Military History Sitemap - Page 5 2015-01-25

World War 1 - World War 1 History Middle East
When World War I became a stalemate on the Western Front, the Allies began seeking secondary fronts for striking at the Central Powers. While offensives were attempted through Gallipoli and Salonika, other efforts were made to capture German colonies in Africa. While many of these had little effect on the outcome of World War I, the British campaign in the Middle East succeeded in toppling the Ottoman Empire. Page 2.

World War 1 - World War 1 History Middle East
When World War I became a stalemate on the Western Front, the Allies began seeking secondary fronts for striking at the Central Powers. While offensives were attempted through Gallipoli and Salonika, other efforts were made to capture German colonies in Africa. While many of these had little effect on the outcome of World War I, the British campaign in the Middle East succeeded in toppling the Ottoman Empire. Page 3.

A Biography of Civil War General Stonewall Jackson
Lt. General Thomas. Military History.

Montana-class Battleships - US Navy - World War II
The Montana-class of battleship (BB-67 to BB-71) was designed beginning in 1939 to be the US Navy's largest and most powerful ships of this type. The Montana-class was suspended and cancelled in the early years of World War II as aircraft carrier construction took a higher priority.

Battle of Loos - World War 1 Battle of Loos
The Battle of Loos was British offensive during World War I conducted between September 25 and October 14, 1915. The fighting marked the first British use of poison gas during the war. When the Battle of Loos concluded the British had achieved only marginal gains.

Army Biographies of the 1900s - 20th Century Army Biographies - Army Biographies
The conflicts of the 1900s have seen the emergence of some of the greatest military minds in history. Here we examine those leaders who led their forces to victory in the 20th century.

USS Kentucky - BB-66 - Iowa-class Battleship
USS Kentucky (BB-66) was an Iowa-class battleship that was cancelled while still under construction. In the years after World War II several plans for USS Kentucky were put forward but the vessel was later scrapped.

Battle of North Point - War of 1812 Battle of North Point
Part of the larger Battle of Baltimore, the Battle of North Point was fought on September 12, 1814. Meeting British troops outside of Baltimore, American troops held off the enemy for two hours, killing their leader, before falling back to the city's defenses.

Battle of Empress Augusta Bay - World War II
The Battle of Empress Augusta Bay was fought November 1-2, 1943, during the Solomon Islands Campaign of World War II and saw Allied forces defeat the Japanese off Bougainville.

USS Illinois - BB-65 - Iowa-class Battleship
USS Illinois (BB-65) was the fifth ship of the US Navy's Iowa-class of battleships. Laid down in 1945, construction of USS Illinois was later cancelled.

Battle of Brice's Cross Roads - American Civil War - Nathan Bedford Forrest
The Battle of Brice's Cross Roads was fought June 10, 1864, during the American Civil War. Advancing into Mississippi, Union forces encountered Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest at Brice's Cross Roads. In the resulting Battle of Brice's Cross Roads, Forrest won a victory and captured a large number of prisoners.

Battle of Resaca - Battle of Resaca Atlanta Campaign - Civil War
The Battle of Resaca was fought May 13-15, 1864, during Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's campaign to capture Atlanta. Having forced Confederate troops out of Dalton, GA, Sherman attempted a series of attacks against their lines near Resaca with no success. Unable to break through, Sherman was able to turn Gen. Joseph Johnston out of his position by crossing the Oostanaula River.

World War II Fighters - American World War II Fighters Brewster Buffalo
Fighters ruled the skies during World War II. As a result, each nation strove to design the most effective and lethal aircraft to achieve air superiority. This gallery profiles several American fighters used by the US Army Air Forces and US Navy during World War II. Page 7.

Hawker Typhoon - World War II - Royal Air Force Fighter
The Hawker Typhoon was a Royal Air Force fighter that saw service during World War II. Developed as a replacement for the Hawker Hurricane, the Hawker Typhoon's development was plagued by problems. Entering service, the Hawker Typhoon proved an effective interceptor and fighter-bomber.

Union Leaders: A to F
Union Leaders, A to F. Military History.

USS Constitition - Frigate Constitution - War of 1812
USS Constitution was launched in 1797 and is the oldest commissioned warship in the US Navy. Earning fame during the War of 1812, USS Consititution defeated the British frigates Guerriere and Java. Known as

Battle of Ezra Church - American Civil War - Atlanta Campaign
The Battle of Ezra Church was fought July 28, 1864, during the American Civil War. Part of the Atlanta Campaign, the Battle of Ezra Church saw Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman attempt to cut the city off from the west. Attacking Union forces at Ezra Church, the Confederates were repulsed.

HMS Queen Mary - Battlecruiser - World War I - Royal Navy
HMS Queen Mary was a British battlecruiser that entered service in 1913. The last battlecruiser completed for the Royal Navy prior to World War I, HMS Queen Mary saw action during the early engagements of the conflict. Sailing with the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron, HMS Queen Mary was lost at the Battle of Jutland in May 1916.

Naval Battle of Casablanca - World War II - Operation Torch - Invasion of North Africa
The Naval Battle of Casablanca was fought November 8-12, 1942, during World War II. Part of Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa, the Naval Battle of Casablanca saw American forces engage the French around Casablanca, Morocco. In the fighting at the Naval Battle of Casablanca, American ships and aircraft sank several French vessels and opened the way for the capture of the city.

1900s Military History Timeline
A military history timeline of the 20th and 21st centuries. This timeline chronicles the military history of the last hundred plus years. Included in this military history timeline are World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, and dozens of other conflicts.

Military History Timeline - 20th Century - Military History
A military history timeline of the 20th and 21st centuries. This timeline chronicles the military history of the last hundred plus years. Included in this military history timeline are World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, and dozens of other conflicts. Page 2.

Military History Timeline - 20th Century - Military History
A military history timeline of the 20th and 21st centuries. This timeline chronicles the military history of the last hundred plus years. Included in this military history timeline are World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, and dozens of other conflicts. Page 3.

John Bell Hood Biography - Civil War General
John Bell Hood was a notable Confederate commander during the Civil War. Hood served in both the East and West, developing a reputation an aggressive leader. Wounded several times, Hood led the Army of Tennessee to its destruction in 1864.

Battle of Derna - First Barbary War
The Battle of Derna was fought between April 27 and May 13, 1805. Leading a contingent of US Marines and mercenaries, William Eaton and 1Lt. Presley O'Bannon succeeded in capturing the port of Derne from the forces of Yusuf Karamanli. The victory at Derne was a key moment in the conflict and gave birth to the line

World War I: Battle of Jutland- Clash of the Dreadnoughts
The Battle of Jutland was fought May 31-June 1, 1916, and was the largest naval battle of World War I. Fighting in the North Sea, the British and German fleets met off the coast of Jutland in a running action. Inconclusive in its results, the Battle of Jutland saw both sides claim victory, though the German fleet never again ventured into the North Sea to seek action.

Battle of Jutland - World War I Battle of Jutland
The Battle of Jutland was fought May 31-June 1, 1916, and was the largest naval battle of World War I. Fighting in the North Sea, the British and German fleets met off the coast of Jutland in a running action. Inconclusive in its results, the Battle of Jutland saw both sides claim victory, though the German fleet never again ventured into the North Sea to seek action. Page 2.

Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby - World War I - Franz von Hipper - Royal Navy
The Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby occurred on December 16, 1914, during World War I. Sailing, elements of the German High Seas Fleet bombarded Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby causing civilian casualties. Aware of German intentions after the Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby, the Royal Navy attempted to intercept the enemy but without success.

USS Constitution and HMS Guerriere - War of 1812 USS Constitution and HMS Guerriere
Meeting 400 miles SE of Halifax, Nova Scotia, USS Constitution engaged and captured HMS Guerriere on August 19, 1812. The battle was the first in a series of single-ship victories for the US Navy over the Royal Navy during the early days of the War of 1812.

Battle of Bentonville - Civil War Battle of Bentonville - Carolinas Campaign
The Battle of Bentonville was fought March 19-21, 1865, during the Carolinas Campaign. As Union force advanced into North Carolina, Gen. Joseph Johnston cobbled together an army to oppose them. Attacking near Bentonville on March 19, he had some success before being halted. Maj. Gen William T. Sherman arrived with Union reinforcements and forced Johnston to retreat.

Battle of Sayler's Creek - Civil War Battle of Sayler's Creek
The Battle of Sayler's Creek (Sailor's Creek) was fought April 6, 1865. Retreating from Petersburg, part of Gen. Robert E. Lee's army was engaged by pursuing Union forces along Sayler's Creek. In a day of fighting, Union forces killed, wounded, and captured 7,700 men and drove the Confederates from the field.

Battle of North Anna - Civil War Battle of North Anna - Overland Campaign
The Battle of North Anna was fought May 23-26, 1864, during the American Civil War. Advancing from the fighting at Spotsylvania, Union forces encountered the enemy at the Battle of North Anna. Entrenched behind the North Anna River, Confederate forces held at the Battle of North Anna before Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant broke off the engagement and moved around the Confederate right flank.

Battle of Spotsylvania Court House - Civil War Battle of Spotsylvania
The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House was fought May 8-21, 1864, and was the second engagement of Gen. Ulysses Grant's Overland Campaign. Fought along a four mile trench line, the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House saw Union troops launch repeated assaults in an attempt to break through the Confederate lines. The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House ended in a draw.

Battle of Fort Stedman - Battle of Petersburg - Civil War - Robert E. Lee
The Battle of Fort Stedman was fought March 25, 1865, during the American Civil War. One of the final actions of the Battle of Petersburg, the Battle of Fort Stedman saw Confederate forces attempt to break through the Union lines. After achieving some success, the Confederate attack at Fort Stedman was contained and they were thrown back by Union forces.

Battle of Monocacy - Civil War - Lew Wallace - Jubal Early
The Battle of Monocacy was fought July 9, 1864, during the American Civil War. Advancing from the Shenandoah Valley, Confederate forces moving to threaten Washington, DC encountered a Union blocking force at the Battle of Monocacy. Though overwhelmed at the Battle of Monocacy, the Union defenders stalled the enemy advance for a day allowing reinforcements to reach the capital.

Civil War Battles - East - 1865
A list of Civil War battles fought in the East during 1865.

Civil War Battles - West - 1861 - 1862
A list of Civil War battles fought in the West during 1861 and 1862.

World War II Naval Battles - Atlantic and Mediterranean
A listing of World War II naval battles that were fought in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

Civil War Battles - 1861
A list of Civil War battles fought in the East during 1861.

Civil War Battles - 1862 - East
A list of Civil War battles fought in the East during 1862.

Civil War Battles - West - 1863
A list of Civil War battles fought in the West during 1863.

Vietnam War - Overview - Conflict in Vietnam
An overview of the Vietnam War. Military History.

World War I - Middle East - Battles
A list of World War I battles fought in the Middle East and Ottoman Empire.

World War II - North Africa - War in the Desert
A list of World War II battles fought in North Africa.

World War II Battles - Pacific - Pacific Theater
A list of World War II battles fought in the Pacific.

French & Indian War Overview - Seven Years' War
An overview of the French & Indian/Seven Years' War. Fought from 1754 to 1763, the conflict is often considered the first

World War II - Eastern Front - Great Patriotic War
A list of World War II battles fought on the Eastern Front.

American Revolution - Revolutionary War - 1776 - Battles
A list of American Revolution battles from 1776.

Wars of Rome - Ancient Rome
One of the great military powers in history, Rome fought wars across the known world.

Wars of the Roses
One of the great dynastic struggles in English history, the Wars of the Rose ended with the ascent of the Tudor Dynasty.

Franco-Prussian War
Fought between 1870 and 1871, the Franco-Prussian War saw France badly defeated by its neighbor.

War of Austrian Succession
The War of the Austrian Succession consumed Europe from 1740 to 1748.

Civil War - Naval Battles
A list of naval battles fought during the American Civil War.

Napoleonic Wars - Naval Battles
A list of naval battles fought during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.

Aircraft Carriers - US Navy
Beginning with USS Langley in 1922, the US Navy has operated a variety of aircraft carriers. These ships proved decisive during World War II in the Pacific and continue to project American power abroad.

Wars of Alexander the Great - Ancient Macedonia
One of the greatest generals in history, Alexander the Great conducted campaigns across the known world.

Crimean War
The Crimean War was fought 1853 to 1856 and saw Britain, France, and the Ottoman Empire battle Russia.

Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War devastated Europe from 1618 to 1648.

World War II Naval Battle of Guadalcanal
The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal took place November 12-15, 1942, in the waters around the Solomon Islands. Attempting to reinforce their troops on Guadalcanal, the Japanese dispatched forces to the area and engaged in two major night battles. Meeting the Japanese in battle, Allied ships won both fights off Guadalcanal and inflicted heavy losses.

The Battle of the Philippine Sea - World War II
The Battle of the Philippine Sea was fought June 19-20, 1944, and was a decisive victory for the Allies. It's also known as the Marianas Turkey Shoot.

World War I Royal Aircraft Factory SE5a Fighter
The Royal Aircraft Facotry SE5 was a fighter flown by British and Commonwealth forces during World War I. A contemporary of the famed Sopwith Camel, the SE5 possessed better overall performance and was easier to fly. The SE5 entered service in mid-1917 and remained at the front until the of the war.

Billy Bishop - World War I Ace
WIlliam

World War II Aircraft Carrier USS Franklin
USS Franklin was an Essex-class aircraft carrier that saw service during World War II. Built at Newport News, VA, USS Franklin operated in the Pacific and took part in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. On March 19, 1945, USS Franklin was badly damaged during a Japanese air attack which ended its career.

Raid on the Medway - Second Anglo-Dutch War
The Raid on the Medway occurred in 1667, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. Penetrating the Thames estuary, Dutch ships attacked up the River Medway as far as Chatham, capturing or destroying several English ships. One of the worst naval defeats ever inflicted on the British, the raid led to a quick peace in favor of the Dutch.

Operation Jaywick - World War II History
Operation Jaywick was conducted on September 26, 1943 against Japanese shipping in Singapore harbor. The Operation Jaywick team consisted of personnel from Z Force, Special Operations Australia. Infiltrating Singapore harbor, they attacked seven Japanese ships and successfully escaped.

Battle of Kwajalein - World War II History
The Battle of Kwajalein was fought between January 31 and February 3, 1944. Part of the Gilbert and Marshall Islands Campaign, the Battle of Kwajalain saw American troops land on the atoll and overcome all Japanese resistance. The victory at Kwajalein was a key triumph during the Allies' island-hopping campaign.

World War II Operation Vengeance (Death of Yamamoto)
Operation Vengeance was conducted on April 18, 1943, and resulted in the death of Adm. Isoroku Yamamoto. Utilizing signals intelligence, the Allies planned Operation Vengeance after learning that Yamamoto would be flying through the Solomons. Flying from Guadalcanal, a flight of P-38s intercepted and downed Yamamoto's aircraft killing the admiral.

Battle of Marston Moor - English Civil War History
Meeting on Marston Moor in July 2, 1644, an Allied army of Parliamentarians and Scots Covenanters decisively defeated the Royalist Army of Prince Rupert. The victory at Marston Moor effectively ended the English Civil War in northern England as Royalist forces were forced to withdrawal south.

Siege of Detroit - War of 1812
The Siege of Detroit took place August 15-16, 1812, during the early days of the War of 1812. Advancing on Detroit, Major General Isaac Brock and Tecumseh laid siege. Convincing the American commander that they had a larger force, they won the Siege of Detroit.

Roman Victory at the Battle of Pydna
In 168 BC, Macedonian and Roman forces clashed at the Battle of Pydna. The fighting at Pydna showed the superiority of the legion over the phalanx and resulted in a crushing victory for Rome. Following the defeat at the Battle of Pynda, Macedonina power was broken and the country conquered.

William Hardee - Civil War - Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General William J. Hardee was a Confederate commander during the American Civil War who largely served in the Western Theater. A veteran of the Mexican-American War, William J. Hardee took part in the Battle of Shiloh and then the campaigns of the Army of Tennessee. Fighting until the end, William J. Hardee surrendered with General Joseph E. Johnston in April 1865.

Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) 1410
The Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) was fought July 15, 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War. On of the largest battles fought in medieval Europe, Grunwald saw the Teutonic knights defeated. The Battle of Grunwald shifted the balance of power in Eastern Europe and was later used for propaganda purposes.

World War II: Schweinfurt-Regensburg Raid Summary
The first Schweinfurt-Regensburg Raid took place on August 17, 1943 and struck German aircraft and ball bearing plants. Departing from England, American bombers stuck targets in Regensburg before flying on to North Africa. A second wave hit Schweinfurt a short time later. The double attack inflicted heavy damage on German industry.

HMS Ark Royal - World War II Aircraft Carrier
HMS Ark Royal was the second purpose-built aircraft carrier built for the Royal Navy. The third ship to carry the name, Ark Royal was launched in 1937, and saw extensive service in the Mediterranean during the early years of World War II. In 1941, its aircraft successfully attacked the German battleship Bismarck, disabling its steering. Ark Royal was sunk in late 1941, after being torpedoed by U-81.

Wars of the Roses Overview and History
The Wars of the Roses were fought in Britain from 1455 to 1485. A dynastic conflict, the Wars of the Roses saw the Houses of Lancaster and York struggle for the English throne. The Wars of the Roses ended with the triumph of the Lancasterians and the ascent of Henry Tudor.

American Civil War - Battle of Hampton Roads
The Battle of Hampton Roads occurred on March 8-9, 1862, and was the first fight between ironclad warships. Attacking wooden Union ships off Hampton Roads on March 8, CSS Virginia caused heavy damage. The next day, it returned and battled the newly arrived ironclad USS Monitor to a stalemate.

Ancient Egypt: The Battle of Kadesh
The Battle of Kadesh was fought in 1274 BC during the conflicts between the Egyptians and Hittite Empire. Marching north, Ramses II was attacked by the Hittites near Kadesh. In the resulting Battle of Kadesh, the Egyptians suffered badly but succeeded in driving back the enemy.

Vietnam War: North American F-100 Super Sabre
The North American F-100 Super Sabre was fighter developed for the US Air Force. Entering service in 1954, the F-100 Super Sabre was later adapted as a fighter-bomber. The F-100 Super Sabre later saw service during the Vietnam War.

Military Aircraft
Land here to explore the wide variety of aircraft that have been used by the world's armed forces. From the Sopwith Camel to the F-14, this is your place for information about the planes that have dominated the skies.

World War II - Avro Lancaster Bomber
The Avro Lancaster was a bomber flown by the Royal Air Force during World War II. The Avro Lancaster entered service in 1942 and was used for the remainder of the conflict. The Lancaster was heavy bomber that was primarily used at night.

World War II - Battle of the Seelow Heights
The Battle of the Seelow Heights was fought in April 1945 during World War II. Approaching Berlin, the Battle of Seelow Heights saw Soviet forces assault German defenses east of the city. Taking heavy losses, the Soviets broke through the Seelow Heights after three days of fighting.

Williamite War in Ireland - The Battle of the Boyne
Williamite and Jacobite forces clashed at the Battle of the Boyne on July 12, 1690. Led by William III, the Williamite forces decisively defeated James II, forcing him to flee back to France. The defeat at the Boyne ended James' attempted to reclaim his throne.

Punic Wars: Battle of Lake Trasimene
The Battle of Lake Trasimene was fought June 24, 217 BC during the Second Punic War. Advancing from his victory at the Trebia, Hannibal set an ambush on the shores of Lake Trasimene. Attacking the Roman army durign the Battle of Lake Trasimene, Hannibal won a crushing victory.

Military History of Lockheed F-104 Starfighter
The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter was developed in the 1950s as an interceptor for the US Air Force. Though the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter's USAF career was short, it was used extensively by by reserve forces and foreign air forces. Sold in large numbers to the Luftwaffe, the F-104 Starfighter's poor safety record caused scandals as did bribes associated with its sale.

Profile of World War II Colonel General Ludwig Beck
Colonel General Ludwig Beck was a German commander who served as chief of the general staff in the years before World War II. Ludwig Beck opposed Hitler's desire to go to war and resigned in August 1938. Continueing to oppose Hitler, Ludwig Beck was a player in the July 20 Plot.

History of USS Nautilus Nuclear Submarine
USS Nautilus was the world's first nuclear-powered submarine and was the first to make a submerged transit of the North Pole. Commissioned in 1954, USS Nautilus remained in the fleet until 1980. It is currently docked at Groton, CT as a museum ship.

World War II: Field Marshal Sir Harold Alexander
Field Marshal Harold Alexander was a top British commander during World War II. A veteran of World War I, Harold Alexander led troops in France, Burma, North Africa, and Italy during World War II. For his efforts, Harold Alexander was elevated to the peerage as Earl Alexander of Tunis.

F-117 Nighthawk Stealth Fighter Profile & History
The Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk was the world's first operational stealth fighter. Designed by the Lockheed Skunk Works, the F-117 entered service in 1983, but remained secret for several years. The F-117 saw extensive service during the Gulf War and Kosovo War before being retired in 2008.

Nieuport 11 Bebe - Fighters of World War I - Nieuport 11 Bebe
World War I was the first major conflict to feature a wide variety of military aircraft. Beginning with simple and fragile fighters such as the Fokker E.III, the air forces of both sides quickly developed increasingly sleek and sophisticated aircraft to contest the skies over Europe. This gallery provides an overview of the fighters employed by the British, French, and German air services during World War I. This photo shows a Nieuport 11 Bebe. Page 3.

World War I Fighters - World War I Fighters Photographs - World War I Aircraft
World War I was the first major conflict to feature a wide variety of military aircraft. Beginning with simple and fragile fighters such as the Fokker E.III, the air forces of both sides quickly developed increasingly sleek and sophisticated aircraft to contest the skies over Europe during World War I. This gallery provides an overview of the fighters employed by the British, French, and German air services during World War I.

War of 1812: Battle of Queenston Heights
The Battle of Queenston Heights was fought October 13, 1812, and was an early engagement of the War of 1812. Crossing at Queenston Heights, American forces sought to invade Canada. The resulting battle saw the disorganized Americans beaten by a smaller British force and those on Queenston Heights forced to surrender.

Battle of Valverde - Civil War Battle
The Battle of Valverde was fought February 20-21, 1862 in the New Mexico Territory. Marching north, Brig Gen. Henry Sibley sought to capture Union-held Fort Craig. Moving around the fort to cut its supply lines, he encountered Union forces under Col. Edward Canby. In the resulting Battle of Valverde, Sibley forced Canby to retreat by took heavy losses.

Battle of the Trebia - Second Punic War
Fought on December 18, 218 BC, the Battle of the Trebia was the first major battle of the Second Punic War. Marching into northern Italy, Hannibal inflicted a devastating defeat upon Roman forces. The defeat at the Battle of the Trebia caused Rome to adjust their war strategy to meet the new threat from the north.

Operation Linebacker - The Bombing of North Vietnam
Operation Linebacker took place May 9 to October 23, 1973, during the Vietnam War. Operation Linebacker was an air campaign intended to interdict North Vietnamese troops and supplies during the Easter Offensive. The bombing campaign during Operation Linebacker forced the North Vietnamese to return to the peace talks.

Mexican Revolution: US Punitive Expedition
The US Punitive Expedition to Mexico began in early 1916 in response to Pancho Villa's attacks across the border. Entering Mexico on March 15, the Punitive Expedition was led by BGen. John J. Pershing and was tasked with capturing Villa. It failed to do so and was withdrawn in early 1917 with the United States on the brink of entering World War I.

Vietnam War: The Easter Offensive
The Easter Offensive commenced on March 30, 1972, and saw North Vietnamese forces attack South Vietnam on three fronts. After achieving initial success, the offensive was turned back by South Vietnamese troops backed by the heavy application of American air power. Despite the North's defeat, the Easter Offensive captured approximately 10% of South Vietnam.

Glorious First of June - Wars of the French Revolution
The Glorious First of June was a naval battle fought on June 1, 1794, during the Wars of the French Revolution. Seeking to attack a grain convoy, Adm. Lord Howe engaged the French fleet in a battle dubbed the Glorious First of June. In the fighting, Howe captured or destroyed seven French ships.

AK-47 Assault Rifle - Description and History
The most-produced assault rifle ever made was developed for the Soviet Union. Designed by Mikhail Kalashnikov, it entered service in 1949.

The Siege of Lucknow During the Sepoy Mutiny (1857)
The Siege of Lucknow took place during the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. Besieged in the Residency, British forces held the building against the rebels for two periods lasting 87 and 61 days. The Siege of Lucknow ended after the second relief of the city when British forces withdrew.

B-52 Stratofortress - Strategic Air Command
First flying in 1952, the B-52 Stratofortress formed the backbone of the US Strategic Air Command for much of the Cold War. Designed for delivering nuclear weapons, the B-52 has dropped conventional munitions in support of American efforts during the Vietnam War, the 1991 Gulf War, and Operation Iraqi Freedom. The US Air Force plans to keep the B-52 Stratofortress in service until 2040.

Satsuma Rebellion: Battle of Shiroyama, 1877
The final engagement of the Satsuma Rebellion (1877) between the samurai and the Imperial Japanese Army.

HMS Warspite - Battleship of World Wars I & II
Launched in 1913, the battleship HMS Warspite saw extensive service during both world wars. A Queen Elizabeth-class battleship, Warspite fought at Jutland in 1916. After an extensive modernization in 1935, Warspite fought in the Mediterranean and Indian Oceans during World War II and provided support during the Normandy landings.

World War II: Ordnance QF 25-Pounder Field Gun
The Ordnance QF 25-pounder was the standard artillery piece used by British Commonwealth forces during World War II. Designed to be an improvement over the World War I-era 18-pounder, the 25-pounder saw service in all theaters and was a favorite with gun crews. It remained in use through the 1960s and 1970s.

World War II - Battle of Savo Island
The Battle of Savo Island was fought August 8-9, 1942, during World War II. Part of the Guadalcanal Campaign, the Battle of Savo Island saw Japanese ships conduct a night action against Allied vessels off the island. In the resulting battle, the Allies were badly defeated losing four heavy cruisers.

General Matthew Ridgway - WWII and Korean War
Matthew Ridgway was a key American airborne commander during World War II and later commanded United Nations troops during the Korean War. In Korea, Ridgway led the US 8th Army before replacing Gen. Douglas MacArthur as overall commander. In leading UN forces, Ridgway was able to hold the territory reclaimed after the Chinese offensives of 1950.

World War I - Battle of Caporetto on the Italian Front
The Battle of Caporetto was fought October 24-November 19, 1917, during World War I. A turning point on the Italian Front, Caporetto saw German and Austro-Hungarian troops shatter the Italian lines along the Isonzo River. Driving Italians back, they advanced as far as the Piave River before being halted.

Battle of the Crater - American Civil War
The Battle of the Crater was the result of Union efforts to win the Siege of Petersburg. Beginning in June 1864, Union forces began tunneling under the Confederate lines. Filling the mine with explosives, they detonated them on July 30 opening the battle. Attacking through the crater formed by the explosion, Union forces were defeated and driven back to their lines.

Hundred Years' War - Joan of Arc and Siege of Orléans
The Siege of Orleans began October 12, 1428 and ended May 8, 1429 when the French relieved the city. Invested by the English, Orleans was ultimately saved by the leadership of Joan of Arc. The Siege of Orleans marked a turning point in the Hundred Years' War.

M26 Pershing - World War II M26 Pershing Tank
The M26 Pershing tank was developed during World War II for the US Army. Entering service in 1945, small numbers of M26 Pershings saw combat in Europe. The M26 Pershing was retained after the conflict and later saw battle during the Korean War.

World War II: Northrop P-61 Black Widow
The Northrop P-61 Black Widow was a night fighter used during World War II. Developed for the US Army Air Forces, the Northrop P-61 Black Widow entered service in 1944. Used in most theaters, the Northrop P-61 Black Widow proved a highly effective aircraft.

Wars of the Roses: Battle of Bosworth Field
The Battle of Bosworth Field was the decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses. Invading England, Henry Tudor gathered forces and clashed with King Richard III near Market Bosworth. In the battle, Richard attacked Henry's bodyguard and was killed in the fighting clearing the way for Henry to take the throne.

USS Pueblo Incident During the Cold War
The Pueblo Incident took place on January 23, 1968, and saw North Korean forces board an American intelligence ship. Operating off the North Korean coast, USS Pueblo was boarded and captured by the North Koreans who claimed it was in their waters. The Pueblo Incident lasted until December 23, when the crew was repatriated to South Korea.

Fabian Strategy: Wearing Down the Enemy
Fabian strategy is one where pitched battles are avoided in favor of harassment and waging a war of attrition. Pioneered by Quintus Fabius Maximus, Fabian strategy has been employed several times through history, most notably during the American Revolution.

World War II Bomber Command Dambuster Raids
The Dambuster Raids were conducted May 17, 1943, against several dams in Germany. Utilizing special

Scottish Independence: Battle of Falkirk
Marching north in 1298, to avenge the English defeat at Stirling Bridge, King Edward I met a smaller Scottish army under Sir William Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk. Using his archers to weaken the Scottish lines, Edward's troops were then able to drive the Scots from the field and win the Battle of Falkirk.

French Intervention in Mexico: Battle of Puebla
On May 5, 1862, French and Mexican troops met at the Battle of Puebla. An early battle in the French intervention in Mexico, the fighting resulted in a surprising Mexican victory. The triumph at the Battle of Puebla is celebrated annually as Cinco de Mayo.

Vietnam War: F-8 Crusader Profile - Military History
The F-8 Crusader was developed in the 1950s as a fighter for the US Navy. Entering service in 1957, the F-8 Crusader was the last American fighter designed with guns as its primary weapon. The F-8 Crusader saw extensive service during the Vietnam was and was not fully retired until 1999.

World War II: Battle of Caen - Operation Goodwood
The Battle of Caen was fought June 6 to July 20, 1944, during World War II. Beginning on D-Day, the Battle of Caen saw British forces battle the Germans for control of the city of Caen. After extensive, bitter fighting, Caen fell as the Allies broke out of Normandy.

American Revolution - Siege of Boston
The Siege of Boston began on April 19, 1775 following the Battles of Lexington and Concord. Surrounding the British in Boston, the American army grew in strength as reinforcements arrived from the other colonies. The siege continued until Henry Knox arrived with the guns from Fort Ticonderoga and the British were forced to evacuate on March 17, 1776.

World War II: Karabiner 98k Rifle (Profile)
The Karabiner 98k was one of the principal rifles used by the German Wehrmacht (Army) during World War II. Employed in all theaters involving German forces, the Karabiner 98k was the last in a long line of Mauser rifles designed for Germany. After the war, the Karabiner 98k was used in variety of other conflicts including fighting in the Middle East and Vietnam.

Causes of the War of Jenkins' Ear
The War of Jenkins' Ear was fought from 1739-1748, between Britain and Spain. Largely taking place in the New World, the war saw both sides attacking the other's colonies. The War of Jenkins' Ear was soon subsumed into the larger conflict of the War of Austrian Succession.

USS Indianapolis - World War II
Commissioned in 1932, USS Indianapolis was a Portland-class heavy cruiser. Seeing action in the Pacific during World War II, USS Indianapolis participated in many of the conflicts major campaigns and was tasked with carrying the atomic bomb to Tinian in 1945. After delivering the bomb, USS Indianapolis was torpedoed and sunk with many of the crew dying of exposure and shark attacks.

Attila the Hun at the Battle of Chalons
The Battle of Chalons occurred on June 20, 451, in present-day France. Pitting Attila the Hun against Roman forces led by Flavius Aetius, the Battle of Chalons ended in a tactical draw but was a strategic victory for Rome. The victory at Chalons was one of the last achieved by the Western Roman Empire.

A22 Churchill Tank - World War II Vehicles
The A22 Churchill tank was used by British forces during World War II. Designed as an infantry support tank, the Churchill possessed thick armor and was capable of overcoming many obstacles that would have blocked other tanks of the day. Rushed into production, it was heavily altered during the war and was used as the basis for many specialized vehicles.

First Battle of El Alamein- World War II (North Africa)
The First Battle of El Alamein was fought July 1 to 27, 1942, during World War II. Falling back from their defeat at the Battle of Gazala, British forces assumed a new defensive line inside Egypt at El Alamein. Assaulting the El Alamein position, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel was unable to break through.

Feudalism in the Middle Ages
Feudalism was a political system utlized in Europe during the Middle Ages.

Battle of Naseby - English Civil War
The Battle of Naseby was fought on June 14, 1645, and was a key engagement of the English Civil War. Clashing near Naseby in Northamptonshire, the Parliamentarian New Model Army crushed King Charles I's forces. The victory at Naseby was a turning point for Parliament's war effort.

Operation Lila Scuttling of the French Fleet
Operation Lila was an effort by German forces to capture the French fleet at Toulon in November 1942. In the wake of the 1940 armistice, the fleet had been idle under Vichy French control. With the Allied invasion of French North Africa, the Germans sought to take the ships, but were prevented from doing so when the French crews scuttled them.

Battle of Tsushima - Russo-Japanese War - Heihachiro Togo
The Battle of Tsushima was fought on May 27-28, 1905, during the Russo-Japanese War. Sailing from the Baltic Sea, the Russian fleet traveled over 18,000 miles before encountering the Japanese in the Straits of Tsushima. Engaging the Russians at the Battle of Tsushima, Admiral Togo destroyed over two-thirds of their fleet.

Siege of Veracruz - Mexican-American War Siege of Veracruz
The Siege of Veracruz began on March 9 and ended with the capture of the city twenty days later. Landing at Collado Beach, American troops under Gen. Winfield Scott quickly invested Veracruz and began emplacing siege guns. Opening fire on March 22, Veracruz surrendered after a three-day bombardment.

Vikings and Saxons at the Battle of Maldon
The Battle of Maldon was fought in 991 during the Viking invasions of Britain. Sailing up the River Blackwater, Viking forces attacked the Saxons near Maldon. In the fighting at the Battle of Maldon, Ealdorman Brihtnoth was killed leading to a Viking victory.

The Battles of the French and Indian War
The French & Indian/Seven Years' War was the first truly global conflict and saw battles fought around the world. Beginning in North American, the war spread to Europe and then to far-flung colonies. The French & Indian/Seven Years' War made places such as Quebec, Rossbach, Minden, and Plassey famous.

French and Indian War: Siege of Fort William Henry, 1757
In August,1757,Fort William Henry in New York was attacked by French and Native American forces led by Marquis de Montcalm.It fell; many were killed.

Battle of Sedan of the Franco-Prussian War
The Battle of Sedan was fought September 1, 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War. A turning point in the conflict, the Battle of Sedan saw Prussian forces encircle the French Army of Chalons. Among those captured at the Battle of Sedan was Emperor Napoleon III.

Battle of Fort Washington - American Revolution History
The Battle of Fort Washington was fought November 16, 1776, during the American Revolution. Having defeated the Americans at White Plains, the British returned to Manhattan and attacked Fort Washington. Winning the Battle of Fort Washington, the British forced the entire garrison to surrender.

World War II: Field Marshal Walter Model
Field Marshal Walter Model was a noted German commander during World War II. A veteran of World War I, Walter Model saw action in Poland and France before becoming one of Germany's leading commanders on the Eastern Front. Brought west in 1944, Walter Model led troops during the Battle of the Bulge and ultimately committed suicide rather than surrender when surrounded in the Ruhr the following year.

World War II: American Capture of U-505 German Submarine
On June 4,1944, the German submarine U-505 was captured by American forces off the coast of Africa. It is now on display in Chicago.

World War II: Douglas SBD Dauntless
The Douglas SBD Dauntless was the US Navy's principal dive bomber during the first half of World War II. Introduced in 1940, the Dauntless play a pivotal role at the Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway. Beginning in 1943, the US Navy began replacing the SBD Dauntless with the SB2C Helldiver.

Ju 87 Stuka Dive Bomber - World War II Vehicles
The Junkers Ju 87 Stuka was a noted dive bomber used by the Luftwaffe during World War II. Entering service in 1936, the Ju 87 Stuka was a feared and effective weapon during the early years of the war. The Ju 87 Stuka fell out of favor later in the war as Allied fighters improved.

The Battle of Plataea - Persian War History
The Battle of Plataea was fought in August 479 BC during the Persian Wars. Advancing against the Persians a year after the victory at Salamis, Greek forces engaged the enemy in Boeotia. In the resulting Battle of Plataea, the Persians were defeated and driven from Greece.

World War II: Battle of Hong Kong
The Battle of Hong Kong was fought December 8-25, 1941, during World War II. Attacking Hong Kong, the Japanese were able to overwhelm the British garrison. The Battle of Hong Kong ended on December 25 with the colony's surrender and the date became known as

Texas Revolution: Battle of Gonzales
The Battle of Gonzales was the opening action of the Texas Revolution. Fought on October 2, 1835, the Battle of Gonzales occurred when Mexican troops tried to seize a cannon from the residents of Gonzales. In the fight that resulted, Mexican troops were forced to retreat.

Grumman F-14 Tomcat - US Navy Fleet Defender
The F-14 Tomcat entered service in 1972, as the US Navy's principal fleet defense fighter. Armed with a variety of missiles, the F-14 was intended to prevent long-range attacks against US carrier groups as well as perform air superiority roles. The F-14 later was adapted for air-to-ground attack prior to its retirement in 2006.

Battle of Omdurman - Mahdist War (Horatio Kitchener)
The Battle of Omdurman resulted when the British clashed with the Mahdists on September 2, 1898. Fighting near Khartoum, Sudan, the British under Lord Horatio Kitchener deployed modern weapons and decimated Abdullah al-Taashi's men at the Battle of Omdurman. The victory at the Battle of Omdurman reasserted British power in eastern Africa.

American Civil War - Battle of Fort Henry
The Battle of Fort Henry took place on February 6, 1862, and was an early Union victory. Moving against Fort Henry, Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant landed troops on February 4-5 while the Western Flotilla approached up the Tennessee River. Partially flooded, Fort Henry surrendered after a brief naval battle on February 6.

World War II - Battle of the Java Sea
The Battle of the Java Sea occurred on February 27, 1942, as Allied naval forces attempted to block the Japanese invasion of Java. Led by Dutch Admiral Karl Doorman, Allied ships engaged the invasion force's escorts in the Java Sea. Lasting over seven hours, the Battle of the Java Sea saw the Japanese repulse the Allied attacks.

War in Afghanistan: Battle of Tora Bora
Fought December 12-17,2001,in Afghanistan.Coalition troops attacked the Tora Bora cave system in the hope of capturing Osama bin Laden.

American Revolution: Battle of the Chesapeake
Fought on September 5, 1781, the Battle of the Chesapeake was fought between the British and French off the Virginia Capes. While tactically inconclusive, the Battle of the Chesapeake was a strategic victory for the French and their American colonial allies as it prevented the relief of Gen. Cornwallis' besieged army at Yorktown.

World War II Sten Gun
The Sten was as type of British submachine gun developed and used during World War II. Entering service in 1941, the Sten gun was simple to build and maintain and was widely used by British troops and exported to other allies and resistance forces. Over 4 million Sten guns were ultimately made.

Battle of Port Arthur - Russo-Japanese War
The Battle of Port Arthur was the opening engagement of the Russo-Japanese War. On the night of February 8/9. 1904, Japanese ships under Admiral Togo launched a surprise destroyer attack on Russian naval forces. The next day a major fleet engagement was fought off Port Arthur.

World War II: North American B-25 Mitchell
The B-25 Mitchell was an American medium bomber during World War II. Designed by North American, the B-25 Mitchell saw extensive use duing the conflict and is best remembered for the 1942 Doolittle Raid. B-25s were also used as ground attack aircraft.

World War II - Dieppe Raid - Operation Jubilee
Launched on August 19, 1942, the Dieppe Raid was an Allied effort to capture and occupy the port of Dieppe, France for a short period. Meant to gather intelligence and test strategies for the invasion of Europe, the Dieppe Raid was a complete failure and resulted in the loss of over 50% of the troops landed. The lessons learned during the Dieppe Raid influenced later Allied amphibious operations.

World War II: Battle of the River Plate
The Battle of the River Plate was fought on December 13, 1939, and saw British warships battle the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee. Fighting off the estuary of the River Plate, Admiral Graf Spee inflicted heavy damage on the British but was forced to seek a harbor in neutral Uruguay. Trapped by British forces after the battle, the Germans scuttled Admiral Graf Spee in the River Plate.

American Revolution: Battle of White Plains
The Battle of White Plains was part of the New York Campaign during the American Revolution. Fought October 28, 1776, the Battle of White Plains saw Gen. George Washington's army forced to fall back, after making a stand against the British. Following the Battle of White Plains, Washington began a long retreat across New Jersey.

Overview of the Irish Battle of Clontarf
On Good Friday 1014, the forces of Munster and Leinster clashed at the Battle of Clontarf outside Dublin, Ireland. The battle was a result of the King of Leinster, Mel Mrda mac Murchada, rebelling against the High King of Ireland, Brian Boru. Brian's forces were victorious at Clontarf, however both leaders were killed sinking Ireland into regional warfare.

American Revolution: Battle of Camden 1780
The Battle of Camden was fought August 16, 1780, during the American Revolution. Sent south after the fall of Charleston, Major General Horatio Gates engaged British forces near Camden, SC. In the resulting Battle of Camden, Gates' army was routed.

American Civil War: Battle of Philippi
The Battle of Philippi was fought June 3, 1861, during the early days of the Civil War. Advancing into western Virginia Union forces attacked a Conderate force at Philippi. In the resulting Battle of Philippi, they routed the enemy and the engagement became known as the

French & Indian War: Battle of the Monongahela
The Battle of the Monongahela was fought on July 9, 1755, in western Pennsylvania. Advancing from Fort Cumberland, Major General Edward Braddock sought to capture the French base at Fort Duquesne. Meeting a French and Indian force near the Monongahela River, Braddock's men were driven from the field.

Operation Catapult at Mers El Kebir (World War II)
Operation Catapult was conducted on July 3, 1940, when British naval forces attacked the French fleet at Mers el Kebir. Approaching the harbor, Force H demanded that the French fleet come over to the Allied side to prevent its capture by the Germans. When the French refused, Force H opened fire inflicting heavy damage.

Vietnam War - Soviet MiG-21 Fishbed
The MiG-21 Fishbed was introduced in 1959, and became the world's most produced supersonic fighter. Flown by over fifty countries during its long career, the MiG-21 Fishbed saw extensive use during the Vietnam War and various conflicts in the Middle East. Some variants of the MiG-21 remain in service to this day.

USS Monitor in the Civil War
USS Monitor was the first ironclad built for the US Navy. Entering service in 1862, USS Monitor fought CSS Virginia in the first battle between ironclad warships on March 9, 1862. After serving in the Hampton Roads area, USS Monitor was lost at sea in late 1862, while under tow.

An Overview of Operation Allied Force in Kosovo
Operation Allied Force began in March 1999, following Yugoslavia's refusal end repression and violence in Kosovo. Flying from bases in Italy and the Adriatic Sea, NATO aircraft struck targets across Yugoslavia and Kosovo. On June 12, Operation Allied Force ended following Slobodan Milosevic's acceptence of an UN occupation of Kosovo.

Cold War: Convair B-36 Peacemaker
The Convair B-36 Peacemaker was a strategic bomber operated by the US Air Force during the early years of the Cold War. Development of the B-36 Peacemaker began during World War II and the aircraft entered service in 1949. The B-36 Peacemaker remained in service until 1959.

World War II - Lieutenant Colonel Otto Skorzeny
Otto Skorzeny was a noted German commando leader during World War II. Otto Skorzeny conducted the rescue of Benito Mussolini in 1943 and later played a key role in the Battle of the Bulge. After the war, Otto Skorzeny worked with ODESSA and as a security consultant.

Mexican Revolution Battle of Veracruz
The Occupation of Veracruz began on April 21, 1914, when US Marines and naval forces came ashore in response to the Tampico Affair. Landing, American forces fought a brief battle in Veracruz before taking control of the city. The occupation of Veracruz ended on November 23, 1914, following mediation.

Battle of Corregidor, 1942 - World War II
Japanese forces overwhelmed the heavily fortified island in Manila Bay, the last point of resistance for Allied forces during the invasion of Luzon.

Civil War Copperhead - Definition
A Copperhead was a term for Northern opponents of the American Civil War.

Causes of the French & Indian War
The French & Indian War began in 1754 as the British and French began to clash along the frontier in North America. The focus of these early engagements was control of Fort Duquesne at the Forks of the Ohio. The first campaigns of the French & Indian War saw British efforts against the fort as well as on Lake George and in Nova Scotia.

French and Indian War - Causes of the French & Indian War
The French & Indian War began in 1754 as the British and French began to clash along the frontier in North America. The focus of these early engagements was control of Fort Duquesne at the Forks of the Ohio. The first campaigns of the French & Indian War saw British efforts against the fort as well as on Lake George and in Nova Scotia. Page 2.

French and Indian War - Causes of the French & Indian War
The French & Indian War began in 1754 as the British and French began to clash along the frontier in North America. The focus of these early engagements was control of Fort Duquesne at the Forks of the Ohio. The first campaigns of the French & Indian War saw British efforts against the fort as well as on Lake George and in Nova Scotia. Page 3.

World War II: Colonel General Heinz Guderian
Heinz Guderian was a notable German commander during World War II. A pioneer of armored warfare, Heinz Guderian developed and advocated the theory of blitzkrieg. Heinz Guderian saw service against Poland, France, and on the Eastern Front before moving through several staff positions.

History of the Crusades: Siege of Jerusalem (1099)
The Siege of Jerusalem was conducted June 7-July 15, 1099, during the First Crusade. Approaching Jerusalem, Crusader forces under Raymond of Toulouse invested the city. After several weeks, the Crusaders were able to build siege towers and successfully attacked Jerusalem on July 15.

World War II - the Battle of Gazala
The Battle of Gazala was fought May 26 to June 21, 1942 during the Western Desert Campaign of World War II. Attacking, Panzer Army Afrika engaged British and Free French forces along the Gazala Line. Breaking the Allied position, Gen. Erwin Rommel drove them back into Egypt.

American Revolution: Battle of Great Bridge
The Battle of Great Bridge was fought December 9, 1775, during the American Revolution. The Battle of Great Bridge centered on a river crossing south of Norfolk, VA and saw British forces attack Patriot troops. In the fighting at the Battle of Great Bridge, the British assault was repulsed.

Mahdist War and the Siege of Khartoum
The Siege of Khartoum took place March 13, 1884 to January 26, 1885, during the Mahdist War. Held by forces led by Major General Charles

Washington Naval Disarmament Treaty
The Washington Naval Treaty was signed on February 6, 1922, and dramatically limited the naval armaments of the United States, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy. As a result of the negotiations, the Washington Naval Treaty stipulated tonnage limitations on capital ships. The treaty led to many warships being scrapped and prevented the construction of other planned vessels.

World War I: Battle of Amiens (1914-1918)
The 1918 Battle of Amiens was an opening battle of the Allies' Hundred Days' Offensive. Attacking east of Amiens, Allied forces gained over seven miles on the first day. The Battle of Amiens was a decisive victory for the Allies and saw a return to mobile warfare.

Julius Caesar's Civil War Battle of Pharsalus
The Battle of Pharsalus was the decisive engagement of Caesar's Civil War. Fought August 9, 48 BC, at Pharsalus, Greece, the battle saw Julius Caesar defeat troops under Pompey. The battle turned when some of Caesar's troops defeated a cavalry attack and were able assault the enemy in the flank and rear.

Second Seminole War, 1835-1842
Fought between the United States and Native Americans in Florida. When the U.S. won, many Native Americans were relocated west.

Battle of York (April 27, 1813) - War of 1812
The Battle of York was fought April 27, 1813, during the War of 1812. Sailing across Lake Ontario, American forces landed and captured York, Canada. Defeating British forces in the Battle of York, they burned the town before withdrawing back to Sackets Harbor, NY.

Korean War MiG-15 Communist Jet Fighter
The MiG-15 was a key Communist jet fighter during the Korean War. Designed by Artem Mikoyan and Mikhail Gurevich, the MiG-15 was designed for the Soviet Union and was one of the first swept wing jet fighters. Flying over North Korea, the MiG-15 routinely dueled American F-86 Sabres in

Alexander the Great and the Battle of Chaeronea
The Battle of Chaeronea occurred in 338 BC when King Philip II of Macedon confronted a mixed Greek army. Clashing on a plain near Chaeronea, the battle was hotly contested until the king's son, the future Alexander the Great, led the decisive charge which broke the Greek lines.

The Spanish Armada of the Anglo-Spanish War
Arriving in July 1588, the Spanish Armada sought to control the English Channel and aid in transferring troops from Holland for the invasion of England. Shadowed by the English fleet, the Armada was harried by hit-and-run attacks until being defeated at the Battle of Gravelines on August 8. Retreating north, the Spanish lost many ships on the Irish coast as they sought to return to Spain.

The Spanish Armada - England Defeats the Spanish Armada - Spanish Armada at the Battle of Gravelines
Arriving in July 1588, the Spanish Armada sought to control the English Channel and aid in transferring troops from Holland for the invasion of England. Shadowed by the English fleet, the Armada was harried by hit-and-run attacks until being defeated at the Battle of Gravelines on August 8. Retreating north, the Spanish lost many ships on the Irish coast as they sought to return to Spain. Page 2.

American Civil War: H.L. Hunley Sinks USS Housatonic
The H.L. Hunley became the first submarine to sink another ship when it attacked USS Housatonic off Charleston on February 17, 1864. Plagued by problems during its development, Hunley successfully placed its spar torpedo on Housatonic, destroying the Union ship. The submarine was lost at sea while returning from its historic attack.

Lockheed U-2 Spy Plane
The Lockheed U-2 spy plane was developed in the 1950s by the Skunk Works at Lockheed. The U-2 is capable of extreme high altitude flight and has been used extensively as a surveillance aircraft as well as for research. The U-2 came to prominence when one was downed over the Soviet Union in 1960.

Son Tay Raid During the Vietnam War
The Raid on Son Tay was an attempt by US Special Forces to liberate American prisoners of war during the Vietnam War. Flying from Thailand, the raiders successfully captured the POW camp at Son Tay, however all of the prisoners had been moved to a different camp a few months earlier. Though no one was liberated, the mission was deemed a

Battles and Wars 1201 to 1400
Here we look at those battles and wars fought between 1201 and 1400. These resources will aid in better understanding this period of military history.

Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Borodino
The Battle of Borodino was fought September 7, 1812, during Napoleon's invasion of Russia. Attacking Russian positions around Borodino, the French both inflicted and sustained heavy losses. Though the Russians departed after the Battle of Borodino, their army remained intact.

World War II - Curtiss P-40 Warhawk
The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk was an American-built fighter during World War II. Used by several Allied nations, the P-40 Warhawk saw service in most theaters of the conflict. The P-40 Warhawk was most famously used by the American Volunteer Group in China, also known as the Flying Tigers.

Pontiac's Rebellion: An Examination
Pontiac's Rebellion was fought between 1763 and 1766 and saw the Native Americans rise up against the British. Pontiac's Rebellion began with the Native Americans capturing several British forts on the frontier. Counterattacking in 1764, Britsh forces ultimately brought Pontiac's Rebellion to an end and forced the Native Americans to negotiate for peace.

Vietnam War - F-105 Thunderchief Profile
The F-105 Thunderchief was one of the US Air Force's primary fighter-bombers during the Vietnam War. Widely used for strike bombing over North Vietnam, the F-105 also was employed in a

World War II: Operation Sea Lion - Invasion of Britain, 1940
Operation Sea Lion was the German plan for the invasion of Britain. Germany hoped to launch Operation Sea Lion sometime in late 1940 following the Fall of France. After their defeat in the Battle of Britain, Germany indefinitely postponed Operation Sea Lion.

Battle of Mobile Bay - Civil War Battle of Mobile Bay
The Battle of Mobile Bay was a decisive naval engagement during the Civil War. Fought August 5, 1864, it saw RAdm. David Farragut's fleet force its way into Mobile Bay and defeat a smaller Confederate force. The victory closed the port of Mobile and set the stage for the city's capture.

World War I: Battle of Arras (1917)
The Battle of Arras commenced on April 9, 1917, and was the British component of the Allies' spring offensives. Attacking near Arras with success, the British captured Vimy Ridge before the offesive bogged down. Lasting until May 16, the Battle of Arras saw the British make significant gains but no major breakthroughs.

French and Indian War: Fort Ticonderoga
Fort Ticonderoga was built at the southern end of Lake Champlain in 1758. Constructed by the French as Fort Carillon, Fort Ticonderoga played a key role in the campaigns of the French & Indian War. Idle for a decade, Fort Ticonderoga was the scene of several battles during the American Revolution.

T.E. Lawrence of Arabia: British World War I Officer
T.E. Lawrence, a.k.a. Lawrence of Arabia was a noted British officer during World War I. Assigned to aid the Arab Revolt, T.E. Lawrence became renown for his combat leadership and strategic planning. T.E. Lawrence earned international fame for his exploits and was key to the revolt's success.

World War II: V-1 Flying Bomb - Military History
The V-1 flying bomb was developed by Germany during World War II as a

MacDonald Clan Glencoe Massacre
The Glencoe Massacre occurred on the night of February 13, 1692, in western Scotland. Following being delayed in giving an oath of loyalty to new King William III, the MacDonalds of Glencoe were singled out for punishment by the new government. After hosting British soldiers for two weeks in Glencoe, the MacDonalds were attacked by their guests who killed 37 in the glen and burned the local villages.

King Philip's War (Metacomet's War): 1675-1676
King Philip's War was fought in New England between 1675 and 1676. Beginning after a period of increasing tensions, King Philip's War saw King Philip (Metacomet) lead a Native American alliance against English settlers and other Native Americans. King Philip's War ended after King Phlip was killed in August 1675 though some skirmishing continued.

The Second Punic War: Battle of Cannae
The Battle of Cannae was one of the key engagements of the Second Punic War. Meeting the Romans in southeast Italy, the Carthaginians under Hannibal executed a massive double-envelopment, surrounding and destroying the opposing army. Though the Battle of Cannae did not end the war, it was one of the greatest battlefield triumphs of all time.

World War I: Second Battle of the Marne
The Second Battle of the Marne took place from July 15 to August 5, 1918. Opening an offensive along the Marne, the Germans made some progress before being stopped by Allied forces. Launching a counteroffensive on July 18, the Allies drove the Germans back across the Marne.

De Havilland Mosquito - World War II
The de Havilland Mosquito was one of the most versatile aircraft of World War II. Entering service with the Royal Air Force in 1941, the de Havilland Mosquito largely served as a fast bomber and fighter-bomber. Built primarily of wood, the de Havilland Mosquito served throughout the conflict.

Constantine at the Battle of Milvian Bridge
Fought during the power struggle that occurred following the collapse of the Tetrarchy, the Battle of the Milvian Bridge pitted Constantine against the usurper Maxentius. Clashing at Milvian Bridge near Rome, Constantine's forces, fighting under a Christian banner, defeated Maxentius, allowing their leader to take control of the Western Empire.

M1903 Springfield Rifle in World War I
Developed in 1903, the M1903 Springfield became one of the most famous rifles in American history. The standard infantry weapon of the American Expeditionary Force in World War I, it continued in service into World War II. Though largely replaced by the M1 Garand, the M1903 Springfield remained in some uses through 1957.

Wars of Alexander the Great: Siege of Tyre
The Siege of Tyre took place from January to July 332 BC. Moving down the Mediterranean coast, Alexander the Great laid siege to Tyre during his conflict with the Persians. An island city, he was ultimately forced to build a long mole as well as assemble a fleet to take Tyre.

1775 Battle and Capture of Fort Ticonderoga
The Capture of Fort Ticonderoga took place May 10, 1775 during the American Revolution. Taking the garrison by surprise, American forces led by Colonels Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold swiftly overwhelmed the defenders. After the capture of Fort Ticonderoga, American troops took the fort at Crown Point.

Akagi - World War II - Aircraft Carrier - Battle of Midway
Commissioned in 1927, Akagi was a Japanese aircraft carrier that saw service during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. Akagi took part in the attack on Pearl Harbor and the Japanese advances through the Dutch East Indies. Akagi was sunk during the Battle of Midway in 1942.

Siege of Fort Ticonderoga - American Revolution - Saratoga Campaign - 1777
The Siege of Fort Ticonderoga was fought July 2-6, 1777, during the American Revolution. Advancing south, Lt. Gen. John Burgoyne laid siege to Fort Ticonderoga during the early stages of the Saratoga Campaign. Emplacing guns on nearby heights, he won the Siege of Fort Ticonderoga and forced Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair to retreat.

World War II: Hawker Hurricane
The Hawker Hurricane entered service in 1937 and saw extensive service with the Royal Air Force. The Hawker Hurricane played a key role in the Battle of Britain and was key in defeating the Germans. Over 14,000 Hawker Hurricanes were built by 1944.

First Battle of Bull Run Overview - American Civil War
The First Battle of Bull Run was fought July 21, 1861, during the Civil War. The battle was the first major engagement between Union and Confederate forces. At the First Battle of Bull Run, Union forces enjoyed early success before being defeated.

Invasions of England: Battle of Hastings 1066
Invading England in the fall of 1066, William of Normandy met the Anglo-Saxon forces of Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings on October 14. Fighting on Senlac Ridge, William's forces overcame determined resistance at the Battle of Hastings to win the day. Following the victory at the Battle of Hastings, William advanced on London and forced the English nobles to submit to him.

Northwest Indian War Final Battle: Fallen Timbers
The Battle of Fallen Timbers took place near present-day Maumee, OH, when US forces defeated the Native American Western Confederacy in 1794.

World War II: Exploring the Atlantic Charter
The Atlantic Charter was the result of the 1941 Atlantic Conference between Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt. Meeting aboard warships at Placentia Bay, the leaders discussed the postwar world as well as how the neutral United States could aid Britain. Key elements of the Atlantic Charter included self-determination of peoples and the development of system of general security.

Bristol Beaufighter - World War II - Royal Air Force
The Bristol Beaufighter was a heavy fighter used by the Royal Air Force during World War II. A development of the Bristol Beaufort torpedo bomber, the Beaufighter saw widespread service in all theaters. During the conflict, the Bristol Beaufighter filled many roles including night fighter, fighter-bomber, and torpedo bomber.

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- By Category
An index of categories in the

Battle of the Atlantic - World War II History
The Battle of the Atlantic took place between 1939 and 1945 during World War II. The Battle of the Atlantic saw German U-boats attempt to cut off Britain by sinking merchant shipping. Though German U-boats inflicted heavy losses, Allied naval forces ultimately won the Battle of the Atlantic.

Wars and Battles Throughout History
This section deals with wars and battles thoughout military history. Featured here are articles, profiles, and galleries that examine various wars and battles and their impact on the world.

History of Memorial Day - Civil War History of Memorial Day
Memorial Day originated in several locales during and shortly after the American Civil War. The holiday began as

Anglo Zanzibar War - Shortest Conflict in History
Occurring from approximately 9:00-9:45 AM on August 27, 1896, the Anglo-Zanzibar War is widely believed to be the shortest war in history. Fought between Britain and Khalid bin Barghash, the Anglo-Zanzibar conflict arose after a dispute over who would become the sultan of Zanzibar.

American Revolution: Battle of Bunker Hill
The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought June 17, 1775 during the Siege of Boston. Building fortifications near Bunker Hill, American forces were attacked by the British. In the resulting Battle of Bunker Hill, they inflicted over 1,000 casualties on the British before being forced to retreat.

World War II: The White Rose Resistance Group
The White Rose was a non-violent resistance group based in Munich during World War II. Comprised largely of University of Munich students, the White Rose published and distributed several pamphlets speaking out against Third Reich. The group was destroyed in 1943, when many of its key members were caught and executed.

Battle of Makin - World War II - Pacfiic Theater - Makin Atoll
The Battle of Makin was fought November 20-23, 1943, during World War II. Landing, elements of V Amphibious Corps opened the Battle of Makin and engaged the Japanese defenders. In three days of fighting, American forces won the Battle of Makin and captured the atoll.

World War I: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed March 3, 1918 and took Russia out of World War I. Following the revolution in Russia, the Bolsheviks sought an immediate end to hostilities with the Central Powers. By the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the were able to exit the conflict, but lost large amounts of territory.

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare - Definition & Examples
Unrestricted submarine warfare is an approach where submarines sink merchant ships without warning.

Battle of the Thames - William Henry Harrison
The Battle of the Thames was fought October 5, 1813, during the War of 1812. Advancing into Canada after the Battle of Lake Erie, American forces met the British and Native Americans at the Battle of the Thames. In the fighting at the Battle of the Thames, American forces won a decisive victory and killed Tecumseh.

The Battle of Kings Mountain 1780 - American Revolution
The Battle of Kings Mountain was fought October 7, 1780, in backwoods South Carolina. Arriving at Kings Mountain, Loyalist militia under Major Patrick Ferguson was attacked by American forces. Fighting on the slopes of Kings Mountain, the Americans were able to overwhelm and destroy Ferguson's command.

Creek War: Battle of Horseshoe Bend
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend occurred on March 27, 1814, during the Creek War. Leading American forces, Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson attacked the Red Sticks along the Tallapoosa River. In the fighting at Horseshoe Bend, the Red Sticks were defeated and the conflict effectively ended.

World War II: German Battleship Bismarck Info
DKM Bismarck was one of the most feared battleships constructed by Nazi Germany. Launched in 1939, Bismarck inspired such fear that when it first entered the Atlantic two years later the British devoted all of their resources to sinking it. After defeating HMS Hood, Bismarck was damaged by British aircraft and ultimately sunk on May 27, 1941.

US Military: Colt M1911 Pistol
The Colt M1911 pistol was the standard sidearm of the US military from 1911 to 1985. Designed by John Browning, the M1911 fired a .45 ACP cartridge and became an iconic pistol. The M1911 was retired in 1985 when the US military transitioned to the Beretta 92 series.

Battle of Zama - Punic Wars History
The Battle of Zama was fought between Rome and Carthage in late October 202 BC. Clashing at Zama in North Africa, the army of Hannibal was defeated by the Romans led by Scipio Africanus. The defeat at the Battle of Zama forced the Carthaginians to sue for peace and ended the Second Punic War.

World War I: Battle of Passchendaele - Third Ypres
The Battle of Passchendaele, also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was fought July to November 1917 during World War I. The Battle of Passchendaele saw Allied troops attack from the Ypres Salient with the goal of taking Passchendaele Ridge and wearing down the Germans. Though some ground was gained, the Battle of Passchendaele proved very costly for Allied forces.

Battle of Savannah - American Revolution
The Battle of Savannah was fought September 16 to October 18, 1779, during the Ameican Revolution. Captured by the British in 1778, Franco-American forces laid siege to Savannah a year later. Attacking at the Battle of Savannah in October, they were repulsed.

American Revolution: The Boston Massacre
The Boston Massacre took place on March 5, 1770, and helped lead to the American Revolution. The Boston Massacre saw a mob clash with British troops as part of a larger protest against taxation without representation. In the Boston Massacre, five civilians were killed.

Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Trafalgar
The Battle of Trafalgar was fought October 21, 1805, and was Vice Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson's final battle. Catching the French and Spanish fleets off Cape Trafalgar, Nelson won a decisive victory and captured 21 enemy ships. Though Trafalgar was a great truimph, Nelson was mortally wounded in the fighting.

Battle of Stirling Bridge - Scottish History
Fought in 1297, the Battle of Stirling Bridge was an early victory for the Scots over the English during the First War of Scottish Independence.