaign, the Battle of Tassafaronga had Japanese destroyers attack an American squadron in Ironbottom Sound. A stunning defeat, the Battle of Tassafaronga saw the US Navy lose one cruiser and suffer three severely damaged.

World War II Naval Battle of Guadalcanal
The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal took place November 12-15, 1942, in the waters around the Solomon Islands. Attempting to reinforce their troops on Guadalcanal, the Japanese dispatched forces to the area and engaged in two major night battles. Meeting the Japanese in battle, Allied ships won both fights off Guadalcanal and inflicted heavy losses.

World War II - Battle of Savo Island
The Battle of Savo Island was fought August 8-9, 1942, during World War II. Part of the Guadalcanal Campaign, the Battle of Savo Island saw Japanese ships conduct a night action against Allied vessels off the island. In the resulting battle, the Allies were badly defeated losing four heavy cruisers.

Battle of the Eastern Solomons - World War II Battle of the Eastern Solomons
Allied and Japanese naval forces clashed at the Battle of the Eastern Solomons on August 24-25, 1942. The second major naval battle of the Guadalcanal Campaign, the engagement saw both fleets launch repeated air strikes against each other. Though both sides ultimately withdrew from the fight, American forces succeeded in sinking the light carrier Ryujo.

World War II - Battle of the Java Sea
The Battle of the Java Sea occurred on February 27, 1942, as Allied naval forces attempted to block the Japanese invasion of Java. Led by Dutch Admiral Karl Doorman, Allied ships engaged the invasion force's escorts in the Java Sea. Lasting over seven hours, the Battle of the Java Sea saw the Japanese repulse the Allied attacks.

Force Z - Attack on Force Z - HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse
Centered on HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse, Force Z was a naval squadron dispatched to Singapore in late 1941. Commanded by Admiral Sir Thomas Phillips, Force Z sortied in early December to attack the Japanese. On December 10, both of Force Z's capital ships were sunk by Japanese aircraft.

Indian Ocean Raid - World War II - Easter Sunday Raid
The Indian Ocean Raid was conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy between March 31 and April 10, 1942, during World War II. Entering the Indian Ocean, Japanese carrier led by Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo attacked Ceylon and British forces in the region. The Indian Ocean Raid saw the British lose several ships including a carrier.

World War II: American Capture of U-505 German Submarine
On June 4,1944, the German submarine U-505 was captured by American forces off the coast of Africa. It is now on display in Chicago.

Operation Pedestal - Relief of Malta - World War II
Operation Pedestal was conducted August 9-15, 1942, during World War II. The goal of Operation Pedestal was to escort a convoy of badly needed supplies and fuel to the garrison of Malta. Passing through the Straits of Gibraltar, the Allied ships of Operation Pedestal succeeded in reaching Malta, but took heavy losses en route.

Operation Catapult at Mers El Kebir (World War II)
Operation Catapult was conducted on July 3, 1940, when British naval forces attacked the French fleet at Mers el Kebir. Approaching the harbor, Force H demanded that the French fleet come over to the Allied side to prevent its capture by the Germans. When the French refused, Force H opened fire inflicting heavy damage.

Battle of the Denmark Strait - World War Battle of the Denmark Strait
The Battle of the Denmark Strait was fought on May 24, 1941, during World War II. Departing port, the German battleship Bismarck and heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen attempted to break in the North Atlantic to attack Allied shipping. Intercepted by HMS Hood and HMS Prince of Wales, they defeated them in the resulting Battle of the Denmark Strait.

Battle of the Atlantic - World War II History
The Battle of the Atlantic took place between 1939 and 1945 during World War II. The Battle of the Atlantic saw German U-boats attempt to cut off Britain by sinking merchant shipping. Though German U-boats inflicted heavy losses, Allied naval forces ultimately won the Battle of the Atlantic.

World War II: Battle of the River Plate
The Battle of the River Plate was fought on December 13, 1939, and saw British warships battle the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee. Fighting off the estuary of the River Plate, Admiral Graf Spee inflicted heavy damage on the British but was forced to seek a harbor in neutral Uruguay. Trapped by British forces after the battle, the Germans scuttled Admiral Graf Spee in the River Plate.

World War I: Battle of Jutland- Clash of the Dreadnoughts
The Battle of Jutland was fought May 31-June 1, 1916, and was the largest naval battle of World War I. Fighting in the North Sea, the British and German fleets met off the coast of Jutland in a running action. Inconclusive in its results, the Battle of Jutland saw both sides claim victory, though the German fleet never again ventured into the North Sea to seek action.

Battle of Jutland - World War I Battle of Jutland
The Battle of Jutland was fought May 31-June 1, 1916, and was the largest naval battle of World War I. Fighting in the North Sea, the British and German fleets met off the coast of Jutland in a running action. Inconclusive in its results, the Battle of Jutland saw both sides claim victory, though the German fleet never again ventured into the North Sea to seek action. Page 2.

Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby - World War I - Franz von Hipper - Royal Navy
The Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby occurred on December 16, 1914, during World War I. Sailing, elements of the German High Seas Fleet bombarded Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby causing civilian casualties. Aware of German intentions after the Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby, the Royal Navy attempted to intercept the enemy but without success.

Battle of New Orleans - American Civil War
The city of New Orleans was captured by Union forces on April 25, 1862. Battling past the Confederate forts on the Mississippi River, Flag Officer David G. Farragut succeeded in reaching the city after probing the defenses for over a week. The largest city in the Confederacy, the capture of New Orleans was a huge blow to the rebel cause.

Naval Warfare & Warships
Control of the seas has always played a key role in deciding the outcome of wars. Explore how naval warfare has changed from the triremes of ancient Greece to Britain's

Battle of Navarino - Greek War of Independence Battle of Navarino
Fought in 1827, the Battle of Navarino was a turning point in the Greek War of Independence. After several years of fighting, the Greeks finally received foreign assistance in the form of British, French, and Russian warships. Under the command of Admiral Sir Edward Codrington, the allied fleet entered Navarino Bay and destroyed the Ottoman fleet of Ibrahim Pasha.

Summary of U.S Quasi-War With France
The Quasi-War was an undeclared maritime conflict between the United States and France. Fought between 1798-1800, the Quasi-War was the result of disagreements regarding the United States' neutrality during the war of the French Revolution.

Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife - Horatio Nelson Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife
The Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife was fought July 22-25, 1797. Attacking Tenerife in the Canary Islands, Royal Navy vessels under Rear Admiral Horatio Nelson attempted to capture Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Repulsed, Nelson lost his right arm during the battle.

Mutiny on the Bounty - Mutiny on the Bounty History
The Mutiny on the Bounty took place April 28, 1789, in the Pacific Ocean. Several members of HMS Bounty's crew, led by Fletcher Christian, mutinied against Lt. William Bligh after harsh treatment and desiring to remain in the South Seas. While Bligh ultimately returned home, Bounty and several of the mutineers settled on Pitcairn Island.

Quiberon Bay - Battle of Quiberon Bay - Seven Years' War
The Battle of Quiberon Bay was fought November 20, 1759, during the Seven Years' War. Attacking the French fleet at the Battle of Quiberon Bay, Admiral Sir Edward Hawke captured or destroyed six enemy ships of the line and scattered the remainder. The Battle of Quiberon Bay was part of the Annus Mirabilis of 1759.

Raid on the Medway - Second Anglo-Dutch War
The Raid on the Medway occurred in 1667, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. Penetrating the Thames estuary, Dutch ships attacked up the River Medway as far as Chatham, capturing or destroying several English ships. One of the worst naval defeats ever inflicted on the British, the raid led to a quick peace in favor of the Dutch.

The Spanish Armada of the Anglo-Spanish War
Arriving in July 1588, the Spanish Armada sought to control the English Channel and aid in transferring troops from Holland for the invasion of England. Shadowed by the English fleet, the Armada was harried by hit-and-run attacks until being defeated at the Battle of Gravelines on August 8. Retreating north, the Spanish lost many ships on the Irish coast as they sought to return to Spain.

The Spanish Armada - England Defeats the Spanish Armada - Spanish Armada at the Battle of Gravelines
Arriving in July 1588, the Spanish Armada sought to control the English Channel and aid in transferring troops from Holland for the invasion of England. Shadowed by the English fleet, the Armada was harried by hit-and-run attacks until being defeated at the Battle of Gravelines on August 8. Retreating north, the Spanish lost many ships on the Irish coast as they sought to return to Spain. Page 2.

About the Battle of Salamis - The Persian Wars
The Battle of Salamis was fought in September 480 BC during the Persian Wars. Having been defeated at Thermopylae, Greek forces retreated to Salamis where they were pursued by the Persian fleet. Attacking the Persians in the Straits of Salamis, the Greeks won a stunning victory.

Battle of Actium - Mark Antony and Octavian
The Battle of Actium was fought September 2, 31 BC off Actium, Greece between Octavian and Mark Antony. After the two fleets clashed for several hours, Cleopatra fled Actium with her ships. Seeing this, Antony followed allowing his fleets to be destroyed. Actium was the deciding battle in the conflict between the two men.

Battle of Megiddo - Egyptian Victory at the Battle Megiddo
On May 9, 1457 BC, Egyptian troops led by Pharaoh Thutmose III defeated a rebel army led by the King of Kadesh at the Battle of Megiddo. Marching north into Palestine, Thutmose surprised the rebels by passing through the Aruna Valley. Emerging near Megiddo, his troops routed the rebels in a battle outside the city walls.

Battle of Thermopylae History - Persian Wars
The Battle of Artemisium was fought in early August 480 BC in conjunction with the Battle of Thermopylae. The Battle of Artemisium was a naval engagement between the Greek and Persian fleets and saw fighting over a three day span. With the defeat on land at Thermopylae, the Greeks were forced to withdraw from Artemisium.

Vikings and Saxons at the Battle of Maldon
The Battle of Maldon was fought in 991 during the Viking invasions of Britain. Sailing up the River Blackwater, Viking forces attacked the Saxons near Maldon. In the fighting at the Battle of Maldon, Ealdorman Brihtnoth was killed leading to a Viking victory.

The Battle of Plataea - Persian War History
The Battle of Plataea was fought in August 479 BC during the Persian Wars. Advancing against the Persians a year after the victory at Salamis, Greek forces engaged the enemy in Boeotia. In the resulting Battle of Plataea, the Persians were defeated and driven from Greece.

Battle of the Trebia - Second Punic War
Fought on December 18, 218 BC, the Battle of the Trebia was the first major battle of the Second Punic War. Marching into northern Italy, Hannibal inflicted a devastating defeat upon Roman forces. The defeat at the Battle of the Trebia caused Rome to adjust their war strategy to meet the new threat from the north.

Punic Wars: Battle of Lake Trasimene
The Battle of Lake Trasimene was fought June 24, 217 BC during the Second Punic War. Advancing from his victory at the Trebia, Hannibal set an ambush on the shores of Lake Trasimene. Attacking the Roman army durign the Battle of Lake Trasimene, Hannibal won a crushing victory.

Battle of Zama - Punic Wars History
The Battle of Zama was fought between Rome and Carthage in late October 202 BC. Clashing at Zama in North Africa, the army of Hannibal was defeated by the Romans led by Scipio Africanus. The defeat at the Battle of Zama forced the Carthaginians to sue for peace and ended the Second Punic War.

Roman Victory at the Battle of Pydna
In 168 BC, Macedonian and Roman forces clashed at the Battle of Pydna. The fighting at Pydna showed the superiority of the legion over the phalanx and resulted in a crushing victory for Rome. Following the defeat at the Battle of Pynda, Macedonina power was broken and the country conquered.

Gallic Wars: Battle of Alesia and Julius Caesar
The Battle of Alesia took place in the fall of 52 BC as Julius Caesar laid siege to the Mandubii settlement at Alesia in Gaul. Building an extensive set of fortifications around Alesia, Caesar beat off attacks from Vercingetorix's garrison as well as a relief army. The victory at Alesia effectively secured Gaul for Rome.

Wars of the Second Triumvirate: Battle of Philippi
Learn the history behind the Battle of Philippi, instigated by the assassination of Julius Caesar and fought on two separate dates, October 3 and 23, 42 BC.

Julius Caesar's Civil War Battle of Pharsalus
The Battle of Pharsalus was the decisive engagement of Caesar's Civil War. Fought August 9, 48 BC, at Pharsalus, Greece, the battle saw Julius Caesar defeat troops under Pompey. The battle turned when some of Caesar's troops defeated a cavalry attack and were able assault the enemy in the flank and rear.

Roman Empire: Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest was fought in September 9 AD in present-day Germany. En route to winter quarters, three Roman legions sought to defeat a rebellion led by Arminius. Attacked in the Teutoburg Forest by the Germanic tribes, the Romans were effectively destroyed.

Constantine at the Battle of Milvian Bridge
Fought during the power struggle that occurred following the collapse of the Tetrarchy, the Battle of the Milvian Bridge pitted Constantine against the usurper Maxentius. Clashing at Milvian Bridge near Rome, Constantine's forces, fighting under a Christian banner, defeated Maxentius, allowing their leader to take control of the Western Empire.

Wars of Alexander the Great: Battle of Gaugamela
The Battle of Gaugamela was fought October 1, 331 BC during Alexander the Great's wars with the Persian Empire. Advancing east, Alexander encountered the army of Darius III in present-day Iraq. In the resulting Battle of Gaugamela, Alexander routed the Persians leading to the empire's fall.

Alexander the Great and the Battle of Chaeronea
The Battle of Chaeronea occurred in 338 BC when King Philip II of Macedon confronted a mixed Greek army. Clashing on a plain near Chaeronea, the battle was hotly contested until the king's son, the future Alexander the Great, led the decisive charge which broke the Greek lines.

Wars of Alexander the Great: Siege of Tyre
The Siege of Tyre took place from January to July 332 BC. Moving down the Mediterranean coast, Alexander the Great laid siege to Tyre during his conflict with the Persians. An island city, he was ultimately forced to build a long mole as well as assemble a fleet to take Tyre.

Granicus - Battle of the Granicus
The Battle of Granicus was fought May 334 BC during the Wars of Alexander the Great. Crossing to Asia Minor, Alexander the Great engaged the Persian Empire along the Granicus River. In the resulting battle, Alexander routed the Persians.

Attila the Hun at the Battle of Chalons
The Battle of Chalons occurred on June 20, 451, in present-day France. Pitting Attila the Hun against Roman forces led by Flavius Aetius, the Battle of Chalons ended in a tactical draw but was a strategic victory for Rome. The victory at Chalons was one of the last achieved by the Western Roman Empire.

Battle of Manzikert - Byzantine Empire - Defeat at Manzikert
The Battle of Manzikert was fought August 26, 1071, between the Byzantine Empire and the Suljuk Turks. In the fighting at the Battle of Manzikert, the Byzantines were badly defeated. The Battle of Manzikert also saw Emperor Romanos IV captured by the Seljuks.

Invasions of England: Battle of Hastings 1066
Invading England in the fall of 1066, William of Normandy met the Anglo-Saxon forces of Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings on October 14. Fighting on Senlac Ridge, William's forces overcame determined resistance at the Battle of Hastings to win the day. Following the victory at the Battle of Hastings, William advanced on London and forced the English nobles to submit to him.

Overview of the Irish Battle of Clontarf
On Good Friday 1014, the forces of Munster and Leinster clashed at the Battle of Clontarf outside Dublin, Ireland. The battle was a result of the King of Leinster, Máel Mórda mac Murchada, rebelling against the High King of Ireland, Brian Boru. Brian's forces were victorious at Clontarf, however both leaders were killed sinking Ireland into regional warfare.

History of the Crusades: Siege of Jerusalem (1099)
The Siege of Jerusalem was conducted June 7-July 15, 1099, during the First Crusade. Approaching Jerusalem, Crusader forces under Raymond of Toulouse invested the city. After several weeks, the Crusaders were able to build siege towers and successfully attacked Jerusalem on July 15.

Battle of Legnano - Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnano
Fought on May 29, 1176, the Battle of Legnano was a key engagement in Frederick I Barbarossa's Fifth Italian Campaign. Leading reinforcements from Germany, Frederick was intercepted by the troops of the Lombard League. Attacking near Legnano, Frederick initially had success until a decisive counterattack broke his lines and routed his forces.

The Crusades and the Battle of Hattin
The Battle of Hattin was fought July 4, 1187, during the Crusades. Lured out of the Jerusalem defenses, a Crusader army was attacked by Saladin near the Horns of Hattin. In the resulting Battle of Hattin, the Crusaders were crushed.

Battle of Legnica - Mongol Invasions Battle of Legnica
The Battle of Legnica was fought on April 9, 1241, between an alliance of European soldiers and invading Mongol forces. Led by Henry the Pious of Silesia, the allied troops were drawn into battle near present-day Legnica. Using a series of feigned retreats, the Mongols crushed the European army, killing Henry in the process.

Battle of Mohi - Mongol Invasions Battle of Mohi
The Battle of Mohi was fought April 11, 1241, and saw Mongol forces rout the Hungarians. With the Mongols invading his country, King Bela IV moved with his army to block the enemy. Engaging the enemy near Mohi, he was ultimately driven from the field.

Battle of Dunbar - Wars of Scottish Independence Battle of Dunbar 1296
The Battle of Dunbar was a key engagement during King Edward I's invasion of Scotland in 1296. After capturing Berwick, he sent troops forward to Dunbar where they met the army of King John Balliol. In the resulting action, the Scots were driven from the field.

Scottish Independence: Battle of Falkirk
Marching north in 1298, to avenge the English defeat at Stirling Bridge, King Edward I met a smaller Scottish army under Sir William Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk. Using his archers to weaken the Scottish lines, Edward's troops were then able to drive the Scots from the field and win the Battle of Falkirk.

Battle of Stirling Bridge - Scottish History
Fought in 1297, the Battle of Stirling Bridge was an early victory for the Scots over the English during the First War of Scottish Independence.

Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn
Fought near Stirling Castle, the Battle of Bannockburn was the decisive battle of the First War of Scottish Independence. Occurring in 1314, Bannockburn saw the outnumbered forces of Robert the Bruce inflict a devastating defeat on the English led by Edward II. The victory at Bannockburn secured Bruce's position as king of Scotland and paved the way for recognition of the nation's independence.

Fall of Constantinople, 1453 - Byzantine-Ottoman Wars
The Fall of Constantinople took place in 1453 after the Ottomans successfully laid siege to the city. The loss of Constantinople marked the end of the Byzantine Empire. The siege of Constantinople was conducted by Mehmet II and lasted nearly two months.

Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) 1410
The Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) was fought July 15, 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War. On of the largest battles fought in medieval Europe, Grunwald saw the Teutonic knights defeated. The Battle of Grunwald shifted the balance of power in Eastern Europe and was later used for propaganda purposes.

Second Battle of St. Albans - Wars of the Roses - Earl of Warwick
The Second Battle of St. Albans was fought February 17, 1461, during the Wars of the Roses. Moving south, Lancastrian forces led by Queen Margaret encountered the the Earl of Warwick near St. Albans. Conducing a wide flanking movement, they routed him in the Second Battle of St. Albans and continued their advance on London.

Battle of Mortimer's Cross - Wars of the Roses - Edward IV
The Battle of Mortimer's Cross was fought February 2, 1461, during the Wars of the Roses. Seeking to prevent Lancastrian forces from Wales from uniting with their allies, Edward, Earl of March, engaged them in the Battle of Mortimer's Cross. Victorious at Mortimer's Cross, Edward captured and killed Owen Tudor and shattered the enemy's forces.

Battle of Stoke Field - War of the Roses Battle of Stoke Field
The Battle of Stoke Field was the last engagement of the Wars of the Roses. Fought June 16, 1487, it saw the Earl of Lincoln invade England in support of the pretender Lambert Simnel. Meeting King Henry VII's army at Stoke Field, he was defeated and killed.

The Hundred Years' War Battle of Crecy
The Battle of Crécy was fought August 26, 1346, during the Hundred Years' War. Advancing out of Normandy, King Edward III's army encountered the French near Crécy-en-Ponthieu. In the resulting battle, his archers used longbows to cut down waves of French knights.

Hundred Years' War - Joan of Arc and Siege of Orléans
The Siege of Orleans began October 12, 1428 and ended May 8, 1429 when the French relieved the city. Invested by the English, Orleans was ultimately saved by the leadership of Joan of Arc. The Siege of Orleans marked a turning point in the Hundred Years' War.

Battle of Formigny - Hundred Years' War Battle of Formigny
The Battle of Formigny was fought on April 15, 1450, in Normandy, France. Fighting on the Carentan-Bayeux Road, English forces led by Sir Thomas Kyriell held off the small army of the Comte de Clermont. The Battle of Formigny was won for the French when troops commanded by Arthur de Richemont arrived and turned the English flank.

Battle of Edgehill - English Civil War Battle of Edgehill
The Battle of Edgehill was fought October 23, 1642, during the English Civil War. The first major pitched battle of the conflict, Edgehill saw Royalist and Parliamentarian forces fight an inconclusive engagement. In the wake of the Battle of Edgehill, both sides maneuvered on London.

Battle of Marston Moor - English Civil War History
Meeting on Marston Moor in July 2, 1644, an Allied army of Parliamentarians and Scots Covenanters decisively defeated the Royalist Army of Prince Rupert. The victory at Marston Moor effectively ended the English Civil War in northern England as Royalist forces were forced to withdrawal south.

Battle of Naseby - English Civil War
The Battle of Naseby was fought on June 14, 1645, and was a key engagement of the English Civil War. Clashing near Naseby in Northamptonshire, the Parliamentarian New Model Army crushed King Charles I's forces. The victory at Naseby was a turning point for Parliament's war effort.

Battle of Preston - English Civil War - Oliver Cromwell
The Battle of Preston was fought August 17-19, 1648, during the English Civil War. During the Battle of Preston, Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army engaged a Scottish Engager and English Royalist force. In the fighting at Preston, Cromwell won a clear victory.

F-4 Phantom II Fighter Plane Specifications
The F-4 Phantom II was originally developed for the US Navy, but also was used by the US Air Force and Marine Corps. A long-range fighter/fighter-bomber, the F-4 Phantom II saw extensive service during the Vietnam War. Replaced by the American military in the 1980s, the F-4 continued to see service with other nations.

Pontiac's Rebellion: An Examination
Pontiac's Rebellion was fought between 1763 and 1766 and saw the Native Americans rise up against the British. Pontiac's Rebellion began with the Native Americans capturing several British forts on the frontier. Counterattacking in 1764, Britsh forces ultimately brought Pontiac's Rebellion to an end and forced the Native Americans to negotiate for peace.

Battle of Glen Shiel - Jacobite Uprising Battle of Glen Shiel
Fought on June 10, 1719, the Battle of Glen Shiel was part of the Jacobite Risings in Scotland. Marching with Spanish aid, Scots under Lord George Murray attempted to move east to capture Inverness. Encountering British troops at Glen Shiel, the Scots were defeated and their Spanish allies forced to surrender.

Williamite War in Ireland - The Battle of the Boyne
Williamite and Jacobite forces clashed at the Battle of the Boyne on July 12, 1690. Led by William III, the Williamite forces decisively defeated James II, forcing him to flee back to France. The defeat at the Boyne ended James' attempted to reclaim his throne.

MacDonald Clan Glencoe Massacre
The Glencoe Massacre occurred on the night of February 13, 1692, in western Scotland. Following being delayed in giving an oath of loyalty to new King William III, the MacDonalds of Glencoe were singled out for punishment by the new government. After hosting British soldiers for two weeks in Glencoe, the MacDonalds were attacked by their guests who killed 37 in the glen and burned the local villages.

Siege of Louisbourg - War of the Austrian Succession - 1745 - William Pepperrell
The Siege of Louisbourg was conducted from May 11 to June 28, 1745, during the War of the Austrian Succession. Sailing north, a colonial forces led by William Pepperrell landed and laid siege to Louisbourg. After a siege of 47 days, Louisbourg fell to the British.

USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24) - World War II
USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24) was an Independence-class aircraft carrier which saw service in World War II before being transferred to the French Navy and taking part in the First Indochina War.

French & Indian War - French & Indian War Aftermath
The French & Indian/Seven Years' War ended with the Treaty of Paris between Britain and France and the Treaty of Hubertusburg between Prussia and Austria. The Treaty of Paris saw the transfer of Canada and Florida to Britain, while Spain received Louisiana and had Cuba returned. The separate Treaty of Hubertusburg led to a return to status quo ante bellum.

French and Indian War - 1758-1759: The Tide Turns
The French & Indian/Seven Years' War continued in 1758 and 1759 with the British winning victories in North America, most notably at Quebec. In Europe, the Duke of Brunswick ably defended Hanover, while Frederick the Great fought a series of battles with the Austrians and Russians. At sea, the Royal Navy won key victories at Quiberon Bay and Lagos.

French and Indian War - French and Indian War Seven Year' War
The French & Indian/Seven Years' War continued in 1758 and 1759 with the British winning victories in North America, most notably at Quebec. In Europe, the Duke of Brunswick ably defended Hanover, while Frederick the Great fought a series of battles with the Austrians and Russians. At sea, the Royal Navy won key victories at Quiberon Bay and Lagos. Page 2.

French and Indian War - French and Indian War Seven Year' War
The French & Indian/Seven Years' War continued in 1758 and 1759 with the British winning victories in North America, most notably at Quebec. In Europe, the Duke of Brunswick ably defended Hanover, while Frederick the Great fought a series of battles with the Austrians and Russians. At sea, the Royal Navy won key victories at Quiberon Bay and Lagos. Page 3.

Battle of Rossbach - Seven Year's War - Frederick the Great
One of Frederick the Great's most stunning victories, the Battle of Rossbach saw the Prussian leader rout a combined French & Austrian army. Clashing near the village of Rossbach in Prussian Saxony, Frederick was able to surprise the enemy and soundly defeat them while suffering minimal casualties.

French and Indian War: Battle of the Monongahela
The Battle of the Monongahela was fought on July 9, 1755, in western Pennsylvania. Advancing from Fort Cumberland, Major General Edward Braddock sought to capture the French base at Fort Duquesne. Meeting a French and Indian force near the Monongahela River, Braddock's men were driven from the field.

Fort Necessity and the Battle of Great Meadows
Built in 1754, by Lt. Col. George Washington, Fort Necessity was located in the Great Meadows in present-day southwestern Pennsylvania. Tasked with constructing a road through the wilderness, Washington had Fort Necessity built after encountering resistance from the French in May. Attacked on July 3, Washington was forced to surrender Fort Necessity the next day.

American Civil War: Battle of Philippi
The Battle of Philippi was fought June 3, 1861, during the early days of the Civil War. Advancing into western Virginia Union forces attacked a Conderate force at Philippi. In the resulting Battle of Philippi, they routed the enemy and the engagement became known as the

Glorious First of June - Wars of the French Revolution
The Glorious First of June was a naval battle fought on June 1, 1794, during the Wars of the French Revolution. Seeking to attack a grain convoy, Adm. Lord Howe engaged the French fleet in a battle dubbed the Glorious First of June. In the fighting, Howe captured or destroyed seven French ships.

Battle of Shiloh - American Civil War
The Battle of Shiloh saw Confederate forces under Gen. Albert S. Johnston attack Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's troops in Tennessee. The Battle of Shiloh was fought April 6-7, 1862 and initially favored the Confederates as Union troops were caught by surprise. Reinforced, Grant counterattacked on the second day and drove the enemy from the field.

American Revolution: Battles of Lexington and Concord
Fought on April 19, 1775, the Battles of Lexington and Concord were the opening actions of the American Revolution. The first shots were fired at Lexington as British troops from Boston passed through on their way to capture colonial military stores in Concord. After departing Concord, the British were attacked by colonial militia en route back to the city and suffered substantial casualties.

Battle of Molino del Rey - Mexican-American War - Winfield Scott Battle of Molina del Rey
The Battle of Molino del Rey was fought September 8, 1847, during the Mexican-American War. Moving forward, American troops attacked Mexican forces in the Molino del Rey. In heavy fighting, they drove away the defenders and won the Battle of Molino del Rey.

Mexican-American War: Battle of Monterrey
The Battle of Monterrey was fought September 21-24, 1846, during the Mexican-American War. Advancing into Mexico, American forces under Maj. Gen. Zachary Taylor attacked the city of Monterrey. The resulting Battle of Monterrey saw the Americans take the city after heavy fighting.

Battle of Contreras - Mexican-American War - Battle of Padierna - Winfield Scott
The Battle of Contreras was fought on August 19-20, 1847, during the Mexican-American War. Advancing on Mexico City, American troops opened the Battle of Contreras by attacking Mexican forces led by Gen. Gabriel Valencia. Defeating the Mexicans at Contreras, American forces won again at Churubusco on the 20th.

Battle of Churubusco - Mexican-American War - Winfield Scott
The Battle of Churubusco was fought August 20, 1847 during the Mexican-American War. Having defeated the Mexicans that morning at Contreras, American forces renewed their attack that afternoon at Churubusco. In the Battle of Churubusco, US troops won a victory after several hours of heavy fighting.

The Intolerable Acts (1774) - American Revolution History
The Intolerable Acts were a series of punitive laws passed by Parliament in the spring 1774, in response to the 1773 Boston Tea Party. Consisting of five parts, the Intolerable Acts included the Boston Port, Massachusetts Government, Administration of Justice, Quartering, and Quebec Acts. Causing outrage, the Intolerable Acts worked to push the colonies towards rebellion.

American Revolution: The Stamp Act of 1765
The Stamp Act of 1765 was passed by Parliament to raise money to pay for British troops in North America. Taxing paper products, the Stamp Act was violently opposed by the colonists leading to calls of

Boston Tea Party - American Revolution
The Boston Tea Party took place on December 16, 1773, in Boston harbor. Angered by the imposition of the Tea Act, colonists in Boston refused to allow new shipments to be landed. On the night of December 16, angry colonists boarded three tea ships in the harbor and tossed crates of tea into the harbor. Known as the Boston Tea Party, this act contributed to the tensions that led to the American Revolution.

Mexican-American War: Aftermath & Legacy
The Mexican-American War had long lasting effects for the United States and planted the seeds for the Civil War. This is a look at the aftermath and legacy of the Mexican-American War.

The Causes of World War I
The causes of World War I can be traced to several factors which had been simmering for a number of decades. Among these causes of World War I were rising tensions over imperialism, increased nationalism, and a major naval arms race. These causes were brought to a head by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria which set in motion the series of events that led to World War I. Page 3.

Causes of World War I and the Rise of Germany
The causes of World War I can be traced to several factors which had been simmering for a number of decades. Among these causes of World War I were rising tensions over imperialism, increased nationalism, and a major naval arms race. These causes were brought to a head by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria which set in motion the series of events that led to World War I.

World War I Causes: The Balkans, Archduke's Assassination
The causes of World War I can be traced to several factors which had been simmering for a number of decades. Among these causes of World War I were rising tensions over imperialism, increased nationalism, and a major naval arms race. These causes were brought to a head by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria which set in motion the series of events that led to World War I. Page 2.

Major General Samuel Crawford - American Civil War
Major General Samuel Crawford was a Union commander during the Civil War who was present at Fort Sumter and later led a division in the Army of the Potomac.

World War I: America Joins the War (1917)
World War I changed in 1917 when the United States entered the conflict. French failures on the Western Front in 1917 along with mutinies among their troops led to the British being forced to carry the brunt of the fighting. In the east, revolution swept through Russia ultimately taking it out of World War I.

World War 1 - World War 1 1917
World War I changed in 1917 when the United States entered the conflict. French failures on the Western Front in 1917 along with mutinies among their troops led to the British being forced to carry the brunt of the fighting. In the east, revolution swept through Russia ultimately taking it out of World War I. Page 2.

World War 1 - World War 1 1917
World War I changed in 1917 when the United States entered the conflict. French failures on the Western Front in 1917 along with mutinies among their troops led to the British being forced to carry the brunt of the fighting. In the east, revolution swept through Russia ultimately taking it out of World War I. Page 3.

World War 1 - World War 1 1917
World War I changed in 1917 when the United States entered the conflict. French failures on the Western Front in 1917 along with mutinies among their troops led to the British being forced to carry the brunt of the fighting. In the east, revolution swept through Russia ultimately taking it out of World War I. Page 4.

Aftermath of World War 1 - Treaty of Versailles
With the end of World War I on November 11, 1918, the warring parties convened a peace conference at Versailles. While each nation possessed its own goals and desires for the conference, none were fully met. The resulting Treaty of Versailles and its effects ultimately set the stage for World War II a mere twenty years later.

Aftermath of World War I: The Seeds of Future Conflict
With the end of World War I on November 11, 1918, the warring parties convened a peace conference at Versailles. While each nation possessed its own goals and desires for the conference, none were fully met. The resulting Treaty of Versailles and its effects ultimately set the stage for World War II a mere twenty years later. Page 2.

World War II in the Pacific - New Guinea, Burma, China
In addition to operations in the Southwest and Central Pacific, fighting raged across New Guinea, Burma, and China as Allied and Japanese forces fought for control. Led by Douglas MacArthur, Allied troops drove many of the Japanese from New Guinea in 1943. To the west, Allied troops were pushed out of Burma necessitating a long campaign to retake it. In China, the Allies supported the operations of Chiang Kai Shek and his Nationalist government.

World War II Pacific in New Guinea Burma and China - World War II Fighting in New Guinea Burma and China - World War II Battles in New Guinea Burma
In addition to operations in the Southwest and Central Pacific, fighting raged across New Guinea, Burma, and China as Allied and Japanese forces fought for control. Led by Douglas MacArthur, Allied troops drove many of the Japanese from New Guinea in 1943. To the west, Allied troops were pushed out of Burma necessitating a long campaign to retake it. In China, the Allies supported the operations of Chiang Kai Shek and his Nationalist government. Page 2.

WWII - Conferences & Aftermath - the Postwar World
The most transformative conflict in history, World War II impacted the entire globe and set the stage for the Cold War. As World War II raged, the leaders of the Allies met several times to direct the course of the fighting and to begin planning for the postwar world. With the defeat of Germany and Japan, their plans were put into action.

World War II: The Postwar World - Ending the Conflict
The most transformative conflict in history, World War II impacted the entire globe and set the stage for the Cold War. Page 2.

The Vietnam War - Causes and Origins
The Vietnam War had its roots in French colonialism and World War II. Rebeling against French authority, Vietnamese forces were able to drive them from the country in 1954. Divided by the Geneva Accords, Vietnam was split north and south, with the United States supporting the democratic South Vietnam.

Vietnam War-Origins of the Vietnam War
The Vietnam War had its roots in French colonialism and World War II. Rebeling against French authority, Vietnamese forces were able to drive them from the country in 1954. Divided by the Geneva Accords, Vietnam was split north and south, with the United States supporting the democratic South Vietnam. Page 2.

The American Revolution: Causes of Conflict
The American Revolution was caused as a result of increasing colonial unhappiness with the policies of the British government. Following the French and Indian War, the British attempted to levy a series of taxes on the American colonies. The American Revolution was caused when colonial protests led to armed conflict.

American Revolution Causes - Military History
The American Revolution was caused as a result of increasing colonial unhappiness with the policies of the British government. Following the French and Indian War, the British attempted to levy a series of taxes on the American colonies. The American Revolution was caused when colonial protests led to armed conflict. Page 2.

American Revolution - Causes of the American Revolution
The American Revolution began as a result of increasing colonial unhappiness with the policies of the British government. Following the French and Indian War, the British attempted to levy a series of taxes on the American colonies. The American Revolution occurred when colonial protests led to armed conflict. Page 3.

World War II: Republic P-47 Thunderbolt
The P-47 Thunderbolt was a key Allied fighter and fighter-bomber during World War II. The P-47 Thunderbolt entered service in 1942, and the fighter saw service in both Europe and the Pacific. Nicknamed

Battle of Manila Bay - George Dewey - Spanish-American War
George Dewey's US Squadron destroyed the Spanish fleet at Manila Bay on May 1, 1898. The victory opened the way for the US conquest of the Philippines.

Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge - American Revolution - Revolutionary War
The Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge was fought February 27, 1776, during the American Revolution. Fought early in the conflict, the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge saw Loyalist forces in North Carolina clash with Patriot troops. Holding the bridge at Moore's Creek, the Patriots won a clear victory and scattered the Loyalist force.

The Battle of Kings Mountain 1780 - American Revolution
The Battle of Kings Mountain was fought October 7, 1780, in backwoods South Carolina. Arriving at Kings Mountain, Loyalist militia under Major Patrick Ferguson was attacked by American forces. Fighting on the slopes of Kings Mountain, the Americans were able to overwhelm and destroy Ferguson's command.

Battle of Kettle Creek - American Revolution - Revolutionary War - Andrew Pickens
The Battle of Kettle Creek was fought February 14, 1779, during the American Revolution. Moving toward Augusta, GA, a British Loyalist force was attacked by Patriot militia at the Battle of Kettle Creek. In the fighting at the Battle of Kettle Creek, American forces defeated and scattered the British force.

American Revolution: Battle of Camden 1780
The Battle of Camden was fought August 16, 1780, during the American Revolution. Sent south after the fall of Charleston, Major General Horatio Gates engaged British forces near Camden, SC. In the resulting Battle of Camden, Gates' army was routed.

American Revolution: Siege of Charleston
The Siege of Charleston was fought March 29 to May 12, 1780, during the American Revolution. Landing near Charleston, British forces under Gen. Sir Henry Clinton laid siege to the city. The Siege of Charleston ended in a British victory when Maj. Gen. Benjamin Lincoln was forced to surrender.

Siege of Fort Mifflin - American Revolution - Philadelphia Campaign
The Siege of Fort Mifflin was fought September 26 to November 16, 1777, during the American Revolution. Moving up the Delaware River, the British began the Siege of Fort Mifflin in an effort to open the waterway to the Royal Navy. Holding out for over a month, the Siege of Fort Mifflin ended when the American garrison evacuated to New Jersey.

Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery - American Revolution - Henry Clinton
The Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery was fought October 6, 1777, during the American Revolution. In an effort to aid Major General John Burgoyne at Saratoga, Major General Sir Henry Clinton moved up the Hudson River and attacked Forts Clinton and Montgomery. In the resulting Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery, he won a victory and captured both posts.

Paoli Massacre - American Revolution - Battle of Paoli
The Paoli Massacre took place September 20-21, 1777, during the American Revolution. Fought shortly after the Battle of Brandywine, the Paoli Massacre saw Brigadier General Anthony Wayne's men surprise attacked by British troops led by Major General Charles Grey. In the wake of the Paoli Massacre, Wayne's command fled the field and moved west.

World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf
The Battle of Leyte Gulf was a series engagements fought October 23-26, 1944, in the waters around the Philippines. During the fighting, the Japanese attempted to block the Allied invasion of Leyte through a series of naval battles. The Battle of Leyte Gulf ended in a massive Allied victory and effectively crippled the Imperial Japanese Navy.

Battle of Empress Augusta Bay - World War II
The Battle of Empress Augusta Bay was fought November 1-2, 1943, during the Solomon Islands Campaign of World War II and saw Allied forces defeat the Japanese off Bougainville.

Battle of Fort Washington - American Revolution History
The Battle of Fort Washington was fought November 16, 1776, during the American Revolution. Having defeated the Americans at White Plains, the British returned to Manhattan and attacked Fort Washington. Winning the Battle of Fort Washington, the British forced the entire garrison to surrender.

Battle of the Assunpink Creek - American Revolution - Revolutionary War
The Battle of the Assunpink Creek was fought January 2, 1777, during the American Revolution. Following the Battle of Trenton, General George Washington moved his army into a defensive position behind Assunpink Creek. Attacked by Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis, Washington turned back the British at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek before departing during the night to attack Princeton.

American Revolution: Battle of Great Bridge
The Battle of Great Bridge was fought December 9, 1775, during the American Revolution. The Battle of Great Bridge centered on a river crossing south of Norfolk, VA and saw British forces attack Patriot troops. In the fighting at the Battle of Great Bridge, the British assault was repulsed.

Battle of Rocroi - Thirty Years' War Battle of Rocroi
Meeting on May 19, 1643, French troops under the Duc d'Enghien defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Rocroi. Marching to lift the siege of Rocroi, d'Enghien, the future Prince of Conde, was able to turn the Spanish flank to achieve victory. The Battle of Rocroi was the first major defeat inflicted on the Spanish in nearly a century.

Battle of Sedan of the Franco-Prussian War
The Battle of Sedan was fought September 1, 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War. A turning point in the conflict, the Battle of Sedan saw Prussian forces encircle the French Army of Chalons. Among those captured at the Battle of Sedan was Emperor Napoleon III.

The Battle of Tannenberg - World War 1
The Battle of Tannenberg was fought in August 1914 during World War I. Taking place on the Eastern Front, the Battle of Tannenberg saw German forces under Gen. Paul von Hindenburg attack the Russians. In the fighting, the Germans won a stunning victory effectively destroying the Russian Second Army.

World War I - Battle of Caporetto on the Italian Front
The Battle of Caporetto was fought October 24-November 19, 1917, during World War I. A turning point on the Italian Front, Caporetto saw German and Austro-Hungarian troops shatter the Italian lines along the Isonzo River. Driving Italians back, they advanced as far as the Piave River before being halted.

Fourteen Points - Woodrow Wilson - World War I
The Fourteen Points were developed during World War I by President Woodrow Wilson. Wilson hoped the terms of his Fourteen Points, which stressed progressive ideas like self-determination and free trade, could serve as the basis for a peace agreement. The Fourteen Points were discussed and partially incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles.

Battle of Magdhaba - World War I Battle of Magdhaba
The Battle of Magdhaba was part of the Sinai-Palestine Campaign of World War I. Advancing across the Sinai, British forces occupied El Arish on the coast. To protect their flank, mounted forces were ordered to capture the town of Magdhaba to the south. Attacking from the northeast, British forces succeeded in taking the town after a bitter fight.

Battle of Gallipoli - World War I History
The Battle of Gallipoli began when British Commonwealth and French troops landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula of Turkey adjacent to the Dardanelles. In a brutal campaign, Allied forces were unable to dislodge the Turks from Gallipoli's heights. After nearly a year of fighting they ended the fight and withdrew.

Battle of Rafa - World War I Battle of Rafa
The Battle of Rafa was fought January 9, 1916, and saw British troops force the Turks out of the Sinai Peninsula. Following up on their victory at Magdhaba, the British assaulted Turkish positions at Rafa. After a day-long fight, they succeeded in clearing Rafa of opposition.