Military History Sitemap - Page 6 2016-09-26

Sturmgewehr 44 Assault Rifle - World War II Weaponry
The Sturmgewehr 44 was the first assault rifle to see deployment on a large scale. Developed by Nazi Germany, the Sturmgewehr 44 was introduced in 1943, and first saw service on the Eastern Front. Though far from perfect, the StG44 proved a versatile weapon for German forces.

Development of M1 Garand - World War II Rifles
The M1 Garand was the first semiautomatic rifle to be issued to an entire army. Developed in the 1920s and 1930s, the M1 was designed by John Garand. Firing a .30-06 round, the M1 Garand was the main infantry weapon employed by US forces during World War II and the Korean War.

US Military: Colt M1911 Pistol
The Colt M1911 pistol was the standard sidearm of the US military from 1911 to 1985. Designed by John Browning, the M1911 fired a .45 ACP cartridge and became an iconic pistol. The M1911 was retired in 1985 when the US military transitioned to the Beretta 92 series.

Needle Gun - Prussian Needle-Gun Austro-Prussian War
The Dreyse Needle Gun was the first military rifle to incorporate breech-loading with a bolt-action. Entering service in 1848, the Needle Gun was used extensively by Prussian forces during the Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian Wars. In 1871, the Needle Gun was replaced by the Mauser Rifle.

American Revolution: "Brown Bess" Musket
Originally the Long Land Pattern, the

The Manhattan Project - Making the Atomic Bomb
The Manhattan Project was the Allied effort to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Led by Maj. Gen. Leslie Groves and J. Robert Oppenheimer, the Manhattan Project developed research facilities across the United States. The Manhattan Project was successful and made the atomic bombs used at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

World War II: Ordnance QF 25-Pounder Field Gun
The Ordnance QF 25-pounder was the standard artillery piece used by British Commonwealth forces during World War II. Designed to be an improvement over the World War I-era 18-pounder, the 25-pounder saw service in all theaters and was a favorite with gun crews. It remained in use through the 1960s and 1970s.

History of US Naval Station at Pearl Harbor
The homeport of the US Pacific Fleet, Pearl Harbor was first acquired by the United States in 1887. Slow to develop due to its shallow entrance channel, Pearl Harbor became the US Navy's premier base in the Pacific in the years prior to World War II. Attacked on December 7, 1941, Pearl Harbor rose from the ashes and supported the US Pacific Fleet throughout the war. Still in full use today, Pearl Harbor continues to stand guard over the

HMS Queen Mary - Battlecruiser - World War I - Royal Navy
HMS Queen Mary was a British battlecruiser that entered service in 1913. The last battlecruiser completed for the Royal Navy prior to World War I, HMS Queen Mary saw action during the early engagements of the conflict. Sailing with the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron, HMS Queen Mary was lost at the Battle of Jutland in May 1916.

USS George Washington - USS George Washington SSBN-598
USS George Washington (SSBN-598) was the United States' first ballistic missile submarine. Launched in 1959, USS George Washington served in a nuclear deterrent role until 1982. For the last three years of its career, USS George Washington served as an attack submarine.

HMHS Britannic - Hospital Ships - World War I
HMHS Britannic was a British hospital ship during World War I. A sister of RMS Titanic, HMHS Britannic conducted several voyages to the Mediterranean to evacuate wounded. In November 1916, HMHS Britannic struck a mine and sank.

HMS Dreadnought (WWI Battleship) Overview
HMS Dreadnought entered service in 1906 and immediately rendered existing battleships obsolete. The first to feature an

Weapons - Weapons in Military History
In this section we examine the weapons and equipment used in war. From the earliest slings and spears to the most advanced laser-guided munitions and missiles, weapons have evolved dramatically over the centuries.

Military History People and Places
This section focuses on biographies of military leaders from throughout history. Here you will find biographies of military leaders from armies, navies, and air forces through the centuries.

HMS Victory - Royal Navy Napoleonic Wars HMS Victory
HMS Victory was first commissioned into the Royal Navy in 1778. A 104-gun ship of the line, HMS Victory was present at many of the key naval battles of the Napoleonic Wars and is best remembered as Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson's flagship at the Battle of Trafalgar. Retired from active service in 1812, HMS Victory was used for a variety of purposes before being restored as a museum ship.

HMS Hood - World War II HMS Hood
HMS Hood was a noted battlescruiser that entered service with the Royal Navy in 1920. HMS Hood was the pride of the British fleet for much of the interwar period and later took part in the 1940 attack on the French fleet at Mers-el-Kebir. HMS Hood was sunk by the German battleship Bismarck during the Battle of the Denmark Strait in May 1941.

PT-109 - John Kennedy and PT-109
PT-109 was an 80-ft. patrol torpedo boat used by the US Navy during World War II. Commanded by Lt. John F. Kennedy, PT-109 was sunk by the destroyer Amagiri on August 2, 1943. Aftet the loss of PT-109, Kennedy went to great lengths to have his crew rescued.

HMS Nelson - World War II - Royal Navy - Battleships
HMS Nelson was a British battleship that saw service during World War II. Completed in 1930, HMS Nelson's design was a product of the Washington Naval Treaty. During World War II, HMS Nelson served in the Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Indian Oceans.

HMS Warspite - Battleship of World Wars I & II
Launched in 1913, the battleship HMS Warspite saw extensive service during both world wars. A Queen Elizabeth-class battleship, Warspite fought at Jutland in 1916. After an extensive modernization in 1935, Warspite fought in the Mediterranean and Indian Oceans during World War II and provided support during the Normandy landings.

Tirpitz - German Battleship Tirpitz - World War II
Tirpitz was a large German battleship that saw service during World War II. A sister ship to Bismarck, Tirpitz largely saw duty in the North Atlantic and Norway. During the course of the war, the British made several efforts to sink Tirpitz and finally succeeded in late 1944.

USS Wasp - World War II - CV-7 - Aircraft Carrier
USS Wasp (CV-7) was an American aircraft carrier that served during World War II. Launched in 1939, USS Wasp saw duty in the Atlantic and Pacific during the early parts of the conflict. Operating in support of US forces on Guadalcanal, USS Wasp was sunk by I-19 on September 15, 1942.

Haruna - Japanese Battleship Haruna - World War II
Haruna was a Japanese battleship that saw service during World War I and World War II. Initially built as a battlecruiser, Haruna was heavily modified during the interwar years. During World War II, Haruna saw action during several of the major battles in the Pacific including Midway, Philippine Sea, and Leyte Gulf. Haruna was sunk at Kure in July 1945.

Akagi - World War II - Aircraft Carrier - Battle of Midway
Commissioned in 1927, Akagi was a Japanese aircraft carrier that saw service during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. Akagi took part in the attack on Pearl Harbor and the Japanese advances through the Dutch East Indies. Akagi was sunk during the Battle of Midway in 1942.

CSS Alabama - Civil War - Confederate Raider
CSS Alabama was a Confederate warship that entered service in August 1862. A renowned commerce raider, CSS Alabama conducted cruises around the world during its career. CSS Alabama was sunk by USS Kearsarge in June 1864.

Battle of Tsushima - Russo-Japanese War - Heihachiro Togo
The Battle of Tsushima was fought on May 27-28, 1905, during the Russo-Japanese War. Sailing from the Baltic Sea, the Russian fleet traveled over 18,000 miles before encountering the Japanese in the Straits of Tsushima. Engaging the Russians at the Battle of Tsushima, Admiral Togo destroyed over two-thirds of their fleet.

Battle of Port Arthur - Russo-Japanese War
The Battle of Port Arthur was the opening engagement of the Russo-Japanese War. On the night of February 8/9. 1904, Japanese ships under Admiral Togo launched a surprise destroyer attack on Russian naval forces. The next day a major fleet engagement was fought off Port Arthur.

The Battle of the Philippine Sea - World War II
The Battle of the Philippine Sea was fought June 19-20, 1944, and was a decisive victory for the Allies. It's also known as the Marianas Turkey Shoot.

Battle of Cape Esperance - Guadalcanal Campaign - World War II
The Battle of Cape Esperance took place on October 11/12, 1942, in the waters off Guadalcanal. Fighting off Cape Esperance, the battle was the third major naval engagement of the Guadalcanal Campaign. In the Battle of Cape Esperance, American forces were able to sink a Japanese cruiser and three destroyers.

Battle of Tassafaronga - World War II - Guadalcanal Campaign
The Battle of Tassafaronga saw American and Japanese naval forces clash on November 30, 1942, during World War II. Part of the Guadalcanal Campaign, the Battle of Tassafaronga had Japanese destroyers attack an American squadron in Ironbottom Sound. A stunning defeat, the Battle of Tassafaronga saw the US Navy lose one cruiser and suffer three severely damaged.

World War II Naval Battle of Guadalcanal
The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal took place November 12-15, 1942, in the waters around the Solomon Islands. Attempting to reinforce their troops on Guadalcanal, the Japanese dispatched forces to the area and engaged in two major night battles. Meeting the Japanese in battle, Allied ships won both fights off Guadalcanal and inflicted heavy losses.

Battle of the Eastern Solomons - World War II Battle of the Eastern Solomons
Allied and Japanese naval forces clashed at the Battle of the Eastern Solomons on August 24-25, 1942. The second major naval battle of the Guadalcanal Campaign, the engagement saw both fleets launch repeated air strikes against each other. Though both sides ultimately withdrew from the fight, American forces succeeded in sinking the light carrier Ryujo.

World War II - Battle of the Java Sea
The Battle of the Java Sea occurred on February 27, 1942, as Allied naval forces attempted to block the Japanese invasion of Java. Led by Dutch Admiral Karl Doorman, Allied ships engaged the invasion force's escorts in the Java Sea. Lasting over seven hours, the Battle of the Java Sea saw the Japanese repulse the Allied attacks.

Force Z - Attack on Force Z - HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse
Centered on HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse, Force Z was a naval squadron dispatched to Singapore in late 1941. Commanded by Admiral Sir Thomas Phillips, Force Z sortied in early December to attack the Japanese. On December 10, both of Force Z's capital ships were sunk by Japanese aircraft.

Indian Ocean Raid - World War II - Easter Sunday Raid
The Indian Ocean Raid was conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy between March 31 and April 10, 1942, during World War II. Entering the Indian Ocean, Japanese carrier led by Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo attacked Ceylon and British forces in the region. The Indian Ocean Raid saw the British lose several ships including a carrier.

World War II: American Capture of U-505 German Submarine
On June 4,1944, the German submarine U-505 was captured by American forces off the coast of Africa. It is now on display in Chicago.

Operation Pedestal - Relief of Malta - World War II
Operation Pedestal was conducted August 9-15, 1942, during World War II. The goal of Operation Pedestal was to escort a convoy of badly needed supplies and fuel to the garrison of Malta. Passing through the Straits of Gibraltar, the Allied ships of Operation Pedestal succeeded in reaching Malta, but took heavy losses en route.

Operation Catapult at Mers El Kebir (World War II)
Operation Catapult was conducted on July 3, 1940, when British naval forces attacked the French fleet at Mers el Kebir. Approaching the harbor, Force H demanded that the French fleet come over to the Allied side to prevent its capture by the Germans. When the French refused, Force H opened fire inflicting heavy damage.

Battle of the Denmark Strait - World War Battle of the Denmark Strait
The Battle of the Denmark Strait was fought on May 24, 1941, during World War II. Departing port, the German battleship Bismarck and heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen attempted to break in the North Atlantic to attack Allied shipping. Intercepted by HMS Hood and HMS Prince of Wales, they defeated them in the resulting Battle of the Denmark Strait.

Battle of the Atlantic - World War II History
The Battle of the Atlantic took place between 1939 and 1945 during World War II. The Battle of the Atlantic saw German U-boats attempt to cut off Britain by sinking merchant shipping. Though German U-boats inflicted heavy losses, Allied naval forces ultimately won the Battle of the Atlantic.

World War II: Battle of the River Plate
The Battle of the River Plate was fought on December 13, 1939, and saw British warships battle the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee. Fighting off the estuary of the River Plate, Admiral Graf Spee inflicted heavy damage on the British but was forced to seek a harbor in neutral Uruguay. Trapped by British forces after the battle, the Germans scuttled Admiral Graf Spee in the River Plate.

World War I: Battle of Jutland- Clash of the Dreadnoughts
The Battle of Jutland was fought May 31-June 1, 1916, and was the largest naval battle of World War I. Fighting in the North Sea, the British and German fleets met off the coast of Jutland in a running action. Inconclusive in its results, the Battle of Jutland saw both sides claim victory, though the German fleet never again ventured into the North Sea to seek action.

Battle of Jutland - World War I Battle of Jutland
The Battle of Jutland was fought May 31-June 1, 1916, and was the largest naval battle of World War I. Fighting in the North Sea, the British and German fleets met off the coast of Jutland in a running action. Inconclusive in its results, the Battle of Jutland saw both sides claim victory, though the German fleet never again ventured into the North Sea to seek action. Page 2.

Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby - World War I - Franz von Hipper - Royal Navy
The Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby occurred on December 16, 1914, during World War I. Sailing, elements of the German High Seas Fleet bombarded Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby causing civilian casualties. Aware of German intentions after the Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby, the Royal Navy attempted to intercept the enemy but without success.

Battle of New Orleans - American Civil War
The city of New Orleans was captured by Union forces on April 25, 1862. Battling past the Confederate forts on the Mississippi River, Flag Officer David G. Farragut succeeded in reaching the city after probing the defenses for over a week. The largest city in the Confederacy, the capture of New Orleans was a huge blow to the rebel cause.

Naval Warfare & Warships
Control of the seas has always played a key role in deciding the outcome of wars. Explore how naval warfare has changed from the triremes of ancient Greece to Britain's

Battle of Navarino - Greek War of Independence Battle of Navarino
Fought in 1827, the Battle of Navarino was a turning point in the Greek War of Independence. After several years of fighting, the Greeks finally received foreign assistance in the form of British, French, and Russian warships. Under the command of Admiral Sir Edward Codrington, the allied fleet entered Navarino Bay and destroyed the Ottoman fleet of Ibrahim Pasha.

Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife - Horatio Nelson Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife
The Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife was fought July 22-25, 1797. Attacking Tenerife in the Canary Islands, Royal Navy vessels under Rear Admiral Horatio Nelson attempted to capture Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Repulsed, Nelson lost his right arm during the battle.

Mutiny on the Bounty - Mutiny on the Bounty History
The Mutiny on the Bounty took place April 28, 1789, in the Pacific Ocean. Several members of HMS Bounty's crew, led by Fletcher Christian, mutinied against Lt. William Bligh after harsh treatment and desiring to remain in the South Seas. While Bligh ultimately returned home, Bounty and several of the mutineers settled on Pitcairn Island.

Quiberon Bay - Battle of Quiberon Bay - Seven Years' War
The Battle of Quiberon Bay was fought November 20, 1759, during the Seven Years' War. Attacking the French fleet at the Battle of Quiberon Bay, Admiral Sir Edward Hawke captured or destroyed six enemy ships of the line and scattered the remainder. The Battle of Quiberon Bay was part of the Annus Mirabilis of 1759.

Raid on the Medway - Second Anglo-Dutch War
The Raid on the Medway occurred in 1667, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. Penetrating the Thames estuary, Dutch ships attacked up the River Medway as far as Chatham, capturing or destroying several English ships. One of the worst naval defeats ever inflicted on the British, the raid led to a quick peace in favor of the Dutch.

The Spanish Armada of the Anglo-Spanish War
Arriving in July 1588, the Spanish Armada sought to control the English Channel and aid in transferring troops from Holland for the invasion of England. Shadowed by the English fleet, the Armada was harried by hit-and-run attacks until being defeated at the Battle of Gravelines on August 8. Retreating north, the Spanish lost many ships on the Irish coast as they sought to return to Spain.

The Spanish Armada - England Defeats the Spanish Armada - Spanish Armada at the Battle of Gravelines
Arriving in July 1588, the Spanish Armada sought to control the English Channel and aid in transferring troops from Holland for the invasion of England. Shadowed by the English fleet, the Armada was harried by hit-and-run attacks until being defeated at the Battle of Gravelines on August 8. Retreating north, the Spanish lost many ships on the Irish coast as they sought to return to Spain. Page 2.

About the Battle of Salamis - The Persian Wars
The Battle of Salamis was fought in September 480 BC during the Persian Wars. Having been defeated at Thermopylae, Greek forces retreated to Salamis where they were pursued by the Persian fleet. Attacking the Persians in the Straits of Salamis, the Greeks won a stunning victory.

Battle of Actium - Mark Antony and Octavian
The Battle of Actium was fought September 2, 31 BC off Actium, Greece between Octavian and Mark Antony. After the two fleets clashed for several hours, Cleopatra fled Actium with her ships. Seeing this, Antony followed allowing his fleets to be destroyed. Actium was the deciding battle in the conflict between the two men.

Battle of Megiddo - Egyptian Victory at the Battle Megiddo
On May 9, 1457 BC, Egyptian troops led by Pharaoh Thutmose III defeated a rebel army led by the King of Kadesh at the Battle of Megiddo. Marching north into Palestine, Thutmose surprised the rebels by passing through the Aruna Valley. Emerging near Megiddo, his troops routed the rebels in a battle outside the city walls.

Battle of Thermopylae History - Persian Wars
The Battle of Artemisium was fought in early August 480 BC in conjunction with the Battle of Thermopylae. The Battle of Artemisium was a naval engagement between the Greek and Persian fleets and saw fighting over a three day span. With the defeat on land at Thermopylae, the Greeks were forced to withdraw from Artemisium.

Vikings and Saxons at the Battle of Maldon
The Battle of Maldon was fought in 991 during the Viking invasions of Britain. Sailing up the River Blackwater, Viking forces attacked the Saxons near Maldon. In the fighting at the Battle of Maldon, Ealdorman Brihtnoth was killed leading to a Viking victory.

Battle of the Trebia - Second Punic War
Fought on December 18, 218 BC, the Battle of the Trebia was the first major battle of the Second Punic War. Marching into northern Italy, Hannibal inflicted a devastating defeat upon Roman forces. The defeat at the Battle of the Trebia caused Rome to adjust their war strategy to meet the new threat from the north.

Punic Wars: Battle of Lake Trasimene
The Battle of Lake Trasimene was fought June 24, 217 BC during the Second Punic War. Advancing from his victory at the Trebia, Hannibal set an ambush on the shores of Lake Trasimene. Attacking the Roman army durign the Battle of Lake Trasimene, Hannibal won a crushing victory.

Battle of Zama - Punic Wars History
The Battle of Zama was fought between Rome and Carthage in late October 202 BC. Clashing at Zama in North Africa, the army of Hannibal was defeated by the Romans led by Scipio Africanus. The defeat at the Battle of Zama forced the Carthaginians to sue for peace and ended the Second Punic War.

Gallic Wars: Battle of Alesia and Julius Caesar
The Battle of Alesia took place in the fall of 52 BC as Julius Caesar laid siege to the Mandubii settlement at Alesia in Gaul. Building an extensive set of fortifications around Alesia, Caesar beat off attacks from Vercingetorix's garrison as well as a relief army. The victory at Alesia effectively secured Gaul for Rome.

Wars of the Second Triumvirate: Battle of Philippi
Learn the history behind the Battle of Philippi, instigated by the assassination of Julius Caesar and fought on two separate dates, October 3 and 23, 42 BC.

Julius Caesar's Civil War Battle of Pharsalus
The Battle of Pharsalus was the decisive engagement of Caesar's Civil War. Fought August 9, 48 BC, at Pharsalus, Greece, the battle saw Julius Caesar defeat troops under Pompey. The battle turned when some of Caesar's troops defeated a cavalry attack and were able assault the enemy in the flank and rear.

Roman Empire: Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest was fought in September 9 AD in present-day Germany. En route to winter quarters, three Roman legions sought to defeat a rebellion led by Arminius. Attacked in the Teutoburg Forest by the Germanic tribes, the Romans were effectively destroyed.

Constantine at the Battle of Milvian Bridge
Fought during the power struggle that occurred following the collapse of the Tetrarchy, the Battle of the Milvian Bridge pitted Constantine against the usurper Maxentius. Clashing at Milvian Bridge near Rome, Constantine's forces, fighting under a Christian banner, defeated Maxentius, allowing their leader to take control of the Western Empire.

Wars of Alexander the Great: Battle of Gaugamela
The Battle of Gaugamela was fought October 1, 331 BC during Alexander the Great's wars with the Persian Empire. Advancing east, Alexander encountered the army of Darius III in present-day Iraq. In the resulting Battle of Gaugamela, Alexander routed the Persians leading to the empire's fall.

Alexander the Great and the Battle of Chaeronea
The Battle of Chaeronea occurred in 338 BC when King Philip II of Macedon confronted a mixed Greek army. Clashing on a plain near Chaeronea, the battle was hotly contested until the king's son, the future Alexander the Great, led the decisive charge which broke the Greek lines.

Wars of Alexander the Great: Siege of Tyre
The Siege of Tyre took place from January to July 332 BC. Moving down the Mediterranean coast, Alexander the Great laid siege to Tyre during his conflict with the Persians. An island city, he was ultimately forced to build a long mole as well as assemble a fleet to take Tyre.

Granicus - Battle of the Granicus
The Battle of Granicus was fought May 334 BC during the Wars of Alexander the Great. Crossing to Asia Minor, Alexander the Great engaged the Persian Empire along the Granicus River. In the resulting battle, Alexander routed the Persians.

Attila the Hun at the Battle of Chalons
The Battle of Chalons occurred on June 20, 451, in present-day France. Pitting Attila the Hun against Roman forces led by Flavius Aetius, the Battle of Chalons ended in a tactical draw but was a strategic victory for Rome. The victory at Chalons was one of the last achieved by the Western Roman Empire.

Battle of Manzikert - Byzantine Empire - Defeat at Manzikert
The Battle of Manzikert was fought August 26, 1071, between the Byzantine Empire and the Suljuk Turks. In the fighting at the Battle of Manzikert, the Byzantines were badly defeated. The Battle of Manzikert also saw Emperor Romanos IV captured by the Seljuks.

Overview of the Irish Battle of Clontarf
On Good Friday 1014, the forces of Munster and Leinster clashed at the Battle of Clontarf outside Dublin, Ireland. The battle was a result of the King of Leinster, Máel Mórda mac Murchada, rebelling against the High King of Ireland, Brian Boru. Brian's forces were victorious at Clontarf, however both leaders were killed sinking Ireland into regional warfare.

History of the Crusades: Siege of Jerusalem (1099)
The Siege of Jerusalem was conducted June 7-July 15, 1099, during the First Crusade. Approaching Jerusalem, Crusader forces under Raymond of Toulouse invested the city. After several weeks, the Crusaders were able to build siege towers and successfully attacked Jerusalem on July 15.

Battle of Legnano - Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnano
Fought on May 29, 1176, the Battle of Legnano was a key engagement in Frederick I Barbarossa's Fifth Italian Campaign. Leading reinforcements from Germany, Frederick was intercepted by the troops of the Lombard League. Attacking near Legnano, Frederick initially had success until a decisive counterattack broke his lines and routed his forces.

The Crusades and the Battle of Hattin
The Battle of Hattin was fought July 4, 1187, during the Crusades. Lured out of the Jerusalem defenses, a Crusader army was attacked by Saladin near the Horns of Hattin. In the resulting Battle of Hattin, the Crusaders were crushed.

Battle of Mohi - Mongol Invasions Battle of Mohi
The Battle of Mohi was fought April 11, 1241, and saw Mongol forces rout the Hungarians. With the Mongols invading his country, King Bela IV moved with his army to block the enemy. Engaging the enemy near Mohi, he was ultimately driven from the field.

Battle of Dunbar - Wars of Scottish Independence Battle of Dunbar 1296
The Battle of Dunbar was a key engagement during King Edward I's invasion of Scotland in 1296. After capturing Berwick, he sent troops forward to Dunbar where they met the army of King John Balliol. In the resulting action, the Scots were driven from the field.

Scottish Independence: Battle of Falkirk
Marching north in 1298, to avenge the English defeat at Stirling Bridge, King Edward I met a smaller Scottish army under Sir William Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk. Using his archers to weaken the Scottish lines, Edward's troops were then able to drive the Scots from the field and win the Battle of Falkirk.

Fall of Constantinople, 1453 - Byzantine-Ottoman Wars
The Fall of Constantinople took place in 1453 after the Ottomans successfully laid siege to the city. The loss of Constantinople marked the end of the Byzantine Empire. The siege of Constantinople was conducted by Mehmet II and lasted nearly two months.

Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) 1410
The Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) was fought July 15, 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War. On of the largest battles fought in medieval Europe, Grunwald saw the Teutonic knights defeated. The Battle of Grunwald shifted the balance of power in Eastern Europe and was later used for propaganda purposes.

Second Battle of St. Albans - Wars of the Roses - Earl of Warwick
The Second Battle of St. Albans was fought February 17, 1461, during the Wars of the Roses. Moving south, Lancastrian forces led by Queen Margaret encountered the the Earl of Warwick near St. Albans. Conducing a wide flanking movement, they routed him in the Second Battle of St. Albans and continued their advance on London.

Battle of Mortimer's Cross - Wars of the Roses - Edward IV
The Battle of Mortimer's Cross was fought February 2, 1461, during the Wars of the Roses. Seeking to prevent Lancastrian forces from Wales from uniting with their allies, Edward, Earl of March, engaged them in the Battle of Mortimer's Cross. Victorious at Mortimer's Cross, Edward captured and killed Owen Tudor and shattered the enemy's forces.

Battle of Stoke Field - War of the Roses Battle of Stoke Field
The Battle of Stoke Field was the last engagement of the Wars of the Roses. Fought June 16, 1487, it saw the Earl of Lincoln invade England in support of the pretender Lambert Simnel. Meeting King Henry VII's army at Stoke Field, he was defeated and killed.

The Hundred Years' War Battle of Crecy
The Battle of Crécy was fought August 26, 1346, during the Hundred Years' War. Advancing out of Normandy, King Edward III's army encountered the French near Crécy-en-Ponthieu. In the resulting battle, his archers used longbows to cut down waves of French knights.

Hundred Years' War - Joan of Arc and Siege of Orléans
The Siege of Orleans began October 12, 1428 and ended May 8, 1429 when the French relieved the city. Invested by the English, Orleans was ultimately saved by the leadership of Joan of Arc. The Siege of Orleans marked a turning point in the Hundred Years' War.

Battle of Formigny - Hundred Years' War Battle of Formigny
The Battle of Formigny was fought on April 15, 1450, in Normandy, France. Fighting on the Carentan-Bayeux Road, English forces led by Sir Thomas Kyriell held off the small army of the Comte de Clermont. The Battle of Formigny was won for the French when troops commanded by Arthur de Richemont arrived and turned the English flank.

Battle of Edgehill - English Civil War Battle of Edgehill
The Battle of Edgehill was fought October 23, 1642, during the English Civil War. The first major pitched battle of the conflict, Edgehill saw Royalist and Parliamentarian forces fight an inconclusive engagement. In the wake of the Battle of Edgehill, both sides maneuvered on London.

Battle of Marston Moor - English Civil War History
Meeting on Marston Moor in July 2, 1644, an Allied army of Parliamentarians and Scots Covenanters decisively defeated the Royalist Army of Prince Rupert. The victory at Marston Moor effectively ended the English Civil War in northern England as Royalist forces were forced to withdrawal south.

Battle of Naseby - English Civil War
The Battle of Naseby was fought on June 14, 1645, and was a key engagement of the English Civil War. Clashing near Naseby in Northamptonshire, the Parliamentarian New Model Army crushed King Charles I's forces. The victory at Naseby was a turning point for Parliament's war effort.

Battle of Preston - English Civil War - Oliver Cromwell
The Battle of Preston was fought August 17-19, 1648, during the English Civil War. During the Battle of Preston, Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army engaged a Scottish Engager and English Royalist force. In the fighting at Preston, Cromwell won a clear victory.

Williamite War in Ireland - The Battle of the Boyne
Williamite and Jacobite forces clashed at the Battle of the Boyne on July 12, 1690. Led by William III, the Williamite forces decisively defeated James II, forcing him to flee back to France. The defeat at the Boyne ended James' attempted to reclaim his throne.

MacDonald Clan Glencoe Massacre
The Glencoe Massacre occurred on the night of February 13, 1692, in western Scotland. Following being delayed in giving an oath of loyalty to new King William III, the MacDonalds of Glencoe were singled out for punishment by the new government. After hosting British soldiers for two weeks in Glencoe, the MacDonalds were attacked by their guests who killed 37 in the glen and burned the local villages.

Siege of Louisbourg - War of the Austrian Succession - 1745 - William Pepperrell
The Siege of Louisbourg was conducted from May 11 to June 28, 1745, during the War of the Austrian Succession. Sailing north, a colonial forces led by William Pepperrell landed and laid siege to Louisbourg. After a siege of 47 days, Louisbourg fell to the British.

USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24) - World War II
USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24) was an Independence-class aircraft carrier which saw service in World War II before being transferred to the French Navy and taking part in the First Indochina War.

French & Indian War - French & Indian War Aftermath
The French & Indian/Seven Years' War ended with the Treaty of Paris between Britain and France and the Treaty of Hubertusburg between Prussia and Austria. The Treaty of Paris saw the transfer of Canada and Florida to Britain, while Spain received Louisiana and had Cuba returned. The separate Treaty of Hubertusburg led to a return to status quo ante bellum.

Battle of Rossbach - Seven Year's War - Frederick the Great
One of Frederick the Great's most stunning victories, the Battle of Rossbach saw the Prussian leader rout a combined French & Austrian army. Clashing near the village of Rossbach in Prussian Saxony, Frederick was able to surprise the enemy and soundly defeat them while suffering minimal casualties.

French and Indian War: Battle of the Monongahela
The Battle of the Monongahela was fought on July 9, 1755, in western Pennsylvania. Advancing from Fort Cumberland, Major General Edward Braddock sought to capture the French base at Fort Duquesne. Meeting a French and Indian force near the Monongahela River, Braddock's men were driven from the field.

American Civil War: Battle of Philippi
The Battle of Philippi was fought June 3, 1861, during the early days of the Civil War. Advancing into western Virginia Union forces attacked a Conderate force at Philippi. In the resulting Battle of Philippi, they routed the enemy and the engagement became known as the

Glorious First of June - Wars of the French Revolution
The Glorious First of June was a naval battle fought on June 1, 1794, during the Wars of the French Revolution. Seeking to attack a grain convoy, Adm. Lord Howe engaged the French fleet in a battle dubbed the Glorious First of June. In the fighting, Howe captured or destroyed seven French ships.

American Revolution: Battles of Lexington and Concord
Fought on April 19, 1775, the Battles of Lexington and Concord were the opening actions of the American Revolution. The first shots were fired at Lexington as British troops from Boston passed through on their way to capture colonial military stores in Concord. After departing Concord, the British were attacked by colonial militia en route back to the city and suffered substantial casualties.

Battle of Molino del Rey - Mexican-American War - Winfield Scott Battle of Molina del Rey
The Battle of Molino del Rey was fought September 8, 1847, during the Mexican-American War. Moving forward, American troops attacked Mexican forces in the Molino del Rey. In heavy fighting, they drove away the defenders and won the Battle of Molino del Rey.

Mexican-American War: Battle of Monterrey
The Battle of Monterrey was fought September 21-24, 1846, during the Mexican-American War. Advancing into Mexico, American forces under Maj. Gen. Zachary Taylor attacked the city of Monterrey. The resulting Battle of Monterrey saw the Americans take the city after heavy fighting.

Battle of Churubusco - Mexican-American War - Winfield Scott
The Battle of Churubusco was fought August 20, 1847 during the Mexican-American War. Having defeated the Mexicans that morning at Contreras, American forces renewed their attack that afternoon at Churubusco. In the Battle of Churubusco, US troops won a victory after several hours of heavy fighting.

American Revolution: The Stamp Act of 1765
The Stamp Act of 1765 was passed by Parliament to raise money to pay for British troops in North America. Taxing paper products, the Stamp Act was violently opposed by the colonists leading to calls of

Boston Tea Party - American Revolution
The Boston Tea Party took place on December 16, 1773, in Boston harbor. Angered by the imposition of the Tea Act, colonists in Boston refused to allow new shipments to be landed. On the night of December 16, angry colonists boarded three tea ships in the harbor and tossed crates of tea into the harbor. Known as the Boston Tea Party, this act contributed to the tensions that led to the American Revolution.

Major General Samuel Crawford - American Civil War
Major General Samuel Crawford was a Union commander during the Civil War who was present at Fort Sumter and later led a division in the Army of the Potomac.

World War I: America Joins the War (1917)
World War I changed in 1917 when the United States entered the conflict. French failures on the Western Front in 1917 along with mutinies among their troops led to the British being forced to carry the brunt of the fighting. In the east, revolution swept through Russia ultimately taking it out of World War I.

World War 1 - World War 1 1917
World War I changed in 1917 when the United States entered the conflict. French failures on the Western Front in 1917 along with mutinies among their troops led to the British being forced to carry the brunt of the fighting. In the east, revolution swept through Russia ultimately taking it out of World War I. Page 2.

World War 1 - World War 1 1917
World War I changed in 1917 when the United States entered the conflict. French failures on the Western Front in 1917 along with mutinies among their troops led to the British being forced to carry the brunt of the fighting. In the east, revolution swept through Russia ultimately taking it out of World War I. Page 3.

World War 1 - World War 1 1917
World War I changed in 1917 when the United States entered the conflict. French failures on the Western Front in 1917 along with mutinies among their troops led to the British being forced to carry the brunt of the fighting. In the east, revolution swept through Russia ultimately taking it out of World War I. Page 4.

World War II in the Pacific - New Guinea, Burma, China
In addition to operations in the Southwest and Central Pacific, fighting raged across New Guinea, Burma, and China as Allied and Japanese forces fought for control. Led by Douglas MacArthur, Allied troops drove many of the Japanese from New Guinea in 1943. To the west, Allied troops were pushed out of Burma necessitating a long campaign to retake it. In China, the Allies supported the operations of Chiang Kai Shek and his Nationalist government.

World War II Pacific in New Guinea Burma and China - World War II Fighting in New Guinea Burma and China - World War II Battles in New Guinea Burma
In addition to operations in the Southwest and Central Pacific, fighting raged across New Guinea, Burma, and China as Allied and Japanese forces fought for control. Led by Douglas MacArthur, Allied troops drove many of the Japanese from New Guinea in 1943. To the west, Allied troops were pushed out of Burma necessitating a long campaign to retake it. In China, the Allies supported the operations of Chiang Kai Shek and his Nationalist government. Page 2.

WWII - Conferences & Aftermath - the Postwar World
The most transformative conflict in history, World War II impacted the entire globe and set the stage for the Cold War. As World War II raged, the leaders of the Allies met several times to direct the course of the fighting and to begin planning for the postwar world. With the defeat of Germany and Japan, their plans were put into action.

World War II: The Postwar World - Ending the Conflict
The most transformative conflict in history, World War II impacted the entire globe and set the stage for the Cold War. Page 2.

World War II: Republic P-47 Thunderbolt
The P-47 Thunderbolt was a key Allied fighter and fighter-bomber during World War II. The P-47 Thunderbolt entered service in 1942, and the fighter saw service in both Europe and the Pacific. Nicknamed

Battle of Manila Bay - George Dewey - Spanish-American War
George Dewey's US Squadron destroyed the Spanish fleet at Manila Bay on May 1, 1898. The victory opened the way for the US conquest of the Philippines.

Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge - American Revolution - Revolutionary War
The Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge was fought February 27, 1776, during the American Revolution. Fought early in the conflict, the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge saw Loyalist forces in North Carolina clash with Patriot troops. Holding the bridge at Moore's Creek, the Patriots won a clear victory and scattered the Loyalist force.

The Battle of Kings Mountain 1780 - American Revolution
The Battle of Kings Mountain was fought October 7, 1780, in backwoods South Carolina. Arriving at Kings Mountain, Loyalist militia under Major Patrick Ferguson was attacked by American forces. Fighting on the slopes of Kings Mountain, the Americans were able to overwhelm and destroy Ferguson's command.

Battle of Kettle Creek - American Revolution - Revolutionary War - Andrew Pickens
The Battle of Kettle Creek was fought February 14, 1779, during the American Revolution. Moving toward Augusta, GA, a British Loyalist force was attacked by Patriot militia at the Battle of Kettle Creek. In the fighting at the Battle of Kettle Creek, American forces defeated and scattered the British force.

American Revolution: Battle of Camden 1780
The Battle of Camden was fought August 16, 1780, during the American Revolution. Sent south after the fall of Charleston, Major General Horatio Gates engaged British forces near Camden, SC. In the resulting Battle of Camden, Gates' army was routed.

Siege of Fort Mifflin - American Revolution - Philadelphia Campaign
The Siege of Fort Mifflin was fought September 26 to November 16, 1777, during the American Revolution. Moving up the Delaware River, the British began the Siege of Fort Mifflin in an effort to open the waterway to the Royal Navy. Holding out for over a month, the Siege of Fort Mifflin ended when the American garrison evacuated to New Jersey.

Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery - American Revolution - Henry Clinton
The Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery was fought October 6, 1777, during the American Revolution. In an effort to aid Major General John Burgoyne at Saratoga, Major General Sir Henry Clinton moved up the Hudson River and attacked Forts Clinton and Montgomery. In the resulting Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery, he won a victory and captured both posts.

Paoli Massacre - American Revolution - Battle of Paoli
The Paoli Massacre took place September 20-21, 1777, during the American Revolution. Fought shortly after the Battle of Brandywine, the Paoli Massacre saw Brigadier General Anthony Wayne's men surprise attacked by British troops led by Major General Charles Grey. In the wake of the Paoli Massacre, Wayne's command fled the field and moved west.

World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf
The Battle of Leyte Gulf was a series engagements fought October 23-26, 1944, in the waters around the Philippines. During the fighting, the Japanese attempted to block the Allied invasion of Leyte through a series of naval battles. The Battle of Leyte Gulf ended in a massive Allied victory and effectively crippled the Imperial Japanese Navy.

Battle of Empress Augusta Bay - World War II
The Battle of Empress Augusta Bay was fought November 1-2, 1943, during the Solomon Islands Campaign of World War II and saw Allied forces defeat the Japanese off Bougainville.

Battle of Fort Washington - American Revolution History
The Battle of Fort Washington was fought November 16, 1776, during the American Revolution. Having defeated the Americans at White Plains, the British returned to Manhattan and attacked Fort Washington. Winning the Battle of Fort Washington, the British forced the entire garrison to surrender.

Battle of the Assunpink Creek - American Revolution - Revolutionary War
The Battle of the Assunpink Creek was fought January 2, 1777, during the American Revolution. Following the Battle of Trenton, General George Washington moved his army into a defensive position behind Assunpink Creek. Attacked by Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis, Washington turned back the British at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek before departing during the night to attack Princeton.

American Revolution: Battle of Great Bridge
The Battle of Great Bridge was fought December 9, 1775, during the American Revolution. The Battle of Great Bridge centered on a river crossing south of Norfolk, VA and saw British forces attack Patriot troops. In the fighting at the Battle of Great Bridge, the British assault was repulsed.

Battle of Rocroi - Thirty Years' War Battle of Rocroi
Meeting on May 19, 1643, French troops under the Duc d'Enghien defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Rocroi. Marching to lift the siege of Rocroi, d'Enghien, the future Prince of Conde, was able to turn the Spanish flank to achieve victory. The Battle of Rocroi was the first major defeat inflicted on the Spanish in nearly a century.

Battle of Sedan of the Franco-Prussian War
The Battle of Sedan was fought September 1, 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War. A turning point in the conflict, the Battle of Sedan saw Prussian forces encircle the French Army of Chalons. Among those captured at the Battle of Sedan was Emperor Napoleon III.

The Battle of Tannenberg - World War 1
The Battle of Tannenberg was fought in August 1914 during World War I. Taking place on the Eastern Front, the Battle of Tannenberg saw German forces under Gen. Paul von Hindenburg attack the Russians. In the fighting, the Germans won a stunning victory effectively destroying the Russian Second Army.

World War I - Battle of Caporetto on the Italian Front
The Battle of Caporetto was fought October 24-November 19, 1917, during World War I. A turning point on the Italian Front, Caporetto saw German and Austro-Hungarian troops shatter the Italian lines along the Isonzo River. Driving Italians back, they advanced as far as the Piave River before being halted.

Battle of Magdhaba - World War I Battle of Magdhaba
The Battle of Magdhaba was part of the Sinai-Palestine Campaign of World War I. Advancing across the Sinai, British forces occupied El Arish on the coast. To protect their flank, mounted forces were ordered to capture the town of Magdhaba to the south. Attacking from the northeast, British forces succeeded in taking the town after a bitter fight.

Battle of Gallipoli - World War I History
The Battle of Gallipoli began when British Commonwealth and French troops landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula of Turkey adjacent to the Dardanelles. In a brutal campaign, Allied forces were unable to dislodge the Turks from Gallipoli's heights. After nearly a year of fighting they ended the fight and withdrew.

Battle of Rafa - World War I Battle of Rafa
The Battle of Rafa was fought January 9, 1916, and saw British troops force the Turks out of the Sinai Peninsula. Following up on their victory at Magdhaba, the British assaulted Turkish positions at Rafa. After a day-long fight, they succeeded in clearing Rafa of opposition.

First Battle of Gaza - World War I First Battle of Gaza
The First Battle of Gaza was fought on March 26-27, 1917, and saw British troops turned back at Gaza. Having advanced across the Sinai, British troops assaulted the Turkish lines with little success. The battles concluded when British troops fell back to Wadi Ghuzze.

Battle of Megiddo - World War I - Palestine
The Battle of Megiddo was fought September 19 to October 1, 1918, during World War I. Having captured Jerusalem, General Edmund Allenby opened the Battle of Megiddo with the goal of shattering the Ottoman position in Palestine. Attacking, his forces won a complete victory as the Battle of Megiddo saw the Turks routed.

Third Battle of Gaza - World War I Third Battle of Gaza
The Third Battle of Gaza was a successful attempt by British forces to break into Palestine during World War I. Led by General Sir Edmund Allenby, the British combined flank and frontal assaults to dislodge the Turks from the Gaza-Beersheba line. Lasting a week, the Third Battle of Gaza was a decisive victory for the British.

World War I: Battle of Arras (1917)
The Battle of Arras commenced on April 9, 1917, and was the British component of the Allies' spring offensives. Attacking near Arras with success, the British captured Vimy Ridge before the offesive bogged down. Lasting until May 16, the Battle of Arras saw the British make significant gains but no major breakthroughs.

Second Battle of Ypres 1915 - World War I
The Second Battle of Ypres was fought April 22 to May 25, 1915 during World War I. Releasing poison gas, German forces attacked Allied positions with the goal of reducing the Ypres salient. In the resulting Second Battle of Ypres, the Allies gave ground but were able to hold the town.

Battle of Messines - World War I Battle of Messines
The Battle of Messines occurred from June 7-14, 1917, and saw British troops attempt to capture Messines Ridge in Flanders. Detonating 19 mines, the British were able to take the ridge with relative ease. The victory at Messines was a prelude to the bloody Battle of Passchendaele.

World War I: Battle of Passchendaele (Third Ypres)
The Battle of Passchendaele, also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was fought July to November 1917 during World War I. The Battle of Passchendaele saw Allied troops attack from the Ypres Salient with the goal of taking Passchendaele Ridge and wearing down the Germans. Though some ground was gained, the Battle of Passchendaele proved very costly for Allied forces.

Mexican Revolution: US Punitive Expedition
The US Punitive Expedition to Mexico began in early 1916 in response to Pancho Villa's attacks across the border. Entering Mexico on March 15, the Punitive Expedition was led by BGen. John J. Pershing and was tasked with capturing Villa. It failed to do so and was withdrawn in early 1917 with the United States on the brink of entering World War I.

T.E. Lawrence of Arabia: British World War I Officer
T.E. Lawrence, a.k.a. Lawrence of Arabia was a noted British officer during World War I. Assigned to aid the Arab Revolt, T.E. Lawrence became renown for his combat leadership and strategic planning. T.E. Lawrence earned international fame for his exploits and was key to the revolt's success.

Samuel Dupont - Rear Admiral - Civil War
Rear Admiral Samuel Francis Du Pont entered the US Navy in 1815 and saw service during the Mexican-American War. Promoted to captain in 1855, Samuel Du Pont commanded the South Atantic Blockading Squadron during the Civil War. Samuel Du Pont is best remembered for his failed attack on Charleston in 1863.

USS Independence (CVL-22) - World War II
USS Independence (CVL-22) was the lead ship of its class of light aircraft carriers and saw active service in the Pacific during World War II.

USS Boxer (CV-21) - Korean War
USS Boxer (CV-21) was an Essex-class aircraft carrier built during World War II which later saw significant action during the Korean War.

John Bell Hood Biography - Civil War General
John Bell Hood was a notable Confederate commander during the Civil War. Hood served in both the East and West, developing a reputation an aggressive leader. Wounded several times, Hood led the Army of Tennessee to its destruction in 1864.

American Revolution: The Battle of Germantown
The Battle of Germantown was the second major battle of the 1777 Philadelphia Campaign. Fought on October 4, 1777, the Battle of Germantown saw General George Washington attempt a series of complicated attacks against British positions around Germantown, PA. During the assault, his men became lost in the fog and the attacks were defeated.

Major General Horatio Gates - American Revolution
Major General Horatio Gates was an American commander during the American Revolution. A veteran of the French & Indian War, Horatio Gates later led Amerocan forces at the key Battle of Saratoga. Assigned to command the Southern Department, Horatio Gates was badly defeated at Camden in 1780 and relieved of his post.

World War I: First Battle of Ypres Overview
The First Battle of Ypres was fought October 19 to November 22, 1914, during World War I. The First Battle of Ypres took place as the Allies sought to protect the Channel ports and Germany sought to turn the enemy's flank. After heavy fighting during the First Battle of Ypres, the Allies succeeded in holding the town.

Philippe Petain - Marshal Philippe Petain
Marshal Philippe Petain was a key French commander during World War I. Philippe Petain is best known for his leadership during the Battle of Verdun. During World War II, Philippe Petain became disgraced as he led the collaborationist Vichy French government.

Sergeant Alvin York Biography - World War I
Alvin C. York was a noted American soldier during World War I. On October 8, 1918, during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, York captured 132 Germans single-handedly. For his achievement, Alvin York was awarded the Medal of Honor and became a national hero.

Operation Cobra - Normandy Invasion - World War II
Operation Cobra was conducted from July 25 to 31, 1944, during World War II. Operation Cobra saw Allied forces concentrate for a breakout from the Normandy beachhead. Breaking through the German lines, Operation Cobra led to maneuver warfare in northern France and the creation of the Falaise Pocket.

World War II: Field Marshal Walter Model
Field Marshal Walter Model was a noted German commander during World War II. A veteran of World War I, Walter Model saw action in Poland and France before becoming one of Germany's leading commanders on the Eastern Front. Brought west in 1944, Walter Model led troops during the Battle of the Bulge and ultimately committed suicide rather than surrender when surrounded in the Ruhr the following year.

Battle of the Falaise Pocket - World War II
The Battle of the Falaise Pocket was fought in August 1944 and saw German forces in Normandy crushed and forced to retreat across France.

World War II Operation Vengeance (Death of Yamamoto)
Operation Vengeance was conducted on April 18, 1943, and resulted in the death of Adm. Isoroku Yamamoto. Utilizing signals intelligence, the Allies planned Operation Vengeance after learning that Yamamoto would be flying through the Solomons. Flying from Guadalcanal, a flight of P-38s intercepted and downed Yamamoto's aircraft killing the admiral.

World War II: Fighting in North Africa and Italy
Following the fall of France, the fighting in World War II in Europe shifted to the sands of North Africa. Battling the famed

World War II Europe: Fighting in North Africa, Sicily, and Italy
Following the fall of France, the fighting in World War II in Europe shifted to the sands of North Africa. Battling the famed

World War II: Fighting in North Africa, Sicily and Italy, 1942-1944
An account of some WWII battles following the fall of France, including the Second Battle of El Alamein in North Africa and Operation Husky in Sicily. Page 2.

World War II: Blitzkrieg - Phony War to Fall of France
Following the outbreak of World War II after the invasion of Poland, Great Britain and France remained on the defensive. After defeating the Allies in Norway, the Germans launched a massive assault, sweeping through the Low Countries and France and forcing British troops to evacuate across the Channel. Standing alone, Britain successfully beat off German air attacks during the Battle of Britain.

World War II - Battle of Britain - German Defeat of France in World War II
Following the outbreak of World War II after the invasion of Poland, Great Britain and France remained on the defensive. After defeating the Allies in Norway, the Germans launched a massive assault, sweeping through the Low Countries and France and forcing British troops to evacuate across the Channel. Standing alone, Britain successfully beat off German air attacks during the Battle of Britain. Page 2.

Siege of Leningrad - World War II - Eastern Front
The Siege of Leningrad took place from September 8, 1941 to January 27, 1944, during World War II. Lasting 872 days, the Siege of Leningrad saw large numbers of casualties on both sides. Despite several assaults, the Germans were unable to bring the Siege of Leningrad to a successful conclusion.

Battle of Moscow - World War II - Operation Barbarossa
The Battle of Moscow began on October 2, 1941 and ended on January 7, 1942. In the Battle of Moscow, German forces launched Operation Typhoon to take the city but were turned back. The Battle of Moscow concluded with a Soviet counterattack which pushed the Germans back from the city.

World War II - Battle of the Seelow Heights
The Battle of the Seelow Heights was fought in April 1945 during World War II. Approaching Berlin, the Battle of Seelow Heights saw Soviet forces assault German defenses east of the city. Taking heavy losses, the Soviets broke through the Seelow Heights after three days of fighting.

Operation Torch - Invasion of North Africa
Operation Torch was launched November 8, 1942, and saw British and American forces land in North Africa. During Operation Torch, troops came ashore at Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers. Meeting mixed resistance from the Vichy French, the Torch landings saw the Allies establish a position in western North Africa.

Battle of Milne Bay - World War II - New Guinea
The Battle of Milne Bay was fought August 25 to September 7, 1942, during World War II. Landing on eastern New Guinea, the Battle of Milne Bay saw Japanese forces attempt to capture key airfields from the Allies. In the Battle of Milne Bay, Allied troops repulsed the Japanese inflicing their first major land defeat on the enemy.

Battle of Corregidor, 1942 - World War II
Japanese forces overwhelmed the heavily fortified island in Manila Bay, the last point of resistance for Allied forces during the invasion of Luzon.

American Civil War: Major General Daniel Sickles
Major General Daniel Sickles was a Union commander during the Civil War. A political appointee, Daniel Sickles rose to command III Corps in the Army of the Potomac. During the Battle of Gettysburg, Daniel Sickles famously disobeyed orders and advanced his command in a manner which endangered the Union line. During the fighting, Daniel Sickles lost a leg.

Major General David B. Birney - Civil War
Major General David B. Birney was a Union commander during the American Civil War who took part in many of the campaigns of the Army of the Potomac and was considered one of the conflict's more successful political generals.

World War II - The Battle of Singapore
The Battle of Singapore was fought in early 1942 during World War II. The Battle of Singapore saw a smaller Japanese force force the surrender of Britain's strongest outpost in the Far East. Defeated at Singapore, the British lost over 100,000 men.

World War II: Operation Dragoon Overview (1944)
Operation Dragoon was conducted August 15, 1944, as Allied troops landed in southern France. Coming ashore during Operation Dragoon, Allied forces caused German Army Group G to retreat from the region. Operation Dragoon forced the Germans to pull back to the Vosges Mountains.

World War II: Operation Sea Lion - Invasion of Britain, 1940
Operation Sea Lion was the German plan for the invasion of Britain. Germany hoped to launch Operation Sea Lion sometime in late 1940 following the Fall of France. After their defeat in the Battle of Britain, Germany indefinitely postponed Operation Sea Lion.

World War II: Battle of Crete
The Battle of Crete was fought from May 20 to June 1, 1941 during World War II. The Battle of Crete saw the Germans make large scale use of paratroopers during the invasion. Though a victory, the Battle of Crete saw these forces sustain such high losses that they were not used again by the Germans.

World War II - Dieppe Raid - Operation Jubilee
Launched on August 19, 1942, the Dieppe Raid was an Allied effort to capture and occupy the port of Dieppe, France for a short period. Meant to gather intelligence and test strategies for the invasion of Europe, the Dieppe Raid was a complete failure and resulted in the loss of over 50% of the troops landed. The lessons learned during the Dieppe Raid influenced later Allied amphibious operations.

Towton - Battle of Towton - Wars of the Roses - Edward IV
The Battle of Towton was fought March 29, 1461, during the War of the Roses. The largest battle ever fought in Britain, Towton saw Lancastrian and Yorkist forces clash in a day-long fight. The Battle of Towton turned when Yorkist reinforcements arrived allowing them to drive off the enemy.

Warsaw Uprising - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising took place from April 19 to May 16, 1943, during World War II. In the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the Jewos of the Warsaw Ghetto rose up against the Nazis to halt transport of residents to Treblinka. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was ultimately crushed by the Germans.

Operation Jaywick - World War II History
Operation Jaywick was conducted on September 26, 1943 against Japanese shipping in Singapore harbor. The Operation Jaywick team consisted of personnel from Z Force, Special Operations Australia. Infiltrating Singapore harbor, they attacked seven Japanese ships and successfully escaped.

World War II: Battle of Hong Kong
The Battle of Hong Kong was fought December 8-25, 1941, during World War II. Attacking Hong Kong, the Japanese were able to overwhelm the British garrison. The Battle of Hong Kong ended on December 25 with the colony's surrender and the date became known as

The Battle of Stalingrad, World War II
The Battle of Stalingrad was a key battle on the Eastern Front during World War II. Advancing into the Soviet Union, the Germans opened the Battle of Stalingrad in July 1942. After over six months of fighting at Stalingrad, the German Sixth Army was encircled and captured. The Soviet victory at Stalingrad was a turning point on the Eastern Front.

World War II: Battle of Kasserine Pass - North Africa
The Battle of Kasserine Pass was the first major clash between American and German forces during World War II. Fought February 19-25, 1943, the Battle of Kasserine Pass saw the Germans soundly defeat US troops under Maj. Gen. Lloyd Fredenhall. The defeat at Kasserine Pass led to sweeping changes in the US organization of forces and comjmand structure.

Vietnam War: The Easter Offensive
The Easter Offensive commenced on March 30, 1972, and saw North Vietnamese forces attack South Vietnam on three fronts. After achieving initial success, the offensive was turned back by South Vietnamese troops backed by the heavy application of American air power. Despite the North's defeat, the Easter Offensive captured approximately 10% of South Vietnam.

Battle of Paardeberg - Second Boer War Battle of Paardeberg
The Battle of Paardeberg was fought between February 18-27, 1900, following the end of the siege of Kimberley. Retreating from Kimberly, Boer forces were intercepted by the British at Paardeberg. After direct assaults failed, the British forced the Boars to surrender after a short siege.

Battle of Spion Kop - Second Boer War Battle of Spion Kop
The Battle of Spion Kop was fought January 23-24, 1900, during the Second Boer War. British forces advancing to relieve the Siege of Ladysmith attacked Boer forces around the hill of Spion Kop. Unable to break through in the Battle of Spion Kop, they sustained heavy losses in the process.

Siege of Ladysmith - Second Boer War Siege of Ladysmith
The Siege of Ladysmith occurred during the early days of the Second Boer War. Commencing on November 2, 1899, Boer forces surrounded British positions for 118 days. The siege of Ladysmith was finally lifted on February 28, 1900, when troops under Sir Redvers Buller broke through the Boer lines.

Battle of Omdurman - Mahdist War (Horatio Kitchener)
The Battle of Omdurman resulted when the British clashed with the Mahdists on September 2, 1898. Fighting near Khartoum, Sudan, the British under Lord Horatio Kitchener deployed modern weapons and decimated Abdullah al-Taashi's men at the Battle of Omdurman. The victory at the Battle of Omdurman reasserted British power in eastern Africa.

Anglo Zanzibar War - Shortest Conflict in History
Occurring from approximately 9:00-9:45 AM on August 27, 1896, the Anglo-Zanzibar War is widely believed to be the shortest war in history. Fought between Britain and Khalid bin Barghash, the Anglo-Zanzibar conflict arose after a dispute over who would become the sultan of Zanzibar.

Mahdist War and the Siege of Khartoum
The Siege of Khartoum took place March 13, 1884 to January 26, 1885, during the Mahdist War. Held by forces led by Major General Charles Gordon the city fell and the garrison was massacred.

Battle of Aliwal - First Sikh War Battle of Aliwal
The Battle of Aliwal was fought January 28, 1846, during the First Anglo-Sikh War. Advancing to threaten the British rear, Sikh troops occupied Aliwal along the Sutlej River. To clear this threat, the British dispatched Gen. Sir Harry Smith to the area. Attacking the Sikhs at Aliwal, the defeated them and forced them to retreat.

The Siege of Lucknow During the Sepoy Mutiny (1857)
The Siege of Lucknow took place during the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. Besieged in the Residency, British forces held the building against the rebels for two periods lasting 87 and 61 days. The Siege of Lucknow ended after the second relief of the city when British forces withdrew.

The Battle of the Alamo 1836 - Texas Revolution
The Battle of Alamo was fought between Texan and Mexican forces between February 23 and March 6, 1836. Fighting for independence, the Texans fortified the Alamo and withstood a thirteen-day siege before Mexican forces overran the mission. Noted frontiermen Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett were killed in the fighting.

Goliad Massacre - Texas Revolution - James Fannin
The Goliad Massacre took place on March 27, 1836, during the Texas Revolution. Having surrendered after the Battle of Coleto, Colonel James Fannin's command was massacred by Mexican forces at Goliad. In the course of the Goliad Massacre, 342 Texan prisoners were killed.

Texas Revolution: Battle of San Jacinto 1836
Fought on April 21, 1836, the Battle of San Jacinto secured independence for the Republic of Texas. After retreating back the San Jacinto River, General Sam Houston turned and attacked a Mexican army led by Jose Lopez de Santa Anna. Yelling

The Causes of the American Civil War
The American Civil War was the result of a variety of causes ranging from slavery and states rights to industrialization and societal change. These causes touched off secession and hostilities.

Causes of the American Civil War
The American Civil War was the result of a variety of causes ranging from slavery and states rights to industrialization and societal change. These causes of the Civil War when combined with the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 touched off secession and hostilities. Page 2.

First Shots of the American Civil War
The American Civil War first began when Confederate troops opened fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Following this attack, President Lincoln called for volunteer troops to put down the rebellion. The American Civil War began in earnest in July at the First Battle of Bull Run.

Battle of Plattsburgh - War of 1812 - Thomas MacDonough
The Battle of Plattsburgh was fought Septebmer 6-11, 1814 during the War of 1812. The Battle of Plattsburgh saw British forces advancing down Lake Champlain clash with American forces on the lake and on land. Defeated at the Battle of Plattsburgh, the British were forced to retreat north.

Siege of Detroit - War of 1812
The Siege of Detroit took place August 15-16, 1812, during the early days of the War of 1812. Advancing on Detroit, Major General Isaac Brock and Tecumseh laid siege. Convincing the American commander that they had a larger force, they won the Siege of Detroit.

Siege of Fort Wayne - War of 1812 - William Henry Harrison
The Siege of Fort Wayne took place September 5-12, 1812, during the War of 1812. Laying siege to Fort Wayne, Native American forces mounted several attacks against the fort. These were repulsed and the Native Americans withdrew as William Henry Harrison neared with a relief army.

Battle of Frenchtown - War of 1812 - River Raisin Massacrce
The Battle of Frenchtown was fought January 18-23, 1813, during the War of 1812. Moving north to retake Detroit, American troops opened the Battle of Frenchtown. Counterattacked later by the British and Native Americans, American forces were beaten at the Battle of Frenchtown and a large number of prisoners were killed.

Creek War: Battle of Horseshoe Bend
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend occurred on March 27, 1814, during the Creek War. Leading American forces, Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson attacked the Red Sticks along the Tallapoosa River. In the fighting at Horseshoe Bend, the Red Sticks were defeated and the conflict effectively ended.

Battle of Bladensburg - War of 1812
The Battle of Bladensburg was fought August 24, 1814, during the War of 1812. Landing in Maryland, British troops advanced on Washington, DC via Bladensburg. Reaching the town, they routed American troops at the Battle of Bladensburg before capturing the capital.

Battle of the Chateauguay - War of 1812 - St. Lawrence Campaign
The Battle of Chateauguay was fought October 26, 1813, during the War of 1812. Advancing into Quebec, an American army led by Major General Wade Hampton clashed with French Canadian and Native American forces at the Battle of Chateauguay. In the fighting at Chateauguay, the Americans were defeated and forced to retreat.

Battle of Fort George - War of 1812 - Lake Ontario
The Battle of Fort George was fought May 25 to 27, 1813, during the War of 1812. Moving across Lake Ontario, American forces mounted an amphibious assault and opened the Battle of Fort George. Attacking, the Americans won the Battle of Fort George and forced the British to withdraw.

USS Wyoming - BB-32 - World War I - US Navy
USS Wyoming (BB-32) was the lead ship of its class of battleship. Entering service in 1912, USS Wyoming took part in World War I. Converted to a gunnery training ship, USS Wyoming (AG-17) fulfilled this role through World War II.

USS New York - BB-34 - World War II - US Navy
USS New York (BB-34) was the lead ship of its class of battleships. Entering service in 1914, USS New York saw service in both World War I and World War II. After taking part in the latter conflict, USS New York survived the atomic testing at Bikini Atoll and was later sunk as a target ship.

USS Texas - BB-35 - Battleship - World War II
USS Texas (BB-35) was a New York-class battleship that entered service with the US Navy in 1914. Seeing service in World War II, USS Texas saw service in both the Atlantic and Pacific. Following the war, USS Texas became a museum ship near Houston.

Vietnam War - F-105 Thunderchief Profile
The F-105 Thunderchief was one of the US Air Force's primary fighter-bombers during the Vietnam War. Widely used for strike bombing over North Vietnam, the F-105 also was employed in a

Battle of Copenhagen - Napoleonic Wars Battle of Copenhagen
The Battle of Copenhagen saw the British attack the Danish fleet in Copenhagen Roads on April 2, 1801. Led by Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, the British closed with the enemy fleet and forced its surrender. During the Battle of Copenhagen, Nelson famously ignored orders to break off the action.

Brigadier General John C. Caldwell - American Civil War
Brigadier General John C. Caldwell was a Union division commander in the Army of the Potomac who saw heavy fighting at the Battle of Gettysburg.

Battle of Albuera - Peninsular War Battle of Albuera
The Battle of Albuera was fought on May 16, 1811, and saw Allied forces compel a French expedition to retreat from the area near Badajoz. Led by Marshal Soult, the French intended to get between the British and Spanish armies but were prevented from doing so and the forces clashed near the village of Albuera.

Battle of Vitoria - Peninsular War Battle of Vitoria
The Battle of Vitoria was fought June 21, 1813, during the Peninsular War. Engaging French forces near the town of Vitoria, the Marquess of Wellington succeeded in winning a key victory. Routed at the Battle of Vitoria, Joseph Bonaparte retreated north with Wellington in pursuit.

Battle of Fuentes de Onoro - Peninsular War - Duke of Wellington
The Battle of Fuentes de Onoro was fought May 3-6, 1811, during the Peninsular War. Moving to relieve Almeida, Marshal Massena engaged Viscount Wellington at Fuentes de Onoro. In heavy fighting, Wellington was able to hold off the French and maintain the siege of Almeida.

Battle of Talavera - Napoleonic Wars Battle of Talavera - Peninsular War Battle of Talavera
Part of the Peninsular War, the Battle of Talavera was fought soutwest of Madrid on July 27-28, 1809. In the fighting, the forces of Arthur Wellesley defeated French troops and compelled them to withdraw. Despite the victory at Talavera, the English were soon forced to retreat to due to supply issues and the arrival of French reinforcements.

Vimeiro - Battle of Vimeiro - Peninsular War - Napoleonic Wars
The Battle of Vimeiro was fought August 21, 1808 during the Peninsular War. Attacking near the village of Vimeiro, French troops engaged British forces under Sir Arthur Wellesley. In the resulting Battle of Vimeiro the British succeeded in defeating the French.

Battle of Hohenlinden - War of the Second Coalition Battle of Hohenlinden - Jean Moreau
The Battle of Hohenlinden was fought in the snowy hills and woods north of Munich. In the fighting, a French Revolutionary army under General Jean Moreau crushed a larger Austrian army led by Archduke John. The victory at Hohenlinden, coupled with Napoleon's triumph at Marengo ended the War of the Second Coalition.

Napoleonic Wars Battle of Waterloo 1815 - Duke of Wellington
The Battle of Waterloo was fought June 18, 1815 during the Napoleonic Wars. Waterloo was final battle of the conflict and occurred following Napoleon's return from Elba. The Battle of Waterloo saw the Duke of Wellington's army win a decisive victory which ultimately forced Napoleon's surrender.

Battle of Wagram - Napoleonic Wars Battle of Wagram
Fought in 1809, the Battle of Wagram was the pivotal battle of the War of the Fifth Coalition. Fought near the village of Wagram, Napoleon soundly defeated the army of Archduke Charles of Austria.

Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Borodino
The Battle of Borodino was fought September 7, 1812, during Napoleon's invasion of Russia. Attacking Russian positions around Borodino, the French both inflicted and sustained heavy losses. Though the Russians departed after the Battle of Borodino, their army remained intact.

Battle of Corunna - Napoleonic Wars Battle of Corunna
Fought on January 16, 1809, the Battle of Corunna was a British tactical victory that allowed the army of Sir John Moore to evacuate northern Spain. Battling on the heights outside Corunna, the British held off French attacks and were able to board their ships that night. Sir John Moore was killed in the fighting.

Battle of Tolentino - Neapolitan War Battle of Tolentino
Fought May 2-3, 1815, the Battle of Tolentino marked the beginning of the end for Joachim Murat's reign as king of Naples. Engaging the Austrians near Tolentino, Italy, Murat was defeated by General Frederick Bianchi. The Neapolitan army ceased to be an effective fighting force after the Battle of Tolentino.